Atomic inner-shell transitions
Crasemann, B.; Chen, M. H.; Mark, H.
1984-01-01
Atomic inner-shell processes have quite different characteristics, in several important aspects, from processes in the optical regime. Energies are large, e.g., the 1s binding energy reaches 100 keV at Z = 87; relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects therefore are strong. Radiationless transitions vastly dominate over photon emission in most cases. Isolated inner-shell vacancies have pronounced single-particle character, with correlations generally contributing only approximately 1 eV to the 1s and 2p binding energies; the structure of such systems is thus well tractable by independent-particle self-consistent-field atomic models. For systems containing multiple deep inner-shell vacancies, or for highly stripped ions, the importance of relativistic intermediate coupling and configuration interaction becomes pronounced. Cancellation of the Coulomb interaction can lead to strong manifestations of the Breit interaction in such phenomena as multiplet splitting and hypersatellite X-ray shifts. Unique opportunities arise for the test of theory.
Atomic processes in nova shells
The unusual spectra of the spatially-resolved nova shells of DQ Her, T Aur and CP Pup are reviewed. Because calculations for these conditions have not been made, recombination models of HI, HeI and CNO from a neutral to a doubly ionized state were constructed. The models are described and the results presented for densities at various temperatures. A photoionization model is also described. The effects of non-uniform density distributions in nova shells have been investigated and the observational consequences discussed. A model of the CP Pup shell is described and the evolution of this plasma during the nova's constant luminosity phase traced. The properties of neon novae are summarized and compared with the features seen in the optical spectra of old classical novae. Enhanced neon abundances are used in the model of the CP Pup Shell to investigate its effect on the evolution of the shell. Finally, the results of some near-infrared observations made on the shells of CP Pup, RR Pic and T Pyx are reported. 245 refs., 48 tabs., 17 figs
Inner-shell Photoionization Studies of Neutral Atomic Nitrogen
Stolte, W. C.; Jonauskas, V.; Lindle, D. W.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; Savin, D. W.
2016-02-01
Inner-shell ionization of a 1s electron by either photons or electrons is important for X-ray photoionized objects such as active galactic nuclei and electron-ionized sources such as supernova remnants. Modeling and interpreting observations of such objects requires accurate predictions for the charge state distribution (CSD), which results as the 1s-hole system stabilizes. Due to the complexity of the complete stabilization process, few modern calculations exist and the community currently relies on 40-year-old atomic data. Here, we present a combined experimental and theoretical study for inner-shell photoionization of neutral atomic nitrogen for photon energies of 403-475 eV. Results are reported for the total ion yield cross section, for the branching ratios for formation of N+, {{{N}}}2+, and {{{N}}}3+, and for the average charge state. We find significant differences when comparing to the data currently available to the astrophysics community. For example, while the branching ratio to {{{N}}}2+ is somewhat reduced, that for N+ is greatly increased, and that to {{{N}}}3+, which was predicted to be zero, grows to ≈ 10% at the higher photon energies studied. This work demonstrates some of the shortcomings in the theoretical CSD data base for inner-shell ionization and points the way for the improvements needed to more reliably model the role of inner-shell ionization of cosmic plasmas.
Skomorowski, Wojciech; Gonzalez-Martinez, Maykel L.; Moszynski, Robert; Hutson, Jeremy M.
2011-01-01
We present quantum-theoretical studies of collisions between an open-shell S-state atom and a ^2Pi-state molecule in the presence of a magnetic field. We analyze the collisional Hamiltonian and discuss possible mechanisms for inelastic collisions in such systems. The theory is applied to the collisions of the nitrogen atom (^4S) with the OH molecule, with both collision partners initially in fully spin-stretched (magnetically trappable) states, assuming that the interaction takes place exclus...
The Atomic Regular Polyhedron Electronic Shell
Zilong Kong
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The periodic table of elements is arranged based on a series of regular polyhedron. The stability of inert gas atoms can be explained by the distribution of electrons, as well as their motion and magnetic force structure. A magnetic force regular octahedron is proposed. It is a unique configuration that best satisfies the convergence of electrons moving in the same direction within regular polyhedra. In the case of an electrostatic force crust, the formal electron spin accounts for the crusts intrinsic magnetic moment exceeding the speed of light. If one is to consider that the electron has a magnetic outer layer and an electrostatic inner layer, then the question can be solved and abovementioned inference can provide the basis for magnetic force and momentum for the regular octahedron model. The electron periphery has twenty-petal adsorptive substances; the existence of adsorptive substance causes the magnetic force greater than the electrostatic force. Each electronic shell in the regular polyhedron is in accordance with the electron configuration of periodic table of elements; the kinetic track of each electron is a surface of regular polyhedron. The magnetic properties of iron, cobalt, and nickel can be explained by the regular dodecahedron electronic shell of an atom. The electron orbit converged from reverse direction can explain diamond. The adsorptive substances found in atomic nuclei and electrons are defined as magnetic particles called magnetons. The thermodynamic magneton theory can be better explained when it is analyzed using principles of thermodynamics, superconductivity, viscosity, and even in the creation of glass. The structure of the light is a helical line.
Wang, Ruiqi
2016-03-04
Ternary transition metal oxides such as NiCo2O4 show great promise as supercapacitor electrode materials. However, the unsatisfactory rate performance of NiCo2O4 may prove to be a major hurdle to its commercial usage. Herein, we report the development of NiCo2O4@TiN core–shell nanostructures for all-solid-state supercapacitors with significantly enhanced rate capability. We demonstrate that a thin layer of TiN conformally grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on NiCo2O4 nanofiber arrays plays a key role in improving their electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and rate performance. Fabricated using the hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes, the symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibited an impressive stack power density of 58.205 mW cm−3 at a stack energy density of 0.061 mWh cm−3. To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest of any NiCo2O4-based all-solid-state supercapacitor reported. Additionally, the resulting NiCo2O4@TiN all-solid-state device displayed outstanding cycling stability by retaining 70% of its original capacitance after 20,000 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2. These results illustrate the promise of ALD-assisted hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes for sustainable and integrated energy storage applications.
Inner-shell excitation of alkali-metal atoms
Inner-shell excitation of alkali-metal atoms, which leads to auto-ionization, is reviewed. The validity of quantum mechanical approximation is analyzed and the importance of exchange and correlation is demonstrated. Basic difficulties in making accurate calculations for inner-shell excitation process are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study of inner-shell process in atoms and ions. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab
Atomic shell structure from the Single-Exponential Decay Detector
The density of atomic systems is analysed via the Single-Exponential Decay Detector (SEDD). SEDD is a scalar field designed to explore mathematical, rather than physical, properties of electron density. Nevertheless, it has been shown that SEDD can serve as a descriptor of bonding patterns in molecules as well as an indicator of atomic shells [P. de Silva, J. Korchowiec, and T. A. Wesolowski, ChemPhysChem 13, 3462 (2012)]. In this work, a more detailed analysis of atomic shells is done for atoms in the Li–Xe series. Shell populations based on SEDD agree with the Aufbau principle even better than those obtained from the Electron Localization Function, which is a popular indicator of electron localization. A link between SEDD and the local wave vector is given, which provides a physical interpretation of SEDD
Atomic-level models of the bacterial carboxysome shell
The carboxysome is a bacterial microcompartment that functions as a simple organelle by sequestering enzymes involved in carbon fixation. The carboxysome shell is roughly 800 to 1400 angstroms in diameter and is assembled from several thousand protein subunits. Previous studies have revealed the three-dimensional structures of hexameric carboxysome shell proteins, which self-assemble into molecular layers that most likely constitute the facets of the polyhedral shell. Here, we report the three-dimensional structures of two proteins of previously unknown function, CcmL and OrfA (or CsoS4A), from the two known classes of carboxysomes, at resolutions of 2.4 and 2.15 angstroms. Both proteins assemble to form pentameric structures whose size and shape are compatible with formation of vertices in an icosahedral shell. Combining these pentamers with the hexamers previously elucidated gives two plausible, preliminary atomic models for the carboxysome shell.
Kinetic-energy density functional: Atoms and shell structure
We present a nonlocal kinetic-energy functional which includes an anisotropic average of the density through a symmetrization procedure. This functional allows a better description of the nonlocal effects of the electron system. The main consequence of the symmetrization is the appearance of a clear shell structure in the atomic density profiles, obtained after the minimization of the total energy. Although previous results with some of the nonlocal kinetic functionals have given incipient structures for heavy atoms, only our functional shows a clear shell structure for most of the atoms. The atomic total energies have a good agreement with the exact calculations. Discussion of the chemical potential and the first ionization potential in atoms is included. The functional is also extended to spin-polarized systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Shell evolution of atomic nuclei due to the tensor force
Magic numbers and shell structure are extremely important for the study of atomic nuclei, as they determine the mass, the shape of surface, and the limit of the existence of nuclei, and have been considered to be universal over all nuclei, since Mayer and Jensen (1949). However, recent studies on exotic nuclei with large variations of proton or neutron numbers indicate that the changes of magic numbers and shell structure, i.e, shell evolution, arise due to nuclear forces, in particular the tensor force, demolishing this universality. We shall present an overview of such a paradigm shift emerging in exotic nuclei. (author)
Improved atomic shell excitation and relaxation in the TIGER series codes
A new version of the TIGER Monte Carlo electron/photon transport code that more accurately models the transport for problems where atomic-shell effects are important is documented. The new model includes both electron impact ionization and photoionization of the K, L1, L2, L3, M (average) and N (average) shells, as well as a description of the subsequent atomic relaxation cascade. The relevant physical theories are essentially equivalent to those currently being employed in the SANDYL code. Because these modifications are only incidentally affected by the problem geometry, they can easily be extended to other codes in the TIGER series
Double K-shell photoionization of atomic beryllium
Yip, F. L. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrilen(tilde sign)o de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); McCurdy, C. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rescigno, T. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2011-11-15
Double photoionization of the core 1s electrons in atomic beryllium is theoretically studied using a hybrid approach that combines orbital and grid-based representations of the Hamiltonian. The {sup 1} S ground state and {sup 1} P final state contain a double occupancy of the 2s valence shell in all configurations used to represent the correlated wave function. Triply differential cross sections are evaluated, with particular attention focused on a comparison of the effects of scattering the ejected electrons through the spherically symmetric valence shell with similar cross sections for helium, representing a purely two-electron target with an analogous initial-state configuration.
The role of fullerene shell upon stuffed atom polarization potential
Amusia, Miron; Chernysheva, Larissa
2016-05-01
We have demonstrated that the polarization of the fullerene shell considerably alters the polarization potential of an atom, stuffed inside a fullerene. This essentially affects the electron elastic scattering phases as well as corresponding cross-sections. We illustrate the general trend by concrete examples of electron scattering upon endohedrals that are formed when Ne and Ar atom are stuffed inside fullerene C60. To obtain the presented results, we have suggested a simplified approach that permits to incorporate the effect of fullerenes polarizability into the endohedrals polarization potential. By applying this approach, we obtained numeric results that show strong variations in shape and magnitudes of scattering phases and cross-sections due to effect of fullerene polarization upon the endohedral polarization potential. Using concrete examples we have demonstrated that the elastic scattering of electrons upon endohedrals is an entirely quantum mechanical process, where addition of even a single atom can qualitatively alter the multi-particle cross-section.
Multiphoton inner-shell ionization of the carbon atom
Rey, H. F.; Hart, H W
2015-01-01
We apply time-dependent R-matrix theory to study inner-shell ionization of C atoms in ultra-short high-frequency light fields with a photon energy between 170 and 245 eV. At an intensity of 1017 W/cm2, ionization is dominated by single-photon emission of a 2l electron, with two-photon emission of a 1s electron accounting for about 2-3% of all emission processes, and two-photon emission of 2l contributing about 0.5-1%. Three-photon emission of a 1s electron is estimated to contribute about 0.0...
Scattering of low-energy neutrinos on atomic shells
We present a derivation of the total cross section for inelastic scattering of low-energy solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos on bound electrons, resulting in a transition of the electron to an excited state. The atomic-shell structure of various chemical elements is treated in terms of a nonrelativistic approximation. We estimate the interaction rates for modern neutrino detectors, in particular the Borexino and GEMMA experiments. We establish that in these experiments the effect can be safely neglected, but it could be accessible to future large-volume neutrino detectors with low energy threshold
Time delay in valence shell photoionization of noble gas atoms
Kheifets, A S
2013-01-01
We use the non-relativistic random phase approximation with exchange to perform calculations of valence shell photoionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe from their respective thresholds to photon energy of 200 eV. The energy derivative of the complex phase of the photoionization matrix elements is converted to the photoelectron group delay that can be measured in attosecond streaking or two-photon transitions interference experiments. Comparison with reported time delay measurements in Ne and Ar at a few selected photon energies is made. Systematic mapping of time delay across a wide range of photon energies in several atomic targets allows to highlight important aspects of fundamental atomic physics that can be probed by attosecond time delay measurements.
Simultaneous K plus L shell ionized atoms during heavy-ion collision process
G A V Ramana Murty; G J Naga Raju; V Vijayan; T Ranjan Rautray; B Seetharami Reddy; S Lakshminarayana; K L Narasimham; S Bhuloka Reddy
2004-06-01
The fraction of simultaneous K plus L shell ionized atoms is estimated in Fe, Co and Cu elements using carbon ions at different projectile energies. The present results indicate that the fraction of simultaneous K plus L shell ionization probability decreases with increase in projectile energy as well as with increase in the atomic number of the targets atoms.
Kim, Hangil; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Ko, Kyung Yong; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jaehoon; Oh, Jihun; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram
2016-05-01
A highly efficient n-Si/ p-Cu2O core-shell (C-S) nanowire (NW) photodiode was fabricated using Cu2O grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a well-ordered Si NW array. Ordered Si nanowires arrays were fabricated by nano-sphere lithography to pattern metal catalysts for the metal-assisted etching of silicon, resulting in a Si NW arrays with a good arrangement, smooth surface and small diameter distribution. The ALD-Cu2O thin films were grown using a new non-fluorinated Cu precursor, bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy)copper (C14H32N2O2Cu), and water vapor (H2O) at 140°C. Transmission electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer confirmed that p-Cu2O thin films had been coated over arrayed Si NWs with a diameter of 150 nm (aspect ratio of ˜7.6). The C-S NW photodiode exhibited more sensitive photodetection performance under ultraviolet illumination as well as an enhanced photocurrent density in the forward biasing region than the planar structure diode. The superior performance of C-S NWs photodiode was explained by the lower reflectance of light and the effective carrier separation and collection originating from the C-S NWs structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Multiphoton inner-shell ionization of the carbon atom
Rey, H F
2015-01-01
We apply time-dependent R-matrix theory to study inner-shell ionization of C atoms in ultra-short high-frequency light fields with a photon energy between 170 and 245 eV. At an intensity of 10$^{17}$ W/cm$^2$, ionization is dominated by single-photon emission of a $2\\ell$ electron, with two-photon emission of a 1s electron accounting for about 2-3\\% of all emission processes, and two-photon emission of $2\\ell$ contributing about 0.5-1\\%. Three-photon emission of a 1s electron is estimated to contribute about 0.01-0.03\\%. Around a photon energy of 225 eV, two-photon emission of a 1s electron, leaving C$^+$ in either 1s2s2p$^3$ or 1s2p$^4$ is resonantly enhanced by intermediate 1s2s$^2$2p$^3$ states. The results demonstrate the capability of time-dependent R-matrix theory to describe inner-shell ionization processes including rearrangement of the outer electrons.
The role of fullerene shell upon stuffed atom polarization potential
Amusia, M Ya
2015-01-01
We have demonstrated that the polarization of the fullerene shell considerably alters the polarization potential of an atom, stuffed inside a fullerene. This essentially affects the electron elastic scattering phases as well as corresponding cross-sections. We illustrate the general trend by concrete examples of electron scattering by endohedrals of Neon and Argon. To obtain the presented results, we have suggested a simplified approach that permits to incorporate the effect of fullerenes polarizability into the Neon and Argon endohedrals polarization potential. As a result, we obtained numeric results that show strong variations in shape and magnitudes of scattering phases and cross-sections due to effect of fullerene polarization upon the endohedral polarization potential.
Melting of nanoalloys originates from the alloy surface and gradually propagates into the interior region. The thermal stability of Li cores and Cu shells nanoalloy with size of 3.5 nm is studied through molecular dynamics and embedded atom method with the use of potential energy, Lindemann index, and radial distribution function. Results show that the shell and core Li atoms are melted in two steps: first, some Li atoms in the core migrate to the nanoalloy surface and maintain a typical solid state despite that the system temperature is higher than the bulk melting point of Li because of Li solidification in the solid–liquid interface; second, the shell and core Li atoms are simultaneously melted at high temperatures. A comparative study of Li@Cu nanoalloys with different Li atomic numbers shows that thermal stability is enhanced with the decreasing number of Li atoms within the nanoalloys because of weak binding for Cu thin shells
K-shell auger decay of atomic oxygen
Stolte, W.C.; Lu, Y.; Samson, J.A.R. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
The aim of the present research is to understand the interaction between the ejected photoelectron and Auger electron produced by the Auger decay of a 1s hole in atomic oxygen, and to understand the influence this interaction has on the shape of the ionization cross sections. To accomplish this the authors have measured the relative ion yields (ion/photon) in the vicinity of the oxygen K-shell (525 - 533 eV) for O{sup +} and O{sup 2+}. The measurements were performed at the ALS on beamline, 6.3.2. The atomic oxygen was produced by passing molecular oxygen through a microwave-driven discharge. A Rydberg analysis of the two series leading to the [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 4}P) and [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 2}P) limits were obtained. This analysis shows some differences to the recently published results by Menzel et al. The energy position of the main 1s{sup 1}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}({sup 3}P) resonance differs by approximately 1 eV from the authors value, all members of the ({sup 2}P)np series differ by 0.3 eV, but the members of the ({sup 4}P)np series agree. The molecular resonance at 530.5 eV and those between 539 eV and 543 eV, measured with the microwave discharge off show identical results in both experiments.
Shell structure, emerging collectivity, and valence p-n interactions
Cakirli R.B.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The structure of atomic nuclei depends on the interactions of its constituents, protons and neutrons. These interactions play a key role in the development of configuration mixing and in the onset of collectivity and deformation, in changes to the single particle energies and magic numbers, and in the microscopic origins of phase transitional behavior. Particularly important are the valence proton-neutron interactions which can be studied experimentally using double differences of binding energies extracted from high-precision mass measurements. The resulting quantities, called δVpn, are average interaction strengths between the last two protons and the last two neutrons. Focusing on the Z=50-82, N=82-126 shells, we have considered a number of aspects of these interactions, ranging from their relation to the underlying orbits, their behaviour near close shells and throughout major shells, their relation to the onset of collectivity and deformation, and the appearance of unexpected spikes in δVpn values for a special set of heavy nuclei with nearly equal numbers of valence protons and neutrons. We have calculated spatial overlaps between proton and neutron Nilsson orbits and compared these with the experimental results. Finally we also address the relation between masses (separation energies, changes in structure and valence nucleon number.
Notes from the Nordic Spring Symposium on atomic inner shell phenomena
The purpose of the symposium was to bring together scientists from those various fields of physics that involve atomic inner shell processes. Vol. 2 contains the submitted complete lecture notes in chronological order. (JIW)
On-Shell Diagrams for N = 8 Supergravity Amplitudes
Heslop, Paul
2016-01-01
We define recursion relations for N = 8 supergravity amplitudes using a generalization of the on-shell diagrams developed for planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills. Although the recursion relations generically give rise to non-planar on-shell diagrams, we show that at tree-level the recursion can be chosen to yield only planar diagrams, the same diagrams occurring in the planar N = 4 theory. This implies non-trivial identities for non-planar diagrams as well as interesting relations between the N = 4 and N = 8 theories. We show that the on-shell diagrams of N = 8 supergravity obey equivalence relations analogous to those of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, and we develop a systematic algorithm for reading off Grassmannian integral formulae directly from the on-shell diagrams. We also show that the 1-loop 4-point amplitude of N = 8 supergravity can be obtained from on-shell diagrams.
Nuclear shell energies and deformations in atomic mass formula
Our group has for several years been studying a method of calculating nuclear shell energies and incorporating them into a mass formula. This method is characterized by the calculation of single-particle levels in an extended spherical Woods-Saxon potential, the extraction of crude shell energy, the refinement of crude shell energy due to residual interactions, and the incorporation into a mass formula. Here, we report the advance of this work focusing especially on nuclear deformations, and give some preliminary results and remarks. (author)
Off-shell N = 2 tensor supermultiplets
A multiplet calculus is presented for an arbitrary number n of N = 2 tensor supermultiplets. For rigid supersymmetry the known couplings are reproduced. In the superconformal case the target spaces parametrized by the scalar fields are cones over (3n-1)-dimensional spaces encoded in homogeneous SU(2) invariant potentials, subject to certain constraints. The coupling to conformal supergravity enables the derivation of a large class of supergravity Lagrangians with vector and tensor multiplets and hypermultiplets. Dualizing the tensor fields into scalars leads to hypermultiplets with hyperkaehler or quaternion-Kaehler target spaces with at least n abelian isometries. It is demonstrated how to use the calculus for the construction of Lagrangians containing higher-derivative couplings of tensor multiplets. For the application of the c-map between vector and tensor supermultiplets to Lagrangians with higher-order derivatives, an off-shell version of this map is proposed. Various other implications of the results are discussed. As an example an elegant derivation of the classification of 4-dimensional quaternion-Kaehler manifolds with two commuting isometries is given
Mass Measurements Demonstrate a Strong N =28 Shell Gap in Argon
Meisel, Z; Ahn, S; Browne, J; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Carpino, J F; Chung, H; Cyburt, R H; Estradé, A; Famiano, M; Gade, A; Langer, C; Matoš, M; Mittig, W; Montes, F; Morrissey, D J; Pereira, J; Schatz, H; Schatz, J; Scott, M; Shapira, D; Smith, K; Stevens, J; Tan, W; Tarasov, O; Towers, S; Wimmer, K; Winkelbauer, J R; Yurkon, J; Zegers, R G T
2015-01-01
We present results from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. We report the first mass measurements of 48Ar and 49Ar and find atomic mass excesses of -22.28(31) MeV and -17.8(1.1) MeV, respectively. These masses provide strong evidence for the closed shell nature of neutron number N=28 in argon, which is therefore the lowest even-Z element exhibiting the N=28 closed shell. The resulting trend in binding-energy differences, which probes the strength of the N=28 shell, compares favorably with shellmodel calculations in the sd-pf shell using SDPF-U and SDPF-MU Hamiltonians.
Four shells atomic model to computer the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides
The present paper develops a four-shells atomic model in order to obtain the efficiency of detection in liquid scintillation courting, Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of the 229 different atomic rearrangements so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit the study of the influence of the different parameters upon the counting efficiency for nuclides of high atomic number. (Author) 7 refs
Electron-pair shell density approximation applied to inner and outer electron radii of atoms
The shell density approximation to the electron-pair radial density of atoms is applied to the inner 〈r〉 and outer 〈r>〉 electron radii, which are two components of the familiar average electron radius 〈r〉. The inner and outer radii with two-electron nature are found to be expressed by simple weighted sums of single-electron shell radii, where the weight factors are related to the numbers of shell electrons. A numerical examination of the 53 atoms He through Xe shows that the average relative errors of the approximation are only 3.5% and 1.1% for the inner and outer electron radii, respectively. Lower and upper bounds to 〈r〉 and 〈r>〉 are discussed. The present results also bound the electron-pair relative distance and centre-of-mass radius in terms of the single-electron shell radii. (paper)
Binding energy correction for atomic L-shell ionization by heavy charged particles
During the process of inner shell ionization of atoms by low-velocity heavy charged particles the effective binding energy of the target electron is changed due to the presence of the incoming projectile. In the present work the binding energy corrections for the ionization of 2s and 2p sub-shells of the target atom have been calculated by employing approximate expressions for L-shell ionization based on a semi-classical approximation (SCA). The binding energy correction thus obtained has been incorporated in the classical binary encounter theory of ionization to calculate the L-shell ionization cross section of argon by the impact of low energy (50-200keV) protons. The results are compared with the available experimental data. (Auth.)
