Sample records for aureus gatcab guarantee

  1. The essential mycobacterial amidotransferase GatCAB is a modulator of specific translational fidelity.

    Su, Hong-Wei; Zhu, Jun-Hao; Li, Hao; Cai, Rong-Jun; Ealand, Christopher; Wang, Xun; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Kayani, Masood Ur Rehman; Zhu, Ting F; Moradigaravand, Danesh; Huang, Hairong; Kana, Bavesh D; Javid, Babak


    Although regulation of translation fidelity is an essential process(1-7), diverse organisms and organelles have differing requirements of translational accuracy(8-15), and errors in gene translation serve an adaptive function under certain conditions(16-20). Therefore, optimal levels of fidelity may vary according to context. Most bacteria utilize a two-step pathway for the specific synthesis of aminoacylated glutamine and/or asparagine tRNAs, involving the glutamine amidotransferase GatCAB(21-25), but it had not been appreciated that GatCAB may play a role in modulating mistranslation rates. Here, by using a forward genetic screen, we show that the mycobacterial GatCAB enzyme complex mediates the translational fidelity of glutamine and asparagine codons. We identify mutations in gatA that cause partial loss of function in the holoenzyme, with a consequent increase in rates of mistranslation. By monitoring single-cell transcription dynamics, we demonstrate that reduced gatCAB expression leads to increased mistranslation rates, which result in enhanced rifampicin-specific phenotypic resistance. Consistent with this, strains with mutations in gatA from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis show increased mistranslation, with associated antibiotic tolerance, suggesting a role for mistranslation as an adaptive strategy in tuberculosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a potential role for the indirect tRNA aminoacylation pathway in regulating translational fidelity and adaptive mistranslation. PMID:27564922




    Full Text Available The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of financial - banking commitments with various practical issues which are occurred by the use of those. From the legal point of view, the bank guarantees are not under an own legal regulation and are based on the common law, used in the guarantees domain. Through the new aspects of the actual Civil Code it are the legal regulation of the letter of bank guarantee and of the comfort letter, which shall constitute the main regulation in the negotiation and conclusion of a letter of bank guarantee or a bank comfort letter. For the legal reports with foreign elements, the parties can also use the Uniform Rules regarding the Guarantees at Request (URGR Publish no.758/2010.




    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  4. The Guarantees of Freedom

    Andrei Shleifer; Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez de Silanes; Cristian Pop-Eleches


    Hayek (1960) distinguishes the institutions of English freedom, which guarantee the independence of judges from political interference in the administration of justice, from those of American freedom, which allow judges to restrain law-making powers of the sovereign through constitutional review. We create a data base of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these institutions of English and American freedom, and ask whether these rules predict economic and political freedom in a ...

  5. Refund Guarantees: On-demand bond or true guarantee?

    Athukorale, Anjalie Narmadha


    In the modern commercial world guarantees have become an important instrument. Guarantees are not limited to those given by a bank in the commercial world. Guarantees may also be issued by a parent company on behalf of a subsidiary, or by an individual(s) in personal transactions. The question then is what is a contract of guarantee? A guarantee is an assurance or security issued by one party (the guarantor ) at the request of the party with the liability (the principal ) to the party the l...




    Full Text Available When a large withdrawal from banks occurs, customers withdraw their deposits, so banks are likely to go bankrupt because of liquidity problems. There are several mechanisms that allow the banking system to avoid the phenomenon of massive withdrawals from banks. The most effective one is the deposit insurance. The deposit insurance is seen primarily as a means of protecting depositors of credit institutions, and secondly as a means of ensuring the stability of the banking system. This article described deposit guarantee scheme in Romania and other country.

  7. Do job security guarantees work?

    Bryson, Alex; Cappellari, Lorenzo; Lucifora, Claudio


    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...

  8. Guaranteed energy bills for homes

    Recent developments from the company that established the UK's National Home Energy Rating schemes are reported. The extension into social housing has proved highly popular and an energy cost guarantee which guarantees the main heating and hot water bill of a home will not exceed a pre-specified level, with a cash refund if it does, has been developed for the home occupier market. (UK)

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus toxins

    Otto, Michael


    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon agai...

  11. Infrastructure Franchising and Government Guarantees Infrastructure Franchising and Government Guarantees

    Alexander Galetovic


    Full Text Available Government guarantees for private infrastructure projects reduce the incentives of firms to perform efficiently, weaken the incentives to screen projects for white elephants, and shift government obligations to future periods. Thus the use of guarantees needs to be limited, and they need to be carefully designed. Franchising schemes should in principle assign risks to the parties best able to manage and control them. The mechanisms by which contracts are awarded should be simple, so that possibilities for evaluator subjectivity are reduced, the award process remains as transparent as possible, and the likelihood of having to renegotiate is minimized. Infrastructure franchises have usually been awarded on a fixed-term basis. Such contracts expose franchise holders to considerable demand risk, which investors are often unwilling to assume without government guarantees. These contracts are also inflexible, since it is difficult to determine a fair level of compensation to the franchise holder if the contract is terminated early or modified. Under an alternative mechanism, the franchise is awarded to the firm that asks for the least present value of user fee revenue for a given tariff structure, and the franchise ends when the present value of user fee revenues is equal to the franchise holder's bid. Such contracts reduce the demand risk borne by the franchise holder (and the concomitant demand for government guarantees. They also make fair compensation of franchise holders in the event of early termination straightforward, since the level of fair compensation is equal to the revenue remaining to be collected. Government guarantees for private infrastructure projects reduce the incentives of firms to perform efficiently, weaken the incentives to screen projects for white elephants, and shift government obligations to future periods. Thus the use of guarantees needs to be limited, and they need to be carefully designed. Franchising schemes should in

  12. Equity-Linked Pension Schemes with Guarantees

    J. Aase Nielsen; Klaus Sandmann; Erik Schlogl


    This paper analyses the relationship between the level of a return guarantee in an equity-linked pension scheme and the proportion of an investor's contribution needed to finance this guarantee. Three types of schemes are considered: investment guarantee, contribution guarantee and participation surplus. The evaluation of each scheme involves pricing an Asian option, for which relatively tight upper and lower bounds can be calculated in a numerically efficient manner. We find a negative (and ...

  13. Financial guarantee Nuclear Energy Law. Final report

    In the altered nuclear energy law in the Netherlands it is stated that licensees need to give financial guarantees to cover the cost of closing and dismantling a facility for which the license was granted. Three types of guarantees are distinguished. In this report the the suitability of the different guarantees are described within the framework of the Dutch nuclear energy law. Recommendations are made about the conditions for such guarantees with respect to the design, size, quality and information dissemination

  14. SLA guarantees for cloud services

    Serrano, Damián; Bouchenak, Sara; Kouki, Yousri; Alvares De Oliveira Jr., Frederico; Ledoux, Thomas; Lejeune, Jonathan; Sopena, Julien; Arantes, Luciana; Sens, Pierre


    Quality-of-service and SLA guarantees are among the major challenges of cloud-based services. In this paper we first present a new cloud model called SLAaaS — SLA aware Service. SLAaaS considers QoS levels and SLA as first class citizens of cloud-based services. This model is orthogonal to other SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS cloud models, and may apply to any of them. More specifically we make three contributions: (i) we provide a novel domain specific language that allows to describe QoS-oriented SLA...

  15. 78 FR 46528 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program


    ... definition to the maximum amounts of any Contract or Order when SBA guarantees the bond in connection with a...; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 115 RIN 3245-AG56 Surety Bond Guarantee Program AGENCY: U.S... regulations governing the Surety Bond Guarantee Program to certain provisions of the National...

  16. Price Guarantees, Consumer Search, and Hassle Costs

    Baake, Pio; Schwalbe, Ulrich


    The paper deals with the competitive effects of price guarantees in a spatial duopoly where consumers can search for lower prices but have to incur hassle costs if they want to claim a price guarantee. It is shown that symmetric equilibria with and without price guarantees exist but price guarantees will have no effect on prices if search costs are low, hassle costs are high and the number of uninformed consumers is small. However, when both firms use price guarantees, there also exist payoff...

  17. 7 CFR 1720.14 - Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds.


    ... the terms and conditions of the bond documents; (3) The guarantee fee required by 7 CFR 1720.10 of... requirements listed in 7 CFR 1720.12; or (5) The guaranteed lender failed to comply with any material covenant... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed...

  18. Nuclear accidents - Liabilities and guarantees

    The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected

  19. Does Intelligence Always Guarantee Performance?

    Uzma Hanif Gondal


    Full Text Available The current research is intended to explore the individuals’ cognitive intelligence and its impact on their performance. The study examines the intellectual capabilities of employees in reference to the problems that arises due to the interaction with varying job related tasks. Raven’s progressive matrices were used to measure the IQ level of employees. This IQ test was intended to measure the non-verbal intelligence, spatial intelligence, mathematical and logical intelligence of employees. It was hypothesized that individuals’ intelligence does not always guarantee performance. The final data was collected on 300 employees from different organizations of Telecom sector in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. Outcome of the analysis revealed interesting findings that Intelligence Quotient is found to be insignificantly related with individuals’ performance. It shows that IQ alone is not a strong predictor of employees’ performance. Intelligence may ensure a reach to entry level position in an organization but for a sustained position other competencies are of utmost importance. This study may provoke new lines of research in the field of positive psychology specifically.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren;


    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of S...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...... antisense RNAs not co-transcribed with other genes were found. Promoter analysis and comparison with Bacillus subtilis links the small number of antisense RNAs to a less profound impact of alternative sigma factors in S. aureus. Furthermore, we revealed that Rho-dependent transcription termination...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik;


    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection...... of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected...

  2. What Guarantees Should Society Offer Its Youth?

    Brooks, Chris


    Criticising the concept of a "youth guarantee" as it was understood by the OECD in the 1990s and recently again by the European Community, the author argues that just more schooling and training will not help, let alone guarantee a future for disadvantaged, unemployed young people. Rather any policy that wants to help youth to become…

  3. 29 CFR 4022.3 - Guaranteed benefits.


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranteed benefits. 4022.3 Section 4022.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.3...

  4. 77 FR 38015 - Community Programs Guaranteed Loans


    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kendra Doedderlein, Community Programs Senior Loan Specialist, Rural Housing Service, U.S... (RHS) proposes to amend the regulations utilized to service the Community Facilities Guaranteed Loan... that are eligible for a Community Facilities Guaranteed Loan. The intended effect of this action is...

  5. Marketing service guarantees for health care.

    Levy, J S


    The author introduces the concept of service guarantees for application in health care and differentiates between explicit, implicit, and conditional vs. unconditional types of guarantees. An example of an unconditional guarantee of satisfaction is provided by the hospitality industry. Firms conveying an implicit guarantee are those with outstanding reputations for products such as luxury automobiles, or ultimate customer service, like Nordstrom. Federal Express and Domino's Pizza offer explicit guarantees of on-time delivery. Taking this concept into efforts to improve health care delivery involves a number of caveats. Customers invited to use exceptional service cards may use these to record either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The cards need to provide enough specific information about issues so that "immediate action could be taken to improve processes." Front-line employees should be empowered to respond to complaints in a meaningful way to resolve the problem before the client leaves the premises. PMID:10711165

  6. 78 FR 36018 - Bond Guarantee Program; Notice of Guarantee Availability (NOGA) Inviting Qualified Issuer...


    ... interim rule that governs the CDFI Bond Guarantee Program was published on February 5, 2013 (78 FR 8296... credit subsidy calculation in order to determine the feasibility and risk of the proposed Bond Issue, as... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Bond Guarantee Program; Notice of Guarantee...

  7. Guarantees in Banking Operations with Bank Customers

    Vasile Dedu


    Full Text Available In a crediting relationship, one of the parties involved – namely the creditor – is exposed to certain risks which impose taking measures to guarantee a debt. If, at the due date, the debtor cannot pay his/her debts and meet the assumed liabilities, the creditor can execute the legally constituted guarantees, on a contract basis, thus covering the debt.There are also situations when the state, being directly interested in promoting trade and cooperation with other economies or simply out of the wish to ensure a competitive and safer business environment, gets involved in insurance and guarantee operations. In such situations, the state does not interve

  8. Green optical networks with connection availability guarantee.

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Tan, Shufang


    In this paper, we study green optical networks with connection availability guarantee. After introducing a power consumption model for green optical network design, we propose a design method called Availability-Guaranteed Energy-Efficient Design (AGEED). In AGEED, we employ dedicated path protection as backup capacity in order to improve connection availability. Based on iterative routing by modifying link weights, we can make idle network resources be switched into sleep mode, and obtain the energy saving effect. Our simulation results show that AGEED is more advantageous to achieve energy-efficient purpose and guarantee the satisfied connection availability levels in comparison with other methods. PMID:26191755

  9. Financing of large energy projects: The guarantee scheme

    Financing through export credit: Evolution of the concept (buyer's credit, soft loans, concession, BOT, guarantee scheme). Guarantee scheme in Turkey: Thermic power plant; Hydroelectric power plant; The Energy Fund (characteristics, source of financing of the Funds, guarantees). Conclusion of the presented guarantee scheme: Necessary involvement of all the parts for guarantees and financings. (author)

  10. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.


    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy.

  11. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy

  12. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas


    Turgay GECER


    Credit system is an integrated architecture consisted of financial information, credit rating, credit risk management, receivables and credit insurance systems, credit derivative markets and credit guarantee programs. The main purpose of the credit system is to provide the functioning of all credit channels and to make it easy to access of credit sources demanded by all of real and legal persons in any economic system. Credit guarantee program, the one of prominent elements of the credit syst...


