Theoretical Calculation of Absolute Radii of Atoms and Ions. Part 1. The Atomic Radii
Raka Biswas
2002-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract. A set of theoretical atomic radii corresponding to the principal maximum in the radial distribution function, 4ÃÂ€r2R2 for the outermost orbital has been calculated for the ground state of 103 elements of the periodic table using Slater orbitals. The set of theoretical radii are found to reproduce the periodic law and the Lother MeyerÃ¢Â€Â™s atomic volume curve and reproduce the expected vertical and horizontal trend of variation in atomic size in the periodic table. The d-block and f-block contractions are distinct in the calculated sizes. The computed sizes qualitatively correlate with the absolute size dependent properties like ionization potentials and electronegativity of elements. The radii are used to calculate a number of size dependent periodic physical properties of isolated atoms viz., the diamagnetic part of the atomic susceptibility, atomic polarizability and the chemical hardness. The calculated global hardness and atomic polarizability of a number of atoms are found to be close to the available experimental values and the profiles of the physical properties computed in terms of the theoretical atomic radii exhibit their inherent periodicity. A simple method of computing the absolute size of atoms has been explored and a large body of known material has been brought together to reveal how many different properties correlate with atomic size.
Theoretical Calculation of Absolute Radii of Atoms and Ions. Part 1. The Atomic Radii
Raka Biswas; Dulal C. Ghosh
2002-01-01
Abstract. A set of theoretical atomic radii corresponding to the principal maximum in the radial distribution function, 4ÃÂ€r2R2 for the outermost orbital has been calculated for the ground state of 103 elements of the periodic table using Slater orbitals. The set of theoretical radii are found to reproduce the periodic law and the Lother MeyerÃ¢Â€Â™s atomic volume curve and reproduce the expected vertical and horizontal trend of variation in atomic size in the periodic table. The d-block and...
Theoretical Calculation of Absolute Radii of Atoms and Ions. Part 2. The Ionic Radii
Raka Biswas
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The theoretical method of determination of absolute atomic size, discussed in Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2002, 3, 87-113, is exploited to calculate absolute radii of the ions whose experimental radii are published by Shanon. The computed radii are found to reproduce the expected periodic variation of size in periods and in groups and nicely reproduce the d-block and f-block contractions in the respective series. It is pointed out that experimental radii of d and f block transition metal ions make erroneous and misleading representation of the size behaviour of the respective series. A detailed comparative study of the crystal radii vis-ÃƒÂ -vis the theoretical radii is reported. A rationale of the double hump curve of the experimental radii of 3 d-block transition metal ions is put forward in terms of the crystal field theory and Jahn-Teller distortion. The theoretical radii are exploited to calculate the diamagnetic susceptibility, polarizability and chemical hardness of the ions and compared with available experimental data. The fact of good agreement between the experimental and computed global hardness of ions and correct demonstration of d-block and f-block contraction by the computed radii are used as benchmark to test the validity of the values of the computed theoretical radii of the ions as their representative sizes. It is concluded that the theoretically computed radii of ions are visualizable size representation of ions and can be used as their absolute radii at the respective oxidation states.
Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals
Houari, Ahmed
2008-01-01
I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)
Variable atomic radii for continuum-solvent electrostatics calculation
Zhou, Baojing; Agarwal, Manish; Wong, Chung F.
2008-07-01
We have developed a method to improve the description of solute cavity defined by the interlocking-sphere model for continuum-solvent electrostatics calculations. Many models choose atomic radii from a finite set of atom types or uses an even smaller set developed by Bondi [J. Phys. Chem. 68, 441 (1964)]. The new model presented here allowed each atom to adapt its radius according to its chemical environment. This was achieved by first approximating the electron density of a molecule by a superposition of atom-centered spherical Gaussian functions. The parameters of the Gaussian functions were then determined by optimizing a function that minimized the difference between the properties from the model and those from ab initio quantum calculations. These properties included the electrostatics potential on molecular surface and the electron density within the core of each atom. The size of each atom was then determined by finding the radius at which the electron density associated with the atom fell to a prechosen value. This value was different for different chemical elements and was chosen such that the averaged radius for each chemical element in a training set of molecules matched its Bondi radius. Thus, our model utilized only a few adjustable parameters—the above density cutoff values for different chemical elements—but had the flexibility of allowing every atom to adapt its radius according to its chemical environment. This variable-radii model gave better solvation energy for 31 small neutral molecules than the Bondi radii did, especially for a quantum mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann approach we developed earlier. The improvement was most significant for molecules with large dipole moment. Future directions for further improvement are also discussed.
Heyrovska, Raji
2009-01-01
The Golden ratio which appears in the geometry of a variety of creations in Nature is found to arise right in the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom due to the opposite charges of the electron and proton. The bond length of the hydrogen molecule is the diagonal of a square on the Bohr radius and hence also has two Golden sections, which form the cationic and anionic radii of hydrogen. It is shown here that these radii account for the bond lengths of many hydrides when added to the atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii of many other atoms.
Heyrovska, Raji
2009-01-01
The Golden ratio which appears in the geometry of a variety of creations in Nature is found to arise right in the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom due to the opposite charges of the electron and proton. The bond length of the hydrogen molecule is the diagonal of a square on the Bohr radius and hence also has two Golden sections, which form the cationic and anionic radii of hydrogen. It is shown here that these radii account for the bond lengths of many hydrides when added to the atomic and Go...
Electron-pair shell density approximation applied to inner and outer electron radii of atoms
The shell density approximation to the electron-pair radial density of atoms is applied to the inner 〈r〉 and outer 〈r>〉 electron radii, which are two components of the familiar average electron radius 〈r〉. The inner and outer radii with two-electron nature are found to be expressed by simple weighted sums of single-electron shell radii, where the weight factors are related to the numbers of shell electrons. A numerical examination of the 53 atoms He through Xe shows that the average relative errors of the approximation are only 3.5% and 1.1% for the inner and outer electron radii, respectively. Lower and upper bounds to 〈r〉 and 〈r>〉 are discussed. The present results also bound the electron-pair relative distance and centre-of-mass radius in terms of the single-electron shell radii. (paper)
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
It has been shown recently that chemical bond lengths, in general, like those in the components of nucleic acids, caffeine related compounds, all essential amino acids, methane, benzene, graphene and fullerene are sums of the radii of adjacent atoms constituting the bond. Earlier, the crystal ionic distances in all alkali halides and lengths of many partially ionic bonds were also accounted for by the additivity of ionic as well as covalent radii. Here, the atomic structures of riboflavin and its reduced form are presented based on the additivity of the same set of atomic radii as for other biological molecules.
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
It has been shown recently that chemical bond lengths, in general, like those in the components of nucleic acids, caffeine related compounds, all essential amino acids, methane, benzene, graphene and fullerene are sums of the radii of adjacent atoms constituting the bond. Earlier, the crystal ionic distances in all alkali halides and lengths of many partially ionic bonds were also accounted for by the additivity of ionic as well as covalent radii. Here, the atomic structures of riboflavin and...