Atomic mass prediction from the mass formula with empirical shell terms
The mass-excess prediction of about 8000 nuclides was calculated from two types of the atomic mass formulas with empirical shell terms of Uno and Yamada. The theoretical errors to accompany the calculated mass excess are also presented. These errors have been obtained by a new statistical method. The mass-excess prediction includes the term of the gross feature of a nuclear mass surface, the shell terms and a small correction term for odd-odd nuclei. Two functional forms for the shell terms were used. The first is the constant form, and the sencond is the linear form. In determining the values of shell parameters, only the data of even-even and odd-A nuclei were used. A new statistical method was applied, in which the error inherent to the mass formula was taken account. The obtained shell parameters and the values of mass excess are shown in tables. (Kato, T.)
The Casimir-Polder interaction an atom with spherical shell
Khusnutdinov, Nail
2014-01-01
The Casimir-Polder and van der Waals interaction energy of an atom with infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach. We put the sphere into spherical cavity inside the infinite dielectric media, then calculate the energy of vacuum fluctuations in the context of the zeta-function approach. The energy for a single atom is obtained by rarefying media. The Casimir-Polder expression for an atom and plate is recovered in the limit of...
Pavloudis, Th.; Termentzidis, K.; Komninou, Ph.; Latham, C. D.; Briddon, P. R.; Kioseoglou, J.
2016-02-01
Interatomic potential based molecular dynamics and ab initio calculations are employed to investigate the structural, thermal, and electronic properties of polar GaN/AlN core/shell nanowires. Nanowire models for the molecular dynamics simulations contain hundreds of thousands of atoms with different shell-to-nanowire ratios. The energetic and structural properties are evaluated through a detailed examination of the strain, the stress, and the displacement fields. It is found that the relaxation of the AlN shell is initiated at the edges, with the shell becoming increasingly stress free when the shell-to-nanowire ratio is increased. The basal lattice parameter a of the AlN shell is found to have a smaller value than the value predicted by the elasticity theory. The stresses on the GaN core are strongly influenced by the shell. The core retains the a lattice parameter of bulk GaN only up to a shell-to-nanowire ratio equal to 0.10 and is significantly compressed beyond this point. Concerning the thermal properties, the molecular dynamics simulations conclude that there is a linear relationship between the thermal conductivity and the shell-to-core area ratio of the GaN/AlN core/shell nanowires. The bandgaps of the nanowires are calculated through ab initio calculations of 103 atoms and the influence of the structural characteristics on the electronic properties is investigated. A well-defined relationship that predicts the bandgap of the GaN/AlN nanowires, follows the 2nd order Vegard's law and taking into account the shell-to-nanowire ratio, is established. Finally, the valence band maximum is found to be dominated by the surface N-2p levels, while the conduction band minimum is dominated by the core and interface Ga-3s, and the surface Al-2s levels.
Mapping the Two-Component Atomic Fermi Gas to the Nuclear Shell-Model
Özen, C.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2014-01-01
the external potential becomes important. A system of two-species fermionic cold atoms with an attractive zero-range interaction is analogous to a simple model of nucleus in which neutrons and protons interact only through a residual pairing interaction. In this article, we discuss how the problem of...... a two-component atomic fermi gas in a tight external trap can be mapped to the nuclear shell model so that readily available many-body techniques in nuclear physics, such as the Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) method, can be directly applied to the study of these systems. We demonstrate an...
K-shell ionization of atoms and ions by relativistic projectiles
We evaluate the total cross section for the single K-shell ionization of atoms and ions by the impact of relativistic electrons. The study is performed to leading orders of the QED perturbation theory with respect to the parameters αZ and 1/Z. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data for different atomic targets. In the case of moderate values of the nuclear charge Z, the total cross section is described by a simple analytic formula. The K-shell ionization by relativistic heavy particles is also considered.
Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of krypton atom
2007-01-01
The valence-shell excitations of krypton atom have been investigated by fast electron impact with an angle-resolved electron-energy-loss spectrometer. The generalized oscillator strengths for some higher mixed valence-shell excitations in 4d, 4f, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 7s ← 4p of krypton atom have been determined. Their profiles are discussed, and the generalized oscillator strengths for the electric monopole and quadrupole excitations in 5p ← 4p are compared with the calculations of Amusia et al. (Phys. Rev. A 67 022703 (2003)). The differences between the experimental results and theoretical calculations show that more studies are needed.
Sub-nanometer dimensions control of core/shell nanoparticles prepared by atomic layer deposition
Bimetallic core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) are the subject of intense research due to their unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Accurate and independent control over the dimensions of both core and shell would allow for unprecedented catalytic performance. Here, we demonstrate that both core and shell dimensions of Pd/Pt core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Al2O3 substrates can be controlled at the sub-nanometer level by using a novel strategy based on atomic layer deposition (ALD). From the results it is derived that the main conditions for accurate dimension control of these core/shell NPs are: (i) a difference in surface energy between the deposited core metal and the substrate to obtain island growth; (ii) a process yielding linear growth of the NP cores with ALD cycles to obtain monodispersed NPs with a narrow size distribution; (iii) a selective ALD process for the shell metal yielding a linearly increasing thickness to obtain controllable shell growth exclusively on the cores. For Pd/Pt core/shell NPs it is found that a minimum core diameter of 1 nm exists above which the NP cores are able to catalytically dissociate the precursor molecules for shell growth. In addition, initial studies on the stability of these core/shell NPs have been carried out, and it has been demonstrated that core/shell NPs can be deposited by ALD on high aspect ratio substrates such as nanowire arrays. These achievements show therefore that ALD has significant potential for the preparation of tuneable heterogeneous catalyst systems. (paper)
van der Waals coefficients for positronium interactions with closed-shell atoms
Swann, A R; Gribakin, G F
2015-01-01
The random-phase approximation with exchange (RPAE) is used with a $B$-spline basis to compute dynamic dipole polarizabilities of noble-gas atoms and several other closed-shell atoms (Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, Sr and Cd). From these, values of the van der Waals $C_6$ constants for positronium interactions with these atoms are determined and compared with existing data. Our best predictions of $C_6$ for Ps--noble-gas pairs are expected to be accurate to within 1%, and to within few per cent for the alkaline earths. Implications of increased $C_6$ values for more polarizable atoms are discussed.
Interference effect in the relativistic inner shell ionization of atoms by electron impact
We present in this paper, the results of our calculation of right-left asymmetry in the relativistic (e, 2e) processes for inner K-shell ionization of atoms. The calculation has been performed in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) using one photon exchange approximation. The triple differential cross section (TDCS), in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) can be factorized into products of electron kinematic factors and atomic structure functions [Donnely (1984)]. The right left asymmetry in the relativistic (e, 2e) process on the K-shell of the atoms has been shown to depend on the interference between the transition charge and component of the transition current in the scattering plane. Further, we discuss the dependence of right-left asymmetry on the incident electron energy, atomic number of the target and scattering angle. (author)
Cross sections for K- and L-shell excitation in energetic ion-atom collisions
Absolute K- and L-shell vacancy production cross sections have been determined from Auger-electron measurements in various heavy-ion-atom collisions. Collision systems with atomic numbers Z between 5 and 18 and with projectile energies varied between 6 and 600 keV were investigated. From cross section plots for some exemplary collision systems general trends are indicated and discussed in terms of the molecular-orbital (MO) model. Cross section ratios are deduced and compared to theoretical predictions
X-ray emission from heavy atomic collisions : couplings of inner shells in superheavy quasimolecules
Verma, Punita
2010-01-01
Overcritical electromagnetic fields with a coupling strength of ZUA greater than or equal to 1/alpha (=137, with alpha being the fine structure constant) can be experienced in superheavy quasimolecules (atomic number ZUA = Z1+Z2) formed transiently in close collisions of two very heavy atomic partners (Z1, Z2) at velocities (vion) smaller compared to the orbital velocity of the innermost electrons of concern (ve-). The inner shell processes in these collisions are governed approximately by th...
UV-assisted room temperature gas sensing of GaN-core/ZnO-shell nanowires
Park, Sunghoon; Ko, Hyunsung; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, Chongmu [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-15
GaN is highly sensitive to low concentrations of H{sub 2} in ambient air and is almost insensitive to most other common gases. However, enhancing the sensing performance and the detection limit of GaN is a challenge. This study examined the H{sub 2}-gas-sensing properties of GaN nanowires encapsulated with ZnO. GaN-core/ZnO-shell nanowires were fabricated by using a two-step process comprising the thermal evaporation of GaN powders and the atomic layer deposition of ZnO. The core-shell nanowires ranged from 80 to 120 nm in diameter and from a few tens to a few hundreds of micrometers in length, with a mean shell layer thickness of ∼8 nm. Multiple-networked pristine GaN nanowire and ZnO-encapsulated GaN (or GaN-core/ZnO-shell) nanowire sensors showed responses of 120 - 147% and 179 - 389%, respectively, to 500 - 2,500 ppm of H{sub 2} at room temperature under UV (254 nm) illumination. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced response of the GaN nanowire to H{sub 2} gas when using ZnO encapsulation and UV irradiation is discussed.
Wigner’s phase-space function and atomic structure: II. Ground states for closed-shell atoms
Springborg, Michael; Dahl, Jens Peder
1987-01-01
display and analyze the function for the closed-shell atoms helium, beryllium, neon, argon, and zinc in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The quantum-mechanical exact results are compared with those obtained with the approximate Thomas-Fermi description of electron densities in phase space.......We present formulas for reduced Wigner phase-space functions for atoms, with an emphasis on the first-order spinless Wigner function. This function can be written as the sum of separate contributions from single orbitals (the natural orbitals). This allows a detailed study of the function. Here we...
Photoionization of the valence shells of the neutral tungsten atom
Ballance, Connor P
2015-01-01
Results from large-scale theoretical cross section calculations for the total photoionization of the 4f, 5s, 5p and 6s orbitals of the neutral tungsten atom using the Dirac Coulomb R-matrix approximation (DARC: Dirac-Atomic R-matrix codes) are presented. Comparisons are made with previous theoretical methods and prior experimental measurements. In previous experiments a time-resolved dual laser approach was employed for the photo-absorption of metal vapours and photo-absorption measurements on tungsten in a solid, using synchrotron radiation. The lowest ground state level of neutral tungsten is $\\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \\; {^5}D_{\\it J}$, with $\\it J$=0, and requires only a single dipole matrix for photoionization. To make a meaningful comparison with existing experimental measurements, we statistically average the large-scale theoretical PI cross sections from the levels associated with the ground state $\\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \\; {^5}D_{\\it J}[{\\it J}=0,1,2,3,4]$ levels and the $\\rm 5d^56s \\; ^7S_3$ excited metastable...
Anomalous elastic scattering of x-ray photon by an atom with an open shell
In the non-relativistic approximation for the wavefunctions of the one-electron states and in the dipole approximation for the scattering amplitude the effect of relaxation of atomic shells in the field of core vacancies, multiplet splitting, Auger and radiative vacancy decays and virtual processes of one-photon double excitation/ionization from the atomic ground state on the differential cross section of anomalous elastic scattering of the linearly polarized x-ray photon by the copper atom near its 1s-shell ionization threshold are studied. The results of calculations are found to be in agreement with the high-precision synchrotron radiation experiment by Arp et al (1993 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26 4381)
Anomalous elastic scattering of x-ray photon by an atom with an open shell
Hopersky, A N; Petrov, I D; Nadolinsky, A M; Yavna, V A; Koneev, R V [Rostov State University of Transport Communication, Chair of Mathematics, Rostov-on-Don, 344038 (Russian Federation)
2004-08-28
In the non-relativistic approximation for the wavefunctions of the one-electron states and in the dipole approximation for the scattering amplitude the effect of relaxation of atomic shells in the field of core vacancies, multiplet splitting, Auger and radiative vacancy decays and virtual processes of one-photon double excitation/ionization from the atomic ground state on the differential cross section of anomalous elastic scattering of the linearly polarized x-ray photon by the copper atom near its 1s-shell ionization threshold are studied. The results of calculations are found to be in agreement with the high-precision synchrotron radiation experiment by Arp et al (1993 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26 4381)
Deposition of conductive TiN shells on SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with a fluidized bed ALD reactor
Didden, Arjen [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage (Netherlands); Hillebrand, Philipp; Wollgarten, Markus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels (Germany); Dam, Bernard; Krol, Roel van de, E-mail: roel.vandekrol@helmholtz-berlin.de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage (Netherlands)
2016-02-15
Conductive TiN shells have been deposited on SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (10–20 nm primary particle size) with fluidized bed atomic layer deposition using TDMAT and NH{sub 3} as precursors. Analysis of the powders confirms that shell growth saturates at approximately 0.4 nm/cycle at TDMAT doses of >1.2 mmol/g of powder. TEM and XPS analysis showed that all particles were coated with homogeneous shells containing titanium. Due to the large specific surface area of the nanoparticles, the TiN shells rapidly oxidize upon exposure to air. Electrical measurements show that the partially oxidized shells are conducting, with apparent resistivity of approximately ∼11 kΩ cm. The resistivity of the powders is strongly influenced by the NH{sub 3} dose, with a smaller dose giving an order-of-magnitude higher resistivity.
Deposition of conductive TiN shells on SiO2 nanoparticles with a fluidized bed ALD reactor
Conductive TiN shells have been deposited on SiO2 nanoparticles (10–20 nm primary particle size) with fluidized bed atomic layer deposition using TDMAT and NH3 as precursors. Analysis of the powders confirms that shell growth saturates at approximately 0.4 nm/cycle at TDMAT doses of >1.2 mmol/g of powder. TEM and XPS analysis showed that all particles were coated with homogeneous shells containing titanium. Due to the large specific surface area of the nanoparticles, the TiN shells rapidly oxidize upon exposure to air. Electrical measurements show that the partially oxidized shells are conducting, with apparent resistivity of approximately ∼11 kΩ cm. The resistivity of the powders is strongly influenced by the NH3 dose, with a smaller dose giving an order-of-magnitude higher resistivity
Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom
The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K-, L1-, L2,3-, M1-, M2,3- and M4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe7+, Xe8+, Xe9+ and Xe10+ ions, and the charged X8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L1- shell ionization is found to be Xe8+, Xe9+ ions, while the charged Xe8+ ions predominate at L2,3 hole states. The charged Xe6+, Xe7+ and Xe8+ ions mainly yield from 3s1/2 and 3p1/2,3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d3/2,5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe4+ and Xe5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data.
Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom
The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K, L1, L2,3, M1, M2,3 and M4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe7+, Xe8+, Xe9+ and Xe10+ ions, and the charged X8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L1 shell ionization is found to be Xe8+, Xe9+ ions, while the charged Xe8+ ions predominate at L2,3 hole states. The charged Xe6+, Xe7+ and Xe8+ ions mainly yield from 3s1/2 and 3p1/2,3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d3/2,5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe4+ and Xe5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data. (author)
Discovery of a Shell of Neutral Atomic Hydrogen Surrounding the Carbon Star IRC+10216
Matthews, L D; Bertre, T Le
2015-01-01
We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to perform the most sensitive search to date for neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the carbon star IRC+10216. Our observations have uncovered a low surface brightness HI shell of diameter ~1300" (~0.8 pc), centered on IRC+10216. The HI shell has an angular extent comparable to the far ultraviolet-emitting astrosphere of IRC+10216 previously detected with the GALEX satellite, and its kinematics are consistent with circumstellar matter that has been decelerated by the local interstellar medium. The shell appears to completely surround the star, but the highest HI column densities are measured along the leading edge of the shell, near the location of a previously identified bow shock. We estimate a total mass of atomic hydrogen associated with IRC+10216 CSE of M_HI~3x10e-3 M_sun. This is only a small fraction of the expected total mass of the CSE (<1%) and is consistent with the bulk of the stellar wind originating in molec...
An extended empirical model for L- and M-shell ionizations of atoms
Talukder, M R
2011-01-01
An extension of the analytical model of Talukder et al (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 269 (2008) 118) is proposed to estimate electron impact single L- and M-shell ionization cross sections of atoms with incident energy from threshold to ultra-relativistic range. Comparisons are made with other theoretical calculations. It is found that this model agrees well with the experimental data and quantum calculations.
Thomas, M.S. (Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ontario); Gruber, B. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1982-01-01
In this article symmetry chains for the atomic shell model are investigated which lead from the group SO(8l+-5) to the subgroup SOsub(L)(3). The tail group SOsub(L)(3) corresponds to total orbital angular momentum. Along these chains total orbital angular momentum L is a good quantum number, but not total spin S. Total orbital angular momentum can be considered as being made up of four quasi angular momenta.
Ultra fast atomic process in X-ray emission by inner-shell ionization
Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Tajima, T.
1998-03-01
An ultra-fast atomic process together with X-ray emission by inner-shell ionization using high intensity (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) short pulse (20fs) X-ray is studied. A new class of experiment is proposed and a useful pumping source is suggested. In this method, it is found that the gain value of X-ray laser amounts to larger than 1000(1/cm) with use of the density of 10{sup 22}/cm{sup 3} of carbon atom. Electron impact ionization effect and initial density effect as well as intensity of pumping source effect are also discussed. (author)
Two-photon excitation/ionization of the 1s-shell of the argon atom
Novikov, S A
2002-01-01
The absolute values and the shape of the two-photon excitation/ionization cross section of the 1s-shell of the argon atom are calculated with inclusion of the many-particle effects, i.e., the relaxation of the atomic residue in the field of the vacancies created, and the decay of the vacancies into the channels of Auger and (or) radiative types. The wavefunctions of the one-particle states are calculated in non-relativistic approximation. The calculations are performed for both linear and circular polarization of the laser beam.
Two-photon excitation/ionization of the 1s-shell of the argon atom
The absolute values and the shape of the two-photon excitation/ionization cross section of the 1s-shell of the argon atom are calculated with inclusion of the many-particle effects, i.e., the relaxation of the atomic residue in the field of the vacancies created, and the decay of the vacancies into the channels of Auger and (or) radiative types. The wavefunctions of the one-particle states are calculated in non-relativistic approximation. The calculations are performed for both linear and circular polarization of the laser beam.
Core-Shell Magneto-Optical Trap for Alkaline-Earth-Metal-Like Atoms
Lee, Jeongwon; Noh, Jiho; Mun, Jongchul
2014-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a new magneto-optical trap (MOT) for alkaline-earth-metal-like (AEML) atoms where the narrow $^{1}S_{0}\\rightarrow$$^{3}P_{1}$ transition and the broad $^{1}S_{0}\\rightarrow$$^{1}P_{1}$ transition are spatially arranged into a core-shell configuration. Our scheme resolves the main limitations of previously adopted MOT schemes, leading to a significant increase in both the loading rate and the steady state atom number. We apply this scheme to $^{174}$Yb MOT, where we show about a hundred-fold improvement in the loading rate and ten-fold improvement in the steady state atom number compared to reported cases that we know of to date. This technique could be readily extended to other AEML atoms to increase the statistical sensitivity of many different types of precision experiments.
Hosur, S.B.; Naika, L.R.; Badiger, N.M. [Department of Studies in PhysicsKarnatak University, Dharwad - 580003 (India)
2011-04-15
Low energy external Bremsstrahlung (EB) photons were used to estimate the K shell photoelectric parameters; the K shell photoelectric cross section at the K edge, the K shell binding energy, the K shell jump ratio, the K shell jump factors, the Davisson-Kirchner ratio and the K shell oscillator strength for dysprosium (Dy), ytterbium (Yb) and tungsten (W) atoms. The EB photons are produced in the nickel (Ni) target by using the beta particles from a weak beta source of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y. These photons are made to fall on these elemental targets of our interest and the transmitted spectrum is measured using GMX 10P HPGe detector coupled to an 8K multichannel analyzer. The sharp decrease at the K edge in the measured spectrum is used to determine the K shell photoelectric parameters of these elements. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical values. (authors)
Low energy external Bremsstrahlung (EB) photons were used to estimate the K shell photoelectric parameters; the K shell photoelectric cross section at the K edge, the K shell binding energy, the K shell jump ratio, the K shell jump factors, the Davisson-Kirchner ratio and the K shell oscillator strength for dysprosium (Dy), ytterbium (Yb) and tungsten (W) atoms. The EB photons are produced in the nickel (Ni) target by using the beta particles from a weak beta source of 90Sr-90Y. These photons are made to fall on these elemental targets of our interest and the transmitted spectrum is measured using GMX 10P HPGe detector coupled to an 8K multichannel analyzer. The sharp decrease at the K edge in the measured spectrum is used to determine the K shell photoelectric parameters of these elements. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical values. (authors)
Study of the N=40 shell by using Coulomb excitation
Two Coulomb excitation experiments on neutron rich exotic nuclei have been performed at GANIL. They allowed the measurement of the reduced transition probability B(E2) (from ground state to first excited state) of some nuclei around N = 40. This number, 40, is a half-magic number in the shell model. For nuclei with an important neutron excess, it is predicted that the shell closure is stronger at N = 40. The B(E2) is a good tool for testing this growing. We have measured, by using the LISE3 spectrometer and a γ multidetector, B(E2) of 68Ni, 66Ni and 72Zn, unknown till now. We have used for the first time segmented germanium 'clovers' detector, for photon detection (v/c∼0.3). Results confirm the strong shell effect for 68Ni. Indeed 68Ni was shown to be the Nickel isotope with the lowest value of B(E2), and hence the most rigid isotope. Nevertheless it seems that the shell effect at N = 40 decreases rapidly, for other isotopes very close to 68Ni(Z = 28) and N = 40). (authors)
The influence of outer vacancies in the atomic shells of uranium on the atomic shell structure is claculated by the Dirac-Fock-Slater method. It is found out that the energy of the X-ray transitions increases due to the detachment of the electrons with the lowest binding energies. The electron detachment from the subshells of the 4f level gives rise to negative energy shifts of the X-ray transitions.(author)
Boisdenghien, Zino; Fias, Stijn; Van Alsenoy, Christian; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul
2014-07-28
Most of the work done on the linear response kernel χ(r,r') has focussed on its atom-atom condensed form χAB. Our previous work [Boisdenghien et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2013, 9, 1007] was the first effort to truly focus on the non-condensed form of this function for closed (sub)shell atoms in a systematic fashion. In this work, we extend our method to the open shell case. To simplify the plotting of our results, we average our results to a symmetrical quantity χ(r,r'). This allows us to plot the linear response kernel for all elements up to and including argon and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table and in the different representations of χ(r,r'). Within the context of Spin Polarized Conceptual Density Functional Theory, the first two-dimensional plots of spin polarized linear response functions are presented and commented on for some selected cases on the basis of the atomic ground state electronic configurations. Using the relation between the linear response kernel and the polarizability we compare the values of the polarizability tensor calculated using our method to high-level values. PMID:24837234
Semiempirical Sternheimer shielding factors for the atomic 4f and 5d shells
In a recent Physical Review Letter, workers at Los Alamos reported new electric-quadrupole moment values for selected nuclei through study of hfs in the X-ray spectra of muonic atoms. On combining these true moment values with the apparent values previously deduced for the same nuclei from many-electron hfs studies, the authors evaluated Sternheimer shielding factors for several electron shells in various atoms. They were struck by the unreasonably large scatter in the resulting shielding factors. After some study, the authors concluded that the scatter arose from (1) questionable assumptions and procedures used earlier in analyzing the many-electron hfs, and (2) the diversity of methods used in evaluating quadrupole radial hfs integrals. Limiting themselves to the atomic 4f and 5d shells, they made a study of all atoms for which (a) a true quadrupole moment value (i.e. one determined either by muonic hfs or Coulomb excitation) was known and (b) the many-electron hfs had been studied
On the angular distribution and spin polarization of the photoelectrons from semi-filled shell atoms
Amusia, M Ya
2007-01-01
We present here the results of calculations of photoelectrons' angular anisotropy and spin-polarization parameters for a number of semi-filled shell atoms. We consider ionization of outer or in some cases next to the outer electrons in a number of elements from I, V, and VI groups of the Periodic Table. All calculations are performed with account of multi-electron correlations in the frame of the Spin Polarized version of the Random Phase Approximation with Exchange - SP RPAE. We consider the dipole angular distribution and spin polarization of photoelectrons from semi-filled subshells and from closed shells that are neighbors to the semi-filled shells. We have considered also angular anisotropy and spin-polarization of photoelectrons from some excited atoms that are formed by spin-flip of one of the outer electrons. To check the accuracy and consistency of the applied SP RPAE approach and to see the role of the nuclear charge variation only, we have calculated the dipole angular anisotropy and spin-polarizat...