    Cristina CIUMAȘ; Diana-Maria CHIȘ


    Unit-linked contracts are wrapped with some death, maturity and accumulation guarantees such as the guaranteed minimum maturity benefit, the guaranteed minimum death benefit, the guaranteed minimum accumulation benefit, the guaranteed minimum income benefit, and/or the guaranteed minimum surrender benefit. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the policyholder and involv...

  15. Probabilistic Recovery Guarantees for Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    Pope, Graeme; Studer, Christoph


    We consider the recovery of sparse signals subject to sparse interference, as introduced in Studer et al., IEEE Trans. IT, 2012. We present novel probabilistic recovery guarantees for this framework, covering varying degrees of knowledge of the signal and interference support, which are relevant for a large number of practical applications. Our results assume that the sparsifying dictionaries are solely characterized by coherence parameters and we require randomness only in the signal and/or interference. The obtained recovery guarantees show that one can recover sparsely corrupted signals with overwhelming probability, even if the sparsity of both the signal and interference scale (near) linearly with the number of measurements.

  16. Large-Scale Similarity Joins With Guarantees

    Pagh, Rasmus


    The ability to handle noisy or imprecise data is becoming increasingly important in computing. In the database community the notion of similarity join has been studied extensively, yet existing solutions have offered weak performance guarantees. Either they are based on deterministic filtering te...

  17. 46 CFR 298.36 - Guarantee Fee.


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation... generally shall vary inversely with the ratio of Equity to Long-Term Debt (Variable Rate) of the Person who... computation of Equity and Long-Term Debt considered necessary to reflect more accurately the...

  18. Insights into tRNA-Dependent Amidotransferase Evolution and Catalysis from the Structure of the Aquifex aeolicus Enzyme

    WU, Jing; Bu, Weishu; Sheppard, Kelly; Kitabatake, Makoto; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Söll, Dieter; Smith, Janet L.


    Many bacteria form Gln-tRNAGln and Asn-tRNAAsn by conversion of the misacylated Glu-tRNAGln and Asp-tRNAAsn species catalyzed by the GatCAB amidotransferase in the presence of ATP and an amide donor (glutamine or asparagine). Here we report the crystal structures of GatCAB from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus complexed with glutamine, asparagine, aspartate, ADP, or ATP. In contrast to the Staphylococcus aureus GatCAB, the A. aeolicus enzyme formed acyl-enzyme intermediates wi...

  19. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Pavani Gandham


    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  20. 78 FR 30854 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under Section 538 Guaranteed Rural...


    ... in conjunction with the loan guarantee, including Home Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) grant... Protection Act (NEPA) and completed Form RD 3565-1 for the selected project. The Agency will prioritize...

  1. 76 FR 30641 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under Section 538 Guaranteed Rural...


    ... the loan guarantee, including Home Investment Partnership Program (HOME) grant funds, tax exempt bonds... (NEPA) and completed Form RD 3565-1 for the selected project. The Agency will prioritize the...

  2. GAMMA Radiation Effect On Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19095) in Cheese MINAS FRESCALIRRADIATED

    Milk is an excellent medium of culture for development of Staphylococcus aureus. Gamma radiation can be an alternative method to guarantee the safety of the contaminated cheeses. The objective of this research was determine the effects of the gamma radiation on the resistance of S.aureus (ATCC 19095) in cheese Minas Frescalirradiated. The cheeses elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, were contaminated during their production with 10 6 CFU/mL of culture of S.aureus (ATCC 19095). The cheeses were irradiated with 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy, maintained under refrigeration condition (50C) and analyzed at 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The evaluation microbiology was made through the S.aureus survival analysis using Baird Parker selective medium and confirmative test of coagulase, catalase and fermentation aerobics of the manitol. The capacity of enterotoxins production by irradiated S.aureus was detected by the method of Passive Reverse Agglutination Latex. Results showed that 3 kGy is enough to destroy the S.aureus and 2 kGy to inhibited its toxins production

  3. Gamma radiation effect on staphylococcus aureus (atcc 19095) in cheese minas frescal irradiated

    Milk is an excellent medium of culture for development of staphylococcus aureus. Gamma Radiation can be an alternative method to guarantee the safety of the comtamined cheeses. The objective of this research was determine the effects of the gamma radiation on the resistance of S.aureus (atcc 19095) in cheese minas frescal irradiated. The cheeses elaborated in the Laboratory of food irradiation of cena/usp, were contaminated during their production with 10 6 cfu/ml of culture of s.aureus (atcc 19095). The cheeses were irradiated with 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kgy, maintained under refrigeration condition (± 50c) and analyzed at 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The evaluation microbiology was made through the s.aureus survival analysis using baird parker selective medium and confirmative test of coagulase, catalase and fermentation aerobics of the manitol. The capacity of enterotoxins production by irradiated s.aureus was detected by the method of passive reverse agglutination latex. results showed that 3 kgy is enough to destroy the s.aureus and 2 kgy to inhibited its toxins production

  4. Enigma: Decentralized Computation Platform with Guaranteed Privacy

    Zyskind, Guy; Nathan, Oz; Pentland, Alex


    A peer-to-peer network, enabling different parties to jointly store and run computations on data while keeping the data completely private. Enigma's computational model is based on a highly optimized version of secure multi-party computation, guaranteed by a verifiable secret-sharing scheme. For storage, we use a modified distributed hashtable for holding secret-shared data. An external blockchain is utilized as the controller of the network, manages access control, identities and serves as a...

  5. Learning Good Edit Similarities with Generalization Guarantees

    Bellet, Aurélien; Habrard, Amaury; Sebban, Marc


    Similarity and distance functions are essential to many learning algorithms, thus training them has attracted a lot of interest. When it comes to dealing with structured data (e.g., strings or trees), edit similarities are widely used, and there exists a few methods for learning them. However, these methods offer no theoretical guarantee as to the generalization performance and discriminative power of the resulting similarities. Recently, a theory of learning with good similarity functions wa...

  6. Improved Practical Matrix Sketching with Guarantees

    Desai, Amey; Ghashami, Mina; Phillips, Jeff M.


    Matrices have become essential data representations for many large-scale problems in data analytics, and hence matrix sketching is a critical task. Although much research has focused on improving the error/size tradeoff under various sketching paradigms, the many forms of error bounds make these approaches hard to compare in theory and in practice. This paper attempts to categorize and compare most known methods under row-wise streaming updates with provable guarantees, and then to tweak some...

  7. China and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

    Yushu Feng


    The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), established in 1988, is part of the World Bank Group. Its mandate is to promote foreign investment in its member countries by providing political risk insurance and technical assistance to promote investment. In developing this case study of China's evolving relationship with MIGA, the author asked: Why did China decide to seek membership in MIGA? What was the outcome of the relationship between China and MIGA? How has that relationship aff...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus triggered reactive arthritis.

    Siam, A R; M. Hammoudeh


    OBJECTIVES--To report two patients who developed reactive arthritis in association with Staphylococcus aureus infection. METHODS--A review of the case notes of two patients. RESULTS--Two adult female patients have developed sterile arthritis in association with Staph aureus infection. The first patient has had two episodes of arthritis; the first followed olecranon bursitis, the second followed infection of a central venous catheter used for dialysis. The second patient developed sterile arth...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and sore nipples.

    Livingstone, V. H.; Willis, C. E.; Berkowitz, J


    OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinical symptoms and signs of sore nipples with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the probability of mothers having S aureus-infected nipples when these local symptoms and signs are found. DESIGN: Two cohorts of consecutive patients were enrolled regardless of presenting complaint. A questionnaire was administered to determine the presence and severity of sore nipples. Objective findings on breast examination were documented. A nipple swab was tak...

  10. 75 FR 63419 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales


    ...The Small Business Administration (SBA) proposes to amend its Surety Bond Guarantee Program rules to guarantee performance bonds for timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public or private...

  11. 76 FR 9962 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales


    ...The Small Business Administration (SBA) is issuing this final rule to amend its Surety Bond Guarantee Program rules to guarantee bid and performance bonds for timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public and private...

  12. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.


    ... SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide... includes a guarantee of at least the minimum weekly required amount paid on a salary basis regardless of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 4279.149 - Personal and corporate guarantee.


    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.149 Personal and corporate guarantee. (a) Unconditional personal and corporate... guarantees may also be required of parent, subsidiaries, or affiliated companies (owning less than a...

  14. 10 CFR 609.10 - Loan Guarantee Agreement.


    ... accepted accounting principles and practices. The non-guaranteed portion (if any) of any Guaranteed...; (7) The loan guarantee does not finance, either directly or indirectly, tax-exempt debt obligations... made during the regular business hours of the Borrower, Eligible Lender or other Holder, or other...

  15. 77 FR 58991 - State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing


    ... AGENCY State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice; input... Mac of developing appropriate risk-based guarantee fee pricing by state. FHFA's proposal described... subjects. After reviewing the public input and determining a final state-level guarantee fee pricing...

  16. 7 CFR 762.145 - Restructuring guaranteed loans.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restructuring guaranteed loans. 762.145 Section 762..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.145 Restructuring guaranteed loans. (a... approval of the Agency for all restructuring actions; and, (ii) Provide the items in paragraph (b) and...

  17. 29 CFR 4022.62 - Estimated guaranteed benefit.


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated guaranteed benefit. 4022.62 Section 4022.62 Labor... PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.62 Estimated guaranteed benefit. (a) General. The estimated guaranteed benefit payable with respect to each...

  18. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt § 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the...

  19. Collagen binding to Staphylococcus aureus

    Staphylococcus aureus can bind soluble collagen in a specific, saturable manner. We have previously shown that some variability exists in the degree of collagen binding between different strains of heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed S. aureus which are commercially available as immunologic reagents. The present study demonstrates that live S. aureus of the Cowan 1 strain binds amounts of collagen per organism equivalent to those demonstrated previously in heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed bacteria but has an affinity over 100 times greater, with Kd values of 9.7 X 10(-11) M and 4.3 X 10(-8) M for live and heat-killed organisms, respectively. Studies were also carried out with S. aureus killed by ionizing radiation, since this method of killing the organism seemed less likely to alter the binding moieties on the surface than did heat killing. Bacteria killed by exposure to gamma radiation bound collagen in a manner essentially indistinguishable from that of live organisms. Binding of collagen to irradiated cells of the Cowan 1 strain was rapid, with equilibrium reached by 30 min at 22 degrees C, and was fully reversible. The binding was not inhibited by fibronectin, fibrinogen, C1q, or immunoglobulin G, suggesting a binding site for collagen distinct from those for these proteins. Collagen binding was virtually eliminated in trypsin-treated organisms, indicating that the binding site has a protein component. Of four strains examined, Cowan 1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 showed saturable, specific binding, while strains Woods and S4 showed a complete lack of binding. These results suggest that some strains of S. aureus contain high-affinity binding sites for collagen. While the number of binding sites per bacterium varied sixfold in the two collagen-binding strains, the apparent affinity was similar

  20. 75 FR 4707 - Continuous Construction-Permanent Loan Guarantees Under the Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental...


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3565 RIN-0575-AC80 Continuous Construction... guarantee on construction advances and the permanent financing phase of a project. In addition to the... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. If this rule is adopted: (1) Unless otherwise...

  1. Host-adaptive evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    Lowder, Bethan Victoria


    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In addition, S. aureus is a major cause of animal diseases including skeletal infections of poultry and bovine and ovine mastitis, which are a large economic burden on the broiler chicken and dairy farming industries. The population structure of S. aureus associated with humans has been well studied. However, despite the prevalence of S. aureus infections in ...

  2. Genome Sequence of the Clinical Isolate Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain UAMS-1

    Sassi, Mohamed; Sharma, Deepak; Brinsmade, Shaun ,; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann


    We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1. UAMS-1 is a virulent oxacillin-susceptible clinical isolate. Its genome is composed of 2,763,963 bp and will be useful for further gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. S taphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen responsible for nosocomial and community-associated infections. S. aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1 was originally isolated from the ...

  3. Guaranteed clustering and biclustering via semidefinite programming

    Ames, Brendan P W


    Identifying clusters of similar objects in data plays a significant role in a wide range of applications. As a model problem for clustering, we consider the densest k-disjoint-clique problem, whose goal is to identify the collection of k disjoint cliques of a given weighted complete graph maximizing the sum of the densities of the complete subgraphs induced by these cliques. In this paper, we establish conditions ensuring exact recovery of the densest k cliques of a given graph from the optimal solution of a particular semidefinite program. In particular, the semidefinite relaxation is exact for input graphs corresponding to data consisting of k large, distinct clusters and a smaller number of outliers. This approach also yields a semidefinite relaxation for the biclustering problem with similar recovery guarantees. Given a set of objects and a set of features exhibited by these objects, biclustering seeks to simultaneously group the objects and features according to their expression levels. This problem may ...

  4. Guaranteeing CERN’s excellence: consolidate experience

    Staff Association


    For its missions CERN requires staff with solid experience in all its domains of activity The Organization has several missions: fundamental research, technical developments and innovation, training the several hundreds of associates, fellows and students, while at the same time taking care of more than 10000 users. In order to guarantee excellence in all of these areas, CERN has to put in place an efficient personnel policy. Such a policy must allow the Organization to recruit collaborators with the highest competence from all Member States, and to keep and motivate them during their entire professional career. But, more importantly, the Organization has to be able to count on a stable workforce. It needs staff with experience gained over a long period in the fields of accelerators, detectors, and operating procedures, if it is to fulfil successfully its important mission of training and knowledge transfer, which is very much appreciated by our Member states, since it highlights a visible return on invest...