Heyrovska, Raji
2007-01-01
The interpretation by the author in recent years of bond lengths as sums of the relevant atomic or ionic radii has been extended here to the bonds in the skeletal structures of adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, uracil, ribose, deoxyribose and phosphoric acid. On examining the bond length data in the literature, it has been found that the averages of the bond lengths are close to the sums of the corresponding atomic covalent radii of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorus. Thus, ...
Heyrovska, Raji
2007-01-01
The interpretation by the author in recent years of bond lengths as sums of the relevant atomic or ionic radii has been extended here to the bonds in the skeletal structures of adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, uracil, ribose, deoxyribose and phosphoric acid. On examining the bond length data in the literature, it has been found that the averages of the bond lengths are close to the sums of the corresponding atomic covalent radii of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorus. Thus, the conventional molecular structures have been resolved here, for the first time, into probable atomic structures.
Atomic Radii in Molecules for Use in a Polarizable Force Field
Swart, Marcel; Van Duijnen, Piet Th
2011-01-01
We report here the results for an ab initio approach to obtain the parameters needed for molecular simulations using a polarizable force field. These parameters consist of the atomic charges, polarizabilities, and radii. The former two are readily obtained using methods reported previously (van Duij
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
Recently, the bond lengths of the molecular components of nucleic acids and of caffeine and related molecules were shown to be sums of the appropriate covalent radii of the adjacent atoms. Thus, each atom was shown to have its specific contribution to the bond length. This enabled establishing their atomic structures for the first time. In this work, the known bond lengths for amino acids and the peptide bond are similarly shown to be sums of the atomic covalent radii. Based on this result, the atomic structures of glycine, alanine and serine and their tripeptide have been presented.
Heyrovska, Raji
2007-01-01
An earlier finding that the van der waals radii are related to their de broglie wavelengths for some non-metallic elements has been extended here to show that in fact, they vary linearly with the ground state bohr radii for all the elements of groups 1a to 8 a. Similarly, the valence shell radii and the covalent radii are shown to be linearly dependent on the bohr radii. One table of data and 5 figures have been provided here showing that all the above radii are sums of two lengths, one of wh...
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
Recently, the bond lengths of the molecular components of nucleic acids and of caffeine and related molecules were shown to be sums of the appropriate covalent radii of the adjacent atoms. Thus, each atom was shown to have its specific contribution to the bond length. This enabled establishing their atomic structures for the first time. In this work, the known bond lengths for amino acids and the peptide bond are similarly shown to be sums of the atomic covalent radii. Based on this result, t...
The Boundary Radii of Atoms and Ions%原子和离子的边界半径
杨忠志; 张明波; 赵东霞
2001-01-01
假设原子(离子)中一个电子所受到的作用势等于其第一电离能的负值，定义了原子(离子)的边界半径，其具有内禀性、唯一性的特点。借助于MELD从头计算程序，计算了原子(离子)中一个电子受到的作用势，给出了前四周期元素的原子和离子边界半径。这种半径与传统半径之间存在很好的相关性，具有可应用性和预测性。%The MELD program is employed to evaluate the potential v(r) acting on an electron at the point r within an atom(ion). The boundary radius of an atom(ion) is defined by the classical turning point equation v(r) = - I, where I denotes the first ionization potential of the atom(ion). The boundary radii of atoms and ions of elements from first-to third-row in the periodic table are obtained. The radii of atoms and ions defined in this way have a close correlation with other traditional sets of radii, which indicates that they are applicable and predicable.
Heyrovska, Raji
2007-01-01
An earlier finding that the van der waals radii are related to their de broglie wavelengths for some non-metallic elements has been extended here to show that in fact, they vary linearly with the ground state bohr radii for all the elements of groups 1a to 8 a. Similarly, the valence shell radii and the covalent radii are shown to be linearly dependent on the bohr radii. One table of data and 5 figures have been provided here showing that all the above radii are sums of two lengths, one of which is a multiple of the bohr radius and the other, a positive or negative constant for each group of elements.
Heyrovska, Raji
2010-01-01
This paper presents for the first time the exact structures at the atomic level of two important nanomaterials, boron nitride and coronene. Both these compounds are hexagonal layer structures similar to graphene in two dimensions and to graphite in three-dimensions. However, they have very different properties: whereas graphene is a conductor, h-BN is an electrical insulator and coronene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon of cosmological interest. The atomic structures presented here are based on bond lengths as the sums of the atomic radii.
Hyperfine structure and optical isotope shift measurements have been performed on a series of stable and radioactive strontium isotopes (A = 80 to 90), including two isomers 85m and 87m. The spectroscopy applied continuous wave dye laser induced fluorescence of free atoms at λ=293.2 nm in a well collimated atomic beam. The 293.2 nm ultraviolet light was generated by frequency doubling the output of a dye laser in either a temperature tuned Ammonium Dihydrogen Arsenate (ADA) crystal or an angle tuned Lithium Iodate crystal. A special radio frequency (rf) technique was used to tune the dye laser frequency with long term stability. Radioactive Sr isotopes were produced either by neutron capture of stable strontium or by (α,xn) reactions from krypton gas. The samples were purified by an electromagnetic mass separator and their sizes were of order 100 pg, which corresponds to 1011 atoms. The observed results of the hyperfine structure components are evaluated in terms of nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments. Changes in mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei which were extracted from the isotope shift measurements, exhibit a distinct shell effect at the neutron magic number N=50. The experimental data are analysed and compared with some theoretical nuclear model predictions. The strong increase of the nuclear charge radii with decreasing neutron number of isotopes below N=50 is in agreement with the variation of the mean square deformation extracted from measured B(E2) values. (orig.)
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
Two dimensional layers of graphene are currently drawing a great attention in fundamental and applied nanoscience. Graphene consists of interconnected hexagons of carbon atoms as in graphite. This article presents for the first time the structures of graphene at the atomic level and shows how it differs from that of benzene, due to the difference in the double bond and resonance bond based radii of carbon. The carbon atom of an aliphatic compound such as methane has a longer covalent single b...
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
Two dimensional layers of graphene are currently drawing a great attention in fundamental and applied nanoscience. Graphene consists of interconnected hexagons of carbon atoms as in graphite. This article presents for the first time the structures of graphene at the atomic level and shows how it differs from that of benzene, due to the difference in the double bond and resonance bond based radii of carbon. The carbon atom of an aliphatic compound such as methane has a longer covalent single bond radius as in diamond. All the atomic structures presented here have been drawn to scale.