Hosur, Savita B; Badiger, N M; Naik, L R [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003 (India)], E-mail: nagappa123@yahoo.co.in
2008-05-14
The K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of Gd, Hf and Ta atoms have been determined using a novel method. In this method, bremsstrahlung photons produced by beta particles from a weak beta source of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in a nickel foil are incident on an elemental target and the transmitted spectrum of photons emerging from the target is measured using an ORTEC make HPGe detector coupled to 8 K multichannel analyser. The recorded spectrum shows a sudden drop at the K shell binding energy of the target atom and an exponential decrease in the intensity above the K shell binding energy. These portions have been used to determine the K shell binding energy, photoelectric cross-section at the K edge, the K shell oscillator strength and the imaginary form factor of the elements Gd, Hf and Ta. Good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical values is observed.
The K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of Gd, Hf and Ta atoms have been determined using a novel method. In this method, bremsstrahlung photons produced by beta particles from a weak beta source of 90Sr-90Y in a nickel foil are incident on an elemental target and the transmitted spectrum of photons emerging from the target is measured using an ORTEC make HPGe detector coupled to 8 K multichannel analyser. The recorded spectrum shows a sudden drop at the K shell binding energy of the target atom and an exponential decrease in the intensity above the K shell binding energy. These portions have been used to determine the K shell binding energy, photoelectric cross-section at the K edge, the K shell oscillator strength and the imaginary form factor of the elements Gd, Hf and Ta. Good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical values is observed
ESR Dosimetry for Atomic Bomb Survivors Using Shell Buttons and Tooth Enamel
Ikeya, Motoji; Miyajima, Junko; Okajima, Shunzo
1984-09-01
Atomic bomb radiation doses to humans at Nagasaki and Hiroshima are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) from shell buttons and tooth enamel voluntarily supplied by survivors. A shell button gives a dose of 2.1± 0.2 Gy with ESR signals at g=2.001 and g=1.997 while the signal at g=1.997 for the tooth enamel of the same person is 1.9± 0.5 Gy. Other teeth show doses from about 0.5 Gy to 3 Gy. An apparent shielding converted to a concrete thickness is given using the T65D calculated in 1965. Teeth extracted during dental treatment should be preserved for cumulative radiation dosimetry.
Relativistic calculations of double $K$-shell photoionization for neutral medium-$Z$ atoms
Yerokhin, V A; Fritzsche, S
2014-01-01
Fully relativistic calculations are presented for the double $K$-shell photoionization cross section for several neutral medium-$Z$ atoms, from magnesium ($Z = 10$) up to silver ($Z = 47$). The calculations take into account all multipoles of the absorbed photon as well as the retardation of the electron-electron interaction. The approach is based on the partial-wave representation of the Dirac continuum states and uses the Green-function technique to represent the full Dirac spectrum of intermediate states. The method is strictly gauge invariant, which is used as an independent cross check of the computational procedure. The calculated ratios of the double-to-single $K$-shell ionization cross sections are compared with the experimental data and with previous computations.
Prospects for ultracold polar and magnetic chromium-closed-shell-atom molecules
Tomza, Michał
2013-01-01
The properties of the electronic ground state of the polar and paramagnetic chromium--closed-shell-atom molecules have been investigated. State-of-the-art \\textit{ab initio} techniques have been applied to compute the potential energy curves for the chromium--alkaline-earth-metal-atom, CrX (X = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), and chromium--ytterbium, CrYb, molecules in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the $X^7\\Sigma^+$ high-spin electronic ground state. The spin restricted open-shell coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, RCCSD(T), was employed and the scalar relativistic effects within Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian or energy-consistent pseudopotentials were included. The permanent electric dipole moments and static electric dipole polarizabilities were computed. The leading long-range coefficients describing the dispersion interaction between atoms at large interatomic distances, $C_6$, are also reported. Molecules under investigation are an example of species p...
Gellé, A.; Varignon, J.; Lepetit, M.-B.
2009-11-01
We propose a new ab initio method designed for the accurate calculation of effective exchange integrals between atoms with numerous open shells. This method applies to ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic exchange, direct or ligand-mediated exchange. Test calculations on high spin transition metal oxides such as KNiF3, Ba2CoS3 or YMnO3 exhibit a very good accuracy compared either to the best ab initio calculations —when those are feasible— and with experimental evaluations.
Inner-shell photoemission from atoms and molecules using synchrotron radiation
Photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with synchrotron radiation, has been used to study inner-shell photoemission from atoms and molecules. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation permits the measurements of time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of Auger and photoelectrons, thereby increasing the electron collection efficiency. The double-angle TOF method yielded angle-resolved photoelectron intensities, which were used to determine photoionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions in several cases. Comparison to theoretical calculations has been made where possible to help explain observed phenomena in terms of the electronic structure and photoionization dynamics of the systems studied. 154 references, 23 figures, 7 tables
Engelbrekt, Christian; Seselj, Nedjeljko; Poreddy, Raju;
2016-01-01
We present a facile synthesis protocol for atomically thin platinum (Pt) shells on top of gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) (Au@PtNPs) in one pot under mild conditions. The Au@PtNPs exhibited remarkable stability (> 2 years) at room temperature. The synthesis, bimetallic nanostructures and catalytic...... electrooxidation of sustainable fuels (i.e. formic acid, methanol and ethanol), and selective hydrogenation of benzene derivatives. Especially high activity was achieved for formic acid oxidation, 549 mA (mgPt)−1 (at 0.6 V vs. SCE), which is 3.5 fold higher than a commercial < 5 nm PtNP catalyst. Excellent...
Atomically thin spherical shell-shaped superscatterers based on Bohr model
Li, Rujiang; Lin, Shisheng; Liu, Xu; Chen, Hongsheng
2015-01-01
Graphene monolayers can be used for atomically thin three-dimensional shell-shaped superscatterer designs. Due to the excitation of the first-order resonance of transverse magnetic (TM) graphene plasmons, the scattering cross section of the bare subwavelength dielectric particle is enhanced significantly by five orders of magnitude. The superscattering phenomenon can be intuitively understood and interpreted with Bohr model. Besides, based on the analysis of Bohr model, it is shown that contrary to the TM case, superscattering is hard to occur by exciting the resonance of transverse electric (TE) graphene plasmons due to their poor field confinements.
Neutron excitations across the N=86 superdeformed shell gap
Based on data obtained with the Eurogam spectrometer, a systematic investigation of superdeformed bands built on single neutron excitations across the N=86 shell gap has been carried out for gadolinium, terbium, and dysprosium isotopes with 85 ≤ N ≤87. In each nucleus, pairs of bands corresponding to degenerate signature partners have been observed. The effective alignment is constant and close to zero for many of the bands, in agreement with cranked shell model calculations for the (402)5/2 and (514)9/2 orbitals. Several bands exhibit non-zero alignments, indicating in some cases the influence of pairing correlations even at high spin and in other cases the occupancy of the (521)3/2 orbital. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Neutron excitations across the N=86 superdeformed shell gap
De France, G.; Haas, B.; Beck, F.A.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Kharraja, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Petrache, C.M.; Prevost, D.; Vivien, J.P. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Ragnarsson, I. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Twin, P.J.; Beausang, C.W.; Clarke, S.; Dagnall, P.J.; Forbes, S.; Forsyth, P.D.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Fallon, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Flibotte, S. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Lisle, J.C. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Schuster Lab.; Simpson, J. [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Zuber, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1994-12-31
Based on data obtained with the Eurogam spectrometer, a systematic investigation of superdeformed bands built on single neutron excitations across the N=86 shell gap has been carried out for gadolinium, terbium, and dysprosium isotopes with 85 {<=} N {<=}87. In each nucleus, pairs of bands corresponding to degenerate signature partners have been observed. The effective alignment is constant and close to zero for many of the bands, in agreement with cranked shell model calculations for the (402)5/2 and (514)9/2 orbitals. Several bands exhibit non-zero alignments, indicating in some cases the influence of pairing correlations even at high spin and in other cases the occupancy of the (521)3/2 orbital. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Probing the N=50 shell gap near $^{78}$Ni
Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Franchoo, S; Hadinia, B; Raabe, R; Diriken, J V J; Angus, L J
An experiment is proposed to study the properties of low-lying states close to the N=50 shell gap by single nucleon transfer. The d($^{78}$Zn,p)$\\,^{79}$Zn reaction will be studied using the T-REX silicon-detector array coupled to the MINIBALL $\\gamma$-ray spectrometer. A $^{78}$Zn beam intensity of 5 x 10$^{4}$ pps is expected. The isotope $^{79}$Zn, with Z=30 and N =49, lies two protons above and one neutron below the double-shell closure at $^{78}$Ni. Determination of the single-particle structure of low-lying states in $^{79}$Zn will provide valuable information about the persistence of the N=50 shell gap in this neutron-rich region. In particular the behaviour of the g$_{9/2}$ and d$_{5/2}$ orbitals will be investigated. In total, 27 shifts of beam time are requested. This experiment is envisaged to be the first of a series of measurements on progressively more neutron-rich Zn isotopes.
Pederson, Mark R
2015-02-14
A recent modification of the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction-correction to the density-functional formalism has provided a framework for explicitly restoring unitary invariance to the expression for the total energy. The formalism depends upon construction of Löwdin orthonormalized Fermi-orbitals which parametrically depend on variational quasi-classical electronic positions. Derivatives of these quasi-classical electronic positions, required for efficient minimization of the self-interaction corrected energy, are derived and tested, here, on atoms. Total energies and ionization energies in closed-shell singlet atoms, where correlation is less important, using the Perdew-Wang 1992 Local Density Approximation (PW92) functional, are in good agreement with experiment and non-relativistic quantum-Monte-Carlo results albeit slightly too low. PMID:25681892
Pederson, Mark R
2014-01-01
A recent modification of the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction-correction (SIC) to the density-functional formalism (Pederson, Ruzsinszky, Perdew) has provided a framework for explicitly restoring unitary invariance to the expression for the total energy. The formalism depends upon construction of Lowdin orthonormalized Fermi-orbitals (Luken et al) which parametrically depend on variational quasi-classical electronic positions. Derivatives of these quasi-classical electronic positions, required for efficient minimization of the self-interaction corrected energy, are derived and tested here on atoms. Total energies and ionization energies in closed-shell atoms, where correlation is less important, using the PW92 LDA functional are in very good to excellent agreement with experiment and non-relativistic Quantum-Monte-Carlo (QMC) results.
The positively charged polystyrene (PS) particles with a size of ca. 200 nm were synthesized by soap-free polymerization. The PS cores were coated with silica shells of tunable thickness employing the modified Stöber method. The PS cores were removed by thermal decomposition at 500 °C, resulting in well-defined silica hollow spheres (10–30 nm in shell thickness). The elastic response of the as-synthesized samples was probed by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A point load was applied to the particle surface through a sharp AFM tip, and the force–displacement curves were recorded. Elastic moduli (E) for the PS particles (2.01 ± 0.70 GPa) and the core–shell structured hybrid particles were determined on the basis of Hertzian contact model. The calculated E values of composites exhibited a linear dependence on the silica shell thickness. While the shell thickness increased from ca. 10 to 15 and 20 nm, the E values of composites increased from 4.42 ± 0.27 to 5.88 ± 0.48 and 9.07 ± 0.94 GPa. For core–shell structured organic/inorganic composites, the E values of the hybrid particles were much lower than those of inorganic shells, while these values were much close to those of organic cores. Moreover, the moduli of elasticity of the composites appeared to be determined by the properties of the polymer cores, the species of inorganic shells and the thickness of shells. Besides, the inorganic shells enhanced the mechanical properties of the polymer cores. This work will provide essential experimental and theoretical basis for the design and application of core–shell structured organic/inorganic composite abrasives in chemical mechanical polishing/planarization. - Highlights: • The elastic moduli (E) of the PS/SiO2 hybrid particles were probed by AFM. • The E values of composites exhibited a linear dependence on the shell thickness. • The elasticity appeared to be determined by the properties of the organic cores. • The E values were affected by the
Chen, Yang, E-mail: cy.jpu@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Qian, Cheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Miao, Naiming [School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213016 (China)
2015-03-31
The positively charged polystyrene (PS) particles with a size of ca. 200 nm were synthesized by soap-free polymerization. The PS cores were coated with silica shells of tunable thickness employing the modified Stöber method. The PS cores were removed by thermal decomposition at 500 °C, resulting in well-defined silica hollow spheres (10–30 nm in shell thickness). The elastic response of the as-synthesized samples was probed by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A point load was applied to the particle surface through a sharp AFM tip, and the force–displacement curves were recorded. Elastic moduli (E) for the PS particles (2.01 ± 0.70 GPa) and the core–shell structured hybrid particles were determined on the basis of Hertzian contact model. The calculated E values of composites exhibited a linear dependence on the silica shell thickness. While the shell thickness increased from ca. 10 to 15 and 20 nm, the E values of composites increased from 4.42 ± 0.27 to 5.88 ± 0.48 and 9.07 ± 0.94 GPa. For core–shell structured organic/inorganic composites, the E values of the hybrid particles were much lower than those of inorganic shells, while these values were much close to those of organic cores. Moreover, the moduli of elasticity of the composites appeared to be determined by the properties of the polymer cores, the species of inorganic shells and the thickness of shells. Besides, the inorganic shells enhanced the mechanical properties of the polymer cores. This work will provide essential experimental and theoretical basis for the design and application of core–shell structured organic/inorganic composite abrasives in chemical mechanical polishing/planarization. - Highlights: • The elastic moduli (E) of the PS/SiO{sub 2} hybrid particles were probed by AFM. • The E values of composites exhibited a linear dependence on the shell thickness. • The elasticity appeared to be determined by the properties of the organic cores. • The E values were affected
Huang Zhenqiang and Huang Yuxiang
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In chapter 16 we have about three of hydrogen, lithium, helium atoms "s type ball shell electron cloud" describes forming principle and calculation. Therefore: each electronic in nucleus and other electronic electric, magnetic field force, not only along the spin elliptical orbits around the nucleus, there are different degrees of lateral additional movement, as shown in figure 18.2, 18.4, 18.6... As shown. It formed the spin elliptical orbit revolving curved surface. When same layer n of rotating ellipsoid surface "electron hull shell" under the action of electric field repelling force symmetry respectively to different space position and direction, were composed "s, p, d, f type electron hull shell". From (1.2-1 type, electronic wave radius:
Evolution of $N = 28$ shell closure in relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov theory
Xia, Xuewei
2015-01-01
The $N = 28$ shell gap in sulfur, argon, calcium and titanium isotopes is investigated in the framework of relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov (RCHB) theory. The evolutions of neutron shell gap, separation energy, single particle energy and pairing energy are analyzed, and it is found that $N = 28$ shell gap is quenched in sulfur isotopes but persists in argon, calcium and titanium isotopes. The evolution of $N = 28$ shell gap in $N = 28$ isotonic chain is discussed, and the erosion of $N = 28$ shell gap is understood with the evolution of potential with proton number.
Unique Challenges Accompany Thick-Shell CdSe/nCdS (n > 10) Nanocrystal Synthesis
Guo, Y; Marchuk, K; Abraham, R; Sampat, S; Abraham, R.; Fang, N; Malko, AV; Vela, J
2011-12-23
Thick-shell CdSe/nCdS (n {ge} 10) nanocrystals were recently reported that show remarkably suppressed fluorescence intermittency or 'blinking' at the single-particle level as well as slow rates of Auger decay. Unfortunately, whereas CdSe/nCdS nanocrystal synthesis is well-developed up to n {le} 6 CdS monolayers (MLs), reproducible syntheses for n {ge} 10 MLs are less understood. Known procedures sometimes result in homogeneous CdS nucleation instead of heterogeneous, epitaxial CdS nucleation on CdSe, leading to broad and multimodal particle size distributions. Critically, obtained core/shell sizes are often below those desired. This article describes synthetic conditions specific to thick-shell growth (n {ge} 10 and n {ge} 20 MLs) on both small (sub2 nm) and large (>4.5 nm) CdSe cores. We find added secondary amine and low concentration of CdSe cores and molecular precursors give desired core/shell sizes. Amine-induced, partial etching of CdSe cores results in apparent shell-thicknesses slightly beyond those desired, especially for very-thick shells (n {ge} 20 MLs). Thermal ripening and fast precursor injection lead to undesired homogeneous CdS nucleation and incomplete shell growth. Core/shells derived from small CdSe (1.9 nm) have longer PL lifetimes and more pronounced blinking at single-particle level compared with those derived from large CdSe (4.7 nm). We expect our new synthetic approach will lead to a larger throughput of these materials, increasing their availability for fundamental studies and applications.
Gauged N=2 off-shell supergravity in five dimensions
We present some multiplets of N=2 off-shell supergravity in five dimensions. One is the Super Yang-Mills multiplet, another one is the linear multiplet. The latter one is used to establish a general action formula from which we derive an action for the Super Yang-Mills multiplet. The Super Yang-Mills multiplet is used to construct the nonlinear multiplet with gauged SU(2). This nonlinear multiplet and the action formula for the Yang-Mills multiplet enable us to write down an SU(2) gauged supergravity which we finally truncate to arrive at gauged supergravity with gauge group SO(2). (author)
Approximate symmetries in atomic nuclei from a large-scale shell-model perspective
In this paper, we review recent developments that aim to achieve further understanding of the structure of atomic nuclei, by capitalizing on exact symmetries as well as approximate symmetries found to dominate low-lying nuclear states. The findings confirm the essential role played by the Sp(3, ℝ) symplectic symmetry to inform the interaction and the relevant model spaces in nuclear modeling. The significance of the Sp(3, ℝ) symmetry for a description of a quantum system of strongly interacting particles naturally emerges from the physical relevance of its generators, which directly relate to particle momentum and position coordinates, and represent important observables, such as, the many-particle kinetic energy, the monopole operator, the quadrupole moment and the angular momentum. We show that it is imperative that shell-model spaces be expanded well beyond the current limits to accommodate particle excitations that appear critical to enhanced collectivity in heavier systems and to highly-deformed spatial structures, exemplified by the second 0+ state in 12C (the challenging Hoyle state) and 8Be. While such states are presently inaccessible by large-scale no-core shell models, symmetry-based considerations are found to be essential. (author)
Pathak, Himadri; Das, B P; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav
2014-01-01
We report our successful implementation of the full fledged relativistic equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) method. This method is employed to compute the principal ionization potentials (IPs) of closed-shell rare gas atoms, He-like ions, Be-like ions along with Na+, Al+, K+, Be, and Mg. Four component Dirac spinors are used in the calculations and the one and two electron integrals are evaluated using the Dirac Coulomb Hamiltonian. Our results are in excellent agreement with those available measurements, which are taken from the National Institute of Science and Technology database (NIST). We also present results using the second order many-body perturbation theory (MBPT(2)) and random phase approximation (RPA) in the EOMCC framework. These results are compared with those of EOMCC at the level of single and double excitations in order to assess the role of the electron correlation effects in the intermediate schemes considered in our calculations .
Filling of double vacancy in the K atomic shell with emission of one single photon
A method was developed to calculate the transition rate for two-electron one-photon K(sub αα) transition (2s 2p → 1s2). The method was tested for Ni with two K-shell vacancies in the initial state. The (sub αα) rate is calculated within the framework of a single system formed by the atom and the radiation. The transition is originated in the interactiion between the parts of that system. In the dipole approximation, the transition rate is obtained from the second order term of the time dependente perturbation theory. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions were used in the calculations for Ni. The results are compared with the available theoretical and experimental information. (Author)
Models for L-shell filling of slow hollow atoms moving below a surface
A multiple cascade model is used to analyze the filling of L- and K-vacancies of hollow Ne atoms moving in shallow layers of an Al (111) surface. The model requires cross sections for charge transfer into the L-shell of the projectile which were determined from molecular-orbital calculations based on solid-state energies and screening effects. The analysis includes mechanisms of Landau-Zener curve-crossing and Fano-Lichten promotion. Absorption and build-up effects within the solid were taken into account. The results from the cascade model show good agreement with the ratio of L- to K-Auger emission recently measured for Ne9+ incident on Al. (orig.)
Cu charge radii reveal a weak sub-shell effect at N =40
Bissell, M. L.; Carette, T.; Flanagan, K. T.; Vingerhoets, P.; Billowes, J.; Blaum, K.; Cheal, B.; Fritzsche, S.; Godefroid, M.; Kowalska, M.; Krämer, J.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Yordanov, D. T.
2016-06-01
Collinear laser spectroscopy on Cu-7558 isotopes was performed at the CERN-ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility. In this paper we report on the isotope shifts obtained from these measurements. State-of-the-art atomic physics calculations have been undertaken in order to determine the changes in mean-square charge radii δ A ,A' from the observed isotope shifts. A local minimum is observed in these radii differences at N =40 , providing evidence for a weak N =40 sub-shell effect. However, comparison of δ A ,A' with a droplet model prediction including static deformation deduced from the spectroscopic quadrupole moments, points to the persistence of correlations at N =40 .
Hewage, Jinasena W., E-mail: jinasena@chem.ruh.ac.lk
2015-01-15
Structure, energetic and thermodynamic properties of multi shell icosahedral bimetallic nickel–palladium nanostructures with the size of 55 and 147 atoms were studied by using the molecular dynamics simulations and the microcanonical ensemble version of multiple histogram method. In 55 atoms icosahedra, two core–shell motifs, Ni{sub 13}Pd{sub 42} and Pd{sub 13}Ni{sub 42} with their isomers Pd{sub 13}(Pd{sub 29}Ni{sub 13}) and Ni{sub 13}(Ni{sub 29}Pd{sub 13}) were considered. Similarly in 147 atoms icosahedra, all mutations corresponding to the occupations of either nickel atoms or palladium atoms in the core, inner shell or outer shell and their isomers generated by interchanging thirteen core atoms with thirteen atoms of the other type in the inner and outer shells were considered. It is found that the nickel-core clusters are more stable than the palladium-core clusters and cohesive energy increases with the nickel composition. Phase transition of each cluster was studied by means of constant volume heat capacity. The trend in variation of melting temperature is opposite to the energy trend and special increase in melting points was observed for nickel-core isomers compared to the palladium-core isomers. Helmholtz free energy change with temperature for shell to core interchange of thirteen atoms revealed the thermodynamic stability of the formation of Ni{sub core}Pd{sub shell} structures and the surface segregation of palladium. - Highlights: • Nanostructures of Ni{sub m}Pd{sub n} clusters for m + n = 55 and 147 have been studied. • Structures favor the formation of nickel-core surrounded by palladium atoms. • In general, it appears the increase of cohesive energy with the nickel composition. • Calculated thermodynamic parameters confirm the energetic results. • Results show also the palladium segregation on the surface.
McLaughlin, B M; Bowen, K P; Gardenghi, D J; Stolte, W C
2013-01-01
Photoabsorption of atomic oxygen in the energy region below the $\\rm 1s^{-1}$ threshold in x-ray spectroscopy from {\\it Chandra} and {\\it XMM-Newton} is observed in a variety of x-ray binary spectra. Photoabsorption cross sections determined from an R-matrix method with pseudo-states (RMPS) and new, high precision measurements from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) are presented. High-resolution spectroscopy with E/$\\Delta$E $\\approx$ 4,250 $\\pm$ 400 was obtained for photon energies from 520 eV to 555 eV at an energy resolution of 124 $\\pm$ 12 meV FWHM. {\\it K}-shell photoabsorption cross-section measurements were made with a re-analysis of previous experimental data on atomic oxygen at the ALS. Natural linewidths $\\Gamma$ are extracted for the $\\rm 1s^{-1}2s^22p^4 (^4P)np ^3P^{\\circ}$ and $\\rm 1s^{-1}2s^22p^4(^2P)np ~^3P^{\\circ}$ Rydberg resonances series and compared with theoretical predictions. Accurate cross sections and linewidths are obtained for applications in x-ray astronomy. Excellent agreement betwe...