  5. Essence and classification of legal guarantees of creditors’ rights

    Aleksandra M. Sil’chenko


    Full Text Available Objective to conduct a comprehensive study of the concept of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights and to identify some features of guarantees on the basis of the presented classification. Methods general scientific deduction comparative and system analysis formal logical method and special comparative legal and structuralfunctional methods. Results basing on the evaluation of different scientistsrsquo opinions the definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. Four classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are proposed. Scientific novelty author39s definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. The essence of legal guarantees in general and legal rights of creditors in particular is defined. Classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are given by the content and methods of implementation of creditorsrsquo rights guarantees by forms of providing guarantees to creditors general and special guarantees by the form of termination of legal personrsquos activity. The classifications are described in detail through examples. Practical value the results of this research can be used in scientificresearch activity. Theoretical conclusions formulated in the work can be used in the process of improving of the existing legislation and practice of its application.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O;


    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...

  7. Guaranteed investment contracts: distributed and undistributed excess return

    Kristian R. Miltersen; Persson, Svein-Arne


    Annual minimum rate of return guarantees are analyzed together with rules for distribution of positive excess return, i.e. investment returns in excess of the guaranteed minimum return. Together with the level of the annual minimum rate of return guarantee both the customer's and the insurer's fractions of the positive excess return are determined so that the market value of the insurer's capital inflow (determined by the fraction of the positive excess return) equals the market value of the ...

  8. Guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants in Germany and Austria

    Balancing fluctuations caused by renewable energy play an important role in the current transition of energy supply systems. Hydro power plants provide both: guaranteed capacity as well as renewability. In Germany and Austria definitions of how to quantify the guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants are well established to calculate the guaranteed capacity for an individual power plant. The definitions are challenged against real examples.

  9. Switching Fuzzy Guaranteed Cost Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems

    Linqin Cai; Zhuo Yang; Jimin Yu; Zhenhua Zhang


    This paper deals with the problem of guaranteed cost control for a class of nonlinear networked control systems (NCSs) with time-varying delay. A guaranteed cost controller design method is proposed to achieve the desired control performance based on the switched T-S fuzzy model. The switching mechanism is introduced to handle the uncertainties of NCSs. Based on Lyapunov functional approach, some sufficient conditions for the existence of state feedback robust guaranteed cost controller are p...

  10. Valuation and Efficient Allocation of GSM Export Credit Guarantees

    Diersen, Matthew A.; Sherrick, Bruce J.


    Estimates of country-level loan default distributions are developed and used in a loan guarantee model to value the contingent liability of USDA's General Sales Manager (GSM) export credit guarantee portfolio. The results quantify the relationship between increasing guarantee coverage and the resulting actuarial liability to the government. Optimal coverage levels and optimal country-level allocations are determined for given policy objectives and coverage totals. Findings reveal that the gov...

  11. Genome sequence of type strain of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Yi, Hana; Chun, Jongsik; Cha, Chang-Jun


    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes food poisoning and community-associated infection with antibiotic resistance. This species is an indigenous intestinal microbe found in infants and not found in adult intestine. The relatively small genome size and rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance genes in the species have been drawing an increasing attention in public health. To extend our understanding of the species and use the genome data for comparative genomic studies, w...

  12. 7 CFR 1493.430 - Application for a payment guarantee.


    ... exporter and the importer. If the commodity was sold on the basis of CFR or CIF, the actual (if known at... PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.430 Application for a payment guarantee..., the actual (if known at the time of application) or estimated value of marine and war risk...

  13. 75 FR 25833 - Information Collection; Guaranteed Loan Making and Servicing


    ... contacting Trent Rogers at the above address. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trent Rogers, Senior Loan... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Guaranteed Loan Making and Servicing AGENCY: Farm Service... the Guaranteed Farm Loan Program. DATES: We will consider comments that we receive by July 9,...

  14. Increasing Social Inclusion through Social Guarantees : A Policy Note

    World Bank


    This policy note seeks to contribute to the consideration of social guarantees as tools for the design and/or monitoring of social policy and service delivery. It proposes a range of options to improve the delivery of and access to social services that can further social inclusion and democratic governance. The application of a social guarantee framework to social policy could significantl...

  15. Guaranteed Cost LQG Control of Uncertain Linear Quantum Stochastic Systems

    A. J. SHAIJU; Petersen, I. R.; James, M R


    In this paper, we formulate and solve a guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain linear stochastic quantum systems. For these quantum systems, a connection with an associated classical (non-quantum) system is first established. Using this connection, the desired guaranteed cost results are established. The theory presented is illustrated using an example from quantum optics.

  16. System Guarantee for Social Equity in Today’s China

    Luyan MA


    Full Text Available

    Social equity is balanced and equal distribution of rights and interests. A sound system is the fundamental guarantee for social equity. Unfortunately, imperfection of the current system in China obstructed social equity in today’s China such as income distribution system, dual urbanrural system, market economic system, citizen rights and interests, protection system and social security system. To eliminate these barriers, strengthen system building and guarantee social equity, equity and justice should be taken as the primary goal of value for system building; a guarantee mechanism for social equity system should be built focusing on fairness in rights, opportunities, rules and distribution; and a system to guarantee social equity should be built and perfected with multi-tiered systems including macro basic system, medium operation system and microcosmic concrete system.

    Key words: Social equity; System; Guarantee

  17. Evasion of Neutrophil Killing by Staphylococcus aureus

    Will A. McGuinness


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of infections, ranging from self-resolving skin infections to severe or fatal pneumonia. Human innate immune cells, called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils, are essential for defense against S. aureus infections. Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type of the innate immune system and are capable of producing non-specific antimicrobial molecules that are effective at eliminating bacteria. Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, our knowledge of S. aureus-host innate immune system interactions is incomplete. Most notably, S. aureus has the capacity to produce numerous molecules that are directed to protect the bacterium from neutrophils. Here we review in brief the role played by neutrophils in defense against S. aureus infection, and correspondingly, highlight selected S. aureus molecules that target key neutrophil functions.

  18. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    Yan, Xiaomei


    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance against rifampicin doubled to 68%. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is frequent in China. Two predominant S. aureus lineages, ST6 and ST943, were identified causing outbreaks of SFP in Southern China...

  19. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Zhigang Li; Peres, Adam G.; Andreea C. Damian; Joaquín Madrenas


    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and d...

  20. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    Sandra Davi Traverso; Leonardo da Cunha; Joaquim César Teixeira Fernandes; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; Adriana Rhoden; Elsio Wunder Jr.; David Driemeier


    Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador e...

  1. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Zhigang Li


    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    Cervante-García, Estrella; García-Gonzalez, Rafael; Reyes-Torres, Angélica; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María


    Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs). Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to diff...

  5. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong


    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  6. Price-Matching Guarantees and Entry Deterrence under Incomplete Information

    Liping Zhang


    This paper studies price-matching guarantees in a market where entrant does not have perfect information about incumbent¡¯s cost. The low-cost incumbent can adopt price-matching guarantees as a signal to distinguish itself from the high-cost type and thus effectively deter entry. On the other hand, the high-cost incumbent can successfully fool the potential entrant under certain conditions. Compared with the equilibriums in situations where the option of offering a price guarantee is not avai...

  7. Empirical research on the SMEs' credit-guarantee in China

    贾生华; 陈宏辉


    After the authors' thorough study of the experiments of other countries and regions, it is posed that credit-guarantee is the key for solving the problem of the difficulties of SMEs' financing. Based on two surveys and interviews with 57 SMEs and some commercial banks' staff, this study on the practice and implement action of SMEs' credit-guarantee revealed some problems existing in the practical process. A series of policy suggestions are given for improving the SMEs' credit-guarantee in China.

  8. Empirical research on the SMEs' credit-guarantee in China

    贾生华; 陈宏辉


    After the authors' thorough study of the experiments of other countries and regions, it is posed that credit-guarantee is the key for solving the problem of the difficulties of SMEs' financing.Based on two surveys and interviews with 57 SMEs and some commercial banks' staff, this study on the practice and implement action of SMEs' credit-guarantee revealed some problems existing in the practical process. A series of policy suggestions are given for improving the SMEs' credit-guarantee in China.

  9. The cell surface proteome of Staphylococcus aureus

    Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe


    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a wide spread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of life-threatening diseases. To obtain a better understanding of the global mechanisms for pathogenesis and to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions, the S. aureus proteom

  10. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    Yan, Xiaomei


    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance again

  11. [Waiting lists guarantee in health care. Some theoretical reflections].

    Piene, H; Hauge, H K; Nyen, P A


    In 1990 a "waiting list guarantee" was introduced in the Norwegian health care system to secure treatment within six months for patients belonging to priority group II. (Priority group II are patients in need of treatment to avoid health hazards or serious long-term effects.) This guarantee has been difficult to honour and has caused considerable political unrest in the recent years. In an attempt to reform the guarantee, an analysis of our hospitals' capacity problems has been carried out, based on the general theory of queues. One result was that in order to fulfill the guarantee it is necessary to drastically reduce the queues and increase the capacity to deliver health services. This article presents the reasoning behind the analysis, in order to demonstrate the necessary foundation for a health policy that aims to reduce the time Norwegian patients have to wait for treatment in hospital. PMID:9064860

  12. Optimal consumption, investment and life insurance with surrender option guarantee

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens


    We consider an investor, with an uncertain lifetime, endowed with deterministic laboor income, who has the possibility to continuously invest in a Black–Scholes market and to buy life insurance or annuities. We solve the optimal consumption, investment and life insurance problem when the investor...... is restricted to fulfil an American capital guarantee. By allowing the guarantee to depend, in a very general way, on the past we include, among other possibilities, the interesting case of a minimum rate of return guarantee, commonly offered by pension companies. The optimal strategies turn out to...... be on option-based portfolio insurance form, but since the capital guarantee is valid at every intermediate point in time, re-calibration is needed whenever the constraint is active....

  13. 75 FR 52429 - Guaranteed Single Family Housing Loans


    ...The Rural Housing Service (RHS) is amending its regulations to add new servicing options to the Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) that lenders may utilize while still maintaining the SFHGLP loan guarantee. The Agency will allow lenders to extend loans for a term of up to 40 years from the date of modification. The Agency also will allow lenders to advance funds on behalf......

  14. Credit Guarantees and Subsidies when Lender has a Market Power

    Janda, Karel


    Provision of credit guarantees or subsidies may remove an adverse selection leading to credit rationing. This paper concentrates on comparison of government budget costs of credit guarantees and subsidies in a monopolistic credit market. Different opportunity costs among entrepreneurs, which reflect different mixes of general and human specific capital, generate different outcomes in the model. As long as the participation costs of low-risk entrepreneurs are sufficiently close to the particip...


    Eugen Dijmarescu


    Deposit Guarantee Schemes (DGS) become more visible under the current conditions of the world financial markets. If those have played in the past a rather discreet role for social stability through the function of pay box following a bank failure, the recent crisis put them in a new light, once the guarantee ceiling for eligible deposits grew in order to make for the accumulation of wealth worldwide and the increased risk incurred by the leverage of banking operations. Consequently, the resou...


    Jakub Gołaś


    The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall...

  17. Customer intentions to invoke service guarantees: Do excellence in service recovery, type of guarantee, and cultural orientation matter?.

    Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; De Keyser, Arne; Larivière, Bart


    Purpose – Many service providers feel confident about their service quality and thus offer service guarantees to their customers. Yet service failures are inevitable. As guarantees can only be invoked when customers report service failures, firms are given the opportunity to redress the original failure potentially influencing customer outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first empirical investigation of whether excellence in service recovery affects customers’ intentions to ...

  18. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus

    Holmes, Mark A.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K.


    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  19. [Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance].

    Sancak, Banu


    After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed. PMID:21935792

  20. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Michal Bukowski


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  1. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    Stauff, Devin L; Skaar, Eric P.


    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, wh...

  2. Staphylococcus aureus infections in psittacine birds.

    Hermans, K; Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Godard, C; Haesebrouck, F


    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from internal organs of 13 different psittacine birds submitted for necropsy over a period of 6 years. The birds all had lesions consistent with septicaemia. S. aureus isolates included three different phage types. In seven of the 13 birds, concurrent infections with Chlamydophila species, Enterococcus hirae, Candida species, unidentified streptococci and coagulasenegative staphylococci were detected. One bird also had lesions of lymphoid leucosis. Few indications were found that staphylococcosis associated problems may spread epidemically. The present studies suggest that S. aureus is pathogenic for psittacine birds, although it does not seem to be a frequent cause of disease. PMID:19184832

  3. Opportunistic scheduling policies for improved throughput guarantees in wireless networks

    Hassel Vegard


    Full Text Available Abstract Offering throughput guarantees for cellular wireless networks, carrying real-time traffic, is of interest to both the network operators and the customers. In this article, we formulate an optimization problem which aims at maximizing the throughput that can be guaranteed to the mobile users. By building on results obtained by Borst and Whiting and by assuming that the distributions of the users' carrier-to-noise ratios are known, we find the solution to this problem for users with different channel quality distributions, for both the scenario where all the users have the same throughput guarantees, and the scenario where all the users have different throughput guarantees. Based on these solutions, we also propose two simple and low complexity adaptive scheduling algorithms that perform significantly better than other well-known scheduling algorithms. We further develop an expression for the approximate throughput guarantee violation probability for users in time-slotted networks with the given cumulants of the distribution of bit-rate in a time-slot, and a given distribution for the number of time-slots allocated within a time-window.


    Jakub Gołaś


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall be considered as the direct legal basis of the guarantees. Having regard to the fact that even the Polish Constitution introduces transparent and direct legal frameworks for functioning of farmers’ trade unions, the author intends to prove that individual farmers’ unions’ operations should be considered as a fundamental and basic feature of the national agricultural system. The presented work should be also considered as thorough examination of legal provisions presented in the Act on individual farmers’ trade unions of 7th April 1989 (Ustawa…, 2015b, which is direct legal basis for functioning guarantees of the agricultural unions. The author shows how the Act is governing such fundamental issues as creation, registration, liquidation or legal operational guarantees of each individual farmers’ trade unions operating under the Act.