The optical isotopic shifts in atomic spectra are measured for the first time using the method of laser multistep photoionization of atoms and the changes in the mean-square charge radii of radioactive nuclei are determined. The measurements were performed for the radioactive isotopes /sup 145-149/Eu in the transition 4f 7 6s28S0/sub 7/2/ --4f 7 6s 6p 6P/sub 7/2/, lambda = 576.5 nm
We consider, for atoms from 55Cs to 80Hg, the effective atomic radius (rear), which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He2. The values of rear are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s,
Hiroshi Tatewaki
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We consider, for atoms from 55Cs to 80Hg, the effective atomic radius (rear, which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He2. The values of rear are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s, . The value of rear decreases from 55Cs to 56Ba and undergoes increases and decreases with rising nuclear charge from 57La to 70Y b. In fact rear is understood as comprising two interlaced sequences; one consists of 57La, 58Ce, and 64Gd, which have electronic configuration (4fn−1(5d1(6s2, and the remaining atoms have configuration (4fn(6s2. The sphere defined by rear contains 85%–90% of the 6s electrons. From 71Lu to 80Hg the radius rear also involves two sequences, corresponding to the two configurations 5dn+16s1 and 5dn6s2. The radius rear according to the present methodology is considerably larger than rvdW obtained by other investigators, some of who have found values of rvdW close to .
Tatewaki, Hiroshi, E-mail: htatewak@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Institute of Advanced Studies in Artificial Intelligence, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Hatano, Yasuyo [School of Information Science and Technology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Noro, Takeshi [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi [School of International Liberal Studies, Chukyo University, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8666 (Japan)
2015-06-15
We consider, for atoms from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 80}Hg, the effective atomic radius (r{sub ear}), which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He{sub 2}. The values of r{sub ear} are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s,
Heyrovska, Raji
2010-01-01
This paper presents for the first time the exact structures at the atomic level of two important nanomaterials, boron nitride and coronene. Both these compounds are hexagonal layer structures similar to graphene in two dimensions and to graphite in three-dimensions. However, they have very different properties: whereas graphene is a conductor, h-BN is an electrical insulator and coronene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon of cosmological interest. The atomic structures presented here for bo...
Nuclear charge radii: Density functional theory meets Bayesian neural networks
Utama, Raditya; Piekarewicz, Jorge
2016-01-01
The distribution of electric charge in atomic nuclei is fundamental to our understanding of the complex nuclear dynamics and a quintessential observable to validate nuclear structure models. We explore a novel approach that combines sophisticated models of nuclear structure with Bayesian neural networks (BNN) to generate predictions for the charge radii of thousands of nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. A class of relativistic energy density functionals is used to provide robust predictions for nuclear charge radii. In turn, these predictions are refined through Bayesian learning for a neural network that is trained using residuals between theoretical predictions and the experimental data. Although predictions obtained with density functional theory provide a fairly good description of experiment, our results show significant improvement (better than 40%) after BNN refinement. Moreover, these improved results for nuclear charge radii are supplemented with theoretical error bars. We have successfully demonst...
Spins, moments and radii of Cd isotopes
The complex nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the wide range of systems covered by the roughly 3000 known nuclides leads to a multitude of effects observed in nuclear structure. Among the most prominent ones is the occurence of shell closures at so-called ''magic numbers'', which are explained by the nuclear shell model. Although the shell model already is on duty for several decades, it is still constantly extended and improved. For this process of extension, fine adjustment and verification, it is important to have experimental data of nuclear properties, especially at crucial points like in the vicinity of shell closures. This is the motivation for the work performed in this thesis: the measurement and analysis of nuclear ground state properties of the isotopic chain of 100-130Cd by collinear laser spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted at ISOLDE/CERN using the collinear laser spectroscopy apparatus COLLAPS. This experiment is the continuation of a run on neutral atomic cadmium from A = 106 to A = 126 and extends the measured isotopes to even more exotic species. The required gain in sensitivity is mainly achieved by using a radiofrequency cooler and buncher for background reduction and by using the strong 5s 2S1/2→5p2P3/2 transition in singly ionized Cd. The latter requires a continuous wave laser system with a wavelength of 214.6 nm, which has been developed during this thesis. Fourth harmonic generation of an infrared titanium sapphire laser is achieved by two subsequent cavity-enhanced second harmonic generations, leading to the production of deep-UV laser light up to about 100 mW. The acquired data of the Z=48 Cd isotopes, having one proton pair less than the Z=50 shell closure at tin, covers the isotopes from N=52 up to N=82 and therefore almost the complete region between the neutron shell closures N=50 and N=82. The isotope shifts and the hyperfine structures of these isotopes have been recorded and the magnetic dipole moments, the
Charge radii of radium isotopes
Wansbeek, L. W.; Schlesser, S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Dieperink, A. E. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Timmermans, R. G. E.
2012-01-01
We present a combined analysis of the available isotope-shift data from the optical spectra of Ra atoms and Ra+ ions. Atomic structure calculations of the field-shift and specific mass-shift constants of the low-lying levels in Ra+ are used. The nuclear radial differences delta
Ab initio molar volumes and Gaussian radii.
Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W
2009-02-12
Ab initio molar volumes are calculated and used to derive radii for ions and neutral molecules using a spatially diffuse model of the electron distribution with Gaussian spread. The Gaussian radii obtained can be used for computation of nonelectrostatic ion-ion dispersion forces that underlie Hofmeister specific ion effects. Equivalent hard-sphere radii are also derived, and these are in reasonable agreement with crystalline ionic radii. The Born electrostatic self-energy is derived for a Gaussian model of the electronic charge distribution. It is shown that the ionic volumes used in electrostatic calculations of strongly hydrated cosmotropic ions ought best to include the first hydration shell. Ionic volumes for weakly hydrated chaotropic metal cations should exclude electron overlap (in electrostatic calculations). Spherical radii are calculated as well as nonisotropic ellipsoidal radii for nonspherical ions, via their nonisotropic static polarizability tensors. PMID:19140766
A differential equation for the Generalized Born radii.
Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro
2013-06-28
The Generalized Born (GB) model offers a convenient way of representing electrostatics in complex macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids. The computation of atomic GB radii is currently performed by different non-local approaches involving volume or surface integrals. Here we obtain a non-linear second-order partial differential equation for the Generalized Born radius, which may be solved using local iterative algorithms. The equation is derived under the assumption that the usual GB approximation to the reaction field obeys Laplace's equation. The equation admits as particular solutions the correct GB radii for the sphere and the plane. The tests performed on a set of 55 different proteins show an overall agreement with other reference GB models and "perfect" Poisson-Boltzmann based values. PMID:23676843
An improvement of Van Vechten's covalent radii
It is found that Van Vechten's additive covalent radii defined by a geometrical average can be improved remarkably with an average error of approx. 1%. A short discussion is given for the relationship of bond length with crystal covalency. (author)
First Measurement of the Nuclear Charge Radii of Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes
A novel method for the determination of nuclear charge radii of lithium isotopes is presented. Precise laser spectroscopic measurements of the isotope shift in the lithium 2s → 3s transition are combined with highly accurate atomic physics calculation of the mass dependent isotope shift to extract the charge-distribution-sensitive information. This approach has been used to determine the charge radii of 8,9Li for the first time.