Discovery of K-Shell Emission Lines of Neutral Atoms in the Galactic Center Region
Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Ryu, Syukyo G; Tatischeff, Vincent
2010-01-01
The K-shell emission line of neutral irons from the Galactic center (GC) region is one of the key for the structure and activity of the GC. The origin is still open question, but possibly due either to X-ray radiation or to electron bombarding to neutral atoms. To address this issue, we analyzed the Suzaku X-ray spectrum from the GC region of intense neutral iron line emission, and report on the discovery of Kalpha lines of neutral argon, calcium, chrome, and manganese atoms. The equivalent widths of these Kalpha lines indicate that the metal abundances in the GC region should be ~1.6 and ~4 of solar value, depending on the X-ray and the electron origins, respectively. On the other hand, the metal abundances in the hot plasma in the GC region are found to be ~1-2 solar. These results favor that the origin of the neutral Kalpha lines are due to X-ray irradiation.
Selective electron capture into highly stripped Ne and N target atoms after heavy-ion impact
Auger electron and x-ray spectra from Ne and N gas targets excited with 1.4 MeV amu-1 Ar12+, Kr15+, Xe24+, and Pb36+ ions are measured, varying the target pressure and mixing other gases into the target volume. A dramatic change of line intensities from outer-shell configurations having a KL two-electron core and a third electron in the n = 4,5,6 shell is observed, depending on the target pressure and systematically on the target ionisation potential. This effect is explained by highly selective electron capture from neutral target atoms or molecules into outer-shell orbitals of slowly (Esub(r) -14 cm2 is estimated from the experiment. (author)
Wilson lines, Grassmannians and Gauge Invariant Off-shell Amplitudes in N=4 SYM
Bork, L V
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider tree-level gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes (Wilson line form factors) in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM. For the off-shell amplitudes with one leg off-shell we present a conjecture for their Grassmannian integral representation in spinor helicity, twistor and momentum twistor parameterizations. The presented conjecture is successfully checked against BCFW results for MHV$_n$, NMHV$_4$ and NMHV$_5$ off-shell amplitudes. We have also verified that our Grassmannian integral representation correctly reproduces soft (on-shell) limit for the off-shell gluon momentum. It is shown that the (deformed) off-shell amplitude expressions could be also obtained using quantum inverse scattering method for auxiliary $gl(4|4)$ super spin chain.
Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition
Nie, Anmin
2012-01-01
Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations, by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Raman spectra, reveal that single crystalline rutile TiO 2 shells can be epitaxially grown on SnO 2 NWs with an atomically sharp interface at low temperature (250 °C). The growth behavior of the TiO 2 shells highly depends on the surface orientations and the geometrical shape of the core SnO 2 NW cross-section. Atomically smooth surfaces are found for growth on the {110} surface. Rough surfaces develop on {100} surfaces due to (100) - (1 × 3) reconstruction, by introducing steps in the [010] direction as a continuation of {110} facets. Lattice mismatch induces superlattice structures in the TiO 2 shell and misfit dislocations along the interface. Conformal epitaxial growth has been observed for SnO 2 NW cores with an octagonal cross-section ({100} and {110} surfaces). However, for a rectangular core ({101} and {010} surfaces), the shell also derives an octagonal shape from the epitaxial growth, which was explained by a proposed model based on ALD kinetics. The surface steps and defects induced by the lattice mismatch likely lead to improved photoluminescence (PL) performance for the yellow emission. Compared to the pure SnO 2 NWs, the PL spectrum of the core-shell nanostructures exhibits a stronger emission peak, which suggests potential applications in optoelectronics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.
Quantum-Shell Corrections to the Finite-Temperature Thomas-Fermi-Dirac Statistical Model of the Atom
Ritchie, A B
2003-07-22
Quantum-shell corrections are made directly to the finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi-Dirac statistical model of the atom by a partition of the electronic density into bound and free components. The bound component is calculated using analytic basis functions whose parameters are chosen to minimize the energy. Poisson's equation is solved for the modified density, thereby avoiding the need to solve Schroedinger's equation for a self-consistent field. The shock Hugoniot is calculated for aluminum: shell effects characteristic of quantum self-consistent field models are fully captures by the present model.
Shell structure from N=Z (100Sn) to N>>Z (78Ni)
The shell structure of 100Sn shows striking resemblance to 56Ni one major shell below. Large-scale shell model calculations employing realistic interactions derived from effective NN potentials and allowing for up to 4p4h excitations of the 100Sn core account very well for the spectroscopy of key neighbours 102,103Sn, 98Cd and 94Ag, as inferred from level energies, isomerism, E2 strengths and Gamow-Teller (GT) decay of high-spin states. Recent β- decay studies of 101-104Sn using the sulphurisation ISOL technique open the perspective to study the 100Sn GT resonance. At N>>Z the persistence of the N=50 and the weakness of the N=40 shells are traced back to the monopole interaction in S=0 proton-neutron (πν) pairs of nucleons, a scenario which can be generalised to account for the new N=6,16(14),34(32) magicity in light neutron-rich nuclei. (orig.)
Systematic study of L shell ionization of heavry atoms by protons
Cross sections for L-subshell ionization by proton impact have been determined for W, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U over the projectile range 0.5-3.5 MeV. The measured X-ray production cross sections of the total L- Shell and of some well resolved lines or groups of lines are consistent with those obtained by different authors in the same regions of bombarding energies and atomic numbers. Ionization cross sections were obtained by using the above results and the experimental values for the relative radiative transition probabilities, fluorescente yelds and Coster-Kronig factors. Relative radiative decay rates were measured with a Si (Li) detection system. A graphical method was employed to analyze the X-ray spectra so obtained. The values of fluorescente and Coster-Kronig yields were taken from previously published experiments performed in this laboratory. The influence of these experimental data on the shape of cross section versus proton energy curves is discussed. Comparisons of the experimentally determined L-subshell ionization cross sections are made wuth calculations in the plane-wave Born approximation, semi-classical aproximation and binary encounter approximation. The large effect of binding-energy trajetory and relativistic corrections on the PWBA calculations, invalidates quantitative conclusions regarding agreement between experimental and theoretical values. Semi-classical arguments are presented, however, to explain some general aspects of the ionization cross section curves. (Author)
Fluidized-bed atomic layer deposition reactor for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles
The design of a fluidized bed atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor is described in detail. The reactor consists of three parts that have all been placed in one protective cabinet: precursor dosing, reactor, and residual gas treatment section. In the precursor dosing section, the chemicals needed for the ALD reaction are injected into the carrier gas using different methods for different precursors. The reactor section is designed in such a way that a homogeneous fluidized bed can be obtained with a constant, actively controlled, reactor pressure. Furthermore, no filters are required inside the reactor chamber, minimizing the risk of pressure increase due to fouling. The residual gas treatment section consists of a decomposition furnace to remove residual precursor and a particle filter and is installed to protect the pump. In order to demonstrate the performance of the reactor, SiO2 particles have been coated with TiO2 using tetrakis-dimethylamino titanium (TDMAT) and H2O as precursors. Experiments with varying pulse times show that saturated growth can be obtained with TDMAT pulse times larger than 600 s. Analysis of the powder with High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that after 50 cycles, all SiO2 particles were coated with a 1.6 nm homogenous shell of TiO2
Evolution of N = 28 shell closure in relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov theory
Xia, Xue-Wei
2016-07-01
The N = 28 shell gap in sulfur, argon, calcium and titanium isotopes is investigated in the framework of relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov (RCHB) theory. The evolutions of neutron shell gap, separation energy, single particle energy and pairing energy are analyzed, and it is found that the N = 28 shell gap is quenched in sulfur isotopes but persists in argon, calcium and titanium isotopes. The evolution of the N = 28 shell gap in the N = 28 isotonic chain is discussed, and the erosion of the N = 28 shell gap is understood with the evolution of potential with proton number. Supported by Major State 973 Program of China (2013CB834400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175002, 11335002, 11375015, 11461141002) and Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20110001110087)
The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level
Erickson, Jeremiah D; Mednikov, Evgueni G; Ivanov, Sergei A; Dahl, Lawrence F
2016-02-10
We present the first successful isolation and crystallographic characterization of a Mackay 55-metal-atom two-shell icosahedron, Pd55L12(μ3-CO)20 (L = PPr(i)3) (1). Its two-shell icosahedron of pseudo-Ih symmetry (without isopropyl substituents) enables a structural/bonding comparison with interior 55-metal-atom two-shell icosahedral geometries observed within the multi-shell capped 145-metal-atom three-shell Pd145(CO)72(PEt3)30 and 165-metal-atom four-shell Pt-centered (μ12-Pt)Pd164-xPtx(CO)72(PPh3)20 (x ≈ 7) nanoclusters, and within the recently reported four-shell Au133(SC6H4-p-Bu(t))52 nanocluster. DFT calculations carried out on a Pd55(CO)20(PH3)12 model analogue, with triisopropyl phosphine substituents replaced by H atoms, revealed a positive +0.84 e charge for the entire Pd55 core, with a highly positive second-shell Pd42 surface of +1.93 e. PMID:26790717
Models for inner-shell excitation in ion-atom collisions
Models of inner-shell vacancy production which include translation factors are developed for the change transfer process in ion-atom collisions. Translation factors are included in the basis set in which the electronic wavefunction is expanded in order to correctly describe the motion of the electron during the collision. Though several numerical studies have been done which employ this concept, the present models for change exchange are based on stationary state expansions. First the problem is formulated in the adiabatic framework. Having chosen a case in which the form of the translation factors is simple and in which additional approximations may be made, i.e., the case of long-range coupling, all terms in the equations of motion can be evaluated in closed form. An analytic solution is derived with the adiabatic theory which shows explicitly the effects of translation factors on the sharing ratio (defined as the ratio of vacancy production cross-sections of the high Z to low Z partners). The result reduces to that of the Demkov model in the low velocity limit. As the velocity increases, a sharing ratio is predicted which drops below the Demkov curve and reaches a maximum at finite velocity. Numerical calculations using translation factors in a molecular orbital basis exhibit such a fall-off. It is shown that this effect is due solely to the inclusion of the momentum transfer of the electron. The assumptions of the adiabatic approach, however, limit its application to the low velocity region. A new formulation is developed of the problem which is not limited by the adiabatic assumptions. Solutions of the equations of motion in closed form are obtained. This new treatment gives not only the correct adiabatic limit but also the exact Born result directly from the analytic solution of the coupled equations
Shell evolution at N=20 in the constrained relativistic mean field approach
无
2008-01-01
The shell evolution at N = 20, a disappearing neutron magic number observed experimentally in very neutron-rich nuclides, is investigated in the constrained relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. The trend of the shell closure observed experimentally towards the neutron drip-line can be reproduced. The predicted two-neutron separation energies, neutron shell gap energies and deformation parameters of ground states are shown as well. These results are compared with the recent Hartree-Fock-Bogliubov (HFB-14) model and the available experimental data. The perspective towards a better understanding of the shell evolution is discussed.
Tatewaki, Hiroshi, E-mail: htatewak@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Institute of Advanced Studies in Artificial Intelligence, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Hatano, Yasuyo [School of Information Science and Technology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Noro, Takeshi [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi [School of International Liberal Studies, Chukyo University, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8666 (Japan)
2015-06-15
We consider, for atoms from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 80}Hg, the effective atomic radius (r{sub ear}), which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He{sub 2}. The values of r{sub ear} are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s,
Yang Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 New model Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zeng Yanwei, E-mail: zengyanwei@tom.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 New model Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Cai Tongxiang; Hu Zhenxing [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 New model Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)
2012-07-15
The polystyrene shells have been successfully grown on the barium strontium titanate (BST) nanocrystals, which were synthesized by microwave-activated glycothermal method, via a solvent-free surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) after the 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid molecules (Br-MPA) were anchored at the surface of BST nanocrystals through ligand exchange with hydroxyl groups on their surfaces. These surface modified BST nanocrystals can then be perfectly dispersed in styrene monomer and act as macroinitiators for ATRP to yield BST-PS core-shell structured nanoparticles, which endow the BST nanocrystals with exceptionally good dispersibility and stability in hydrophobic solvents. The BST-PS core-shell structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography were also employed to probe the Br-MPA and PS on the BST nanocrystals. It has been shown that after the BST nanocrystals are surface-modified with Br-MPA, the polymerization of styrene can steadily occur at the surface of BST nanocrystals to form a uniform polystyrene shell and its thickness can reach {approx}10 nm when the polymerization reaction is extended to 36 h, while no changes are found to take place with the BST nanocrystals. Compared with typical high molecular weight PS (M{sub n} = 6700), the as-obtained PS possess a relatively low molecular weight (M{sub n} = 5473) and a lower glass transition temperature (T{sub g} {approx} 93 Degree-Sign C). The research results demonstrate a viable strategy for the preparation of polymer-coated functional metal oxides nanocrystals, potentially useful in biological and nanoelectronic applications.
Restoration of the N=82 Shell Gap from Direct Mass Measurements of $^{132,134}$Sn
Dworschak, M; Blaum, K; Delahaye, P; George, S; Hager, U; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C
2008-01-01
A high-precision direct Penning trap mass measurement has revealed a 0.5-MeV deviation of the binding energy of $^{134}$Sn from the currently accepted value. The corrected mass assignment of this neutron-rich nuclide restores the neutron-shell gap at N=82, previously considered to be a case of “shell quenching.” In fact, the new shell gap value for the short-lived $^{132}$Sn is larger than that of the doubly-magic $^{48}$Ca which is stable. The N=82 shell gap has considerable impact on fission recycling during the $r$ process. More generally, the new finding has important consequences for microscopic mean-field theories which systematically deviate from the measured binding energies of closed-shell nuclides.
High-precision mass measurements in the realm of the deformed shell closure N=152
The nuclear masses reflect the sum of all interactions inside a nucleus. Their precise knowledge can be used to benchmark nuclear mass models and to gain nuclear structure information. Penning-trap mass spectrometers have proven their potential to obtain lowest uncertainties. Uniquely located at a nuclear reactor, the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP is dedicated to measurements in the neutron-rich region. For a gain in sensitivity a non-destructive detection system for single ion mass measurements was adopted. This includes the implementation of a narrow band-pass filter tuned to the heavy ion cyclotron frequency as well as a cryogenic low-noise amplifier. For on-line mass measurements, the laser ablation ion source was equipped with a newly developed miniature radiofrequency quadrupole trap in order to improve the extraction efficiency. A more economic use of the radioactive material enabled mass measurements using only 1015 atoms of target material. New mass measurements were performed within this work in the realm of the deformed shell closure N=152. Their implementation into the atomic-mass evaluation improved the uncertainty of more than 80 nuclides in the heavy mass region and simultaneously shifted the absolute mass of two α decay chains.
Local atomic structure in (Zr{sub 1-x}U{sub x})N
Walter, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: marcus.walter@ec.europa.eu; Somers, J.; Fernandez-Carretero, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rothe, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2008-02-15
(Zr{sub 1-x}U{sub x})N solid solutions were prepared for EXAFS measurements by a sol-gel route combined with infiltration and carbothermic reduction. The lattice parameter and the more distant coordination shells (Me{sub 2} and Me{sub 3}) around the Zr and U atoms follow the Vegard law. In the first coordination shell, the U-N distance also follows the Vegard law. Though the Zr-N bond distance increases with the lattice expansion caused by increasing U content, it remains constant at 232-235 pm in U-rich (Zr{sub 1-x}U{sub x})N (x > 0.6). The measurements indicate that U accommodates the lattice contraction with increasing Zr content, whereas Zr is able to expand its Zr-N bond only at lower U content. In the composition range of transmutation fuels, (Zr{sub 1-x}U{sub x})N is homogeneous at the local atomic scale.
Russia's atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov
Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia's nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia's vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia's nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia's nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia's decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia's nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia
SMMC studies of N=Z pf-shell nuclei with pairing-plus-quadrupole Hamiltonian
Langanke, K.; Vogel, P.; Zheng, Dao-Chen
1997-01-01
We perform Shell Model Monte Carlo calculations of selected N=Z pf-shell nuclei with a schematic hamiltonian containing isovector pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. Compared to realistic interactions, this hamiltonian does not give rise to the SMMC ``sign problem'', while at the same time resembles essential features of the realistic interactions. We study pairing correlations in the ground states of N=Z nuclei and investigate the thermal dependence of selected observables for th...
Yang, Zhimin; Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangqiang@njtech.edu.cn; Shan, Xiaoye; Zhu, Hongjun, E-mail: zhuhj@njtech.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Li, Wei-qi [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Guang-hui [Department of Chemistry, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)
2015-02-21
Metal catalysts play an important role in the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It is essential for probing the nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs to fundamentally understand the properties of the metal catalysts and their interaction with carbon species. In this study, we systematically studied the stability of 13- and 55-atom Fe and Fe-Ni core-shell particles as well as these particles interaction with the carbon atoms using the density functional theory calculations. Icosahedral 13- and 55-atom Fe-Ni core-shell bimetallic particles have higher stability than the corresponding monometallic Fe and Ni particles. Opposite charge transfer (or distribution) in these particles leads to the Fe surface-shell displays a positive charge, while the Ni surface-shell exhibits a negative charge. The opposite charge transfer would induce different chemical activities. Compared with the monometallic Fe and Ni particles, the core-shell bimetallic particles have weaker interaction with C atoms. More importantly, C atoms only prefer staying on the surface of the bimetallic particles. In contrast, C atoms prefer locating into the subsurface of the monometallic particles, which is more likely to form stable metal carbides. The difference of the mono- and bimetallic particles on this issue may result in different nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic catalysts and a better understanding nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs.
Metal catalysts play an important role in the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It is essential for probing the nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs to fundamentally understand the properties of the metal catalysts and their interaction with carbon species. In this study, we systematically studied the stability of 13- and 55-atom Fe and Fe-Ni core-shell particles as well as these particles interaction with the carbon atoms using the density functional theory calculations. Icosahedral 13- and 55-atom Fe-Ni core-shell bimetallic particles have higher stability than the corresponding monometallic Fe and Ni particles. Opposite charge transfer (or distribution) in these particles leads to the Fe surface-shell displays a positive charge, while the Ni surface-shell exhibits a negative charge. The opposite charge transfer would induce different chemical activities. Compared with the monometallic Fe and Ni particles, the core-shell bimetallic particles have weaker interaction with C atoms. More importantly, C atoms only prefer staying on the surface of the bimetallic particles. In contrast, C atoms prefer locating into the subsurface of the monometallic particles, which is more likely to form stable metal carbides. The difference of the mono- and bimetallic particles on this issue may result in different nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic catalysts and a better understanding nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs
Pathak, Himadri; Sahoo, B K; Das, B P; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav
2014-01-01
We report the implementation of the relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method to calculate double ionization spectra (DI-EOMCC) of the closed-shell atomic systems. This method is employed to calculate principal valence double ionization potential values of He and alkaline earth metal (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) atoms. Our results are compared with the results available from the national institute of science and technology (NIST) database and other ab initio calculations. We have achieved an accuracy of ~ 0.1%, which is an improvement over the first principles T-matrix calculations [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 144112 (2005)]. We also present results using the second-order many-body perturbation theory and the random -phase approximation in the equation-of-motion framework and these results are compared with the DI-EOMCC results.
Lei, Yu; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, Jeffrey W.
2012-08-20
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt–Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt–Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt–Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al_{2}O_{3}- and TiO_{2}-modified SiO_{2} gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface configuration for the Pt–Pd alloys in an H_{2} environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Finally, in comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt–Pd bimetallic core–shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.
Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Shao, Gui-Fang; Sun, Shi-Gang
2016-06-22
Bimetallic nanoparticles comprising noble metal and non-noble metal have attracted intense interest over the past few decades due to their low cost and significantly enhanced catalytic performances. In this article, we have explored the atomic structure and thermal stability of Pt-Fe alloy and core-shell nanoparticles by molecular dynamics simulations. In Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles, Fe with three different structures, i.e., body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and amorphous phases, has been considered. Our results show that Pt-Fe alloy is the most stable configuration among the four types of bimetallic nanoparticles. It has been discovered that the amorphous Fe cannot stably exist in the core and preferentially transforms into the fcc phase. The phase transition from bcc to hexagonal close packed (hcp) has also been observed in bcc-Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles. In contrast, Fe with the fcc structure is the most preferred as the core component. These findings are helpful for understanding the structure-property relationships of Pt-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles, and are also of significance to the synthesis and application of noble metal based nanoparticle catalysts. PMID:27297782
No influence of a N =126 neutron-shell closure in fission-fragment mass distributions
Chaudhuri, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Kundu, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Meena, J. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Saha, A. K.; Asgar, Md. A.; Dey, A.; Manna, S.; Pandey, R.; Rana, T. K.; Roy, P.; Roy, T.; Srivastava, V.; Bhattacharya, P.; Biswas, D. C.; Joshi, B. N.; Mahata, K.; Shrivastava, A.; Vind, R. P.; Pal, S.; Behera, B. R.; Singh, Varinderjit
2015-10-01
Mass distributions of the fragments in the fission of 206Po and the N =126 neutron shell closed nucleus 210Po have been measured. No significant deviation of mass distributions has been found between 206Po and 210Po, indicating the absence of shell correction at the saddle point in both the nuclei, contrary to the reported angular anisotropy and prescission neutron multiplicity results. This result provides benchmark data to test the new fission dynamical models to study the effect of shell correction on the potential energy surface at saddle point.
No influence of a N=126 Neutron Shell Closure in Fission Fragment Mass Distributions
Chaudhuri, A; Banerjee, K; Bhattacharya, S; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Kundu, S; Bhattacharya, C; Meena, J K; Mukherjee, G; Saha, A K; Asgar, Md A; Dey, A; Manna, S; Pandey, R; Rana, T K; Roy, P; Roy, T; Srivastava, V; Bhattacharya, P; Biswas, D C; Joshi, B N; Mahata, K; Shrivastava, A; Vind, R P; Pal, S; Behera, B R; Singh, Varinderjit
2015-01-01
Mass distributions of the fragments in the fission of $^{206}$Po and the N=126 neutron shell closed nucleus $^{210}$Po have been measured. No significant deviation of mass distributions has been found between $^{206}$Po and $^{210}$Po, indicating the absence of shell correction at the saddle point in both the nuclei, contrary to the reported angular anisotropy and pre-scission neutron multiplicity results. This new result provides benchmark data to test the new fission dynamical models to study the effect of shell correction on the potential energy surface at saddle point.
Baird, Lee [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ong, C. P. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cole, R. Adam [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Haegel, N. M. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Talin, A. Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Li, Qiming [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, George T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2011-03-28
Minority carrier diffusion lengths L_{d} are calculated for GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires using a procedure based on imaging of recombination luminescence. The result of shell material on conveyance properties is recorded. An AlGaN shell produces L_{d} values in surplus of 1μm and a relative insensitivity to wire diameter. An InGaN shell reduces effective diffusion length, while a dependence of L_{d} on diameter is observed for unshielded nanowires.
Sigma models with off-shell N=(4,4) supersymmetry and noncommuting complex structures
Goteman, M; Rocek, M; Ryb, Itai
2009-01-01
We describe the conditions for extra supersymmetry in N=(2,2) supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models written in terms of semichiral superfields. We find that these models allow additional off-shell supersymmetry. The (4,4) supersymmetry introduces geometrical structures on the target-space which are conveniently described in terms of Yano f-structures and Magri-Morosi concomitants. On-shell, we relate the new structures to the known bi-hypercomplex structures.