  5. Laboratory Maintenance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Nicholas P Vitko; Richardson, Anthony R.


    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen in the hospital and community settings, especially Staphylococcus aureus clones that exhibit methicillin-resistance (MRSA). Many strains of S. aureus are utilized in the laboratory, underscoring the genetic differences inherent in clinical isolates. S. aureus grows quickly at 37°C with aeration in rich media (e.g. BHI) and exhibits a preference for glycolytic carbon sources. Furthermore, S. aureus has a gold pigmentation, exhibits β-hem...

  6. Unpower aerocraft augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control


    Aimed at designing the unpower aerocraft attitude control system in a simple and practical way,the guaranteed cost control is adopted.To eliminate the steady-error,a novel tracking control approach-augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is proposed.Firstly,the unpower aerocraft is modeled as a linear system with norm bounded parameter uncertain,then the linear matrix inequality based state feedback gnaranteed cost control law is combined with the augmented state feedback tracking control from a new point of view.The sufficient condition of the existence of the augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is derived and converted to the feasible problem of the linear matrix inequality.Finally,the proposed approach is applied to a specified unpower aerocraft.The six dimensions of freedom simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective and feasible.

  7. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    Stauff, Devin L.; Skaar, Eric P.


    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, which alleviates heme toxicity. Importantly, the inability to sense or respond to heme alters the virulence of S. aureus, highlighting the importance of heme sensing and detoxification to staphylococcal pathogenesis. Furthermore, potential orthologues of the Hss and Hrt systems are found in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, a possible indication that heme stress is a challenge faced by bacteria whose habitats include host tissues rich in heme. PMID:19494582

  8. Binding of heparan sulfate to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Liang, O D; Ascencio, F; Fransson, L A; Wadström, T


    Heparan sulfate binds to proteins present on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus was time dependent, saturable, and influenced by pH and ionic strength, and cell-bound 125I-heparan sulfate was displaced by unlabelled heparan sulfate or heparin. Other glycosaminoglycans of comparable size (chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate), highly glycosylated glycoprotein (hog gastric mucin), and some anionic polysaccharides (dextran sulfate and RNA...

  9. The Staphylococcus aureus “superbug”



    PUBLISHED There has been some debate about the disease-invoking potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains and whether invasive disease is associated with particularly virulent genotypes, or "superbugs." A study in this issue of the JCI describes the genotyping of a large collection of nonclinical, commensal S. aureus strains from healthy individuals in a Dutch population. Extensive study of their genetic relatedness by amplified restriction fragment typing and comparison with strains that...

  10. Transmissible mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Rahman, M.; Noble, W. C.; Cookson, B


    The spread of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus with high level resistance to mupirocin is described. The resistance proved to be easily transferred to other S. aureus strains by filter mating experiments and on the skin of mice. No plasmid band corresponding to the resistance could be demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis or by caesium chloride gradient centrifugation but cleavage of 'chromosomal' DNA from resistant recipients showed bright bands of DNA absent from sensitive controls.

  11. Triclosan Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    Syed, Adnan K.; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G.; Boles, Blaise R.


    ABSTRACT The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here...

  12. PARAMETER KINETIKA INAKTIVASI TERMAL DAN ISOLASI Staphylococcus aureus PADA MINUMAN DARI GEL CINCAU HIJAU DAN ROSELA [Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Parameter and Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus on Drink from Green Grass Jelly and Roselle

    Eko Hari Purnomo


    Full Text Available Information about heat resistance (D and z values of target bacteria is needed for the thermal process design on drink from Green Grass Jelly (Premna oblongifolia Merr. and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., so it can guarantee quality and safety of the product. The objectives of this research were to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from commercial green grass jelly and to determine the D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus (from commercial product and standard clinical isolate ATCC 25923 on heating menstruum of green grass jelly and roselle. Isolation of S. aureus was done by inoculation in selective medium, D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus were assessed by heating at constant temperatures of 57, 53, 49, and 45°C during the time interval 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The results showed that one isolate (Isolate A gave positive response of Staphylococcus aureus in isolation tests and had similar percentage with the reference culture of 41.8% using the API Staph Kit. Heat resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (represented as D value isolated from green grass jelly at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 32.3, 17.9, 4.6, and 1.5 minutes. On the other hand, D value of isolates ATCC 25923 (standard clinical isolate at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 18.5, 6.8, 2.9, and 1.4 minutes. The z value of isolates A and ATCC 25923 were 8.8°C and 10.8°C. Smaller z value of isolate A showed that pasteurization process can be accelerated and optimized with increasing the temperature slightly but has the same lethality effect.

  13. Calculation of guaranteed mean power from wind turbine generators

    Spera, D. A.


    A method for calculating the 'guaranteed mean' power output of a wind turbine generator is proposed. The term 'mean power' refers to the average power generated at specified wind speeds during short-term tests. Correlation of anemometers, the method of bins for analyzing non-steady data, the PROP Code for predicting turbine power, and statistical analysis of deviations in test data from theory are discussed. Guaranteed mean power density for the Clayton Mod-OA system was found to be 8 watts per square meter less than theoretical power density at all power levels, with a confidence level of 0.999. This amounts to 4 percent of rated power.

  14. Guarantees of Augmented Trace Norm Models in Tensor Recovery

    Shi, Ziqiang; Han, Jiqing; Zheng, Tieran; Deng, Shiwen; Li, Ji


    This paper studies the recovery guarantees of the models of minimizing $\\|\\mathcal{X}\\|_*+\\frac{1}{2\\alpha}\\|\\mathcal{X}\\|_F^2$ where $\\mathcal{X}$ is a tensor and $\\|\\mathcal{X}\\|_*$ and $\\|\\mathcal{X}\\|_F$ are the trace and Frobenius norm of respectively. We show that they can efficiently recover low-rank tensors. In particular, they enjoy exact guarantees similar to those known for minimizing $\\|\\mathcal{X}\\|_*$ under the conditions on the sensing operator such as its null-space property, ...

  15. Robust levitation control for maglev systems with guaranteed bounded airgap.

    Xu, Jinquan; Chen, Ye-Hwa; Guo, Hong


    The robust control design problem for the levitation control of a nonlinear uncertain maglev system is considered. The uncertainty is (possibly) fast time-varying. The system has magnitude limitation on the airgap between the suspended chassis and the guideway in order to prevent undesirable contact. Furthermore, the (global) matching condition is not satisfied. After a three-step state transformation, a robust control scheme for the maglev vehicle is proposed, which is able to guarantee the uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of the system, regardless of the uncertainty. The magnitude limitation of the airgap is guaranteed, regardless of the uncertainty. PMID:26524957

  16. Independence:Guarantee to Emerson’s Individualism

    Jiang; Jingxin


    Emerson established a systematic philosophy of individualism at his early stage.The basic three elements of individualism described in Emerson’s works are:freedom,selfidentity and independence to others.Independence,serves as the guarantee to the realization of individualism.

  17. Efficient Strategy-Proof Exchange and Minimum Consumption Guarantees

    Shigehiro Serizawa; Weymark, John A.


    For exchange economies with classical economic preferences, it is shown that any strategy-proof social choice function that selects Pareto optimal outcomes cannot guarantee everyone a consumption bundle bounded away from the origin. This result demonstrates that there is a fundamental conflict between efficiency and distributional goals in exchange economies if the social choice rule is required to be strategy-proof.

  18. 76 FR 13769 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees


    ... for low- and high-end service jobs, from call centers to software development, but does not guarantee... characteristics, suggesting that policy, economic, and social factors can overcome common barriers to broadband... especially significant given the importance of ] ongoing parental involvement in children's...

  19. 13 CFR 115.30 - Submission of Surety's guarantee application.


    ... days, or in the case of a bonding line, within 15 business days (see § 115.33(d)(2)) after Execution of... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of Surety's guarantee application. 115.30 Section 115.30 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY...

  20. 78 FR 48135 - Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program


    ... online instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Trent Rogers, Senior Loan Specialist, USDA, FSA, Stop... above addresses. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trent Rogers, Senior Loan Specialist, (202) 720-3889...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program...

  1. 76 FR 57940 - CCC Export Credit Guarantee (GSM-102) Program


    ...) Program'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 44836-44855). The GSM-102 Program is administered by the Foreign...) published a proposed rule on July 27, 2011 (76 FR 44836-44855), revising and amending the regulations that... Guarantee (GSM-102) Program AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service and Commodity Credit Corporation,...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4800 - Guarantees and contracts of suretyship.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantees and contracts of suretyship. 614.4800 Section 614.4800 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND... another, or otherwise become a guarantor if an eligible cooperative substantially benefits from...

  3. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  4. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W


    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  5. Intra-cellular Staphylococcus aureus alone causes infection in vivo

    T Hamza


    Full Text Available Chronic and recurrent bone infections occur frequently but have not been explained. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is often found among chronic and recurrent infections and may be responsible for such infections. One possible reason is that S. aureus can internalize and survive within host cells and by doing so, S. aureus can evade both host defense mechanisms and most conventional antibiotic treatments. In this study, we hypothesized that intra-cellular S. aureus could induce infections in vivo. Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus and, after eliminating extra-cellular S. aureus, inoculated into an open fracture rat model. Bacterial cultures and radiographic observations at post-operative day 21 confirmed local bone infections in animals inoculated with intra-cellular S. aureus within osteoblasts alone. We present direct in vivo evidence that intra-cellular S. aureus could be sufficient to induce bone infection in animals; we found that intra-cellular S. aureus inoculation of as low as 102 colony forming units could induce severe bone infections. Our data may suggest that intra-cellular S. aureus can “hide” in host cells during symptom-free periods and, under certain conditions, they may escape and lead to infection recurrence. Intra-cellular S. aureus therefore could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, especially those chronic and recurrent infections in which disease episodes may be separated by weeks, months, or even years.

  6. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  7. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin;


    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  8. Classification of Healthcare-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich


    We investigated whether different definitions of healthcare-associated infection influenced the prevalence, characteristics, and mortality of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. With different definitions, the proportion of patients classified as having healthcare-associated S. aureus...

  9. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  10. Mobile intelligent agent entity model towards QoS guarantee

    LI Jie; WANG Ru-chuan; BIAN Zhen-gai


    Implementing a flexible configuration of the QoS parameter in a distributed computing network has become a problem due to the weak scalability of current approaches.In an effort to solve this problem,an inner basic model of an intelligent agent (IA) is presented.The IA functionality was extended by introducing a primarily mobile agent.A QoS guarantee scheme was subsequently designed and implemented based on the model as well.By utilizing the proposed scheme,the IA can sense,predict and configure the data flow traffic.Since the communicating ability was considered and provided,the competition among different devices could be eliminated effectively and the global traffic can be optimized.The results of the simulations have shown that the proposed model can provide a QoS guarantee.

  11. SHALE: An Efficient Algorithm for Allocation of Guaranteed Display Advertising

    Bharadwaj, Vijay; Ma, Wenjing; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Tomlin, John; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yang, Jian


    Motivated by the problem of optimizing allocation in guaranteed display advertising, we develop an efficient, lightweight method of generating a compact {\\em allocation plan} that can be used to guide ad server decisions. The plan itself uses just O(1) state per guaranteed contract, is robust to noise, and allows us to serve (provably) nearly optimally. The optimization method we develop is scalable, with a small in-memory footprint, and working in linear time per iteration. It is also "stop-anytime", meaning that time-critical applications can stop early and still get a good serving solution. Thus, it is particularly useful for optimizing the large problems arising in the context of display advertising. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm using actual Yahoo! data.

  12. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning by Abstraction Refinement

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulous, Dimitra; Glannakopoulou, Dimitra


    Current automated approaches for compositional model checking in the assume-guarantee style are based on learning of assumptions as deterministic automata. We propose an alternative approach based on abstraction refinement. Our new method computes the assumptions for the assume-guarantee rules as conservative and not necessarily deterministic abstractions of some of the components, and refines those abstractions using counter-examples obtained from model checking them together with the other components. Our approach also exploits the alphabets of the interfaces between components and performs iterative refinement of those alphabets as well as of the abstractions. We show experimentally that our preliminary implementation of the proposed alternative achieves similar or better performance than a previous learning-based implementation.

  13. To help allies, send security guarantees, not nuclear bombs

    Fuhrmann, Matthew; Sechser , Todd S.


    Despite the end of the Cold War more than two decades ago, the U.S. still deploys nuclear weapons in several countries. But does deploying these weapons act as a deterrent to conflict, making these countries safer? In new research which analyses the effects of such nuclear deployments, Matthew Fuhrmann and Todd S. Sechser find that their presence does little, when compared with alliance guarantees. They write that having an alliance with a nuclear armed ally is actually more effective in prev...

  14. Information Extraction on the Web with Credibility Guarantee

    Nguyen, Thanh Tam


    The Web became the central medium for valuable sources of information extraction applications. However, such user-generated resources are often plagued by inaccuracies and misinformation due to the inherent openness and uncertainty of the Web. In this work we study the problem of extracting structured information out of Web data with a credibility guarantee. The ultimate goal is that not only the structured information should be extracted as much as possible but also its credibility is high. ...

  15. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee


    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  16. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Ernesto López Freire


    This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provision...

  17. Money-Back Guarantees: Helping the Low-Quality Retailer

    Bruce McWilliams


    Existing literature, based on signaling theory, suggests that money-back guarantees (MBGs) will be utilized by high-quality firms, where high quality is defined as a low likelihood of product return. However, in today's world, MBGs are ubiquitous among major retailers, even when the likelihood of product return varies greatly between them. To understand this phenomenon, we explore a competitive environment between high- and low-quality retailers where consumers are fully informed and risk neu...