The hyperfine structure of the Ba resonance line at lambda = 553,5 nm was measured by dye laser induced resonance fluorescence on an atomic beam for 15 isotopes and isomers with atomic numbers between 126 and 138. The results have been used to deduce differences of rms charge radii, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. (orig./AH)
Finite-volume corrections to charge radii
The finite-volume nature of lattice QCD entails a variety of effects that must be handled in the process of performing chiral extrapolations. Since the pion cloud that surrounds hadrons becomes distorted in a finite volume, hadronic observables must be corrected before one can compare with the experimental values. The electric charge radius of the nucleon is of particular interest when considering the implementation of finite-volume corrections. It is common practice in the literature to transform electric form factors from the lattice into charge radii prior to analysis. However, there is a fundamental difficulty with using these charge radii in a finite-volume extrapolation. The subtleties are a consequence of the absence of a continuous derivative on the lattice. A procedure is outlined for handling such finite-volume corrections, which must be applied directly to the electric form factors themselves rather than to the charge radii
Bounds of Spectral Radii of Weighted Trees
杨华中; 胡冠章; 洪渊
2003-01-01
Graphs for the design of networks or electronic circuits are usually weighted and the spectrum of weighted graphs are often analyzed to solve problems. This paper discusses the spectrum and the spectral radii of trees with edge weights. We derive expressions for the spectrum and the spectral radius of a weighted star, together with the boundary limits of the spectral radii for weighted paths and weighted trees. The analysis uses the theory of nonnegative matrices and applies the "moving edge" technique. Some simple examples of weighted paths and trees are presented to explain the results. Then, we propose some open problems in this area.
Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes
Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Ekström, A.; Frömmgen, N.; Hagen, G.; Hammen, M.; Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Jansen, G. R.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Nazarewicz, W.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Papenbrock, T.; Papuga, J.; Schwenk, A.; Simonis, J.; Wendt, K. A.; Yordanov, D. T.
2016-06-01
Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain `magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-rich atomic nuclei.
Opportunities and problems in determining proton and light nuclear radii
N G Kelkar; M Nowakowski; D Bedoya Fierro
2014-11-01
We briefly review the so-called `proton puzzle’, i.e., the disagreement of the newly extracted value of the proton charge radius $r_p$ from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy with other extractions, its possible significance and related problems. After describing the conventional theory to extract the proton radius from atomic spectroscopy we focus on a novel consistent approach based on the Breit equation. With this new tool, we confirm that the radius has indeed become smaller compared to the value extracted from scattering experiments, but the existence of different theoretical approaches casts some doubt on the accuracy of the new value. Precision measurements in atomic physics do provide the opportunity to extract light nuclear radii but the accuracy is limited by the methods of incorporating the nuclear structure effects.
Lombardi Sr, James C.
2015-01-01
The present investigation relates the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model is developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among the photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In this model thermal energy is extracted from each disk due to a resonance at radii where there is a match between the te...
刘洪毓
2007-01-01
Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what
Heyrovská, Raji
2010-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 9 (2010), s. 903-907. ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Electrochemistry * Absolute redox potentials * Radii of redox components Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010
Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)
Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes
Garcia Ruiz, R F; Blaum, K; Ekström, A; Frömmgen, N; Hagen, G; Hammen, M; Hebeler, K; Holt, J D; Jansen, G R; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Nazarewicz, W; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Papenbrock, T; Papuga, J; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Wendt, K A; Yordanov, D T
2016-01-01
Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-...
Lombardi, James C
2015-01-01
The present investigation relates the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model is developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among the photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In this model thermal energy is extracted from each disk due to a resonance at radii where there is a match between the temperature in the disk and a photon energy. Matter accumulates at these radii, and satellites and rings are ultimately formed. Orbital radii of satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, and Neptune are related to photon energies ($E_{PM}$ values) in the spectrum of molecular hydrogen. Orbital radii of satellites of Saturn are related to photon energies ($E_{PA}$ values) in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. The first hint that such relationships exist is found in the linearity of the graphs of orbital radii of uranian satellites vs. or...
Nuclear Charge Radii and Electric Quadrupole Moments
Nerlo-Pomorska, B; Nerlo-Pomorska, Bozena; Mach, Beata
1993-01-01
Isotope shifts of the mean square radii (MSR) and electric quadrupole moments of even-even nuclei with 20< Z < 98$ are calculated using a dynamical microscopic model. A single particle Nilsson potential with the Seo set of correction term parameters, the pairing forces in the BCS formalism and a long range interaction in the local approximation are used. A collective hamiltonian is obtained using a generator coordinate method (GCM) with the gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). A potential energy of the nucleus consists of a microscopic-macroscopic Strutinsky energy and a zero point vibrational term. A liquid droplet model is used as the macroscopic part of the potential. A BCS wave function is taken as a generator function and two collective variables, quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, serve as the generator coordinates.
Accurate, Empirical Radii and Masses of Planets with Gaia Parallaxes
Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott
2016-01-01
We present new, empirical measurements of the radii of 132 stars that host transiting planets. These stellar radii are determined using only direct observables---the bolometric flux at Earth, the stellar effective temperature, and the parallax newly provided by the Gaia first data release---and thus are virtually model independent, extinction being the only free parameter. We also determine each star's mass using our newly determined radius and the stellar density, itself a virtually model independent quantity from the previously published transit analysis. The newly determined stellar radii and masses are in turn used to re-determine the transiting planet radii and masses, once again using only direct observables. The uncertainties on the stellar radii and masses are typically 7% and 25%, respectively, and the resulting uncertainties on the planet radii and masses are 8% and 20%, respectively. These accuracies are generally larger than the previously published model-dependent precisions of 5% and 6% on the p...
Table of nuclear root mean square charge radii. Summary
This document describes a table of nuclear root-mean-square (rms) charge radii evaluated by two different procedures. The data are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section via INTERNET or on PC diskettes upon request. This document supersedes the previous IAEA-NDS-163, 1990, 'Nuclear Charge Radii'. (author)
Proton radii of Be, B, and C isotopes
Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko
2014-01-01
We investigate the neutron number $(N)$ dependence of root mean square radii of point proton distribution (proton radii) of Be, B, and C isotopes with the theoretical method of variation after spin-parity projection in the framework of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). The proton radii in Be and B isotopes changes rapidly as $N$ increases, reflecting the cluster structure change along the isotope chains, whereas, those in C isotopes show a weak $N$ dependence because of the stable proton structure in nuclei with $Z=6$. In neutron-rich Be and B isotopes, the proton radii are remarkably increased by the enhancement of the two-center cluster structure in the prolately deformed neutron structure. We compare the $N$ dependence of the calculated proton radii with the experimental ones reduced from the charge radii determined by isotope shift and those deduced from the charge changing interaction cross section. It is found that the $N$ dependence of proton radii can be a probe to clarify enhancement and weak...
Connecting a Set of Circles with Minimum Sum of Radii
Chambers, Erin Wolf; Hoffmann, Hella-Franziska; Marinakis, Dimitri; Mitchell, Joseph S B; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Stege, Ulrike; Whitesides, Sue
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of assigning radii to a given set of points in the plane, such that the resulting set of circles is connected, and the sum of radii is minimized. We show that the problem is polynomially solvable if a connectivity tree is given. If the connectivity tree is unknown, the problem is NP-hard if there are upper bounds on the radii and open otherwise. We give approximation guarantees for a variety of polynomial-time algorithms, describe upper and lower bounds (which are matching in some of the cases), provide polynomial-time approximation schemes, and conclude with experimental results and open problems.