Recently we proposed two types of atomic mass formula (constant-shell-term formula, linear-shell-term formula). With use of these formulas, we calculate and tabulate mass excesses, neutron separation energies, and β-decay energies (β-decay and/or electron capture) for about 5000 nuclides. The mass excess values and their errors in the 1977 atomic mass evaluation by A.H. Wapstra and K. Bos which we used in constructing our formulas, are also tabulated for reference. The constant-shell-term formula is fitted to 1468 input mass data with the standard deviation of 626 keV and the linear-shell-term formula with 394 keV
Two kinds of (microencapsulated phase change materials) MicroPCMs with acrylic-based copolymer as shell and n-dodecanol as core were successfully fabricated via suspension-like polymerization and photo-induced microencapsulation, respectively. Morphology and core–shell structure were observed by (field emission scanning electron microscope) FE-SEM. Thermal properties of the microencapsulated n-dodecanol were investigated by (differential scanning calorimeter) DSC and (thermogravimetric analysis) TGA. The results indicate that the mass ratio of core to shell has great influence on the morphology, inner structure, microencapsulated efficiency and durability of the microcapsules. Besides, the effects of various solvents and UV irridiation time on the microcapsule surface were discussed as well. In the experiment carried out, metal-ion complexation was conducted by the reaction between Mn ion and carboxyl groups on copolymer shell to enhance the performance of the microcapsules with n-dodecanol encapsulated. As the results indicate, the physicochemical properties and thermal conductivity of the shell were improved after Mn ion complexation reaction. Supercooling phenomenon of n-dodecanol was depressed to some extent. In the end, the thermo-regulated fiber containing acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules was fabricated, and thermo-regulated performance test of the fiber was also conducted. - Graphical abstract: (a)∼(d) schematic diagram of microencapsulation and (e) microcapsule with core–shell structure. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol with acrylic polymer shell. • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol was fabricated by photo-induced microencapsulation. • Acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules with manganese-ion complexation
Separation/preconcentration of copper and cadmium using TiO2 core-Au shell nanoparticles modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and their slurry analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry were described. For this purpose, at first, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were coated with gold shell by reducing the chloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and then modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The characterization of modified nanoparticles was performed using ultra-violet spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Copper and cadmium were then collected on the prepared sorbent by batch method. The solid phase loaded with the analytes was separated by centrifugation and the supernatant was removed. Finally, the precipitate was slurried and directly aspirated into the flame for the determination of analytes. Thus, elution step and its all drawbacks were eliminated. The effects of pH, amount of sorbent, slurry volume, sample volume and diverse ions on the recovery were investigated. After optimization of experimental parameters, the analytes in different certified reference materials and spiked water samples were quantitatively recovered with 5% RSD. The analytes were enriched up to 20-fold. Limits of detection (N = 10, 3σ) for copper and cadmium were 0.28 and 0.15 ng mL-1, respectively.
Shell model analysis of N = 82 isotones above 132Sn
Nuclei with up to 6 protons added to 132Sn are described within a truncated shell model basis formed by the proton orbits 0g7/2, 1d5/2, 1d3/2, 2s1/2 and 0h11/2. Single-particle energies and two-body interaction matrix elements are determined from experimental excitation energies in 133Sb and 134Te. These parameters are then used for calculating levels in 135I, 136Xe, 137Cs and 138Ba. The calculated energies agree well with experimental values in these 4 nuclei. (author)
Faceting control in core-shell GaN micropillars using selective epitaxy
Sergiy Krylyuk
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of large-area, vertically aligned GaN epitaxial core-shell micropillar arrays. The two-step process consists of inductively coupled plasma (ICP etching of lithographically patterned GaN-on-Si substrate to produce an array of micropillars followed by selective growth of GaN shells over these pillars using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE. The most significant aspect of the study is the demonstration of the sidewall facet control in the shells, ranging from {1 1 ̄ 01} semi-polar to {1 1 ̄ 00} non-polar planes, by employing a post-ICP chemical etch and by tuning the HVPE growth temperature. Room-temperature photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and Raman scattering measurements reveal substantial reduction of parasitic yellow luminescence as well as strain-relaxation in the core-shell structures. In addition, X-ray diffraction indicates improved crystal quality after the shell formation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of selective epitaxy on micro-/nano- engineered templates for realizing high-quality GaN-on-Si devices.
van der Waals interaction between an atom and a spherical plasma shell
The van der Waals interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach. Thin sphere models the fullerene. We put the sphere into a spherical cavity inside the infinite dielectric media then calculate the energy of vacuum fluctuations in the context of the ζ-function approach. The interaction energy for a single atom is obtained from this expression in the limit of the rare media. The Casimir-Polder expression for an atom and plate is recovered in the limit of the infinite radius of the sphere. Assuming a finite radius of the sphere, the interaction energy of an atom falls down to a third power of distance between the atom and sphere for short distances and to a seventh power for large distances from the sphere. Numerically the interaction energy is 3.8 eV for the hydrogen atom placed on the surface of the sphere with parameters of fullerene C60. We also show that the polarizability of fullerene is merely a cube of its radius.
Deuteron-and alpha particle-induced K-shell ionisation of W and Au atoms
Deuteron - and alpha particle - induced K-shell ionisation cross sections for W and Au were obtained from thick-target measurements for low impact velocities. They were compared to proton-induced cross sections in the same range of velocities. Equal-velocity cross sections ratios are a very stringent test to the corrections incorporated to the PWBA calculations. The σd/σp data presented in this paper sheds some light on the Coulomb-deflection corrections discussed in the literature. The consequences of the inelastic character of the ionisation process are thoroughly examined. (Author)
Physical nature of the [S II]-bright shell nebulae N70 and N185
Zhang, Ning-Xiao; Jiang, Bing; Chen, Yang [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, R. A. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Williams, R. M. [Columbus State University, 4225 University Avenue, Columbus, GA 31907 (United States)
2014-09-01
N70 and N185 are two large (≥100 pc in diameter) shell nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Their high [S II]/Hα ratios rival those of supernova remnants (SNRs), but they are not confirmed as SNRs. To study their physical nature, we have obtained XMM-Newton X-ray observations and high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectroscopic observations of these two nebulae. The X-ray spectra of both nebulae can be well interpreted with an optically thin thermal (∼0.2 keV) plasma with the average LMC abundance in a collisional ionization equilibrium. N70 encompasses the OB association LH114. Although N70 has a modest expansion velocity and essentially thermal radio emission, its diffuse X-ray luminosity (∼6.1 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1}) is higher than that from a quiescent superbubble with N70's density, size, and expansion velocity; thus, N70 is most likely a superbubble that is recently energized by an interior SNR. N185 does not contain any known OB association, and its X-ray luminosity is an order of magnitude lower than expected if it is a quiescent superbubble. N185 has nonthermal radio emission and has high-velocity material expanding at nearly 200 km s{sup –1}, similar to many known SNRs in the LMC. Its X-ray luminosity (∼1.9 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1}) is also consistent with that of an evolved SNR. We therefore suggest that N185 is energized by a recent supernova.
Noh, Seung-Man; Ahn, Jae-Beum; Choi, Ki-Hyun; Park, Seung-Kyu
2015-09-01
Nano silica ball (NSB) core polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) shell hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized by atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method for the application to the clearcoat to enhance scratch resistance. The characteristics of the synthesized inorganic/organic hybrid material were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle size analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). The scratch resistance and light transmittance of the clearcoat were measured by a nano-scratch tester and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The average particle size of the NSB-PMMA hybrid compounds was 30 nm with narrow size distribution. Even 0.1 wt% loading of NSB-PMMA in the clearcoat dramatically enhanced the scratch resistance, about 40% increase in the force of the first fracture, while slightly reduced the light transmittance, about 5% only. PMID:26716303
Charge-transfer energy in closed-shell ion-atom interactions. [for H and Li ions in He
Alvarez-Rizzatti, M.; Mason, E. A.
1975-01-01
The importance of charge-transfer energy in the interactions between closed-shell ions and atoms is investigated. Ab initio calculations on H(plus)-He and Li(plus)-He are used as a guide for the construction of approximate methods for the estimation of the charge-transfer energy for more complicated systems. For many alkali ion-rate gas systems the charge-transfer energy is comparable to the induction energy in the region of the potential minimum, although for doubly charged alkaline-earth ions in rare gases the induction energy always dominates. Surprisingly, an empirical combination of repulsion energy plus asymptotic induction energy plus asymptotic dispersion energy seems to give a fair representation of the total interaction, especially if the repulsion energy is parameterized, despite the omission of any explicit charge-transfer contribution. More refined interaction models should consider the charge-transfer energy contribution.
The thermal Casimir–Polder interaction of an atom with a spherical plasma shell
The van der Waals and Casimir–Polder interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach at finite temperature. This configuration models the real interaction of an atom with fullerene. The Lifshitz approach is used to find the free energy. We find the explicit expression for the free energy and perform its analysis for (i) high and low temperatures, (ii) large radii of the sphere and (iii) short separation between an atom and sphere. At low temperatures the thermal part of the free energy approaches zero as the fourth power of the temperature, while for high temperatures it is proportional to the first degree of the temperature. The entropy of this system is positive for small radii of the sphere and it becomes negative at low temperatures and for large radii of the sphere. (paper)
The thermal Casimir-Polder interaction of an atom with spherical plasma shell
Khusnutdinov, Nail R.
2012-01-01
The van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach at finite temperature. This configuration models the real interaction of an atom with fullerene. The Lifshitz approach is used to find the free energy. We find the explicit expression for the free energy and perform the analysis of it for i) high and low temperatures, ii) large radii of sphere and ii) short sep...
We present in this communication a theoretical demonstration of up-down asymmetry in the relativistic (e, 2e) process for K-shell ionization of Cu, Ag and Au atoms. The theoretical formalism has been developed in plane wave Born approximation and in this approximation the triple differential cross section (TDCS) has been expressed in terms of a product of kinematical factors and atomic structure functions. The up-down asymmetry in the relativistic (e, 2e) process on K-shell of atoms has been shown to depend on the interference between the transition charge and component of the transition current perpendicular to the scattering plane. Further, the up-down asymmetry has been shown to depend on incident electron energy, atomic number of the target and scattering electron angle. (author)
Müller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Debnath, Ratan; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Wen, Baomei; Blanchard, Paul; Motayed, Abhishek; King, Matthew R.; Davydov, Albert V.; Christen, Jürgen
2016-05-01
Large arrays of GaN core-shell microrods were fabricated on Si(111) substrates applying a combined bottom-up and top-down approach which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of patterned GaN films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and selective overgrowth of obtained GaN/Si pillars using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The structural and optical properties of individual core-shell microrods have been studied with a nanometer scale spatial resolution using low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) directly performed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). SEM, TEM, and CL measurements reveal the formation of distinct growth domains during the HVPE overgrowth. A high free-carrier concentration observed in the non-polar \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} HVPE shells is assigned to in-diffusion of silicon atoms from the substrate. In contrast, the HVPE shells directly grown on top of the c-plane of the GaN pillars reveal a lower free-carrier concentration.
Nuclear shell effects in neutron-rich nuclei around N=20 and N=32,34
Nuclear shell effects in neutron-rich nuclei around N=20 and N=32,34 were studied by means of reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B(E2) and B(M1) values. To this end a series of Coulomb-excitation experiments, employing radioactive 31Mg and 29,30Na beams, as well as a precise lifetime experiment of excited states in 56Cr were performed. The collective properties of excited states of 31Mg were the subject of a Coulomb-excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive 31Mg beam at a beam energy of 3.0 MeV/u. The beam intensity amounted to 3000 ions/s on average. The highly efficient MINIBALL setup was employed, consisting of eight HPGe cluster detectors for γ-ray detection and a segmented Si-detector for coincident particle detection. The level scheme of 31Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the observed 945 keV state yielded 5/2+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of 30,31,32Mg establishes that for the N=19 magnesium isotope not only the ground state but also excited states are largely dominated by a deformed pf intruder configuration. This implies that 31Mg is part of the so-called ''island of inversion''. Coulomb-excitation experiments of radioactive 29,30Na were carried out at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, at a final beam energy of 2.85 MeV/u. De-excitation γ rays were detected by the MINIBALL γ-ray spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a segmented Si-detector. Despite rather low beam intensities transition probabilities to the first excited states were deduced. Results of very recently published experiments at MSU and TRIUMF could be largely confirmed and extended. The measured B(E2) values agree well with shell-model predictions, supporting the idea that in the sodium isotopic chain the ground-state wave function contains a significant intruder admixture already at N=18, with N=19 having an almost pure 2p2h deformed ground-state configuration
Isolation of atomically precise mixed ligand shell PdAu24 clusters
Sels, Annelies; Barrabés, Noelia; Knoppe, Stefan; Bürgi, Thomas
2016-05-01
Exposure of PdAu24(2-PET)18 (2-PET: 2-phenylethylthiolate) to BINAS (1,1-binaphthyl-2,2-dithiol) leads to species of composition PdAu24(2-PET)18-2x(BINAS)x due to ligand exchange reactions. The BINAS adsorbs in a specific mode that bridges the apex and one core site of two adjacent S(R)-Au-S(R)-Au-S(R) units. Species with different compositions of the ligand shell can be separated by HPLC. Furthermore, site isomers can be separated. For the cluster with exactly one BINAS in its ligand shell only one isomer is expected due to the symmetry of the cluster, which is confirmed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Addition of a second BINAS to the ligand shell leads to several isomers. In total six distinguishable isomers are possible for PdAu24(2-PET)14(BINAS)2 including two pairs of enantiomers concerning the adsorption pattern. At least four distinctive isomers are separated by HPLC. Calculations indicate that one of the six possibilities is energetically disfavoured. Interestingly, diastereomers, which have an enantiomeric relationship concerning the adsorption pattern of chiral BINAS, have significantly different stabilities. The relative intensity of the observed peaks in the HPLC does not reflect the statistical weight of the different isomers. This shows, as supported by the calculations, that the first adsorbed BINAS molecule influences the adsorption of the second incoming BINAS ligand. In addition, experiments with the corresponding Pt doped gold cluster reveal qualitatively the same behaviour, however with slightly different relative abundances of the corresponding isomers. This finding points towards the influence of electronic effects on the isomer distribution. Even for clusters containing more than two BINAS ligands a limited number of isomers were found, which is in contrast to the corresponding situation for monothiols, where the number of possible isomers is much larger.Exposure of PdAu24(2-PET)18 (2-PET: 2-phenylethylthiolate) to BINAS (1
Organic–inorganic composite microspheres with PS as a core and CeO2 as a shell were synthesized by in situ chemical precipitation method. The size of PS core was 117, 163, 206, and 241 nm, respectively, and the shell thickness was about 10 nm. The CeO2 shell was composed of a large number of nanoparticles, of which the size was 4–6 nm. Atomic force microscopy was employed to probe the mechanical properties of core–shell structured ceria-coated polystyrene (PS/CeO2) composite microspheres. On the basis of Hertz’s theory of contact mechanics, compressive moduli were measured by the analysis of force–displacement curves captured on the microsphere samples. For a fixed CeO2 shell thickness, the Young’s modulus of composite microspheres increased with an increase of PS core size. The calculated Young’s moduli (E) values of composites for 136, 185, 242, and 261 nm in diameter were 5.78 ± 0.9, 7.23 ± 1.3, 11.46 ± 1.7, and 14.54 ± 1.4 GPa, respectively. The results revealed the effect of the CeO2 shell on the elastic deformation of the PS core. This approach will provide fundamental insights into the actual role of organic/inorganic core/shell composite abrasives in chemical mechanical polishing.
Time-resolved electron spectroscopy of atomic inner-shell dynamics
The extremely fast evolution of core-hole relaxation was not yet observable directly in the time-domain. A novel technique combining core-hole creation with attosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulses and electron wave-packet sampling with a pulsed laser-field provides the necessary experimental tools. As a benchmark, the exponential decay of 3d holes in atomic krypton was tracked yielding a decay constant of 8 fs
Restricted Open-Shell Kohn-Sham Theory IV: Expressions for N Unpaired Electrons
Schulte, Marius; Frank, Irmgard
2008-01-01
We present an energy expression for restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham theory for N unpaired electrons and single-electron operators for all multiplets formed from up to five unpaired electrons. It is shown that it is possible to derive an explicit energy expression for all low-spin multiplets of systems that exhibit neither radial nor cylindrical symmetry.
Some Inequalities for Multiple Integrals on the n-Dimensional Ellipsoid, Spherical Shell, and Ball
Yan Sun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The authors establish some new inequalities of Pólya type for multiple integrals on the n-dimensional ellipsoid, spherical shell, and ball, in terms of bounds of the higher order derivatives of the integrands. These results generalize the main result in the paper by Feng Qi, Inequalities for a multiple integral, Acta Mathematica Hungarica (1999.
Some Inequalities for Multiple Integrals on the n-Dimensional Ellipsoid, Spherical Shell, and Ball
Yan Sun; Hai-Tao Yang; Feng Qi
2013-01-01
The authors establish some new inequalities of Pólya type for multiple integrals on the n-dimensional ellipsoid, spherical shell, and ball, in terms of bounds of the higher order derivatives of the integrands. These results generalize the main result in the paper by Feng Qi, Inequalities for a multiple integral, Acta Mathematica Hungarica (1999).
A Derivation of an Off-Shell N = (2,2) Supergravity Chiral Projection Operator
Gates, S J Jr
2009-01-01
Utilizing the known off-shell formulation of 2D, N = (2,2) supergravity, containing a finite number of auxiliary fields, there is shown to exist a simple form for a 'chiral projection operator' and an explicit expression for it is given.
Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne , Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values. (author)
Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner-shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne, Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake--off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values.
Shape coexistence and the N=28 shell closure far from stability
Sarazin, F.; Savajols, H.; Mittig, W. [and others
1999-07-01
The masses of 31 neutron rich nuclei in the range A=29-47 have been measured. The precision of 19 masses has been significantly improved and 12 masses were measured for the first time. The neutron rich Cl, S and P isotopes are seen to exhibit a change in shell structure around N=28. Comparison with shell model and relativistic mean field calculations demonstrate that deformed prolate ground state configurations associated with shape coexistence are necessary to explain the experimental data. Direct evidence for shape coexistence is found in the observation of an isomer in {sup 43}S. (authors)
Extended shell-model calculation for even N=82 isotones with realistic effective interactions
Holt, A; Osnes, E; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Suhonen, J
1997-01-01
The shell model within the $2s1d0g_{7/2}0h_{11/2}$ shell is applied to calculate nuclear structure properties of the even Z=52 - 62, N=82 isotones. The results are compared with experimental data and with the results of a quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculation. The interaction used in these calculations is a realistic two-body G-matrix interaction derived from modern meson-exchange potential models for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. For the shell model all the two-body matrix elements are renormalized by the $\\hat{Q}$-box method whereas for the QRPA the effective interaction is defined by the G-matrix.
Nuclear shell effects in neutron-rich nuclei around N=20 and N=32,34
Seidlitz, M
Nuclear shell effects in neutron-rich nuclei around N=20 and N=32,34 were studied by means of reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B(E2) and B(M1) values. To this end a series of Coulomb-excitation experiments, employing radioactive 31Mg and 29,30Na beams, as well as a precise lifetime experiment of excited states in 56Cr were performed. The collective properties of excited states of 31Mg were the subject of a Coulomb-excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive 31Mg beam at a beam energy of 3.0 MeV/u. The beam intensity amounted to 3000 ions/s on average. The highly efficient MINIBALL setup was employed, consisting of eight HPGe cluster detectors for gamma-ray detection and a segmented Si-detector for coincident particle detection. The level scheme of 31Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the observed 945 keV state yielded 5/2+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of 30,31,32Mg establishes that f...
A study of the kinetic energy density functional for atoms
This paper studies the rigorous kinetic energy density functional at the level of the Hartree-Fock method for closed electron shell atoms. The behaviour of the kinetic energy and its components, is analysed as the atomic number N increases. It is shown that the increments of the specific energies for two consecutive closed electron shells atoms depend distinctly on the electron configuration of the last electron shell. 35 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs
Inner-shell magnetic dipole transition in Tm atom as a candidate for optical lattice clocks
Sukachev, D; Tolstikhina, I; Kalganova, E; Vishnyakova, G; Khabarova, K; Tregubov, D; Golovizin, A; Sorokin, V; Kolachevsky, N
2016-01-01
We consider a narrow magneto-dipole transition in the $^{169}$Tm atom at the wavelength of $1.14\\,\\mu$m as a candidate for a 2D optical lattice clock. Calculating dynamic polarizabilities of the two clock levels $[\\text{Xe}]4f^{13}6s^2 (J=7/2)$ and $[\\text{Xe}]4f^{13}6s^2 (J=5/2)$ in the spectral range from $250\\,$nm to $1200\\,$nm, we suggest the "magic" wavelength for the optical lattice at $807\\,$nm. Frequency shifts due to black-body radiation (BBR), the van der Waals interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and other effects which can perturb the transition frequency are calculated. The transition at $1.14\\,\\mu$m demonstrates low sensitivity to the BBR shift corresponding to $8\\times10^{-17}$ in fractional units at room temperature which makes it an interesting candidate for high-performance optical clocks. The total estimated frequency uncertainty is less than $5 \\times 10^{-18}$ in fractional units. By direct excitation of the $1.14\\,\\mu$m transition in Tm atoms loaded into an optical dipole ...
We consider, for atoms from 55Cs to 80Hg, the effective atomic radius (rear), which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He2. The values of rear are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s,
Hiroshi Tatewaki
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We consider, for atoms from 55Cs to 80Hg, the effective atomic radius (rear, which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He2. The values of rear are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s, . The value of rear decreases from 55Cs to 56Ba and undergoes increases and decreases with rising nuclear charge from 57La to 70Y b. In fact rear is understood as comprising two interlaced sequences; one consists of 57La, 58Ce, and 64Gd, which have electronic configuration (4fn−1(5d1(6s2, and the remaining atoms have configuration (4fn(6s2. The sphere defined by rear contains 85%–90% of the 6s electrons. From 71Lu to 80Hg the radius rear also involves two sequences, corresponding to the two configurations 5dn+16s1 and 5dn6s2. The radius rear according to the present methodology is considerably larger than rvdW obtained by other investigators, some of who have found values of rvdW close to .
Stability of atoms in the anionic domain (Z<N)
Gil, G
2013-01-01
We study the stability and universal behaviour of the ionization energy of N-electron atoms with nuclear charge Z in the anionic domain (Z<N), considering the nuclear charge Z as an arbitrary (non-integral) parameter. HF and CISD ground state energy calculations were performed for systems with N and N-1 electrons to compute the ionization energies for nuclear charges ranging from the neutral atom region to the anionic instability threshold. As testing systems we choose inert gases (He-like, Ne-like and Ar-like isoelectronic sequences) and alkali metals (Li-like, Na-like, K-like sequences). From the results, it is apparent that, for inert gases case, the stability relation with N is completely inverted in the singly-charged anion region (Z=N-1) with respect to the neutral atom region (Z=N), i.e. larger systems are more stable than the smaller ones. We devised a semi-analytical model (inspired by the zero-range forces theory) which lead us to establish the ionization energy dependence on the nuclear charge n...
DC Stark effect on cold Rydberg atom nD + nD pair collisions
We have observed a significant yield of (n + 2)P atoms after the excitation of nD Rydberg atoms in a Rb MOT, where 27 < n < 41, which can be attributed to binary collisions between Rydberg atoms. We have measured its dependence on principle quantum number as well as DC electric field. These results are compared to a model which uses the Landau-Zener method to calculate transition probabilities at avoided crossings in the two-atom potential energy curves, taking into account the effects of the DC Stark effect due to the background electric field.
Off-Shell N=2 Linear Multiplets in Five Dimensions
Ozkan, Mehmet
2016-01-01
We present a superconformal tensor calculus for an arbitrary number of five dimensional N=2 linear multiplets. We also demonstrate how to construct higher derivative invariants, and produce higher order supersymmetric off-diagonal models. Finally, we show the procedure required for the derivation of the supersymmetric completion of the non-Abelian $F^4$ action.
The thermal Casimir-Polder interaction of an atom with spherical plasma shell
Khusnutdinov, Nail R
2012-01-01
The van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach at finite temperature. The Lifshits approach is used to find the free energy. We find the close expression for the free energy and make the analysis of it for i) high and low temperatures, ii) large radii of sphere and ii) short distance from sphere. At low temperatures the thermal part of the free energy tends to zero as forth power of the temperature while for high temperatures it is proportional to the first degree of the temperature. We show that the entropy of this system is positive for small radii of sphere and it becomes negative at low temperatures and for large radii of the sphere.
Inner-shell correlations and Sturm expansions in coupled perturbation calculations of atomic systems
Sherstyuk, A.I.; Solov`eva, G.S. [Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
1995-04-01
It is shown that virtual Hartree-Fock orbitals in Sturm-type expansions can be used to calculate the response of atomic systems to an external field within the framework of the coupled perturbation theory with allowance for correlation effects. The corrected electron-electron interaction in a system with field-distorted orbitals is considered by adding a nonlocal potential to a one-electron Hartree-Fock operator within each group of equivalent elections. The remaining correlation effects are calculated by solving a system of equations for corrections to the radial functions. The system is solved iteratively, with each subsequent iteration corresponding to a correction of an increasingly higher order in the electron--electron interaction. The explicit expression derived for the polarizability contains one-and two-particle radial integrals of the Sturm functions.