  18. GEARSHIFT: Guaranteeing availability requirements in SLAs using hybrid fault tolerance

    Gonzalez, Andres Javier; Helvik, Bjarne Emil; Tiwari, Prakriti; Denis, Becker; Wittner, Otto Jonassen


    The dependability of ICT systems is vital for today's society. However, operational systems are not fault free. Providers and customers have to define clear availability requirements and penalties on the delivered services by using SLAs. Fulfilling the stipulated availability may be expensive. The lack of mechanisms that allow a fine control of the SLA risk may lead to over-dimension the provided resources. Therefore, a relevant question for ICT service providers is: How to guarantee the SLA ...

  19. Providing Credit Guarantee Scheme in Agriculture of Ukraine

    Olena Oliynyk


    Small and medium-size businesses, despite their significant contribution to agricultural production in Ukraine, do have limited access to financing. Existing public support mechanisms (interest rate subsidies, leasing programs) do not solve the problem of these categories of enterprises access to credit resources. Introduction of credit guarantee scheme is a more effective mechanism to support small and medium-size businesses. As international experience shows, it is a market mechanism - the ...

  20. Distributed Model Predictive Control with Suboptimality and Stability Guarantees

    Giselsson, Pontus; Rantzer, Anders


    Theory for Distributed Model Predictive Control (DMPC) is developed based on dual decomposition of the convex optimization problem that is solved in each time sample. The process to be controlled is an interconnection of several subsystems, where each subsystem corresponds to a node in a graph. We present a stopping criterion for the DMPC scheme that can be locally verified by each node and that guarantees closed loop suboptimality above a pre-specified level and asymptotic stability of the i...


    Wang Wenjie; Wei Gang


    A QoS-aware input-queued scheduling algorithm, called Smallest Timestamp First (STF), is proposed, which is improved upon iSLIP and can allocate bandwidth among inputs sharing a common output based on their reservation by assigning suitable finishing timestamps to contending cells. STF can also provide isolation between flows that share a common output link.Misbehaving flows will be restricted to guarantee the behaving flows' bandwidth. Simulatious prove the feasibility of our algorithm.

  2. Guaranteed Minimum Price Contracts for Some, an Insurance for Others?

    Chambolle, Claire; Poret, Sylvaine,


    This paper analyzes the impact of guaranteed minimum price contracts between sub-groups of farmers and a fair trade manufacturer on the spot market price. We focus on the fair trade concept in the coffee supply chain as an example. We analyze a three level vertical chain gathering perfectly competitive farmers upstream who offer their raw product to manufacturers who then sell finished products to a downstream retailer. Without fair trade, all the raw product is sold on the spot market. When ...

  3. Methods For Guaranteeing Contracted Availability In Connection Oriented Networks

    Gonzalez Martinez, Andres Javier


    Real telecommunications networks are not failure free. Any single disconnection impacts the network provider reputation and finances, and produces incalculable consequences to the customers through the affected applications. A common policy to handle this issue is the stipulation of the availability to be guaranteed in a business contract known as Service Level Agreement SLA. The stipulated availability must be commercially competitive, and it must fit the customer needs. However, the fulfill...

  4. Characterization of a Mouse-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus Strain

    Holtfreter, Silva; Fiona J Radcliff; Grumann, Dorothee; Read, Hannah; Johnson, Sarah; Monecke, Stefan; Ritchie, Stephen; Clow, Fiona; Goerke, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M.; Fraser, John D.; Wiles, Siouxsie


    More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the ‘superbug’ Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-ad...

  5. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A;


    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  6. A sensitive assay for Staphylococcus aureus nucleases

    A sensitive assay for staphylococcal nuclease involving incubation of the enzyme sample with heat-denatured [3H] thymidine labelled DNA from E.coli, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of the radioactivity of acid-soluble nucleotides released has been developed. The assay is sensitive enough to be used for comparing the levels of nucleases elaborated by different strains of S. aureus as well as for determining the extent of contamination of S. aureus in food and water samples even at levels at which the conventional spectrophotometric and toluidine blue-DNA methods are totally inadequate. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs ., 3 tabs

  7. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hemodialysis patients.

    Latos, D L; Stone, W J; Alford, R H


    Fifteen male hemodialysis patients developed 21 episodes of S. aureus bacteremia. Infections involving vascular access were responsible for 65% of initial bacteremias. The arteriovenous fistula was the most prevalent type of access used, and thus was responsible for the majority of these illnesses. Phage typing indicated that recurrent episodes were due to reinfection rather than relapse. Complications included endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic embolism, and pericarditis. One patient died of infectious complications. It is recommended that hemodialysis patients developing bacteremia due to S. aureus receive at least 6 weeks of beta lactamase-resistant antimicrobial therapy. PMID:608860

  8. Assume-Guarantee Synthesis for Digital Contract Signing

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu


    We study the automatic synthesis of fair non-repudiation protocols, a class of fair exchange protocols, used for digital contract signing. First, we show how to specify the objectives of the participating agents and the trusted third party (TTP) as path formulas in LTL and prove that the satisfaction of these objectives imply fairness and abuse-freeness; properties required of fair exchange protocols. We then show that weak (co-operative) co-synthesis and classical (strictly competitive) co-synthesis fail, whereas assume-guarantee synthesis (AGS) succeeds. We demonstrate the success of assume-guarantee synthesis as follows: (a) any solution of assume-guarantee synthesis is attack-free; no subset of participants can violate the objectives of the other participants; (b) the Asokan-Shoup-Waidner (ASW) certified mail protocol that has known vulnerabilities is not a solution of AGS; (c) The Garay-Jakobsson-MacKenzie (GJM) protocol, while fair and abuse-free, is not attack-free by our definition and is hence not a ...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and...

  10. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  11. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;


    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  12. Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry

    Waters, Andrew E.; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Buchhagen, Jordan; Liu, Cindy M.; Watson, Lindsey; Pearce, Kimberly; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul S; Lance B Price


    We characterized the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus among US meat and poultry samples (n = 136). S. aureus contaminated 47% of samples, and multidrug resistance was common among isolates (52%). S. aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination.

  13. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus colonization among health care workers in pediatrics departments.

    Gomes, Ivete Martins; Marlow, Mariel Asbury; Pinheiro, Marcos Gabriel; de Freitas, Maria de Fátima Nogueira; Fonseca, Fernanda Fernandes; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Aguiar-Alves, Fábio


    Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) were evaluated for 178 health care workers from a public hospital pediatrics department in Brazil. Colonization rates were 33.1% for S aureus and 5.1% for MRSA. Risk factors for S aureus colonization differed from those for MRSA. Results suggest nurses with prolonged pediatric patient contact in inpatient units are at higher risk for MRSA colonization. PMID:25087145

  14. Common R-plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis during a nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus outbreak.

    Cohen, M. L.; Wong, E. S.; Falkow, S


    During a 7-month period in 1978 to 1979, 31 patients and personnel at a Kentucky hospital were colonized or infected with a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin, penicillin, and tetracycline. S. epidermidis with similar antibiotic resistance patterns had been isolated in this hospital in the year before the S. aureus outbreak. A 32-megadalton R-plasmid, pUW3626, mediating resistance to penicillin and gentamicin, was present in these isol...

  15. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)


    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A- and B

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Karlsdóttir, Edda


    Enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus are among the most common causes of food poisoning. Acting as superantigens they intoxicate the organism by causing a massive uncontrolled T cell activation that ultimately may lead to toxic shock and death. In contrast to our detailed knowledge regarding...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf


    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  18. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the elderly

    R. M. Parnaby; G. O'Dwyer; H. A. Monsey; M. S. Shafi


    textabstractThe point prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and -resistant) carriage by inpatients on acute elderly care wards was estimated. The relationship to body site and to previous admissions to hospital or other institutions was determined. Fifty-five patie

  19. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin.

    Daum, T E; Schaberg, D R; Terpenning, M S; Sottile, W S; Kauffman, C A


    We demonstrated the marked emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin among Staphylococcus arueus strains isolated at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center. All S. aureus isolates tested from 1984 to 1985 were susceptible, whereas 55.1% of methicillin-resistant and 2.5% of methicillin-susceptible strains from 1989 had high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;


    large epidemiological studies in Europe. Nevertheless, the overall numbers identified in some Northern European reference laboratories have increased during the past decade. To determine whether the S. aureus t437 clone is present in other European countries, and to assess its genetic diversity across...

  1. The Impact of a State Bond Guarantee on State Credit Markets and Individual Municipalities

    Hsueh, L. Paul; Kidwell, David S.


    Examines the overall effect of a state bond guarantee on state credit markets and individual municipalities. Analyzes the Texas School Bond Guarantee program and it's impact on the borrowing cost of school districts and other municipalities within the state.

  2. Pricing of rate of return guarantees on multi-period assets

    Lindset, Snorre


    The basis for this paper is the pricing of multi-period rate of return guarantees. These guarantees can typically be found in life insurance and pension contracts. We derive closed form solutions, expressed by the cumulative multivariate normal probability distribution, for multi-period rate of return guarantees on both a money market account and a stock. The guarantees of Hipp (1996), Persson and Aase (1997), and Miltersen and Persson (1999) can be seen to be special cases of our results.



    The guaranteed cost control problem for a continuous-time uncertain singular system with state and control delays, and a given quadratic cost function is studied in this paper. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller are derived based on the linear inequality (LMI) approach. A parameterized characterization of the guaranteed cost laws is given in terms of the feasible solutions to a certain LMI, and the cost function of guaranteed cost controller exists an upper bound.

  4. Pricing rate of return guarantees in a Heath-Jarrow-Morton framework

    Kristian R. Miltersen; Persson, Svein-Arne


    Rate of return guarantees are included in many financial products, for example life insurance contracts or guaranteed investment contracts issued by investment banks. The holder of such a contract is guaranteed a fixed periodically rate of return rather than - or in addition to - a fixed absolute amount at expiration. We consider rate of return guarantees where the underlying rate of return is either (i) the rate of return on a stock investment or (ii) the short-term interest rate. Various ty...

  5. Valuing Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Options in Variable Annuities Under a Benchmark Approach

    Marquardt, T.; Eckhard Platen; S. Jaschke


    Variable annuities (VAs) represent a marked change from earlier life products in the guarantees that they offer and it is no longer possible to manage the risks of these liabilities using traditional actuarial methods. Thinking about guarantees as options suggests applying risk neutral pricing in order to value the embedded guarantees, such as guaranteed minimum death benefits (GMDBs). However, due to the long maturities of contracts, stochastic volatility and many other reasons, VA markets a...

  6. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.


    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  7. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Jackelline Favro


    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  8. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Ernesto López Freire


    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  9. Routing Bandwidth Guaranteed Paths with Restoration in Label Switched Networks

    Norden, Samphel; Buddhikot, Milind M.; Waldvogel, Marcel; Suri, Subhash


    A Network Service Provider (NSP) operating a label-switched networks such as ATM or Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks, sets up end-to-end bandwidth-guaranteed Label-Switched Paths (LSPs) to satisfy the connectivity requirements of its client networks. To make such a service highly available, the NSP may set up one or more backup LSPs for every active LSP. The backup LSPs are activated when the corresponding active LSP fails. Accordingly, the problem of LSP routing with and withou...

  10. Efficient Vessel Tracking  with Accuracy Guarantees

    Redoutey, Martin; Scotti, Eric; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;


    vessels, transmits location-related information from vessels to ground stations that are part of a so-called Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), thus enabling these to track the movements of the vessels. This paper presents techniques that improve the existing AIS by offering better and guaranteed tracking...... accuracies at lower communication costs. The techniques employ movement predictions that are shared between vessels and the VTS. Empirical studies with a prototype implementation and real vessel data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of significantly improving the AIS....

  11. On guaranteed cost control of linear systems with input saturation

    FU Min-yue


    This work studies the problem of control design for linear systems with input saturation. It is well known that integral quadratic constraints (IQC) can be used to describe input saturation and that the use of IQC in analysis can lead to less conservative performance bound and larger domain of attraction. In this work, it is shown that a class of commonly used IQCs may not help in control synthesis. That is, the use of these IQCs does not enlarge the guaranteed domain of performance for synthesis.

  12. 75 FR 21521 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Disaster and Miscellaneous Amendments


    ... approve, under certain conditions, an SBA bond guarantee on an individual Contract or Order up to $5,000... services procured under a Federal Contract or Order up to $5,000,000, an SBA bond guarantee may be issued... efforts in the major disaster area. The SBA bond guarantee may be issued on a Federal Contract or...

  13. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop... § 457.128 Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions. The Guaranteed Production Plan of Fresh Market Tomato Crop Insurance FCIC Policies Department of Agriculture Federal...

  14. 7 CFR 1786.202 - Prepayment and refinancing of RUS guaranteed FFB loans.


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prepayment and refinancing of RUS guaranteed FFB...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS Refinancing and Prepayment of RUS Guaranteed FFB...

  15. 7 CFR 1786.35 - Loss, theft, destruction, mutilation, or defacement of RUS guarantee.


    ... of RUS guarantee. 1786.35 Section 1786.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS Prepayment of RUS Guaranteed Federal Financing...