HBT radii from multipole Buda-Lund model
Lökös, Sándor; Tomášik, Boris; Csörgő, Tamás
2016-01-01
The Buda-Lund model describes an expanding hydrodynamical system with ellipsoidal symmetry and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. The ellipsoidal symmetry can be characterized by the second order harmonics of the transverse momentum distribution, and it can be also observed in the azimuthal oscillation of the HBT radii measured versus the second order reaction plane. The model may have to be changed to describe the experimentally indicated higher order asymmetries. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund hydro model to investigate higher order flow harmonics and the triangular dependence of the azimuthally sensitive HBT radii.
Cu charge radii reveal a weak sub-shell effect at N =40
Bissell, M. L.; Carette, T.; Flanagan, K. T.; Vingerhoets, P.; Billowes, J.; Blaum, K.; Cheal, B.; Fritzsche, S.; Godefroid, M.; Kowalska, M.; Krämer, J.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Yordanov, D. T.
2016-06-01
Collinear laser spectroscopy on Cu-7558 isotopes was performed at the CERN-ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility. In this paper we report on the isotope shifts obtained from these measurements. State-of-the-art atomic physics calculations have been undertaken in order to determine the changes in mean-square charge radii δ A ,A' from the observed isotope shifts. A local minimum is observed in these radii differences at N =40 , providing evidence for a weak N =40 sub-shell effect. However, comparison of δ A ,A' with a droplet model prediction including static deformation deduced from the spectroscopic quadrupole moments, points to the persistence of correlations at N =40 .
Diamond-Structured Photonic Crystals with Graded Air Spheres Radii
Dichen Li
2012-05-01
Full Text Available A diamond-structured photonic crystal (PC with graded air spheres radii was fabricated successfully by stereolithography (SL and gel-casting process. The graded radii in photonic crystal were formed by uniting different radii in photonic crystals with a uniform radius together along the Г‑Х direction. The stop band was observed between 26.1 GHz and 34.3 GHz by reflection and transmission measurements in the direction. The result agreed well with the simulation attained by the Finite Integration Technique (FIT. The stop band width was 8.2 GHz and the resulting gap/midgap ratio was 27.2%, which became respectively 141.4% and 161.9% of the perfect PC. The results indicate that the stop band width of the diamond-structured PC can be expanded by graded air spheres radii along the Г‑Х direction, which is beneficial to develop a multi bandpass filter.
Nuclear charge radii of potassium isotopes beyond N=28
Kreim, K.; Papuga, J.; Blaum, K.; De Rydt, M.; Ruiz, R.F.Garcia; Goriely, S.; Heylen, H.; Kowalska, M.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nortershauser, W.; Rajabali, M.M.; Sanchez Alarcon, R.; Stroke, H.H.; Yordanov, D.T.
2014-01-01
We report on the measurement of optical isotope shifts for $^{38,39,42,44,46\\text{-}51}$K relative to $^{47}$K from which changes in the nuclear mean square charge radii across the N=28 shell closure are deduced. The investigation was carried out by bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy at the CERN-ISOLDE radioactive ion-beam facility. Mean square charge radii are now known from $^{37}$K to $^{51}$K, covering all $\
Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: trend analysis
Reinhard, P. -G.; W. Nazarewicz
2016-01-01
Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. In this work, by studying the dependence of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, on nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. We apply nuclear density functional the...
Spins, moments and radii of Cd isotopes
Hammen, Michael
The complex nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the wide range of systems covered by the roughly 3000 known nuclides leads to a multitude of effects observed in nuclear structure. Among the most prominent ones is the occurence of shell closures at so-called ”magic numbers”, which are explained by the nuclear shell model. Although the shell model already is on duty for several decades, it is still constantly extended and improved. For this process of extension, ﬁne adjustment and veriﬁcation, it is important to have experimental data of nuclear properties, especially at crucial points like in the vicinity of shell closures. This is the motivation for the work performed in this thesis: the measurement and analysis of nuclear ground state properties of the isotopic chain of $^{100−130}$Cd by collinear laser spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted at ISOLDE/CERN using the collinear laser spectroscopy apparatus COLLAPS. This experiment is the continuation of a run on neutral atomic cadmium f...
Neutron Radii from Low Energy Pion Scattering.
Gyles, William
Recent electron scattering measurements and muonic atom studies have allowed precise determinations of the charge distributions of nuclei. Measurements of the neutron distributions, however, have not progressed to this degree of sophistication, largely because of the uncertainties in the hadron-nucleus interaction. Charge distribution measurements provide good tests of nuclear structure calculations, but measurements of neutron distributions will provide independent constraints on these calculations and the potentials used. In this experiment, (pi)('-) differential cross section ratios were measured on pairs of isotopes (('36)S,('32)S), (('34)S,('32)S) with 50 MeV pions and (('26)Mg,('24)Mg) with 45 MeV pions. Absolute differential cross sections were also measured for ('32)S and ('24)Mg. Magnetic spectro -meters were used to collect the data. The cross section ratios were compared to optical model calcula-tions in which the parameters of a Fermi function representing the neutron distribution of the larger isotope of each pair were varied. The rms radius difference between the two isotopes producing the best fit was found to be independent of the details of the optical potential used, as long as the potential produced a fit to the absolute cross sections. The neutron distribution of the larger isotope was also rep-resented as a Fermi function modified by a sum of spherical Bessel functions, the coefficients of which were allowed to vary. The results for the rms radius differences were consistent with the Fermi function fits, except for ('34)S-('32)S, where the results differed by a full standard deviation. The rms radius differences found for the sulfur isotopes agreed with the results of shell-model calculations by Hodgson (Str82,Hod83). The extracted rms radius difference of the magnesium isotopes was one standard deviation less than the shell-model prediction. The results for the Fermi function fits, Fourier Bessell fits and the single particle potential (SPP
Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: trend analysis
Reinhard, P -G
2016-01-01
Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. In this work, by studying the dependence of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, on nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of different optimization protocols targeting specific nuclear properties. By performing the Monte-Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we study correlations between nuclear matter paramaters and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions. We demonstrate the existence of the strong converse relation between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter and also between the n...
PTPS Candidate Exoplanet Host Star Radii Determination with CHARA Array
Zielinski, Pawel; Baines, Ellyn; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Wolszczan, Aleksander
2012-01-01
We propose to measure the radii of the Penn State - Torun Planet Search (PTPS) exoplanet host star candidates using the CHARA Array. Stellar radii estimated from spectroscopic analysis are usually inaccurate due to indirect nature of the method and strong evolutionary model dependency. Also the so-called degeneracy of stellar evolutionary tracks due to convergence of many tracks in the giant branch decreases the precision of such estimates. However, the radius of a star is a critical parameter for the calculation of stellar luminosity and mass, which are often not well known especially for giants. With well determined effective temperature (from spectroscopy) and radius the luminosity may be calculated precisely. In turn also stellar mass may be estimated much more precisely. Therefore, direct radii measurements increase precision in the determination of planetary candidates masses and the surface temperatures of the planets.
Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction
Ekstrom, A; Wendt, K A; Hagen, G; Papenbrock, T; Carlsson, B D; Forssen, C; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Navratil, P; Nazarewicz, W
2015-01-01
The accurate reproduction of nuclear radii and binding energies is a long-standing challenge in nuclear theory. To address this problem two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective 3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shell nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.
Large Einstein Radii: A Problem for LambdaCDM
Broadhurst, Tom
2008-01-01
The Einstein radius of a cluster provides a relatively model-independent measure of the mass density of a cluster within a projected radius of ~ 150 kpc, large enough to be relatively unaffected by gas physics. We show that the observed Einstein radii of three well-studied massive clusters, for which reliable virial masses are measured, lie well beyond the predicted distribution of Einstein radii in the standard LambdaCDM model. Based on large samples of numerically simulated cluster-sized objects with virial masses ~ 1e15 solar, the predicted Einstein radii are only 15-25'', a factor of two below the observed Einstein radii of these three clusters. This is because the predicted mass profile is too shallow to exceed the critical surface density for lensing at a sizable projected radius. After carefully accounting for measurement errors as well as the biases inherent in the selection of clusters and the projection of mass measured by lensing, we find that the theoretical predictions are excluded at a 4-sigma s...
Symmetry constraints for the emission angle dependence of HBT radii
Heinz, Ulrich W; Lisa, M A; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2002-01-01
We discuss symmetry constraints on the azimuthal oscillations of two-particle correlation (Hanbury Brown--Twiss interferometry) radii for non-central collisions between equal spherical nuclei. We also propose a new method for correcting in a model-independent way the emission angle dependent correlation function for finite event plane resolution and angular binning effects.
Mutual Radiation Impedance of Uncollapsed CMUT Cells with Different Radii
Ozgurluk, Alper; Atalar, Abdullah; Koymen, Hayrettin
2015-01-01
A polynomial approximation is proposed for the mutual acoustic impedance between uncollapsed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) cells with different radii in an infinite rigid baffle. The resulting approximation is employed in simulating CMUTs with a circuit model. A very good agreement is obtained with the corresponding finite element simulation (FEM) result.
Factors Affecting the Radii of Close-in Transiting Exoplanets
Enoch, B; Horne, K
2012-01-01
The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation, planet mass and heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. We use multivariate regression models to determine the dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature T_eq, planetary mass M_p, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate H_tidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (2.0R_J) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii...
Atomic Structure of Benzene Which Accounts for Resonance Energy
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
Benzene is a hexagonal molecule of six carbon atoms, each of which is bound to six hydrogen atoms. The equality of all six CC bond lengths, despite the alternating double and single bonds, and the surplus (resonance) energy, led to the suggestion of two resonanting structures. Here, the new atomic structure shows that the bond length equality is due to three carbon atoms with double bond radii bound to three other carbon atoms with resonance bond radii (as in graphene). Consequently, there ar...
The Mass-Radius Relation for 65 Exoplanets Smaller than 4 Earth Radii
Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.
2013-01-01
We study the masses and radii of 65 exoplanets smaller than 4 Earth radii with orbital periods shorter than 100 days. We calculate the weighted mean densities of planets in bins of 0.5 Earth radii and identify a density maximum of 7.6 g/cc at 1.4 Earth radii. Planets with radii up to R = 1.5 Earth radii increase in density with increasing radius. Above 1.5 Earth radii, planet density rapidly decreases with increasing radius, indicating that these planets have a large fraction of volatiles by ...
Observational constraints on neutron star masses and radii
Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star - black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method. (orig.)
Charge distribution and radii in clusters from nuclear pasta models
We study the consistency of the description of charge distributions and radii of nuclear clusters obtained with semiclassical nuclear pasta models. These nuclei are expected to exist in the low density outer crust of neutron stars. Properties of the arising clusterized nucleon matter can be compared to realistic nuclear properties as experimentally extracted on earth. We focus on non iso-symmetric light clusters with nucleon number 8 ≤ A ≤ 30 and use Monte Carlo many-body techniques. We simulate isotopic chains for a set of selected nuclei using a model Hamiltonian consisting of the usual kinetic term, hadronic nucleon nucleon (NN), Coulomb and an effective density dependent Pauli potential. It is shown that for neutron rich (deficient) clusters neutron (proton) skins develop. Different (matter, neutron, proton, electric charge) radii are computed for this set of non iso-symmetric nuclei. Nuclear binding energies are also analyzed in the isotopic chains. (author)
Observational Constraints on Neutron Star Masses and Radii
Miller, M Coleman
2016-01-01
Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star -- black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method...
Observational constraints on neutron star masses and radii
Coleman Miller, M. [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD (United States); Lamb, Frederick K. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Astronomy, Urbana, IL (United States)
2016-03-15
Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star - black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method. (orig.)
Spins, moments and charge radii beyond $^{48}$Ca
Neyens, G; Rajabali, M M; Hammen, M; Blaum, K; Froemmgen, N E; Garcia ruiz, R F; Kreim, K D; Budincevic, I
Laser spectroscopy of $^{49-54}$Ca is proposed as a continuation of the experimental theme initiated with IS484 “Ground-state properties of K-isotopes from laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy” and expanded in INTC-I-117 “Moments, Spins and Charge Radii Beyond $^{48}$Ca.” It is anticipated that the charge radii of these isotopes can show strong evidence for the existence of a sub-shell closure at N=32 and could provide a first tentative investigation into the existence of a shell effect at N=34. Furthermore the proposed experiments will simultaneously provide model-independent measurements of the spins, magnetic moments and quadrupole moments of $^{51,53}$Ca permitting existing and future excitation spectra to be pinned to firm unambiguous ground states.
The extremal spectral radii of $k$-uniform supertrees
Li, Honghai; Shao, Jiayu; Qi, Liqun
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study some extremal problems of three kinds of spectral radii of $k$-uniform hypergraphs (the adjacency spectral radius, the signless Laplacian spectral radius and the incidence $Q$-spectral radius). We call a connected and acyclic $k$-uniform hypergraph a supertree. We introduce the operation of "moving edges" for hypergraphs, together with the two special cases of this operation: the edge-releasing operation and the total grafting operation. By studying the perturbation of...
Jupiter's Occultation Radii: Implications for its Internal Dynamics
Helled, Ravit
2011-01-01
The physical shape of a giant planet can reveal important information about its centrifugal potential, and therefore, its rotation. In this paper I investigate the response of Jupiter's shape to differential rotation on cylinders of various cylindrical radii using a simple equipotential theory. I find that both solid-body rotation (with System III rotation rate) and differential rotation on cylinders up to a latitude between 20 and 30 degrees are consistent with Jupiter's measured shape. Occu...