Inner-shell correlations and Sturm expansions in coupled perturbation calculations of atomic systems
It is shown that virtual Hartree-Fock orbitals in Sturm-type expansions can be used to calculate the response of atomic systems to an external field within the framework of the coupled perturbation theory with allowance for correlation effects. The corrected electron-electron interaction in a system with field-distorted orbitals is considered by adding a nonlocal potential to a one-electron Hartree-Fock operator within each group of equivalent elections. The remaining correlation effects are calculated by solving a system of equations for corrections to the radial functions. The system is solved iteratively, with each subsequent iteration corresponding to a correction of an increasingly higher order in the electron--electron interaction. The explicit expression derived for the polarizability contains one-and two-particle radial integrals of the Sturm functions
Hopersky, A.N. E-mail: phys@rgups.ru; Novikov, S.A.; Chuvenkov, V.V
2002-04-01
The absolute values and shape of differential cross-section of the process of the anomalous elastic scattering for non-zero angle are investigated within non-relativistic approximation for linearly polarized X-ray radiation scattered by multicharged atomic ions Ne{sup 6+} in the range of the ionization threshold of 1s-shell. The many-particle effects of radial rearrangement of electron shells in the field of an inner 1s-vacancy and the effect of vacancy stabilization are taken into account. The results of the work are predictions.
Realizing exactly solvable SU (N ) magnets with thermal atoms
Beverland, Michael E.; Alagic, Gorjan; Martin, Michael J.; Koller, Andrew P.; Rey, Ana M.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.
2016-05-01
We show that n thermal fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in a flat-bottom trap allow one to robustly implement a spin model displaying two symmetries: the Sn symmetry that permutes atoms occupying different vibrational levels of the trap and the SU (N ) symmetry associated with N nuclear spin states. The symmetries make the model exactly solvable, which, in turn, enables the analytic study of dynamical processes such as spin diffusion in this SU (N ) system. We also show how to use this system to generate entangled states that allow for Heisenberg-limited metrology. This highly symmetric spin model should be experimentally realizable even when the vibrational levels are occupied according to a high-temperature thermal or an arbitrary nonthermal distribution.
Study on nuclear structures of Te isotopes beyond N = 82 shell closure
Lee, Pilsoo; Lee, Chun Sik; Moon, Chang-Bum; Eurica Ribf-87 Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
Tellurium which has two valence protons above the Z = 50 proton shell closure is well known for collective behavior in low-lying states. Therefore, Te isotopes are known to be a good test ground for studying nuclear collective modes but also the effect of neutron-proton interaction on the shell evolution with variation of neutron numbers owing to the valence protons above Z = 50 . For this reason Te isotopes always attract our attention, however, most available spectroscopic nuclear data of Te isotopes remains below N = 82 , and experimental data is severely limited above N = 82 . Meanwhile, recent study of 138Te by means of β- γ spectroscopy with fission fragments of 238U has provided us with new clues on excited states in 138Te, and the new experimental result has proposed new excited states that were unexpected in the previous theoretical studies. This study aims at understanding structural evolution in Te isotopes above N = 82 with respect to below N = 82 including the new data set available today. In this presentation we discuss the nuclear structures and effective interactions in Te isotopes above N = 82 based on the nuclear shell model and interacting boson approximations.
The N=50 Shell gap at 78Ni from high-spin spectroscopy
Neutron-rich nuclei close to shell gaps are particularly interesting since, when compared with the shell-model prediction, they allow to search for anomalies into the shell structure [1-3]. These nuclei are difficult to reach, particularly in the high-spin states, since they can not be produced via fusion-evaporation reactions. The study of the N=50 isotones towards the doubly closed 78Ni nucleus, which is the main aim of this work, will possibly enable to understand the size and eventually the evolution of the N=50 energy gap far from stability. The level structures of the N=50 83As, 82Ge and 81Ga nuclei have been investigated by means of multi-nucleon transfer reactions using the CLARA [4] 7-detector array in coincidence with the reaction products selected into the PRISMA [5-7] magnetic spectrometer at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL). In case γ-γ data from CLARA is not sufficient, the level schemes of three N=50 isotones have been built using the complimentary γ coincidence information from two thick target experiments, where both the projectile-like and the target-like fragments were stopped in the target. Data in these experiments has been collected at LNL, using the GASP detector array [8], and at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), using the Gammasphere array [9], respectively. The spin assignments of the excited levels have been determined on the basis of the decay branchings and on the asymmetry ratios [10]. Newly obtained experimental information have been used to test the stability of the N=50 shell closure in the region of 78Ni. Through the comparison of the experimentally determined level energies with the results of detailed shell model calculations an energy gap value of 4.7(2) MeV is extracted for Z=28. This result is in good agreement with the prediction of the finite-range liquid-drop model excluding a weakening of the N=50 shell gap down to Z=28 [11].(author)
Nandy, D K; Sahoo, B K
2014-01-01
We report the implementation of equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOMCC) method in the four-component relativistic framework with the spherical atomic potential to generate the excited states from a closed-shell atomic configuration. This theoretical development will be very useful to carry out high precision calculations of varieties of atomic properties in many atomic systems. We employ this method to calculate excitation energies of many low-lying states in a few Ne-like highly charged ions, such as Cr XV, Fe XVII, Co XVIII and Ni XIX ions, and compare them against their corresponding experimental values to demonstrate the accomplishment of the EOMCC implementation. The considered ions are apt to substantiate accurate inclusion of the relativistic effects in the evaluation of the atomic properties and are also interesting for the astrophysical studies. Investigation of the temporal variation of the fine structure constant (\\alpha) from the astrophysical observations is one of the modern research problems...
Guenaut, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Delahaye, P; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Libert, J; Lunney, M D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C
2007-01-01
High-precision mass measurements of more than thirty neutron-rich nuclides around the Z=28 closed proton shell were performed with the triple-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN to address the question of a possible neutron shell closure at N=40. The results, for 57,60,64-69Ni (Z=28), 65-74,76Cu (Z=29), and 63-65,68-78Ga (Z=31), have a relative uncertainty of the order of 10^8. In particular, the masses of 72-74,76Cu have been measured for the first time. We analyse the resulting mass surface for signs of magicity, comparing the behavior of N=40 to that of known magic numbers and to mid-shell behavior. Contrary to nuclear spectroscopy studies, no indications of a shell or sub-shell closure are found for N=40.
Guenaut, C.; Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Beck, D. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)
2007-01-15
High-precision mass measurement of more than thirty neutron-rich nuclides around the Z=28 closed proton shell were performed with the triple-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN to address the question of a possible neutron shell closure at N=40. The results for {sup 57,60,64-69}Ni, {sup 65-74,76}Cu (Z=29), and {sup 63-65,68-78}Ga (Z=31), have a relative uncertainty of the order of 10{sup -8}. In particular, the masses of {sup 72-74,76}Cu have been measured for the first time. We analyse the resulting mass surface for signs of magicity, comparing the behavior of N=40 to that of known magic numbers and to mid-shell behavior. Contrary to nuclear spectroscopy studies, no indications of a shell or sub-shell closure are found for N=40. (authors)
Xu, M Z; Bačić, Z.; Hutson, J. M.
2002-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the bound states of the open-shell OH radical in its ground electronic state(X2Π) interacting with n Ar atoms, for n from 4 to 12. After freezing the geometry of the Arn cage or subunit at the equilibrium structure (preceding paper), we carry out nonadiabatic five-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations on two coupled potential energy surfaces, using an extension of the method previously applied to closed-shell ArnHFclusters [J. Chem. Phys. 103, 18...
Nanoencapsulation of n-alkanes with poly(styrene-co-ethylacrylate) shells for thermal energy storage
Highlights: • Four series of nanocapsules containing n-alkanes were synthesized in poly(styrene-co-ethylacrylate). • The emulsion co-polymerization technique was used. • Influence of core:shell ratio on encapsulation and thermal properties reported. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized a series of four nanocapsules containing n-alkanes (CnH2n+2), namely tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, and heptadecane, in poly(styrene-co-ethylacrylate) using an emulsion copolymerization method. The nanocapsules were characterized according to their geometric profiles, phase transition temperatures, phase transition heats, mean particle sizes, and chemical stabilities by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, we also focused on the effect of the core/shell mass ratio on the phase change properties of the nanocapsules. We found that microcapsules were synthesized successfully and that the best core/shell mass ratio was 3:1 for this study. These results indicate that encapsulated n-alkanes with poly(styrene-co-ethylacrylate) have an excellent potential for energy storage
Core-shell Si@TiO2 nanosphere anode by atomic layer deposition for Li-ion batteries
Bai, Ying; Yan, Dong; Yu, Caiyan; Cao, Lina; Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Dai, Sheng; Lu, Junling; Zhang, Weifeng
2016-03-01
Silicon (Si) has been regarded as next-generation anode for high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high Li storage capacity (4200 mA h g-1). However, the mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade critically hinder its practical application. In this regard, we demonstrate that nanocoating of Si spheres with a 3 nm titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via atomic layer deposition (ALD) can utmostly balance the high conductivity and the good structural stability to improve the cycling stability of Si core material. The resultant sample, Si@TiO2-3 nm core-shell nanospheres, exhibits the best electrochemical performance of all with a highest initial Coulombic efficiency and specific charge capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.1C (82.39% and 1580.3 mA h g-1). In addition to making full advantage of the ALD technique, we believe that our strategy and comprehension in coating the electrode and the active material could provide a useful pathway towards enhancing Si anode material itself and community of LIBs.
Irreps and off-shell invariant actions of the N-extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics
The complete classification of the irreducible representations of the N-extended one-dimensional supersymmetry algebra linearly realized on a finite number of fields is presented. Off-shell invariant actions of one-dimensional supersymmetric sigma models are constructed. The role of both Clifford algebras and the Cayley-Dickson's doubling of algebras in association with the N-extended supersymmetries is discussed. We prove in specific examples that the octonionic structure constants enter the N = 8 invariant actions as coupling constants. We further explain how to relate one-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems to the dimensional reduction of higher-dimensional supersymmetric theories. (author)
N=28 shell closure : shape coexistence and spin-orbit contribution
One of the fundamental questions, which emerge from the study of nuclei far from stability, concerns the persistence of the magic character of certain configurations of protons and neutrons. From previous measurements around the N=28 magic number, it appears that this shell closure is especially weakening. In this context, a mass measurement experiment by a time of flight method around N=28 (Z43S in the same experiment and its interpretation by a shell model calculation confirm the analysis of the masses and constitutes the first evidence of shape coexistence around N=28. At the same time, an estimation of the evolution of the contribution of the spin-orbit coupling far from stability, partially responsible of the magic numbers sequence, showed that, although non-negligible, it is not sufficient to explain the vanishing of the shell closure. Through this study, it appeared extremely difficult to separate the contribution of the deformation from the one of the spin-orbit coupling in spectroscopic experiments. A feasibility study has thus been undertaken concerning a polarised proton and deuteron target to measure directly the evolution of the spin-orbit potential as a function of the isospin through elastic scattering experiments. (author)
JIN Feng-Tao; YUAN Jian-Min
2005-01-01
@@ The open M-shell opacity of a hot bromine plasma has been calculated by using a detailed level accounting (DLA )model. One-electron orbitals obtained by solving the fully relativistic Dirac-Fock equations are used to obtain the atomic levels and the radiative transition oscillator strengths. Only the level mixing within the same electron configuration is considered to reduce the complexity of the calculations. Detailed comparisons have been made between the results of the DLA and average atom (AA) models. Good agreements are found for both the M-shell transition arrays and the Planck mean opacity but there are differences for the line positions in the 2p → 3d absorption region due to the statistical treatment for the one-electron orbitals in the AA model.
Windows PowerShell : Toimialueympäristön asennus ja hallinta
Kuusniemi, Tapani
2015-01-01
Työssä esitellään Windows PowerShellia (myöhemmin PowerShell) toimialueympäristön asennuksessa ja hallinnassa. Työssä käydään läpi PowerShellin kehitystä sekä eri versioiden uusia ominaisuuksia ja PowerShellin tekniikoita. PowerShellia esitellään tietoturvan näkökulmasta, millä tavalla tietoturva on otettu huomioon eri määritykset ja asetukset. Näistä omana osiona on skriptitiedostojen allekirjoitus. Lisäksi esitellään toimialueen keskeisimmät käsitteet ja toteutetaan toimialueen asen...
Ion Translational Energy Distributions from Inner-shell Dissociative ionization of N2O, NH3 and SF6.
Locht, Robert; Leyh, Bernard; Jochims, H.W.; Denzer, W.; Baumgärtel, H.
1992-01-01
The IRPD method is applied to the dissociative ionization in the inner-shell ionization region for NO+, N2+, O+, N+ and N++/N2O. Particular attention has been focussed on the production and ion kientic energy distribution of H+/NH3.
2007-01-01
The evolution of the unknown ground-state ${\\beta}$-decay properties of the neutron-rich $^{84-89}$Ge, $^{90-93}$Se and $^{102-104}$Sr isotopes near the r-process path is of high interest for the study of the abundance peaks around the N=50 and N=82 neutron shells. At ISOLDE, beams of certain elements with sufficient isotopic purity are produced as molecular sidebands rather than atomic beams. This applies e.g, to germanium, separated as GeS$^{+}$, selenium separated as SeCO$^{+}$ and strontium separated as SrF$^{+}$. However, in case of neutron-rich isotopes produced in actinide targets, new "isobaric" background of atomic ions appears on the mass of the molecular sideband. For this particular case, the ECR charge breeder, positioned in the experimental hall after ISOLDE first mass separation, can be advantageously used as a purification device, by breaking the molecules and removing the molecular contaminants. This proposal indicates our interest in the study of basic nuclear structure properties of neutron...
On the Dirac eigenvalues as observables of the on-shell N = 2D = 4 Euclidean supergravity
Vancea, Ion
2008-12-01
We generalize previous works on the Dirac eigenvalues as dynamical variables of Euclidean gravity and N =1 D = 4 supergravity to on-shell N = 2 D = 4 Euclidean supergravity. The covariant phase space of the theory is defined as the space of the solutions of the equations of motion modulo the on-shell gauge transformations. In this space we define the Poisson brackets and compute their value for the Dirac eigenvalues.
On the Dirac Eigenvalues as Observables of the on-shell N=2 D=4 Euclidean Supergravity
Vancea, Ion V.
2004-01-01
We generalize previous works on the Dirac eigenvalues as dynamical variables of the Euclidean gravity and N=1 D=4 supergravity to on-shell N=2 D=4 Euclidean supergravity. The covariant phase space of the theory is defined as as the space of the solutions of the equations of motion modulo the on-shell gauge transformations. In this space we define the Poisson brackets and compute their value for the Dirac eigenvalues.
Spherical core-shell magnetic particles constructed by main-chain palladium N-heterocyclic carbenes
Zhao, Huaixia; Li, Liuyi; Wang, Jinyun; Wang, Ruihu
2015-02-01
The encapsulation of the functional species on magnetic core is a facile approach for the synthesis of core-shell magnetic materials, and surface encapsulating matrices play crucial roles in regulating their properties and applications. In this study, two core-shell palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) particles (Fe3O4@PNP1 and Fe3O4@PNP2) were prepared by a one-pot reaction of semi-rigid tripodal imidazolium salts and palladium acetate in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles are encapsulated inside the main-chain palladium, which act as cores. The conjugated effects of triphenyltriazine and triphenylbenzene in the imidazolium salts have important influence on their physical properties and catalytic performances. Fe3O4@PNP2 shows better recyclability than Fe3O4@PNP1. Unexpectedly, Pd(ii) is well maintained after six consecutive catalytic runs in Fe3O4@PNP2, and Pd(0) and Pd(ii) coexist in Fe3O4@PNP1 under the same conditions; moreover, the morphologies of these spherical core-shell particles show no significant variation after six consecutive catalytic runs.The encapsulation of the functional species on magnetic core is a facile approach for the synthesis of core-shell magnetic materials, and surface encapsulating matrices play crucial roles in regulating their properties and applications. In this study, two core-shell palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) particles (Fe3O4@PNP1 and Fe3O4@PNP2) were prepared by a one-pot reaction of semi-rigid tripodal imidazolium salts and palladium acetate in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles are encapsulated inside the main-chain palladium, which act as cores. The conjugated effects of triphenyltriazine and triphenylbenzene in the imidazolium salts have important influence on their physical properties and catalytic performances. Fe3O4@PNP2 shows better recyclability than Fe3O4@PNP1. Unexpectedly, Pd(ii) is well maintained after six consecutive catalytic runs in
Cause of the charge radius isotope shift at the N=126 shell gap
Goddard P.M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss the mechanism causing the ‘kink’ in the charge radius isotope shift at the N = 126 shell closure. The occupation of the 1i11/2 neutron orbital is the decisive factor for reproducing the experimentally observed kink. We investigate whether this orbital is occupied or not by different Skyrme effective interactions as neutrons are added above the shell closure. Our results demonstrate that several factors can cause an appreciable occupation of the 1i11/2 neutron orbital, including the magnitude of the spin-orbit field, and the isoscalar effective mass of the Skyrme interaction. The symmetry energy of the effective interaction has little influence upon its ability to reproduce the kink.
Extremes of nuclear structure: discovery of the shell closures N=162 and Z=108
Collaborative Dubna-Livermore experiments performed in 1993-1995 by employing the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator have resulted in the discovery of the new nuclides 262104, 265106, 266106, 267108 and 273110. These nuclides represent the heaviest isotopes of elements 104, 106, 108 and 110 produced up to now. The identification of 273110 signifies the observation of the element 110. Decay properties determined for these new species establish the existence of the shell closures at N=162 and Z=108 predicted by modern macroscopic-microscopic nuclear theory. The findings of the present series of experiments create novel opportunities for extending the nuclear domain at its upper edge and offer the predicted spherical shells at N≅178-184 and Z=114 to be a major challenge for future experimental explorations. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs
Core–shell nanowire (NW) arrays, which feature a vertically aligned n-type Si NW core and a p-type α-Bi2O3 shell, are developed as a highly efficient photoanode that is suitable for water splitting. The morphology and structure of the heterostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The deposition of Bi2O3 nanolayers on the surface of the smooth Si NWs causes the surface of the NWs to become rough. The as-prepared core–shell NW photoelectrode has a relatively low reflectance in the visible light region, suggesting good light absorption. The core–shell NW arrays show greatly improved photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance. Photoelectrochemical stability for over 16 h under constant light illumination and fixed bias potential was achieved, illustrating the good stability of this core–shell NW photoanode. These Si/Bi2O3 core–shell NW arrays effectively combine the light absorption ability of the Si NWs and the wide energy gap and chemical stability of Bi2O3 for water splitting. This study furthers the attempts to design photoanodes from low-cost, abundant materials for applications in water splitting and photovoltaics. (paper)
First-principles determination of the structure of NaN and NaN- clusters with up to 80 atoms.
Aguado, Andrés; Kostko, Oleg
2011-04-28
We have performed an extensive computational search for the global minimum (GM) structures of both neutral and anionic sodium clusters with up to 80 atoms. The theoretical framework combines basin hopping unbiased optimizations based on a Gupta empirical potential (EP) and subsequent reoptimization of many candidate structures at the density functional theory level. An important technical point is that the candidates are selected based on cluster shape descriptors rather than the relative stabilities of the EP model. An explicit comparison of the electronic density of states of cluster anions to experimental photoemission spectra suggests that the correct GM structures have been identified for all but two sizes (N = 47 and 70). This comparison validates the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Furthermore, our GM structures either match or improve over the results of previous works for all sizes. Sodium clusters are seen to accommodate strain very efficiently because: (a) many structures are based on polyicosahedral packing; (b) others are based on Kasper polyhedra and show polytetrahedral order; (c) finally, some (N + 1)-atom structures are obtained by incorporating one adatom into the outermost atomic shell of a compact N-atom cluster, at the cost of increasing the bond strain. GM structures of neutrals and anions differ for most sizes. Cluster stabilities are analyzed and shown to be dominated by electron shell closing effects for the smaller clusters and by geometrical packing effects for the larger clusters. The critical size separating both regimes is around 55 atoms. Some implications for the melting behavior of sodium clusters are discussed. PMID:21528957
Wang, W. L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Geng, D. L.; Wei, B.
2016-03-01
Multilayer core-shell structures are frequently formed in polymers and alloys when temperature and concentration fields are well symmetrical spatially. Here we report that two- to five-layer core-shell microstructures were the dominant structural morphology of a binary F e50S n50 immiscible alloy solidified under the containerless and microgravity states within a drop tube. Three dimensional phase field simulation reveals that both the uniformly dispersive structure and the multilayer core-shells are the various metastable and transitional states of the liquid phase separation process. Only the two-layer core-shell is the most stable microstructure with the lowest chemical potential. Because of the suppression of Stokes motion, solutal Marangoni migration becomes important to drive the evolution of core-shell structures.
Consistent off-shell $pi N N$ vertex and nucleon self-energy
Kondratyuk, S.; Scholten, O.
1998-01-01
Published in: Phys. Rev. C 59 (1999) 1070-1080 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present a consistent calculation of half-off-shell form factors in the pion-nucleon vertex and the nucleon self-energy. Numerical results are presented which show evi
In three chapters different physical situations are described which have commonly the Coulomb interaction as driving force. The first two chapters study the Coulomb interactions in connection with the excitation of inner electron shells and the Coulomb excitation of nuclei in first order. In the third part on effect ofthe Coulomb interaction between electronic shell and nucleus is treated in second order (nuclear polarization), and its effect on the isotopic and isomeric shift is studied. (orig./HSI)
Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Robledo, L. M.; Sharma, M. M.
2015-06-01
The quadrupole collectivity in Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf and W nuclei with neutron numbers 122 ≤ N ≤ 156 is studied, both at the mean field level and beyond, using the Gogny energy density functional. Besides the robustness of the N = 126 neutron shell closure, it is shown that the onset of static deformations in those isotopic chains with increasing neutron number leads to an enhanced stability and further extends the corresponding two-neutron drip lines far beyond what could be expected from spherical calculations. Independence of the mean-field predictions with respect to the particular version of the Gogny energy density functional employed is demonstrated by comparing results based on the D1S and D1M parameter sets. Correlations beyond mean field are taken into account in the framework of the angular momentum projected generator coordinate method calculation. It is shown that N = 126 remains a robust neutron magic number when dynamical effects are included. The analysis of the collective wave functions, average deformations and excitation energies indicate that, with increasing neutron number, the zero-point quantum corrections lead to dominant prolate configurations in the 0{1/+}, 0{2/+}, 2{1/+} and 2{2/+} states of the studied nuclei. Moreover, those dynamical deformation effects provide an enhanced stability that further supports the mean-field predictions, corroborating a shift of the r-process path to higher neutron numbers. Beyond mean-field calculations provide a smaller shell gap at N = 126 than the mean-field one in good agreement with previous theoretical studies. However, the shell gap still remains strong enough in the two-neutron drip lines.
Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sharma, M.M. [Kuwait University, Physics Department, Kuwait (Kuwait); Robledo, L.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain)
2015-06-15
The quadrupole collectivity in Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf and W nuclei with neutron numbers 122 ≤ N ≤ 156 is studied, both at the mean field level and beyond, using the Gogny energy density functional. Besides the robustness of the N = 126 neutron shell closure, it is shown that the onset of static deformations in those isotopic chains with increasing neutron number leads to an enhanced stability and further extends the corresponding two-neutron drip lines far beyond what could be expected from spherical calculations. Independence of the mean-field predictions with respect to the particular version of the Gogny energy density functional employed is demonstrated by comparing results based on the D1S and D1M parameter sets. Correlations beyond mean field are taken into account in the framework of the angular momentum projected generator coordinate method calculation. It is shown that N = 126 remains a robust neutron magic number when dynamical effects are included. The analysis of the collective wave functions, average deformations and excitation energies indicate that, with increasing neutron number, the zero-point quantum corrections lead to dominant prolate configurations in the 0{sub 1} {sup +}, 0{sub 2} {sup +}, 2{sub 1} {sup +} and 2{sub 2} {sup +} states of the studied nuclei. Moreover, those dynamical deformation effects provide an enhanced stability that further supports the mean-field predictions, corroborating a shift of the r-process path to higher neutron numbers. Beyond mean-field calculations provide a smaller shell gap at N = 126 than the mean-field one in good agreement with previous theoretical studies. However, the shell gap still remains strong enough in the two-neutron drip lines. (orig.)