  16. Insights into tRNA-Dependent Amidotransferase Evolution and Catalysis from the Structure of the Aquifex aeolicus Enzyme

    Wu, Jing; Bu, Weishu; Sheppard, Kelly; Kitabatake, Makoto; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Söll, Dieter; Smith, Janet L.; (Yale); (Michigan); (Kyoto)


    Many bacteria form Gln-tRNA{sup Gln} and Asn-tRNA{sup ASN} by conversion of the misacylated Glu-tRNA{sup Gln} and Asp-tRNA{sup ASN} species catalyzed by the GatCAB amidotransferase in the presence of ATP and an amide donor (glutamine or asparagine). Here, we report the crystal structures of GatCAB from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, complexed with glutamine, asparagine, aspartate, ADP, or ATP. In contrast to the Staphylococcus aureus GatCAB, the A. aeolicus enzyme formed acyl-enzyme intermediates with either glutamine or asparagine, in line with the equally facile use by the amidotransferase of these amino acids as amide donors in the transamidation reaction. A water-filled ammonia channel is open throughout the length of the A. aeolicus GatCAB from the GatA active site to the synthetase catalytic pocket in the B-subunit. A non-catalytic Zn{sup 2+} site in the A. aeolicus GatB stabilizes subunit contacts and the ammonia channel. Judged from sequence conservation in the known GatCAB sequences, the Zn{sup 2+} binding motif was likely present in the primordial GatB/E, but became lost in certain lineages (e.g., S. aureus GatB). Two divalent metal binding sites, one permanent and the other transient, are present in the catalytic pocket of the A. aeolicus GatB. The two sites enable GatCAB to first phosphorylate the misacylated tRNA substrate and then amidate the activated intermediate to form the cognate products, Gln-tRNA{sup Gln} or Asn-tRNA{sup ASN}.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistance mechanisms

    Petrović-Jeremić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In many hospitals in the world and in our country, the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is so wide that nowdays vancomycin is recommended for empiric treatment of staphylococcal life threatening infections (sepsis, pneumonia instead of beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the production of beta-lactamases in hospital and community isolates of staphyloococus aureus, i. e. hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA and community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA, the presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous type of methicillin resistance, and border-line resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA. The aim of this study was also to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between mechanisms of resistance in HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA. Methods. A total 216 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the General Hospital in the town of Cuprija and 186 ambulance Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the community were examined for the presence of methicillin-resistance using disk-diffusion test with penicillin disk (10 ij, oxacillin disk (1 μg and cefoxitin disk (30 μg. Betalactamases production was detected by nitrocefin disk and betalactamase tablets. Determination of oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentracion (MIC was done by agar-dilution method. Results. The prevalence of HA-MRSA was 57.4%, and CA-MRSA was 17.7% (p < 0.05. There was a higher rate of heterogeneous type of resistance among clinical MRSA isolates (11.1% compared with ambulance ones (3.8% (p < 0.05. The rates of beta-lactamases production were similar among hospital associated isolates (97.5%, as well as in the community associated isolates (95.5% (p > 0.05. There were 4.6 % of BORSA hospital isolates and 3.3 % of BORSA ambulance isolates (p > 0.05. Conclusion. The frequency of MRSA isolates in hospital was significantly higher than in community, as well as the heterogeneous type of resistance. The frequency of BORSA


    Eugen Dijmarescu


    Full Text Available Deposit Guarantee Schemes (DGS become more visible under the current conditions of the world financial markets. If those have played in the past a rather discreet role for social stability through the function of pay box following a bank failure, the recent crisis put them in a new light, once the guarantee ceiling for eligible deposits grew in order to make for the accumulation of wealth worldwide and the increased risk incurred by the leverage of banking operations. Consequently, the resources accumulated by the DGS from the member banks and their proper management make possible their involvement in pre-emptive actions aimed to avoid bankruptcies via special administration and purchase of assets and assumption of liabilities. These new attributes give DGS a role in the mechanism of financial safety-net, along the supervisors of the market. Hence, an increased preoccupation for applied corporate governance has developed and Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems have been adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision together with International Association of Deposit Insurers. Concurrently, the EU Commission has put forward a process for reviewing the Directives 94/39 and 09/14 EC, in order to make the European DGS more prepared to deal with above mentioned issues and bestow increased confidence upon depositors.

  19. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode controlled systems

    G K Singh; K E Holé


    Conventionally, the parameters of a sliding mode controller (SMC) are selected so as to reduce the time spent in the reaching mode. Although, an upper bound on the time to reach (reaching time) the sliding surface is easily derived, performance guarantee in the state/error space needs more consideration. This paper addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order nonlinear systems. It is shown that this controller imposes a bounding second-order error-dynamics, and thus guarantees robust performance during the reaching phase. The choice of the controller parameters based on the time to reach a desirable level of output tracking error (OTE), rather than on the reaching time is proposed. Using the Lyapunov theory, it is shown that parameter selections, based on the reaching time criterion, may need substantially larger time to achieve the OTE. Simulation results are presented for a nonlinear spring-massdamper system. It is seen that parameter selections based on the proposed OTE criterion, result in substantially quicker tracking, while using similar levels of control effort.

  20. Robust guaranteed cost observer design for linear uncertain jump systems with state delays

    FU Yan-ming; ZHANG Bo; DUAN Guang-ren


    This paper deals with the robust guaranteed cost observer with guaranteed cost performance for a class of linear uncertain jump systems with state delay. The transition of the jumping parameters in systems is governed by a finite-state Markov process. Based on the stability theory in stochastic differential equations, a sufficient condition on the existence of the proposed robust guaranteed cost observer is derived. Robust guaran-teed cost observers are designed in terms of a set of linear coupled matrix inequalities. A convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost observers.

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the superbug.

    Ippolito, Giuseppe; Leone, Sebastiano; Lauria, Francesco N; Nicastri, Emanuele; Wenzel, Richard P


    Over the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as serious pathogens in the nosocomial and community setting. Hospitalization costs associated with MRSA infections are substantially greater than those associated with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections, and MRSA has wider economic effects that involve indirect costs to the patient and to society. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that MRSA infections increase morbidity and the risk of mortality. Glycopeptides are the backbone antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. However, several recent reports have highlighted the limitations of vancomycin, and its role in the management of serious infections is now being reconsidered. Several new antimicrobials demonstrate in vitro activity against MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria. Data from large surveys indicate that linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are almost universally active against MRSA. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, costs, outcome, and therapeutic options for the management of MRSA infections. PMID:20851011

  2. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Su-Hyun Mun; Sung-Bae Kim; Ryong Kong; Jang-Gi Choi; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong-Won Shin; Ok-Hwa Kang; Dong-Yeul Kwon


    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA ...

  3. Xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Al-Hwiesh, Abdulla K


    A 44-year old man with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presented with abdominal distention, left lumber pain, fever, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. He had been known to have diabetes mellitus type II for 20 years, and he was diagnosed to have a left renal stone three months prior to this presentation. The patient's urine and the left psous abscess grew staphylococcus aureus. PMID:17951953

  4. Xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with staphylococcus aureus

    A 44-year-old man with xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis presented with abdominal distention, left lumber pain, fever, loss of appetite and loss of weight. He had been known to have diabetes mellitus type II for 20 years and he was diagnosed to have a left renal stone three months prior to this presentation. The patient's urine and the left psous abscess grew staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  5. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping


    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. PMID:25687923

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain LCT-SA112

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Wan, Daiwei; Fang, Xiangqun; Li, Tianzhi; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang; Wang, Yajuan; Zhao, Jiao; Liu, Changting


    Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacterium. S. aureus is the most common species of Staphylococcus to cause staphylococcal infections, which are very common in clinical medicine. Here we report the genome sequence of S. aureus strain LCT-SA112, which was isolated from S. aureus subsp. aureus CGMCC 1.230.

  7. [Raw milk-associated Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in children].

    Giezendanner, N; Meyer, B; Gort, M; Müller, P; Zweifel, C


    Four hours after the consumption of raw goat milk, three Swiss children came down with emesis and diarrhea in July 2008. First investigations showed that the milk originated from a goat suffering from clinical mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus). In the milk sample from the untreated left udder, Staphylococcus aureus counts reached 5.0 x 10(7) CFU ml(-1). By PCR, the gene for the staphylococcal enterotoxin D was found in isolated strains. The consumption of raw milk is rarely associated with Staphylococcus aureus intoxications. Due to the flora naturally present in raw milk, Staphylococcus aureus normally cannot multiply sufficiently. However, in the present case, high Staphylococcus aureus counts were already present in the milk due to the mastitis of the goat. This amount sufficed to cause a Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in the children. PMID:19565455

  8. Obligation Guarantees in the New Romanian Civil Code

    Silvia Lucia Cristea


    Full Text Available This study starts from the analysis of the juridical regime of the mortgage that “migrates” from the sphere of the real rights towards the juridical regime of the receivables’ rights! The article contains an analysis of the legal regime of the mortgage according to changes made by the new Romanian Civil Code. This idea is supported by legislative arguments deriving from regulations of the pledge in the new Romanian Civil Code (sect. 2, of the mortgage (sect. 3, from the comparison with other similar juridical institutions (sect. 3. The conclusions explain how useful is to change the juridical regime of the real guarantees and the international dimension of trade. The study is one of the latest presentations doctrinal matter, with special insight into mortgage securities, legal institution whole new for the Romanian Civil Code. Despite the fact all the observations are theoretical, novelty approach makes reading not only addresses their academics, and practitioners: judges, lawyers, notaries.

  9. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A


    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events. PMID:22254534

  10. Stateless and Delivery Guaranteed Geometric Routing on Virtual Coordinate System

    Liu, Ke


    Stateless geographic routing provides relatively good performance at a fixed overhead, which is typically much lower than conventional routing protocols such as AODV. However, the performance of geographic routing is impacted by physical voids, and localization errors. Accordingly, virtual coordinate systems (VCS) were proposed as an alternative approach that is resilient to localization errors and that naturally routes around physical voids. However, VCS also faces virtual anomalies, causing their performance to trail geographic routing. In existing VCS routing protocols, there is a lack of an effective stateless and delivery guaranteed complementary routing algorithm that can be used to traverse voids. Most proposed solutions use variants of flooding or blind searching when a void is encountered. In this paper, we propose a spanning-path virtual coordinate system which can be used as a complete routing algorithm or as the complementary algorithm to greedy forwarding that is invoked when voids are encountere...


    M. V. Levinskyi


    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  12. Antibody responses in patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections

    Jacobsson, G; Colque-Navarro, P.; Gustafsson, E.; Andersson, R.; Möllby, R


    Abstract Correlation between antibody response and clinical outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has yielded conflicting results. Immunization schedules have failed in clinical trials. Is the humoral response toward S. aureus of protective nature? A prospective study was performed in patients with invasive S. aureus (ISA) infections during the period 2003?2005. The antibody levels were determined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and one month later (n?=?96, n?=?7...

  13. Vitamin D sufficiency and Staphylococcus aureus infection in children.

    Wang, Jeffrey W; Hogan, Patrick G; Hunstad, David A; Fritz, Stephanie A


    Vitamin D promotes epithelial immunity by upregulating antimicrobial peptides, including LL-37, which have bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We found that children with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D recurrent, rather than primary, S. aureus skin or soft tissue infection. Vitamin D sufficiency may be one of a myriad of host and environmental factors that can be directly impacted to reduce the frequency of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25860535

  14. Mapping the Distribution of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus across Europe

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M.; van den Wijngaard, Cees C.; Brian G Spratt; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W.; ,


    Editors' Summary Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus lives on the skin and in the nose of about a third of healthy people. Although S. aureus usually coexists peacefully with its human carriers, it is also an important disease-causing organism or pathogen. If it enters the body through a cut or during a surgical procedure, S. aureus can cause minor infections such as pimples and boils or more serious, life-threatening infections such as blood poisoning and pneumonia. Minor S. aureu...

  15. Infection control of Staphylococcus aureus : spa typing to elucidate transmission

    Mernelius, Sara


    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of the human flora, primarily colonizing the anterior nares and throat, but it may also cause infections ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections to severe diseases such as endocarditis and septicemia. S. aureus is also a major nosocomial problem increasing with the worldwide dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The main vector for bacterial cross-transmission in healthcare settings is the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs). No...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus atsparumas antibiotikams ir fagotipų paplitimas

    Kareivienė, Violeta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Sinkutė, Gintarė; Liegiūtė, Sigutė; Gailienė, Greta


    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains, their prevalence, and resistance of different phage groups to antibiotics. Materials and methods. A total of 294 Staphylococcus aureus strains in Kaunas hospitals were obtained; they were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined. We used the method of routine dilution to test 17 antibiotics against the isolates. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to studied antibio...

  17. Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Shrestha, Sony; Upadhyay, Goma; Acharya, Anju; Chapagain, Moti Lal


    Background Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult. Methods This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibio...

  18. Epicutaneous Model of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections

    Prabhakara, Ranjani; Foreman, Oded; De Pascalis, Roberto; Lee, Gloria M.; Plaut, Roger D.; Kim, Stanley Y.; Stibitz, Scott; Elkins, Karen L.; Merkel, Tod J.


    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Although the majority of S. aureus community-acquired SSTIs are uncomplicated and self-clearing in nature, some percentage of these cases progress into life-threatening invasive infections. Current animal models of S. aureus SSTI suffer from two drawbacks: these models are a better representation of hospital-acquired SSTI than community-acquired SSTI, and they involv...

  19. Strategic design of cost savings guarantee in energy performance contracting under uncertainty

    Highlights: • A methodology is proposed to assist Energy Service Companies to maintain competitiveness in winning bids. • Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using the Monte-Carlo simulation. • A strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, where all points return as appropriate guarantees. • A campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding appropriate guaranteed savings value. - Abstract: Among the key barriers to profit in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) are uncertainties about attaining the realized energy cost savings and potential disputes over the guaranteed cost savings. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed to assist the Energy Service Company (ESCO): (1) to evaluate the risk threshold if the guarantee has already been made, and (2) to determine the guarantee design, if the guarantee has not been made yet, that not only promises the ESCO’s profitability from EPC but also maintains its competitiveness to win the bid. Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using Monte-Carlo simulation, taking both the energy price fluctuation and the facility performance variability into account. Based on that, a strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, that all the points on it would return as appropriate guarantees. Finally, a campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding the appropriate guaranteed savings value. This method is also worth popularizing in similar performance-based projects

  20. VISA/VRSA (Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in Healthcare Settings

    ... to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents. What is Staphylococcus aureus? Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium commonly found on the ... control personnel. Investigation and Control of Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) [PDF - 300 KB] - This document is ...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad


    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  2. Guaranteed cost control of uncertain system with input time-delay

    胡乃平; 唐功友


    For the uncertain continuous-time systems with input time-delay that widely exist in the production processes, we can get the existent conditions for the guaranteed cost control of these systems by using the Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequalities theory and quadratic cost criterion. We can achieve the guaranteed cost control of this system by solving a matrix inequality. A state feed back guaranteed cost control law can be constructed by solving certain parameter-dependent Riccati matrix equation.

  3. Stochastic Finite-Time Guaranteed Cost Control of Markovian Jumping Singular Systems

    Xiaowu Mu; Yingqi Zhang; Caixia Liu


    The problem of stochastic finite-time guaranteed cost control is investigated for Markovian jumping singular systems with uncertain transition probabilities, parametric uncertainties, and time-varying norm-bounded disturbance. Firstly, the definitions of stochastic singular finite-time stability, stochastic singular finite-time boundedness, and stochastic singular finite-time guaranteed cost control are presented. Then, sufficient conditions on stochastic singular finite-time guaranteed cost ...

  4. Do not pay for a Danish interest guarantee. The law of the triple blow

    Guillén, Montserrat; Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Perch Nielsen, Jens;


    We have investigated the performance of pension schemes of with-profit policies containing a guaranteed minimum rate of return and we have found that the price of the guarantee measured in terms of lost returns is enormous. We use simple simulations rather than complex pricing methods to illustrate...... that the price of an interest guarantee is high in pension products that are currently commercialised in the market. We have found that the customer loses up to about 0.75% yearly in the rate of return when an interest guarantee is purchased, compared to the return of an equivalent saving strategy with...

  5. A Scheduling Discipline for Latency and Bandwidth Guarantees in Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens


    Guaranteed services (GS) are important in that they provide predictability in the complex dynamics of shared communication structures. This paper discusses the implementation of GS in asynchronous Network-on-Chip. We present a novel scheduling discipline called Asynchronous Latency Guarantee (ALG......) scheduling, which provides latency and bandwidth guarantees in accessing a shared media, e.g. a physical link shared between a number of virtual channels. ALG overcomes the drawbacks of existing scheduling disciplines, in particular the coupling between latency and bandwidth guarantees. A 0.12 &956;m CMOS...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Weinstein Robert A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  7. Intracellular proliferation of S. aureus in osteoblasts and effects of rifampicin and gentamicin on S. aureus intracellular proliferation and survival

    W Mohamed


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most clinically relevant pathogen regarding implant-associated bone infection and its capability to invade osteoblasts is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate firstly whether S. aureus is not only able to invade but also to proliferate within osteoblasts, secondly to delineate the mechanism of invasion and thirdly to clarify whether rifampicin or gentamicin can inhibit intracellular proliferation and survival of S. aureus. The SAOS-2 osteoblast-like cell line and human primary osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus EDCC5055 and S. aureus Rosenbach 1884. Both S. aureus strains were able to invade efficiently and to proliferate within human osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed intracellular invasion of S. aureus and transmission electron microscopy images could demonstrate bacterial division as a sign of intracellular proliferation as well as cytosolic bacterial persistence. Cytochalasin D, the major actin depolymerisation agent, was able to significantly reduce S. aureus invasion, suggesting that invasion was enabled by promoting actin rearrangement at the cell surface. 7.5 μg/mL of rifampicin was able to inhibit bacterial survival in SAOS-2 cells with almost complete elimination of bacteria after 4 h. Gentamicin could also kill intracellular S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that was significantly lower than that observed using rifampicin. In conclusion, S. aureus is not only able to invade but also to proliferate in osteoblasts. Invasion seems to be associated with actin rearrangement at the cell surface. Rifampicin is effective in intracellular eradication of S. aureus whereas gentamicin only poorly eliminates intracellularly replicating bacteria.

  8. Relieving the Wireless Infrastructure: When Opportunistic Networks Meet Guaranteed Delays

    Whitbeck, John; Leguay, Jérémie; Conan, Vania; de Amorim, Marcelo Dias


    Major wireless operators are nowadays facing network capacity issues in striving to meet the growing demands of mobile users. However, 3G-enabled devices increasingly benefit from ad hoc radio connectivity (e.g., Wi-Fi). In this context of hybrid connectivity, we propose Push-and-track, a content dissemination framework that harnesses ad hoc communication opportunities to minimize the load on the wireless infrastructure while guaranteeing tight delivery delays. It achieves this through a control loop that collects user-sent acknowledgements to determine if new copies need to be reinjected into the network through the 3G interface. Push-and-Track includes multiple strategies to determine how many copies of the content should be injected and to whom. The short delay-tolerance of common content, such as news or road traffic updates, make them suitable for such a system. Based on a realistic large-scale vehicular dataset from the city of Bologna composed of more than 10,000 vehicles, we demonstrate that Push-and-...

  9. Guaranteed Blind Sparse Spikes Deconvolution via Lifting and Convex Optimization

    Chi, Yuejie


    Neural recordings, returns from radars and sonars, images in astronomy and single-molecule microscopy can be modeled as a linear superposition of a small number of scaled and delayed copies of a band-limited or diffraction-limited point spread function, which is either determined by the nature or designed by the users; in other words, we observe the convolution between a point spread function and a sparse spike signal with unknown amplitudes and delays. While it is of great interest to accurately resolve the spike signal from as few samples as possible, however, when the point spread function is not known a priori, this problem is terribly ill-posed. This paper proposes a convex optimization framework to simultaneously estimate the point spread function as well as the spike signal, by mildly constraining the point spread function to lie in a known low-dimensional subspace. By applying the lifting trick, we obtain an underdetermined linear system of an ensemble of signals with joint spectral sparsity, to which atomic norm minimization is applied. Under mild randomness assumptions of the low-dimensional subspace as well as a separation condition of the spike signal, we prove the proposed algorithm, dubbed as AtomicLift, is guaranteed to recover the spike signal up to a scaling factor as soon as the number of samples is large enough. The extension of AtomicLift to handle noisy measurements is also discussed. Numerical examples are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  10. Nuclear power: status, outlook, guarantees of sustainable development

    Full text: The principal advantages of nuclear power - almost unlimited fuel resources, its high energy capacity, ecological compatibility with a possibility of high wastes concentration - determine the large-scale nuclear power development. The signs of large-scale power - a large rate (dozens of percent) in electricity production, diverse areas (electricity, heat supply, technologies, transport) and media of application (land, ocean, space), extension of number of user countries, diversified power systems (centralized, autonomous), obligatory reproduction and reuse of produced fuel - create various requirements to nuclear power installations of the future. Economic efficiency and competitiveness, safety (of reactors and fuel cycle with waste), proper characteristics of nuclear fuel reproduction, guarantees of nuclear arm's non-proliferation and, particularly, public acceptance are the conditions of such nuclear power development. The up-to-date situation is the following: the 441 nuclear power-generation units with total installed power of 377.36 GW el. (in 31 countries) supply by 1/6 part of the world electric-power consumptions. The 32 units are in stage of the construction. To the present mid-century the level of the nuclear power production, as supposed, must be increased 4-5 times at the following scenario of a regional distribution of nuclear electric powers, GW: USA, Europe and developed countries of Eastern Asia - 1000, FSU-countries - 100 and developing countries - 400

  11. On routing algorithms with end-to-end delay guarantees

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.


    The authors consider the transmission of a message of size r from a source to a destination with guarantees on the end-to-end delay over a computer network with n nodes and m links. There are three sources of delays: (a) propagation delays along the links, (b) delays due to bandwidth availability on the links, and (c) queuing delays at the intermediate nodes. First, the authors consider that delays on various links and nodes are given as functions of the message size. If the delay in (b) is a non-increasing function of the bandwidth, they propose O(m{sup 2} + mn log n) time algorithm to compute a path with the minimum end-to-end delay for any given message size r. They then consider that the queuing delay in (c) is a random variable correlated with the message size according to an unknown distribution. At each node, the measurements of queuing delays and message sizes are available. They propose two algorithms to compute paths whose delays are close to optimal delays with a high probability, irrespective of the distribution of the delays, and based entirely on the measurements of sufficient size.

  12. Psychology of nuclear safeguards. [Cannot guarantee preventing diversion, only deter

    Parker, L.


    There is an essential confusion in the way we look at safeguards. They cannot guarantee to prevent diversions: at best, they can deter. While successful acts of deterrence pass unnoticed, failures will be widely publicized. Therefore, we will judge safeguards systems not on a fair balance between their successes and failures, but exclusively on what we believe to be their failures. Effectively, we will be demanding an impossibly high standard of performance, and safeguards authorities will be tempted to conceal diversions rather than disappoint our expectations. Perhaps it is appropriate that safeguards are primarily psychological instruments: Parker argues that their essence is credibility, and that this does not necessarily depend on the hard reality of their performance. Brian Johnson claimed (New Scientist, vol 74, p 189) that safeguards have engendered a sense of security by linking the commitment of many states not to develop nuclear weapons, and that the Non-Proliferation Treaty has helped condition domestic political attitudes against starting up nuclear weapons programs. Perhaps the common view that safeguards are legal instruments has served the psychological purpose of supplying a language in which states with widely differing interests can explore the fundamental incompatibility between non-proliferation and the search for convenient energy sources. If this is true then it cannot be said that the NPT is a failure, merely that its success does not correspond to its apparent purposes.

  13. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability

    Binder, Sebastian C.; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael


    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability.

  14. Can Fixation be Guaranteed in the Generalized Moran Process?

    Diaz, Josep; Mertzios, George B; Richerby, David; Serna, Maria; Spirakis, Paul G


    The Moran process models the spread of genetic mutations through a population. A mutant with relative fitness r is introduced into a population and the system evolves, either reaching fixation (in which every individual is a mutant) or extinction (in which none is). In a widely cited paper (Nature, 2005), Lieberman, Hauert and Nowak generalize the model to populations on the vertices of graphs. They claim to have discovered a class of graphs (called "superstars"), with a parameter k, within which the probability of fixation tends to 1-r^{-k} as graphs get larger. Thus, they say that these graphs "guarantee the fixation of any advantageous mutant". They give a non-rigorous proof of the claimed limiting fixation probability, which we show to be incorrect. Specifically, for k=5, we show that the true fixation probability is at most 1-1/j(r) where j(r)=Theta(r^4), contrary to the claimed result. Since the claimed proof is flawed, and no others are known, we investigate the claim via simulation. Lieberman et al. v...

  15. Ensuring QOS Guarantees in a Hybrid OCS/OBS Network

    S, Sunish Kumar O


    The bursting aggregation assembly in edge nodes is one of the key technologies in OBS (Optical Burst Switching) network, which has a direct impact on flow characteristics and packet loss rate. An optical burst assembly technique supporting QoS is presented through this paper, which can automatically adjust the threshold along with the increasing and decreasing volume of business, reduce the operational burst, and generate corresponding BDP (Burst Data Packet) and BCP (Burst Control Packet). In addition to the burst aggregation technique a packet recovery technique by restoration method is also described. The data packet loss due to the physical optical link failure is not currently included in the QoS descriptions. This link failure is also a severe problem which reduces the data throughput of the transmitter node. A mechanism for data recovery from this link failure is vital for guaranteeing the QoS demanded by each user. So this paper will also discusses a specific protocol for reducing the packet loss by u...

  16. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang


    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors. PMID:27427591

  17. Lysostaphin in treatment of neonatal Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Oluola, Okunola; Kong, Lingkun; Fein, Mindy; Weisman, Leonard E


    This study describes lysostaphin's effect against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in suckling rats. Standard techniques determined minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy. The numbers of surviving rats after vancomycin, oxacillin, and lysostaphin treatment were comparable and were different from that of controls (P < 0.00001). Lysostaphin appears effective in the treatment of neonatal S. aureus infection. PMID:17420212

  18. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to lysostaphin.

    Huber, M M; Huber, T. W.


    One hundred and eleven isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from patients at the Olin E. Teague Veterans Center from March 1983 to April 1987 were as susceptible to lysis by lysostaphin as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus controls were.

  19. Mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Kono, M; Sasatsu, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y.; HAYASAKA, T.


    The mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus strains was investigated with high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Drug inactivation by penicillinase was found to be the main mechanism of resistance to cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin in S. aureus.

  20. Activity of and Resistance to Moxifloxacin in Staphylococcus aureus

    Ince, Dilek; Zhang, Xiamei; Hooper, David C.


    Moxifloxacin has enhanced potency against Staphylococcus aureus, lower propensity to select for resistant mutants, and higher bactericidal activity against highly resistant strains than ciprofloxacin. Despite similar activity against purified S. aureus topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase, it selects for topoisomerase IV mutants, making topoisomerase IV the preferred target in vivo.

  1. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan


    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  2. Effect of Mupirocin on Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus

    M. Bulanda; M. Gruszka; B. Heczko


    textabstractMupirocin eliminates nasal carriage of staphylococcal aureus among medical and surgical personnel for periode varying from several weeks upto one year. In persons recolonized after therapy densites of S. aureus population in nares were much lower than in the same persons before therapy.

  3. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;


    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... inserted surgically, one in a. carotis communis and one in v. jugularis externa. All pigs received 106 CFU/kg body weight S. aureus through the arterial catheter. Bacteria were either suspended in isotonic saline infused at constant flow for 60 minutes (two pigs) or given as a bolus injection of autologoue...

  4. Antimicrobial drug resistance ofStaphylococcus aureus in dairy products

    Sasidharan S; Prema B; Yoga Latha L


    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistantStaphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) in dairy products.Methods:Isolation and identification ofS. aureus were performed in3 dairy-based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to5 different common antimicrobial drugs.Results:Of50 samples examined,5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested.Conclusions:The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistantStaphylococcus.Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistantS. aureus.