Ayinol, M.; Aydeniz, D.
2016-03-01
L shell ionization cross section and Li subshells ionization cross sections of Rn, Ra, Th, U, Pu atoms calculated. For each of atoms, ten different electron impact energy values (Eo) are used. Calculations carried out by using Lotz equation in Matlab. First, calculations done for non-relativistic case by using non-relativistic Lotz equation then repeated with relativistic Lotz equation. σL total and σLi(i = 1,2,3) subshells ionisation cross section values obtained for Eo values in the energy range of ELi
2002-01-01
We propose to perform Coulomb excitation experiments of neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of $^{68}$Ni towards $^{78}$Ni using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled with the highly efficient MINIBALL array. Major changes in the structure of the atomic nucleus are expected around the N = 40 subshell closure. Recent B(E2) measurements suggested that $^{68}$Ni behaves like a doubly magic nucleus while neutron-rich Zn isotopes with N>38 exhibit a sudden increase of B(E2) values which may be the signature of deformation. We would like to check and test these predictions for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of N = 40 and N = 50 shell closures like $^{72}$Zn, $^{74}$Zn, $^{76}$Zn, $^{68}$Ni, $^{70}$Ni. Our calculations show that an energy upgrade from 2.2 to 3 MeV/nucleon will be of crucial importance for a part of our study while some nuclei can still be very efficiently studied at an energy of 2.2 MeV/nucleon. Therefore, to perform our experiment in an efficient way, we request 21 shifts of beam time before the ene...
Probing the shell closure at N = 32 by mass measurements of neutron-rich potassium isotopes
Rosenbusch, M. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: ISOLTRAP-Collaboration
2014-07-01
The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN has been set up for precision mass measurements of short-lived nuclides and has been continuously improved for accessing more exotic nuclides. A crucial step forward has been made with the installation of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF MS), which enables high-resolution mass separation of contaminated ions, resulting, e.g., in the measurement of {sup 82}Zn. More recently, mass measurements have been performed directly in the MR-ToF MS instead of using a Penning trap. This paved the way for the mass determination of {sup 53,54}Ca, which would not have succeeded in ISOLTRAP's Penning traps. The obtained two-neutron separation energies (S{sub 2n}) unambiguously confirm a shell closure at N = 32, indicated earlier by measurements of the excitation energies of the first 2{sup +} state in {sup 52}Ca. In addition, with the MR-ToF MS at ISOLTRAP the masses of {sup 52}K and {sup 53}K have been determined for the first time. With a half-life of only 30 ms, {sup 53}K is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated at ISOLTRAP. The data are currently under evaluation. In this contribution, the new S{sub 2n} values are presented, and the crossing of the neutron shell closure at N = 32 for potassium is discussed.
Mudworm Polydora lingshuiensis sp. n is a new species that inhabits both shell burrows and mudtubes.
Ye, Lingtong; Tang, Bin; Wu, Kaichang; Su, Youlu; Wang, Ruixuan; Yu, Ziniu; Wang, Jiangyong
2015-01-01
A new polydorin species, Polydora lingshuiensis sp. n., which is found not only in burrows of pearl oyster shells (shell-boring type) but also in mudtubes on the surface of pearl oyster cages (tube-dwelling type), is described with the use of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and molecular phylogeny. Morphological and molecular distinctions between P. lingshuiensis and other related species reveal that P. lingshuiensis is a valid new species. The reproduction characteristic that the eggs of P. lingshuiensis are gathered together in one hollow cylinder is another piece of evidence confirming that it is indeed a valid new species. Sequence comparisons based on nuclear 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and mitochondrial 16S rDNA show that strains of the shell-boring type possess as high as 99.9% to 100% sequence identity relative to those of the tube-dwelling type. This finding evidently indicates that these species types are conspecific. We also find that a comparison of mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences can provide a higher resolution of polydorin species than those of the nuclear 18S rDNA because the former has a higher interspecific/intraspecific difference ratio. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA sequences indicate that all P. lingshuiensis samples group together to forming a sister clade to Polydora uncinata and thus fall within Polydora aura/P. uncinata clade. PMID:26250172
On-shell diagrams and the geometry of planar N < 4 SYM theories
Benincasa, Paolo
2016-01-01
We continue the discussion of the decorated on-shell diagrammatics for planar N < 4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories started in arXiv:1510.03642. In particular, we focus on its relation with the structure of varieties on the Grassmannian. The decoration of the on-shell diagrams, which physically keeps tracks of the helicity of the coherent states propagating along their edges, defines new on-shell functions on the Grassmannian and can introduce novel higher-order singularities, which graphically are reflected into the presence of helicity loops in the diagrams. These new structures turn out to have similar features as in the non-planar case: the related higher-codimension varieties are identified by either the vanishing of one (or more) Plucker coordinates involving at least two non-adjacent columns, or new relations among Plucker coordinates. A distinctive feature is that the functions living on these higher-codimenson varieties can be thought of distributionally as having support on derivative delta-fu...
刘洪毓
2007-01-01
Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what
Nuclear structure near the magic N = 50 shell from g-factor and lifetime measurements
Full text: Nuclear lifetime and g-factor values provide outstanding tools to explore the microscopic structure of nuclei. In an elementary picture, a single-particle behavior is expected for nuclei near closed shells, while a more collective structure is anticipated for nuclei with proton and neutron numbers between closed shells. Recent g-factor and lifetime measurements near the N = 50 shell and Z = 38, 40, subshell closures, have stimulated the performance of large-scale shell-model (LSSM) calculations, with the aim to test different interactions in the region. In this talk, recent results of such studies, near the N = 50 shell and Z = 38, 40 subshell closures will be presented. In particular, the cases of the 4088Zr and 3884,86,88Sr will be compared with the predictions made by LSSM calculations within p3/2, f5/2, p1/2, and g9/2 orbital space for both protons and neutrons; the resulting g factors and B(E2) values for these nuclei reveal similarities between the two chains of Zr and Sr isotopes. The cases of 46100Pd, and 4496Ru will be analyzed using a valance space of p1/2, and g9/2 orbitals for protons and d5/2, s1/2, d3/2, g7/2, and h11/2 orbitals for neutrons; for these cases future theoretical efforts must be made to explain the trend of the experimental g factors as a function of nuclear spin. The experimental determination of accurate g-factor values uses the transient field technique in inverse kinematics, using Coulomb excitation reactions and α-transfer mechanism for the population of the states under study. The experimental setup allows the measurement of lifetimes of the order of picoseconds using the Doppler-shift attenuation methods. Experimental challenges for future experiments will be also mentioned [1,2,3]. [1] G. J. Kumbartzki et al., Phys. Rev. C 85 (2012) 044322 [2] D.A. Torres et al., Phys. Rev. C 85 (2012) 017305 [3] D.A. Torres et al., Phys. Rev. C 84 (2011) 044327. (author)
Dynamic contact problem for viscoelastic von Kármán-Donnell shells
Bock, I.; Jarušek, Jiří
Berlin: Springer, 2013 - (Hömberg, D.; Tröltzsch, F.), s. 70-75. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology . 391). ISBN 978-3-642-36061-9. [IFIP TC7 Conference on System Modelling and Optimization /21./. Berlin (DE), 12.09.2011-16.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810045 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Von Kármán-Donnell shell * unilateral dynamic contact * viscoelasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-36062-6_7
Experimental Sign of a Weakening of the N=50 Spherical Shell Gap
High-spin states of 84Se, produced as a fission fragment in the fusion-fission reaction 18O+208Pb, have been identified for the first time thanks to the EUROBALL IV array. The excitation energies of three of these states, interpreted as being due to the (νg9/2-1 νd5/2+1) neutron-core excitation, give new insights about the evolution of the N=50 shell gap at the vicinity of 78Ni
Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)
N-level atom and (N-1) modes: Detuning, dynamics and statistical aspects
A model is presented to investigate the problem of interaction between an N-level atom and (N-1) modes of the field. The model includes the effect of detuning. Constants of motion are obtained. The evolution operator is calculated. The probability distribution function for the photons numbers is computed for different initial atomic states. The characteristic functions are computed. Different statistical quantities concerning the photons or the atomic system are given. It is found that if the atom starts from a definite state then the photon number never exceeds its initial value in the mode that effects the interaction between this state and the upper-most state. On the other hand, in the other modes the photon numbers at any time are never less than the initial value. (author)
Measurement and analysis of the 238U (n, 2n) reaction rate in depleted uranium/polyethylene shells
In order to check the conceptual design of the subcritical blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, a depleted uranium/polyethylene simulation device with alternate shells has been established. The measurement of the 238U (n, 2n) reaction rate was carried out using an activation technique, by measuring the 208 keV γ rays emitted from 237U. The self-absorption of depleted uranium foils with different thicknesses was experimentally corrected. The distribution of the 238U (n, 2n) reaction rate at 90° to the incident D+ beam was obtained, with uncertainty between 5.3% and 6.0%. The experiment was analyzed using MCNP5 code with the ENDF/BVI library, and the calculated results are all about 5% higher than the measured results. (authors)
Measurement and analysis of the 238U(n, 2n) reaction rate in depleted uranium/polyethylene shells
YAN Xiao-Song; LIU Rong; LU Xin-Xin; JIANG Li; WEN Zhong-Wei; HAN Zi-Jie
2012-01-01
In order to check the conceptual design of the subcritical blanket in a fnsion-fission hybrid reactor,a depleted uranium/polyethylene simulation device with alternate shells has been established.The measurement of the 238U(n,2n) reaction rate was carried out using an activation technique,by measuring the 208 keV γ rays emitted from 237 U.The self-absorption of depleted uranium foils with different thicknesses was experimentally corrected.The distribution of the 238U(n,2n) reaction rate at 90° to the incident D+ beam was obtained,with uncertainty between 5.3％ and 6.0％.The experiment was analyzed using MCNP5 code with the ENDF/BVI library,and the calculated results are all about 5％ higher than the measured results.
Andrus, C. F. T.
2015-12-01
Nitrogen isotope analysis of the organic fraction of mollusk shells is beginning to be applied to questions of past anthropogenic and natural environmental variation using samples from archaeological and fossil deposits. Fairly extensive proxy validation research has been conducted in the past decade, documenting the relationship between the δ15N of ambient particulate organic matter, mollusk soft tissues, and shell organic matrix. However, comparatively little research has addressed the potential effects of taphonomy and diagenesis on these proxy records. Assessing archaeological samples are especially complex in that humans may have transported and/or cooked shell prior to deposition. Shell δ15N data will be presented from modern and archaeological oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and clam shell (Mercenaria spp.) of various late Holocene ages and late Cretaceous Crassatellites vadosus shells. Archaeological shells show some loss of organic matter over time, yet some Cretaceous shells retain enough matrix to permit δ15N analysis. The Cretaceous samples required concentration of the remaining organic matrix by removing carbonate via acid pretreatment prior to EA-IRMS analysis, but modern and archaeological shells had sufficient organic matrix to permit analysis without acid pretreatment. The δ15N data from the archaeological shells do not display obvious alteration from the loss of organic matrix. The results of cooking experiments performed on modern oyster shells also indicate little alteration of δ15N values, unless the shell was heated to the point of disintegration. While these experiments indicate promise for the application of δ15N analysis of shell organic matter, the results are incomplete and lack ideal control over initial δ15N values in ancient samples used for comparisons. Future research, perhaps focused on compound-specific δ15N analysis and additional controlled experiments on moderns shells, may improve this assessment.
Determination of the N=16 Shell Closure at the Oxygen Drip Line
The neutron unbound ground state of 25O (Z=8, N=17) was observed for the first time in a proton knockout reaction from a 26F beam. A single resonance was found in the invariant mass spectrum corresponding to a neutron decay energy of 770-10+20 keV with a total width of 172(30) keV. The N=16 shell gap was established to be 4.86(13) MeV by the energy difference between the ν1s1/2 and ν0d3/2 orbitals. The neutron separation energies for 25O agree with the calculations of the universal sd shell model interaction. This interaction incorrectly predicts an 26O ground state that is bound to two-neutron decay by 1 MeV, leading to a discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and experiment as to the particle stability of 26O. The observed decay width was found to be on the order of a factor of 2 larger than the calculated single-particle width using a Woods-Saxon potential
S Dhar; M R Alam
2007-09-01
The triple differential cross-section for K-shell ionization of silver and copper atoms by relativistic electrons have been computed in the coplanar symmetric geometry with the inclusion of exchange effects following the multiple scattering theory of Das and Seal [1] multiplied by suitable spinors. Present computed results are marginally improved in some cases from the previous computed results [2]. Present results are compared with measured values [3] and with previous computation results [2]. Some other theoretical computational results are also presented here for comparison.
N=82 shell quenching of the classical r-process 'waiting-point' nucleus Cd130
First β- and γ-spectroscopic decay studies of the N=82 r-process 'waiting-point' nuclide Cd130 have been performed at CERN/ISOLDE using the highest achievable isotopic selectivity. Several nuclear-physics surprises have been discovered. The first one is the unanticipatedly high energy of 2.12 MeV for the [πg9/2xνg7/2] 1+ level in In130, which is fed by the main Gamow-Teller transition. The second surprise is the rather high Qβ value of 8.34 MeV, which is in agreement only with recent mass models that include the phenomenon of N=82 shell quenching. Possible implications of these new results on the formation of the A≅130 r-process abundance peak are presented
p-Cu2O-shell/n-TiO2-nanowire-core heterostucture photodiodes
Hsueh Ting-Jen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the deposition of cuprous oxide [Cu2O] onto titanium dioxide [TiO2] nanowires [NWs] prepared on TiO2/glass templates. The average length and average diameter of these thermally oxidized and evaporated TiO2 NWs are 0.1 to 0.4 μm and 30 to 100 nm, respectively. The deposited Cu2O fills gaps between the TiO2 NWs with good step coverage to form nanoshells surrounding the TiO2 cores. The p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 NW heterostructure exhibits a rectifying behavior with a sharp turn-on at approximately 0.9 V. Furthermore, the fabricated p-Cu2O-shell/n-TiO2-nanowire-core photodiodes exhibit reasonably large photocurrent-to-dark-current contrast ratios and fast responses.
Teleporting N-qubit unknown atomic state by utilizing the V-type three-level atom
无
2009-01-01
Realizing the teleportation of quantum state, especially the teleportation of N-qubit quantum state, is of great importance in quantum information. In this paper, Raman-interaction of the V-type degenerate three-level atom and single-mode cavity field is studied by utilizing complete quantum theory. Then a new scheme for teleporting N-qubit unknown atomic state via Raman-interaction of the V-type degenerate three-level atom with a single-mode cavity field is proposed, which is based upon the complete quantum theory mentioned above.
Erosion of N=20 shell in 33Al investigated through the ground-state electric quadrupole moment
Electric quadrupole moment Q of the 33Al ground state has been measured by means of β-NMR spectroscopy using a spin-polarized 33Al beam produced in a projectile fragmentation reaction. The obtained Q moment, |Qexp(33Al)|=132(16) emb, shows a significant excess from the prediction of shell model calculations within the sd shell. The result indicates sizable admixing of pf intruder configurations in the ground state, demonstrating that the N=20 shell closure certainly erodes in 33Al, a nucleus located on the border of the island of inversion. Comparison was made with predictions of the Monte Carlo shell model, and also a particle-vibration coupling model treating the neutron pairing correlations in the ground state of 33Al. Again, a significant admixture of pf intruder configurations to the 33Al ground state was needed in both theoretical approaches to explain the observed large Q.
Surzhykov, Andrey; Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan
2005-01-01
Today, the 'hydrogen atom model' is known to play its role not only in teaching the basic elements of quantum mechanics but also for building up effective theories in atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, plasma physics, or even in the design of semiconductor devices. Therefore, the analytical as well as numerical solutions of the hydrogen-like ions are frequently required both, for analyzing experimental data and for carrying out quite advanced theoretical studies. In order to support a fast and consistent access to these (Coulomb-field) solutions, here we present the DIRAC program which has been developed originally for studying the properties and dynamical behavior of the (hydrogen-like) ions. In the present version, a set of MAPLE procedures is provided for the Coulomb wave and Green's functions by applying the (wave) equations from both, the nonrelativistic and relativistic theory. Apart from the interactive access to these functions, moreover, a number of radial integrals are also implemented in the DIRAC program which may help the user to construct transition amplitudes and cross sections as they occur frequently in the theory of ion-atom and ion-photon collisions. Program summaryTitle of program:DIRAC Catalogue number: ADUQ Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUQ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Computer for which the program is designed and has been tested: All computers with a license of the computer algebra package MAPLE [1] Program language used: Maple 8 and 9 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2186 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 162 591 Distribution format: tar gzip file CPC Program Library subprograms required: None Nature of the physical problem: Analytical solutions of the hydrogen atom are widely used in very different fields of physics [2,3]. Despite of the rather simple structure
Gates,, S James
2014-01-01
Evidence is presented in some examples that an adinkra quantum number, $\\chi_{\\rm o}$ (arXiv:\\ 0902.3830 [hep-th]), seems to play a role with regard to off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ = 2 SUSY similar to the role of color in QCD. The vanishing of this adinkra quantum number appears to be a condition required for when two off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ = 1 supermultiplets form an off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ = 2 supermultiplet. We also explicitly comment on a deformation of the Lie bracket and anti-commutator operators that has been extensively and implicitly used in our work on "Garden Algebras" adinkras, and codes.
Emission Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Core-Shell Nanorods Embedded in a 3D Light-Emitting Diode
Jung, Byung Oh; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Seunga; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi
2016-04-01
We report the selective-area growth of a gallium nitride (GaN)-nanorod-based InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) core-shell structure embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) light-emitting diode (LED) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and its optical analysis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation revealed the high quality of the GaN nanorods and the position dependence of the structural properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs on multiple facets. The excitation and temperature dependences of photoluminescence (PL) revealed the m-plane emission behaviors of the InGaN/GaN core-shell nanorods. The electroluminescence (EL) of the InGaN/GaN core-shell-nanorod-embedded 3D LED changed color from green to blue with increasing injection current. This phenomenon was mainly due to the energy gradient and deep localization of the indium in the selectively grown InGaN/GaN core-shell MQWs on the 3D architecture.
Emission Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Core-Shell Nanorods Embedded in a 3D Light-Emitting Diode.
Jung, Byung Oh; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Seunga; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi
2016-12-01
We report the selective-area growth of a gallium nitride (GaN)-nanorod-based InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) core-shell structure embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) light-emitting diode (LED) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and its optical analysis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation revealed the high quality of the GaN nanorods and the position dependence of the structural properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs on multiple facets. The excitation and temperature dependences of photoluminescence (PL) revealed the m-plane emission behaviors of the InGaN/GaN core-shell nanorods. The electroluminescence (EL) of the InGaN/GaN core-shell-nanorod-embedded 3D LED changed color from green to blue with increasing injection current. This phenomenon was mainly due to the energy gradient and deep localization of the indium in the selectively grown InGaN/GaN core-shell MQWs on the 3D architecture. PMID:27102904
The determination of rare earth elements, thorium, and uranium in mussel, ark shell, and coral was made by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES). Four samples of mussels, original mussles, and mussels powdered by the original standard method, were dissolved with a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4. For one part of the sample solution, coprecipitation by ferric hydroxide was applied. Analytical values obtained with and without coprecipitation showed good agreement. The sample solutions for shells and coral were prepared by acid decomposition, and the elements to be determined were separated from calcium by coprecipitation to eliminate spectral interference by calcium. Analytical values were obtained from the calibration curves made with standard solutions containing matrix components at concentrations similar to those for real samples solutions. The concentrations of rare earth elements, Th and U in sample solutions of mussel ranged from 0.001 μg/g to 0.2 μg/g. The concentrations of rare earth elements and Th in mussel, shells, and coral are 2000 -- 15000 times higher than those in sea water. (author)
Inner-shell corrections to the Bethe stopping-power formula evaluated from a realistic atomic model
Generalized oscillator strengths for K- and L-shell ionization have been calculated using a central potential derived from the Hartree-Slater model. In cases in which an ejected electron carries low kinetic energies, sizable differences with hydrogenic-model calculations are evident
Electron-impact ionization of the N atom
Electron-impact ionization cross sections for the ground and excited states of the N atom are calculated using the non-perturbative R-matrix with pseudo-states and time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) methods, as well as the perturbative distorted-wave method. The TDCC and distorted-wave results for the 1s22s22p23l (l=0−2) excited configurations are much larger than for the ground configuration. In all cases the TDCC results are substantially lower than the distorted-wave results. The ionization cross section results will lead to a better understanding of moderately dense astrophysical and laboratory plasmas containing nitrogen. (paper)
Thermal properties of AlN-based atom chips
Armijo, Julien; Bouchoule, Isabelle
2009-01-01
We have studied the thermal properties of atom chips consisting o high thermal conductivity Aluminum Nitride (AlN) substrates on which gold microwires are directly deposited. We have measured the heating of wires of several widths and with different thermal couplings to the copper mount holding the chip. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model where the copper mount is treated as a heat sink and the thermal interface resistance between the wire and the substrate is vanishing. We give analytical formulas describing the different transient heating regimes and the steady state. We identify criteria to optimize the design of a chip as well as the maximal currents $I_c$ that can be fed in the wires. For a 600$\\mu$m thick-chip glued on a copper block with Epotek H77, we find $I_c=16$A for a 3$\\mu$m high, 200$\\mu$m wide-wire.
On Yangian-invariant regularization of deformed on-shell diagrams in N=4 super-Yang–Mills theory
We investigate Yangian invariance of deformed on-shell diagrams with D = 4, N=4 superconformal symmetry. We find that invariance implies a direct relationship between the deformation parameters and the permutation associated with the on-shell graph. We analyse the connection with deformations of scattering amplitudes in N=4 super-Yang–Mills theory and the possibility of using the deformation parameters as a regulator preserving Yangian invariance. A study of higher-point tree and loop graphs suggests that manifest Yangian invariance of the amplitude requires trivial deformation parameters. (paper)
Y Ramakrishna; K Ramachandra Rao; G J Naga Raju; K Bhaskara Rao; V Seshagiri Rao; P Venkateswarlu; S Bhuloka Reddy
2002-10-01
The energy shifts and intensity ratios of different L X-ray components in tantalum element due to 10 MeV carbon and 12 MeV nitrogen ions are estimated. From the observed energy shifts, the possible number of simultaneous vacancies in M shell are estimated. A comparison of L/L 2,15, L 1/L 1 and L 2,3/L 4,4 with the ratios due to Scoﬁeld theoretical transition rates indicate that the number of multiple vacancies in N shell are higher than the vacancies in M and O shell. Employing Larkin’s statistical scaling procedure, the number of possible multiple vacancies in N and O shells are estimated quantitatively.
Full text; Relative abundance of charged ions and mean charged ions are calculated following 1s and 2p vacancy production in potassium and calcium atoms. The calculations are performed with Monte Carlo simulation method. The simulation based on the tracing of all possible radiation, non-radiation transitions and electron shake off probabilities after inner shell vacancy creation. The radiative transition rates and electron shakes off processes are obtained with Multiconfiguration-Dirac-Fock (MCDF) wave functions model. The non-radiation transition rates are carried out using Dirac-Fock-Slater (DFS) wave functions. At 1s hole states in Potassium atom, the yield of K5+ ions are the prominent produces. The doubly charged K2+ ions predominate over K3+ ions after 2p shell ionization in potassium. On the other hand, the Ca3+ ions dominate over Ca2+ ions in Calcium. The considerations of closing some Coster-Kronig channels and electron shake off processes through the simulation improve the results of charged ions with the experimental data. The results of electron shake off probabilities are compared with other theoretical calculation. The results of relative abundance of charged ions agree well with the experimental data. (author)
The polystyrene shells have been successfully grown on the barium strontium titanate (BST) nanocrystals, which were synthesized by microwave-activated glycothermal method, via a solvent-free surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) after the 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid molecules (Br-MPA) were anchored at the surface of BST nanocrystals through ligand exchange with hydroxyl groups on their surfaces. These surface modified BST nanocrystals can then be perfectly dispersed in styrene monomer and act as macroinitiators for ATRP to yield BST-PS core-shell structured nanoparticles, which endow the BST nanocrystals with exceptionally good dispersibility and stability in hydrophobic solvents. The BST-PS core-shell structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography were also employed to probe the Br-MPA and PS on the BST nanocrystals. It has been shown that after the BST nanocrystals are surface-modified with Br-MPA, the polymerization of styrene can steadily occur at the surface of BST nanocrystals to form a uniform polystyrene shell and its thickness can reach ∼10 nm when the polymerization reaction is extended to 36 h, while no changes are found to take place with the BST nanocrystals. Compared with typical high molecular weight PS (Mn = 6700), the as-obtained PS possess a relatively low molecular weight (Mn = 5473) and a lower glass transition temperature (Tg ∼ 93 °C). The research results demonstrate a viable strategy for the preparation of polymer-coated functional metal oxides nanocrystals, potentially useful in biological and nanoelectronic applications.
Calculation of the fine-structure parameters for np 5 n' f configurations of rare-gas atoms
Anisimova, G. P.; Kapel'Kina, E. L.; Semenov, R. I.
2000-12-01
In the single-configuration approximation, fine-structure parameters are calculated semiempirically in the intermediate coupling scheme for the configurations 2p 5 nf( n=4 6) of NeI, 3 p 5 nf( n=4 7) of ArI, and 4 p 54 f of KrI. With the fine-structure parameters obtained, the coefficients of expansion of the wave functions in basis functions of the LS-coupling scheme and the gyromagnetic ratios are calculated. To the authors’ knowledge, analogous data are absent in the literature. The correctness of the fine-structure parameters obtained is confirmed by values of the fine-splitting constant, which is well known for other configurations of rare-gas atoms with an almost filled p shell.
New states in heavy Cd isotopes and evidence for weakening of the N=82 shell structure
A chemically selective laser ion source has been used in a β-decay study of heavy Ag isotopes into even-even Cd nuclides. Gamma-spectroscopic techniques in time-resolving event-by-event and multiscaling modes have permitted the identification of the first 2+ and 4+ levels in 126Cd78, 128Cd80, and tentatively the 2+ state in 130Cd82. From a comparison of these new states in 48Cd with the E(2+) and E(4+)/E(2+) level systematics of 46Pd and 52Te isotopes and several recent model predictions, possible evidence for a weakening of the spherical N=82 neutron-shell below double-magic 132Sn is obtained. (orig.)
Nuclear shell-model calculations for 6Li and 14N with different NN potentials
Two ''phase-shift equivalent'' local NN potentials with different parametrizations, Reid93 and NijmII, which were found to give nearly identical results for the triton by Friar et al., are shown to yield remarkably similar results for 6Li and 14N in a (0+2)ℎΩ no-core space shell-model calculation. The results are compared with those for the widely used Hamada-Johnson hard-core and the original Reid soft-core potentials, which have larger deuteron D-state percentages. The strong correlation between the tensor strength and the nuclear binding energy is confirmed. However, many nuclear structure properties seem to be rather insensitive to the details of the NN potential and, therefore, cannot be used to test various NN potentials
Higher Gauge Theories from Lie n-algebras and Off-Shell Covariantization
Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Ikeda, Noriaki; Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi
2016-01-01
We analyze higher gauge theories in various dimensions using a supergeometric method based on a differential graded symplectic manifold, called a QP-manifold, which is closely related to the BRST-BV formalism in gauge theories. Extensions of the Lie 2-algebra gauge structure are formulated within the Lie n-algebra induced by the QP-structure. We find that in 5 and 6 dimensions there are special extensions of the gauge algebra. In these cases, a restriction of the gauge symmetry by imposing constraints on the auxiliary gauge fields leads to a covariantized theory. As an example we show that we can obtain an off-shell covariantized higher gauge theory in 5 dimensions, which is similar to the one proposed in [1] (arxiv:1206.5643).
GaN/Fe core/shell nanowires for nonvolatile spintronics on Si
We explore the relationship between the structural and magnetic properties of GaN/Fe core/shell nanowires grown epitaxially on Si substrates. The magnetic properties are consistent with the coexistence of two magnetic contributions: a ferromagnetic response from the single-crystalline Fe particles formed at the nanowire tips, and a superparamagnetic response originating from the granular Fe clusters grown on the nanowire sidewalls, giving them a corncob-like morphology. We show that our interpretation of the origin of the magnetic behavior can be confirmed by the viscous decay of magnetic remanence in the nanowires. Ferromagnetic remanence is observed both parallel and perpendicular to the nanowire axis, making such structures appealing as high-density nonvolatile spintronic components on Si.
Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ2=(θ-bar)2=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided
Evolution of the N=82 shell gap below {sup 132}Sn inferred from core excited states in {sup 131}In
Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: m.gorska@gsi.de; Caceres, L. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Grawe, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Pfuetzner, M. [IEP, University of Warsaw, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland); Jungclaus, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructuras de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano113bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Pietri, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Werner-Malento, E. [IEP, University of Warsaw, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland); Podolyak, Z.; Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Detistov, P. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lalkovski, S. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); School of Enviroment and Technology, University of Brighton, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Modamio, V.; Walker, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Beck, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bednarczyk, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, PL-31342 Krakow (Poland); Doornenbal, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Geissel, H.; Gerl, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)
2009-03-02
The {gamma}-ray decay of an excited state in {sup 131}In, the one proton hole neighbor of the doubly magic {sup 132}Sn has been measured. A high-spin, core-excited isomer with T{sub 1/2}=630(60) ns was identified following production by both relativistic fragmentation of a {sup 136}Xe beam and fission of a {sup 238}U beam. This state deexcites by a single {gamma}-ray branch of 3782(2) keV from which direct evidence for the size of the N=82 shell gap is inferred. The results are discussed in comparison to a shell-model calculation including configurations across the closed shells at N=82 and Z=50.
Non-radiative transitions cause changes in the generation of the intensity of the L lines. In order to investigate the physical quantities relevant to the L lines affected by the non-radiative transitions, experimental measurements were carried out using a Si(Li) x-ray spectrometer. Atomic L shell Coster-Kronig yields (f12, f13 and f23) for some elements in the atomic number range 59≤Z≤90 were determined. These selected measured semi-empirical values were also fitted by least squares to polynomials in Z of the form ΣnanZn (except for f13) and compared with theoretical and with earlier fitted values. (author)
Alignment and orientation of atoms in collision experiments with planar symmetry have now been studied for about 15 years and close to 500 papers have been produced, mainly devoted to S->P excitation. Despite the large variety of electron-atom, ion-atom and atom-atom collision systems considered, a unified framework for description of these phenomena is now emerging. This framework is a generalization of the original ideas of Macek and Jaecks and is based on consideration of symmetries, conservation laws, etc. The key parameters are directly related to the shape and dynamics of the charge cloud of the excited electron as well as to experimental observables. A brief review is given of this framework, and some current problems and prospects for the future are discussed. (orig.)
The introduction of an oxidation treatment to the synthesis of spherical and core–shell α″-Fe16N2/Al2O3 nanoparticles (~62 nm) from plasma-synthesized core–shell α-Fe/Al2O3 nanoparticles has been found to result in a high yield of α″-Fe16N2 phase of up to 98%. The oxidation treatment leads the formation of a maghemite phase with open channeled structures along the c-axis, facilitating penetration of H2 and NH3 gases during the hydrogen reduction and nitridation steps. The saturation magnetization and magnetic coercivity of the core–shell α″-Fe16N2/Al2O3 magnetic nanoparticles were found to be 156 emu/g and 1450 Oe, respectively. The detailed effects of the oxidation on the formation of α″-Fe16N2 phase were investigated by characterizing the morphology (SEM, TEM and BET), elemental composition (EDX, EELS, and XAFS) and magnetic properties (Mössbauer and MSPS) of the prepared particles. The good magnetic properties obtained have the potential for future applications such as rare-earth-free magnetic materials. - Highlights: • High yield of α″-Fe16N2 up to 98% was prepared from core–shell α-Fe/Al2O3 NPs. • Introduction of oxidation improved yield of α″-Fe16N2 for large size of NPs. • Oxidation forming microporous structured maghemite facilitated nitridation process. • Particle morphology changed during the nitrogen process due to atomic dislocation. • Core–shell α″-Fe16N2/Al2O3 nanoparticles showed good magnetic performances
Zulhijah, Rizka [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani [Departemen Kimia, Fakultas Pendidikan Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi No. 229, Bandung 40154 (Indonesia); Ogi, Takashi, E-mail: ogit@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Iwaki, Toru [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Nakamura, Keitaro [Research Center for Production and Technology, Nisshin Seifun Group, Inc., 5-3-1, Tsurugaoka, Fujimino, Saitama 356-8511 (Japan); Okuyama, Kikuo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)
2015-05-01
The introduction of an oxidation treatment to the synthesis of spherical and core–shell α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (~62 nm) from plasma-synthesized core–shell α-Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been found to result in a high yield of α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} phase of up to 98%. The oxidation treatment leads the formation of a maghemite phase with open channeled structures along the c-axis, facilitating penetration of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases during the hydrogen reduction and nitridation steps. The saturation magnetization and magnetic coercivity of the core–shell α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnetic nanoparticles were found to be 156 emu/g and 1450 Oe, respectively. The detailed effects of the oxidation on the formation of α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} phase were investigated by characterizing the morphology (SEM, TEM and BET), elemental composition (EDX, EELS, and XAFS) and magnetic properties (Mössbauer and MSPS) of the prepared particles. The good magnetic properties obtained have the potential for future applications such as rare-earth-free magnetic materials. - Highlights: • High yield of α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} up to 98% was prepared from core–shell α-Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs. • Introduction of oxidation improved yield of α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} for large size of NPs. • Oxidation forming microporous structured maghemite facilitated nitridation process. • Particle morphology changed during the nitrogen process due to atomic dislocation. • Core–shell α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed good magnetic performances.
Penante, Brenda
2016-01-01
Planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (N=4 SYM) is a special quantum field theory. A few of its remarkable features are conformal symmetry at the quantum level, evidence of integrability and, moreover, it is a prime example of the AdS/CFT duality. Triggered by Witten's twistor string theory, the past 15 years have witnessed enormous progress in reformulating this theory to make as many of these special features manifest, from the choice of convenient variables to recursion relations that allowed new mathematical structures to appear, like the Grassmannian. These methods are collectively referred to as on-shell methods. The ultimate hope is that, by understanding N=4 SYM in depth, one can learn about other, more realistic quantum field theories. The overarching theme of this thesis is the investigation of how on-shell methods can aid the computation of quantities other than scattering amplitudes. In this spirit we study form factors and correlation functions, said to be partially and completely off...
Atomic physics and the basic concepts of quantum theory have been probed in the last fifty years by using the techniques of optics and lasers in the visible range. The new powerful accelerators, storage rings, and various large scale devices, such as ion beams, synchrotron radiation, plasma confinement machines, powerful lasers, etc. developed by the nuclear physicists and high technology engineers have allowed, in the past three decades, new, unexpected and more general insights of atomic structure and more accurate checks of quantum mechanics. It is now possible to prepare any kind of atom or ion, having any number of electrons in any quantum states (atomic manipulations), and to trap or set them in defined places on surfaces. The study of these atomic species having electrons in any deep, or highly excited levels requires the use of electromagnetic transitions in a much wider range of wavelengths than in optics, and, because most of the time they are in autoionizing states, of Auger spectrometry. It is the purpose of this talk to review some of the most salient discoveries in the field since this time, to present some of the most recent and exciting results obtained in the last decade, and future prospects
Rodriguez-Guzman, R; Sharma, M M
2014-01-01
The quadrupole collectivity in Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf and W nuclei with neutron numbers 122 $\\le$ N $\\le$ 156 is studied, both at the mean field level and beyond, using the Gogny energy density functional. Besides the robustness of the N=126 neutron shell closure, it is shown that the onset of static deformations in those isotopic chains with increasing neutron number leads to an enhanced stability and further extends the corresponding two-neutron driplines far beyond what could be expected from spherical calculations. Independence of the mean field predictions with respect to the particular version of the Gogny energy density functional employed is demonstrated by comparing results based on the D1S and D1M parameter sets. Correlations beyond mean field are taken into account in the framework of the angular momentum projected generator coordinate method calculation. It is shown that N=126 remains a robust neutron magic number when dynamical effects are included. The analysis of the collective wave functio...
Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Min; Ding, Lei; Wang, Yongtao; Xu, Jingli
2016-12-01
Herein, we reported a facile method to prepared uniform yolk like nanocomposites with well-defined N-doped carbon shell (C), in which the cores@SiO2@polydopamine (Pdop) were used as the sacrificed template. Typically, inherited from the functional Au core, the yolk particles presented excellent catalytic activities. PMID:27094826
Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Ciechonski, R;
2013-01-01
Core-shell GaN nanowires are expected to be building blocks of future light emitting devices. Here we apply off-axis electron holography to map the electrostatic potential distributions in such nanowires. To access the cross-section of selected individual nanowires, focused ion beam (FIB) milling...
Entangling single and $N$ atom qubits for fast quantum state detection and transmission
Saffman, M.; Walker, T. G.
2004-01-01
We discuss the use of Rydberg blockade techniques for entanglement of 1 atom qubits with collective $N$ atom qubits. We show how the entanglement can be used to achieve fast readout and transmission of the state of single atom qubits without the use of optical cavities.
Hamamoto, Ikuko
2010-01-01
Abstract Examples of the change of neutron shell-structure in both weakly-bound and resonant neutron one-particle levels in nuclei towards the neutron drip line are exhibited. It is shown that the shell-structure change due to the weak binding may lead to the deformation of those nuclei with the neutron numbers N ? 8, 20, 28 and 40, which are known to be magic numbers in stable nuclei. Nuclei in the " island of inversion " are most easily and in a simple manner understood in terms of defor...
Yehia A. Lotfy
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The decay of inner-shell vacancy in an atom through radiative and non-radiative transitions leads to final charged ions. The de-excitation decay of 3s, 3p and 3d vacancies in Kr atoms are calculated using Monte-Carlo simulation method. The vacancy cascade pathway resulted from the de-excitation decay of deep core hole in 3s subshell in Kr atoms is discussed. The generation of spectator vacancies during the vacancy cascade development gives rise to Auger satellite spectra. The last transitions of the de-excitation decay of 3s, 3p and 3d holes lead to specific charged ions. Dirac-Fock-Slater wave functions are adapted to calculate radiative and non-radiative transition probabilities. The intensity of Kr^{4+} ions are high for 3s hole state, whereas Kr^{3+} and Kr^{2+} ions have highest intensities for 3p and 3d hole states, respectively. The present results of ion charge state distributions agree well with the experimental data.
The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ-) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2Heπ-) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ-) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)
Sorlin, O
2005-12-15
There are 2 types of nuclear shell closures: one is associated to a number of the harmonic oscillator, typically N = 20 and 40, and the other is a consequence of the spin-orbital interaction that produces magic numbers such as N = 28, 50, 82 and N = 126. The first part of this work deals with the knowledge accumulated around the closure of the N = 28 shell. 3 means of investigation have been used: -) the study of beta decay nuclei (K{sup 47}, Ar{sup 46}, S{sup 44}, Si{sup 42} and Cl{sup 45}), -) the on-line spectroscopy of nuclei around N = 28, and -) the study of Ar{sup 45} and Ar{sup 47} through transfer reactions. The second part is dedicated to results concerning the nuclear structure of nuclei around N = 14-20 and around N = 40. (A.C.)
Wu, Guoguang; Zheng, Weitao; Gao, Fubin; Yang, Hang; Zhao, Yang; Yin, Jingzhi; Zheng, Wei; Li, Wancheng; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong
2016-07-27
This paper presents a systematic investigation of a ZnMgO/InN core-shell nanorods heterojunction device on a p-Si substrate. Here we demonstrated the heteroepitaxial growth of the well-aligned ZnMgO/InN core-shell nanorods structure, which enabled an increased heterojunction area to improve the carrier injection efficiency of nanodevices by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy combined with metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed on the ZnMgO nanorods, the interface of ZnMgO/InN and the InN core-shell nanorods to fully understand the structure and working mechanism of the heterojunction device. The current transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the characteristics of current-voltage and the energy band diagram of the n-InN/ZnMgO/p-Si heterojunction. At a low forward voltage, the current transport followed the dependence of I ∼ V(1.47), which was attributed to the deep-level assisted tunneling. When the forward voltage was larger than 10 V, the current followed the relation of I ∼ V(2) because of the radiative recombination process. In accordance with the above conclusion, the near-infrared electroluminescence of the diode could be observed after the forward bias voltage up to 11.6 V at room temperature. In addition, the size quantization effect and the intrinsic electron accumulation of the InN core-shell nanorods were investigated to explain the blueshift and broadened bandwidth. Furthermore, the light output power of about 0.6 microwatt at a fixed wavelength of 1500 nm indicated that our study will further provide a useful route for realizing the near-infrared electroluminescence of InN on Si substrate. PMID:27418413
A Lorentz Covariant Holoraumy-Induced "Gadget" From Minimal Off-Shell 4D, N = 1 Supermultiplets
Gates,, S J; Miller-Dickson, M D; Mondal, B A; Oskoui, A; Regmi, S; Ross, E; Shetty, R
2015-01-01
Starting from three minimal off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ = 1 supermultiplets, using constructions solely defined within the confines of the four dimensional field theory we show the existence of a "gadget" - a member of a class of metrics on the representation space of the supermultiplets - whose values directly and completely correspond to the values of a metric defined on the 1d, $N$ = 4 adinkra networks adjacency matrices corresponding to the projections of the four dimensional supermultiplets.
[Study of emission spectra of N atom generated in multi-needle-to-plate corona discharge].
Ge, Hui; Yu, Ran; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Dong; Zhu, Yi-Min
2012-06-01
The emission spectra of nitrogen (N) atom produced by multi-needle-to-plate negative corona discharge in air were detected successfully at one atmosphere, and the excited transition spectral line at 674.5 nm with maximum value of relative intensity was selected to investigate the influences of air and electrical parameters on N atom relative density. The results indicate that N atom relative density in ionization region increases with the increase in power; decreases with increasing discharge gap and relative humidity; and with the increase in N2 content, the relative density of N active atom firstly increases and then decreases. Under present experimental conditions, the maximum value of N atom relative density appears at the axial distance from needle point r = 1 mm. PMID:22870624
Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Müller, Marcus; Hartmann, Jana; Zhou, Hao; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Waag, Andreas
2016-05-01
Three-dimensional (3D) InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) core–shell light emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising candidate for the future solid state lighting. In this contribution, we study direct correlations of structural and optical properties of the core–shell LEDs using highly spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Temperature-dependent resonant photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been performed to understand recombination mechanisms and to estimate the internal quantum efficiency (IQE).
Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Wadsworth, R; Danchev, M T; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Leske, J
It is proposed to initiate an experimental program to study the quadrupole-collective isovector valence-shell excitations the so-called mixed-symmetry states (MSSs) of unstable nuclei from the N = 80 isotonic chain. The main aim of this program is to investigate the microscopic mechanism which leads to a concentration or a fragmentation of the MSSs, an effect dubbed $\\textit{shell stabilization}$ of MSSs. This will be achieved by identification of MSSs of the unstable nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. The MSSs of these nuclei will be identified experimentally by measuring their relative populations with respect to the population of the first 2$^{+}$ states in inverse kinematics Coulomb excitation (CE) reactions on light targets. As a first step of this program we apply for a beam time for the radioactive $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm beams at beam energy of 2.85 MeV/u. These beams will be used to determine the absolute B(E2;2$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow$ 0$_{1}^{+}$) values for $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm in Coulomb excit...
Bhattarai, Nabraj; Casillas, Gilberto; Khanal, Subarna; Velazquez Salazar, J. Jesus; Ponce, Arturo; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.yacaman@utsa.edu [University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)
2013-06-15
Au-Pd core-shell nanocubes and triangular nanoparticles were systematically synthesized from a few Pd layers up to fully grown morphologies by a modified seed-mediated growth method. The shape evolution of Au-Pd core-shell nanoparticles from single crystal and singly twinned seed to final concave nanocube and triangular plates are presented at atomic level by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The growth mechanism of both morphologies was studied throughout different sizes. It was found that the concave nanocubes grew from octahedral Au seeds due to fast growth along Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 111 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket directions; while the triangular nanoparticles grew from singly twinned Au seeds, growing twice as fast in Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 110 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket directions along the twin boundary; compared to the Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 111 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket direction perpendicular to the twin boundary. Both the concave nanocubes and triangular nanoparticles presented high index facet (HIF) surfaces that will increase the catalytic activity of different reactions.
Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes and triangular nanoparticles were systematically synthesized from a few Pd layers up to fully grown morphologies by a modified seed-mediated growth method. The shape evolution of Au–Pd core–shell nanoparticles from single crystal and singly twinned seed to final concave nanocube and triangular plates are presented at atomic level by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The growth mechanism of both morphologies was studied throughout different sizes. It was found that the concave nanocubes grew from octahedral Au seeds due to fast growth along 〈111〉 directions; while the triangular nanoparticles grew from singly twinned Au seeds, growing twice as fast in 〈110〉 directions along the twin boundary; compared to the 〈111〉 direction perpendicular to the twin boundary. Both the concave nanocubes and triangular nanoparticles presented high index facet (HIF) surfaces that will increase the catalytic activity of different reactions.
Hebert, T.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Schriever, U.; Kolb, D. M.
1990-02-01
The energy dissipation in matrix-isolated silver atoms after pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation of 4d-5p transitions has been studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The decay behavior of the various fluorescence bands has been analyzed and a model for the relaxation process proposed within the framework of a two-dimensional configuration-coordinate diagram. If minute quantities of Ag2 are present in the matrix, the analysis requires consideration of energy transfer between silver atoms and dimers.
Recent 1-D phenomenological modeling of plasma turbulence by enhancing transport coefficients has shown that it is possible to achieve good agreement with experimental plasma conditions at stagnation, especially when compared to previous laminar flow calculations. Since this original phenomenological study focused upon only a single Physics International Inc. argon experiment, it is important to build a stronger foundation for this modeling. This is accomplished by: (1) including turbulence effects phenomenologically in the 1-D, radiation, MHD average fluid description of the turbulent flow by enhancing the resistivity Ω, viscosity υ, and heat conductivity κ transport coefficients; (2) finding a set of (κ,υ,Ω) coefficients that reasonably produces the stagnation temperatures and densities of a Physics International Inc. aluminum experiment; (3) this choice of transport coefficients is then tested for dependence on mass loading m and atomic number Z by comparing calculated implosion conditions with those found in a variety of PI aluminum and argon experiments. The authors find that the choice of enhanced transport coefficients that produces good agreement with the stagnation temperatures and densities of the single PI aluminum experiment also gives acceptable agreement for the other aluminum and argon experiments. Based on the presumption that a better representation of plasma conditions at stagnation also gives rise to more realistic K-shell yield scaling with atomic number, the minimum load mass and kinetic energy (machine energy) requirements needed to efficiently produce K-shell emission are calculated for aluminum and argon using enhanced transport calculations. These results are then extrapolated to other Z materials and compared with predictions of the original laminar flow scaling study. Implications of this work for large current machines will be presented
Ab initio investigation of the adsorption of atomic and molecular hydrogen on AlN nanotubes
Highlights: • The adsorption characteristics of hydrogen inside the zigzag and armchair AlN nanotubes are explored. • The AlN nanotubes can store hydrogen up to 8.89 wt% with the average binding energies of 0.2–0.4 eV/H-2. - Abstract: The adsorption of atomic and molecular hydrogen on zigzag and armchair AlN nanotubes is investigated within the ab initio density functional theory. The adsorption configurations are magnetic when the H atom is adsorbed on the Al atom and the center of a hexagon. The total magnetic moment is 1.00 μB which comes from the H atom and the nearest neighbor N atoms. The barrier height of various adsorption configurations is very low, indicating that the adsorbed H atom can easily transform into other forms. The adsorption energies of hydrogen atoms to the zigzag and armchair AlN nanotubes are calculated at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 133%, and 200% coverages, the most favorable adsorption configurations are 100% hydrogen coverages. The adsorption configuration of hydrogen molecule adsorbed on the Al atom is the most energetically favorable. Each Al atom is capable of binding one hydrogen molecule, corresponding to the hydrogen gravimetric density to 8.89 wt%. Our theoretical study demonstrates that AlN nanotube can be a potential candidate for the hydrogen storage materials