  5. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database....... The database can be applied for identification of virulence genes in S. aureus using whole genome 5 sequence data. The S. aureus VirulenceFinder will be part of the tool package generated for the Centre for Genomic Epidemiology (CGE) (

  6. Pricing of the Cross-Currency Interest Rate Guarantee Embedded in Financial Contracts in a LIBOR Market Model

    Tsung-Yu Hsieh; Chi-Hsun Chou; Son-Nan Chen


    We derive the pricing formula for the financial contracts, such as guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), life insurance contracts, pension plans, and others, with the guaranteed minimum rate of return set relative to a LIBOR interest rate. Further, we analyze the guaranteed contracts in which the asset that provides the underlying return for the contract and the guaranteed interest rate are denominated in different currencies, which is a common practice. The guaranteed contracts with the ab...

  7. Where does a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine stand?

    Fowler, V G; Proctor, R A


    In this review, we examine the current status of Staphylococcus aureus vaccine development and the prospects for future vaccines. Examination of the clinical trials to date show that murine models have not predicted success in humans for active or passive immunization. A key factor in the failure to develop a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections comes from our relatively limited knowledge of human protective immunity. More recent reports on the elements of the human immune response to staphylococci are analysed. In addition, there is some controversy concerning the role of antibodies for protecting humans, and these data are reviewed. From a review of the current state of understanding of staphylococcal immunity, a working model is proposed. Some new work has provided some initial candidate biomarker(s) to predict outcomes of invasive infections and to predict the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in humans. We conclude by looking to the future through the perspective of lessons gleaned from the clinical vaccine trials. PMID:24476315

  8. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Buah Putih Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus Dari Abses Dan Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 29213™)

    Sinurat, Jojor


    Daun jambu biji mengandung senyawa aktif seperti tanin, triterpenoid, flavonoid, saponin yang mempunyai efek antibakteri. Mekanisme tanin sebagai antibakteri dengan mengkerutkan dinding sel dan membran sel, inaktivasi enzim, inaktivasi fungsi materi genetik bakteri. Flavonoid merusak sel bakteri, denaturasi protein, inaktivasi enzim dan menyebabkan lisis. Triterpenoid dan saponin menghambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dengan cara merusak struktur membran sel. Staphylococcus aureus adala...

  9. μ distortions or running: A guaranteed discovery from CMB spectrometry

    Cabass, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico


    We discuss the implications of a PIXIE-like experiment, which would measure μ -type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a level of σμ=(1 /n )×10-8 , with n ≥1 representing an improved sensitivity (e.g. n =10 corresponds to PRISM). Using Planck data and considering the six-parameter Λ CDM model, we compute the posterior for μ8≡μ ×108 and find μ8=1.5 7-0.13+0.11 (68% C.L.). This becomes μ8=1.2 8-0.52+0.30 (68% C.L.) when the running αs of the spectral index is included. We point out that a sensitivity of about 3 ×PIXIE implies a guaranteed discovery: μ distortion is detected or αs≥0 is excluded (both at 95% C.L. or higher). This threshold sensitivity sets a clear benchmark for CMB spectrometry. For a combined analysis of PIXIE and current Planck data, we discuss the improvement on measurements of the tilt ns and the running αs and the dependence on the choice of the pivot. A fiducial running of αs=-0.01 (close to the Planck best fit) leads to a detection of negative running at 2 σ for 5 ×PIXIE . A fiducial running of αs=-0.02 , still compatible with Planck, requires 3 ×PIXIE to rule out αs=0 (at 95% C.L.). We propose a convenient and compact visualization of the improving constraints on the tilt, running and tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  10. Some Modeling Considerations in Deciding Multi-Year Guaranteed Tuition Rates.

    Troutt, Marvin D.; And Others


    Discussion of guaranteed college tuition programs first explores their origins and reasons for continuing high inflation rates for tuition. The relationship between tuition increase and enrollment is examined, and many current guaranteed tuition plans are reviewed. Basic considerations in developing a model for a multiyear plan are outlined and a…

  11. 7 CFR 1493.50 - Certification requirements for obtaining payment guarantee.


    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export... States law; (c) If the agricultural commodity is vegetable oil or a vegetable oil product, that none...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.426 - How does HUD review a guarantee application?


    ... application? 1000.426 Section 1000.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Federal Guarantees for Financing of Tribal Housing Activities § 1000.426 How does HUD review a guarantee application? The procedure for review of a...

  13. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.


    ... payable before the employee attains retirement age. An overall minimum may also be payable before age 62... guarantee is. 229.10 Section 229.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum...

  14. 13 CFR 108.820 - Financings in the form of guarantees.


    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Structuring Nmvc Company's Financing of Eligible Small Businesses § 108.820 Financings in the form of guarantees. (a) General... amount of the debt guaranteed, whichever is less....

  15. 34 CFR 682.513 - Factors affecting coverage of a loan under the loan guarantee.


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Factors affecting coverage of a loan under the loan guarantee. 682.513 Section 682.513 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...) PROGRAM Federal Guaranteed Student Loan Programs § 682.513 Factors affecting coverage of a loan under...

  16. 78 FR 64175 - Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations...


    ... agreements. 233.14 Arbitration. 233.15 Notice. 233.16 Governing Law. Appendix A to Part 233--Application for... Payment and Further Guaranteed Payments, in each case from the date of default with respect to such... mail at the address set forth in the Note Register. ] Sec. 233.16 Governing Law. This Guarantee...

  17. Social Guarantees as a Stabilisation Institution under Conditions of Global Uncertainty

    Salenkov Anton V.


    Full Text Available The article reveals a special role of social guarantees as an economic institution in overcoming uncertainty of impact of global transformational shifts on functioning and development of economic systems. It shows that, under conditions of global uncertainty, the institution of social guarantees plays the role of the border of permissible and acceptable changes in the national economy. It provides a comparative institutional characteristics of three social mechanisms of access to public resources for a person who has no possibility to ensure own vital activity by means of own labour and own property: social guarantees, loan, charity. It proves that social guarantees are a significant factor of optimisation of risk individual economic behaviour and take part in ensuring optimal level of trust in economy. It justifies the conclusion that social guarantees facilitate optimisation of correlation between preservation of social wealth and its development through participation in social selection of technological and institutional innovations.

  18. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  19. Indole and 7-benzyloxyindole attenuate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Hyun Seob; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Banskota, Suhrid; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae


    Human pathogens can readily develop drug resistance due to the long-term use of antibiotics that mostly inhibit bacterial growth. Unlike antibiotics, antivirulence compounds diminish bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability and thus, may not lead to drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections and produces diverse virulence factors, such as the yellow carotenoid staphyloxanthin, which promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the host immune system. To identify novel antivirulence compounds, bacterial signal indole present in animal gut and diverse indole derivatives were investigated with respect to reducing staphyloxanthin production and the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Treatment with indole or its derivative 7-benzyloxyindole (7BOI) caused S. aureus to become colorless and inhibited its hemolytic ability without affecting bacterial growth. As a result, S. aureus was more easily killed by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and by human whole blood in the presence of indole or 7BOI. In addition, 7BOI attenuated S. aureus virulence in an in vivo model of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is readily infected and killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that both indole and 7BOI repressed the expressions of several virulence genes such as α-hemolysin gene hla, enterotoxin seb, and the protease genes splA and sspA and modulated the expressions of the important regulatory genes agrA and sarA. These findings show that indole derivatives are potential candidates for use in antivirulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infection. PMID:23318836

  20. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    Galbraith, J.C.; Valiquette, G.; Kennedy, K.J.;


    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus: portadores entre manipuladores de alimentos Staphylococcus aureus: food handler carriers

    Maria Stella Gonçalves Raddi


    Full Text Available Foram colhidas amostras de mãos e fossas nasais de 48 manipuladores de alimentos das principais casas comerciais da cidade de Araraquara, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, e de 20 estudantes universitários. Dentre os indivíduos foram encontrados 44,1% e 34,8% que portavam Staphylococcus aureus em fossas nasais e mãos, respectivamente. Observou-se predomínio de fagotipos dos grupos I e III. Dos 12 portadores do microrganismo, concomitantemente em mãos e fossas nasais, 75,0% apresentaram cepas com vínculo epidemiológico. Os achados mostram o risco potencial representado pelas mãos nas intoxicações alimentares.Material was collected from the hands and nasal passages of forty-eight food handlers and twenty college students of Araraquara (S. Paulo State, Brazil and analized in order to evaluate the carrier function with regard to Staphylococcus aureus. The organism discovered in both samples of nine out of the twelve volunteers were of the same S. aureus phage types. The incidence of carriage on the hands was much greater in the handlers' group. These findings demonstrate the potential risk represented by hands in the transmission of food poisoning.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui


    increase the risk of contaminating hands, arms and the front of the uniform. Hand hygiene is therefore essential, but the use of protection gowns with long sleeves is also important in order to prevent transmission of MRSA. After culture of MRSA and implementation of specific precautions to prevent......INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...... transmission of MRSA, no further transmissions were observed. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The data in this study are included in the routine surveillance of MRSA at Rigshospitalet and do not form part of a trial....

  3. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: Subtyping, evolution, and zoonotic transfer.

    Boss, R; Cosandey, A; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U


    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies using ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, however, demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections are genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. Furthermore, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. In addition to RS-PCR, other methods for subtyping Staph. aureus are known, including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). They are based on sequencing the spa and various housekeeping genes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the 3 analytic methods using 456 strains of Staph. aureus isolated from milk of bovine intramammary infections and bulk tanks obtained from 12 European countries. Furthermore, the phylogeny of animal Staph. aureus was inferred and the zoonotic transfer of Staph. aureus between cattle and humans was studied. The analyzed strains could be grouped into 6 genotypic clusters, with CLB, CLC, and CLR being the most prominent ones. Comparing the 3 subtyping methods, RS-PCR showed the highest resolution, followed by spa typing and MLST. We found associations among the methods but in many cases they were unsatisfactory except for CLB and CLC. Cluster CLB was positive for clonal complex (CC)8 in 99% of the cases and typically positive for t2953; it is the cattle-adapted form of CC8. Cluster CLC was always positive for tbl 2645 and typically positive for CC705. For CLR and the remaining subtypes, links among the 3 methods were generally poor. Bovine Staph. aureus is highly clonal and a few clones predominate. Animal Staph. aureus always evolve from human strains, such that every human strain may be the ancestor of a novel animal-adapted strain. The zoonotic transfer of IMI- and milk-associated strains

  4. Identification of the ClpX Regulon in Staphylococcus aureus

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Ingmer, Hanne;

    Staphyloccous aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections ranging from superficial wound infections to life-threatening endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome. Essential for S. aureus virulence is a large number of cell-surface-associated proteins and secreted...... we show here that almost 400 genes (15%) are influenced by the clpX deletion. Furthermore, ClpX not only regulates many virulence factors, but rather serves as a global regulator of central functions for S. aureus lifestyle and pathogenicity....

  5. The Present Situation of Chattel Guarantee System and Its Improvements - Taking the Angl of American Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)

    仇晓光; 刘聪


    Although there are appropriate stipulations for the chattel guarantees in the law of China,this guarantee system could not adapt to the request of economy's development because of the following reasons:the scope of chattel guarantees is narrow according to relevant stipulations; the transaction cost of the chattel is high; mortgage registration of chattel is in a mess; lack of efficiently executive guarantee system,etc.To counter the problems existing in the present Chinese chattel guarantee system,in this article,the author proposed some corresponding suggestions and countermeasures,hoping to perfect the chattel guarantee system in China.

  6. The Impact of Guarantees on the Performance of Pension Saving Schemes: Insights from the Literature

    Alexander Bohnert


    Full Text Available Guarantees are often seen as the key characteristics of pension saving products, but securing them can become costly and is of central relevance especially in the course of the current low interest rate environment. In this article, we deal with the question of how costly the typical types of guarantees are, in the sense that they reduce a pension saving scheme’s financial performance over time. In this context, we aim to provide a presentation of insights from selected literature studying the impact of point-to-point guarantees and cliquet-style interest rate guarantees on the performance of pension contracts. The comparative analysis emphasizes that, in most cases, guarantee costs are not negligible with regard to a contract’s financial performance, especially compared to benchmarks, and that customers knowingly opt for such guarantees (or not is, thus, indispensable. To further investigate the willingness-to-pay for guarantees in life insurance is an area for future research, in particular for innovative contract design.

  7. Separation of Staphylococcus aureus causing serious infections by electrophoretic techniques

    Tesařová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Moravcová, Dana; Šťavíková, Lenka; Růžička, F.

    2014. s. 237-238. [Chemtech /14./. 22.10.2014-25.10.2014, Istambul] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus * electrophoretic techniques Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  9. Delay-independent robust guaranteed-cost control for uncertain linear neutral systems

    Li Hongfei; Zhou Jun


    This article concerns the delay-independent guaranteed-cost control problem via memoryless state feedback for a class of neutral-type systems with structural uncertainty and a given quadratic cost function. New delay-independent conditions for the existence of the guaranteed-cost controller are presented in the term of LMIs. An algorithm involving optimization is proposed to design a controller achieving an optimal guaranteed-cost, such that, the system can be stabilized for all admissible uncertainties. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain switched linear systems


    This paper focuses on the problem of non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain switched linear systems. The controller gain to be designed is assumed to have additive gain variations. Based on multiple-Lyapunov function technique, the design of non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost controllers is derived to make the corresponding closed-loop system asymptotically stable for all admissible uncertainties. Furthermore, a convex optimization approach with LMIs constraints is introduced to select the optimal non-fragile guaranteed cost controllers. Finally, a simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.