Table of nuclear root mean square charge radii
Nuclear root-mean-square (rms) charge radii have been compiled, selected and evaluated using two different procedures: a refined and a simple one. Running them on the same database, the results for weighted average radii are very close to each other: 91% of the differences are within ± 1/2 of the combined error. This confirms our earlier conclusion that the results are generally more sensitive to the decision which data we include in the averaging procedure, and less sensitive to the way how the selected data are weighted to form an average. The resulting weighted averages - updated in May 1999 - are presented in Appendix IV. All background data and program files together with a complete bibliography are also included in the Appendices. In addition to the data tables, simple radius formulae are also given with updated parameters. These formulae may be useful to estimate unmeasured radii ('intelligent interpolation') or to perform analytic calculations with the functions r(A) and r(Z,A). (author)
The 3H–3He Charge Radii Difference
Myers L. S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.
The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference
Myers, Luke S. [Bluffton University, Bluffton, OH; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arrington, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-03-01
The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.
Counterexamples to Borsuk's conjecture on spheres of small radii
Kupavskii, Andrei; Raigorodskii, Andrei
2010-01-01
In this work, the classical Borsuk conjecture is discussed, which states that any set of diameter 1 in the Euclidean space $ {\\mathbb R}^d $ can be divided into $ d+1 $ parts of smaller diameter. During the last two decades, many counterexamples to the conjecture have been proposed in high dimensions. However, all of them are sets of diameter 1 that lie on spheres whose radii are close to the value $ {1}{\\sqrt{2}} $. The main result of this paper is as follows: {\\it for any $ r > {1}{2} $, th...
On the extended and Allan spectra and topological radii
Hugo Arizmendi-Peimbert
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we prove that the extended spectrum \\(\\Sigma(x\\, defined by W. Żelazko, of an element \\(x\\ of a pseudo-complete locally convex unital complex algebra \\(A\\ is a subset of the spectrum \\(\\sigma_A(x\\, defined by G.R. Allan. Furthermore, we prove that they coincide when \\(\\Sigma(x\\ is closed. We also establish some order relations between several topological radii of \\(x\\, among which are the topological spectral radius \\(R_t(x\\ and the topological radius of boundedness \\(\\beta_t(x\\.
Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles
Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Choi, Hyunho; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong
2015-12-01
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (Rh). However, the Rh represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.
Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles
Yue, Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3003 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-3003 (United States); Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, 3012 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-3012 (United States); Choi, Hyunho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3123 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-3123 (United States); Liang, Hong, E-mail: hliang@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3003 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-3003 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3123 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-3123 (United States)
2015-12-21
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (R{sub h}). However, the R{sub h} represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.
Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (Rh). However, the Rh represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles
Masses, Radii, and Equation of State of Neutron Stars
Ozel, Feryal
2016-01-01
We summarize our current knowledge of neutron star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the last few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with 3 known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0 Msun mass range. For radii, large, high quality datasets from X-ray satellites as well as significant progress in theoretical modeling led to considerable progress in the measurements, placing them in the 9.9-11.2 km range and shrinking their uncertainties due to a better understanding of the sources of systematic errors. The combination of the massive neutron star discoveries, the tighter radius measurements, and improved laboratory constraints of the properties of dense matter has already made a substantial impact on our understanding of the composition and bulk properties...
Lombardi, James C
2015-01-01
In a previous investigation, the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn are shown to be directly related to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model was developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In the present investigation, the previously developed model is applied to the planets and important satellites of the Sun. A key component of the model involves resonance associated with SRMA. Through this resonance, thermal energy is extracted from the protosun's protoplanetary disk at specific distances from the protosun wherever there is a match between the local thermal energy of the disk and the energy of photons impinging on the disk. Orbital radii of the planets and satellites are related to photon energies ($E_P$ values) in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. An expression determined previously is used to relat...
Measurement of Nuclear Moments and Radii by Collinear Laser Spectroscopy
Geithner, W R; Lievens, P; Kotrotsios, G; Silverans, R; Kappertz, S
2002-01-01
%IS304 %title\\\\ \\\\Collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam has proven to be a widely applicable and very efficient tool for measurements of changes in mean square nuclear charge radii, nuclear spins, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Recent developments of extremely sensitive non-optical detection schemes enabled for some elements the extension of the measurements towards the very short-lived isotopes in the far wings of the ISOLDE production curves. The gain in sensitivity opens up new perspectives, particularly for measurements on lighter nuclei whose ground-state properties can be interpreted by large scale microscopic calculations instead of the more phenomenologic models used for heavier nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ For the sequence of argon isotopes $^{32-40}$Ar and $^{46}$Ar isotope shifts and nuclear moments were measured by optical pumping followed by state selective collisional ionization and detection of the $\\beta$-decay. Similarly, the low-background $\\alpha$-detection was used to extend earlie...
Measurements of interaction cross sections and radii of He isotopes
Secondary beams of 3He,4He,6He, and 8He were produced through the projectile fragmentation of 800MeV/nucleon 11B primary. Interaction cross sections(σ sub(I)) of all He isotopes on Be, C, and Al targets were measured by a transmission-type experiment. The interaction radii of He isotopes, R(He)=√σ sub(I)/π-R(T) where R(T) is of the target nucleus, have been deduced from the present σ sub(I) and the known σ sub(I) of 4He+4He and 12C+12C reactions; R(3He)=1.59+-0.06, R(4He)=1.40+-0.05, R(6He)=2.21+-0.06, and R(8He)=2.52+-0.06 in fm. (author)
原子激发态的边界半径%Boundary radii of excited atoms
黄艳; 刘玉洁
2006-01-01
应用原子激发态中一个电子所受到的作用势,借助电子运动的经典转折点,定义原子激发态的边界半径.利用MELD精密从头计算程序,在组态相互作用水平下,计算第一至第五周期元素的原子第一激发态的边界半径.为描述原子激发态的边界半径提供了一种新方法.
Small radii of neutron stars as an indication of novel in-medium effects
At present, neutron star radii from both observations and model predictions remain very uncertain. Whereas different models can predict a wide range of neutron star radii, it is not possible for most models to predict radii that are smaller than about 10 km, thus if such small radii are established in the future they will be very difficult to reconcile with model estimates. By invoking a new term in the equation of state that enhances the energy density, but leaves the pressure unchanged we simulate the current uncertainty in the neutron star radii. This new term can be possibly due to the exchange of the weakly interacting light U-boson with appropriate in-medium parameters, which does not compromise the success of the conventional nuclear models. The validity of this new scheme will be tested eventually by more precise measurements of neutron star radii. (orig.)
Small radii of neutron stars as an indication of novel in-medium effects
Jiang, Wei-Zhou [Southeast University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce, TX (United States); Li, Bao-An [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce, TX (United States); Fattoyev, F.J. [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce, TX (United States); Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN (United States)
2015-09-15
At present, neutron star radii from both observations and model predictions remain very uncertain. Whereas different models can predict a wide range of neutron star radii, it is not possible for most models to predict radii that are smaller than about 10 km, thus if such small radii are established in the future they will be very difficult to reconcile with model estimates. By invoking a new term in the equation of state that enhances the energy density, but leaves the pressure unchanged we simulate the current uncertainty in the neutron star radii. This new term can be possibly due to the exchange of the weakly interacting light U-boson with appropriate in-medium parameters, which does not compromise the success of the conventional nuclear models. The validity of this new scheme will be tested eventually by more precise measurements of neutron star radii. (orig.)
Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability
A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency (716Hz) and the maximum measured mass (2M CircleDot). The present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a first-order phase transition, both between pure phases, and into a mixed-phase state, are reviewed. The case of two disjoint families (branches) of rotating neutron stars is discussed and generic features of neutron-star families and of core-quakes triggered by the instabilities are considered. (orig.)
The Effective Temperatures, Radii and Masses of Dwarf Cepheids
Kim, Chulhee
1996-02-01
Using the flux values determined with the infrared flux method (IRFM) developed by Blackwell and Lynas-Gray (1993), we derived the empirical relationship between flux (F v ) and (V — K) colour appropriate to Dwarf Cepheids. For three Dwarf Cepheids CY Aqr, YZ Boo and SZ Lyn where both VK photometry and radial velocities were available from the literature, effective temperatures were determined using the intrinsic Strömgren indices, model atmosphere grids for (V — K) and the relation between temperature and (V — K) colour. Then, by applying the infrared surface brightness method, radii and distances and hence masses and absolute magnitudes were estimated with effective temperatures determined by three different methods. It was found that the average mass of these variables is about 0.5 solar mass and this result supports the hypothesis that Dwarf Cepheids are pre-white dwarf objects. It was also confirmed that the temperatures determined with the IRFM are most successful in the application of the surface brightness method to the radius estimation of Dwarf Cepheids.
Strict Kneser-Poulsen conjecture for large radii
Gorbovickis, Igors
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove the Kneser-Poulsen conjecture for the case of large radii. Namely, if a finite number of points in an n-dimensional Euclidean space is rearranged so that the distance between each pair of points does not decrease, then there exists a positive number $r_0$ that depends on the rearrangement of the points, such that if we consider n-dimensional balls of radius r>r_0 with centers at these points, then the volume of the union (intersection) of the balls before the rearrangement is not less (no more) than the volume of the union (intersection) after the rearrangement. Moreover, the inequality is strict whenever the new point set is not congruent to the original one. Also under the same conditions we prove a similar result about perimeters instead of volumes. In order to prove the above mentioned results we use ideas from tensegrity theory to strengthen the theorem proved independently by Sudakov, R. Alexander and Capoyleas and Pach, which says that the mean width of the convex hull of a finit...
Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability
Haensel, P; Fortin, M; Zdunik, J L
2016-01-01
A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency is 716 Hz and the maximum measured mass is $2\\;{\\rm M}_\\odot$. Present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a fi...
Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability
Haensel, P.; Bejger, M.; Fortin, M.; Zdunik, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warszawa (Poland)
2016-03-15
A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency (716Hz) and the maximum measured mass (2M {sub CircleDot}). The present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a first-order phase transition, both between pure phases, and into a mixed-phase state, are reviewed. The case of two disjoint families (branches) of rotating neutron stars is discussed and generic features of neutron-star families and of core-quakes triggered by the instabilities are considered. (orig.)
The California-Kepler Survey: Precise Planet Radii and Metallicities
Howard, Andrew; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Morton, T. D.; Isaacson, H.
2012-01-01
For the small subset of sub-Neptune-size planets with well-measured masses and radii, bulk density varies by an order of magnitude, owing to great diversity in composition and atmospheric content. The ensemble of small planets discovered by Kepler have a radius distribution that rises steeply with decreasing size, with close-in sub-Neptune-size planets being an order of magnitude more common than hot Jupiters. However, the detailed structure of the planet radius distribution remains partially veiled by poorly known stellar properties from the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). Correlations of planet properties with stellar properties are similarly out of focus or unknown. To measure these crucial properties, our team is compiling a new catalog of stellar parameters for the Kepler planet hosts based on LTE modeling of high-resolution Keck-HIRES spectra. I will present initial results from this catalog. We expect detailed structure of the planet radius distribution to emerge, including deviations from a power-law model that suggest common planet sizes and preferred formation scenarios. It will also shed light on the variations of planet occurrence with orbital distance and stellar mass/metallicity, offering important clues for the formation of small worlds.
Probabilistic Forecasting of the Masses and Radii of Other Worlds
Chen, Jingjing
2016-01-01
Mass and radius are two of the most fundamental properties of an astronomical object. Increasingly, new planet discoveries are being announced with a measurement of one of these terms, but not both. This has led to a growing need to forecast the missing quantity using the other, especially when predicting the detectability of certain follow-up observations. We present a forecasting model built upon a probabilistic mass-radius relation conditioned on a sample of 316 objects with well-constrained masses and radii. Our publicly available code, Forecaster, accounts for measurement error, model uncertainty and the intrinsic dispersion observed in the calibration sample. By conditioning our model upon a sample spanning dwarf planets to late-type stars, Forecaster can predict the mass (or radius) from the radius (or mass) for objects covering nine orders-of-magnitude in mass. Classification is naturally performed by our model, which uses four classes we label as Terran worlds, Neptunian worlds, Jovian worlds and sta...
This task involved the calculation of neutron and proton radii of cesium isotopes. The author has written a computer code that calculates radii according to two models: Myers 1983 and FRDM 1992. Results of calculations in both these models for both cesium and francium isotopes are attached as figures. He is currently interpreting these results in collaboration with D. Vieira and J.R. Nix, and they expect to use the computer code for further studies of nuclear radii
Revised Ionic Radii of Lanthanoid(III) Ions in Aqueous Solution
A new set of ionic radii in aqueous solution has been derived for lanthanoid(III) cations starting from a very accurate experimental determination of the ion water distances obtained from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data. At variance with previous results, a very regular. trend has been obtained, as expected for this series of elements. A general procedure to compute ionic radii in solution by combining the EXAFS technique and molecular dynamics (MD) structural data has been developed. This method can be applied to other ions allowing one to determine ionic radii in solution with an accuracy comparable to that of the Shannon crystal ionic radii. (authors)
Proton Radii of B12-17 Define a Thick Neutron Surface in B17
Estradé, A.; Kanungo, R.; Horiuchi, W.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Suzuki, Y.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.
2014-09-01
The first determination of radii of point proton distribution (proton radii) of B12-17 from charge-changing cross sections (σCC) measurements at the FRS, GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The proton radii are deduced from a finite-range Glauber model analysis of the σCC. The radii show an increase from B13 to B17 and are consistent with predictions from the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics model for the neutron-rich nuclei. The measurements show the existence of a thick neutron surface with neutron-proton radius difference of 0.51(0.11) fm in B17.
The problem of ionic-atomic dimensions
Baldanov, M.N.; Mokhosov, M.V.
1986-03-01
This paper shows that in order to determine the ionic radii of the elements, it is sufficient to make use of handbook values for the energy of sublimation (or atomization) and ionization of the substance. In this sense, there is interest in the possibility of estimating the radii for ions in any oxidation state. Some results of the estimates of radii are presented and are in satisfactory agreement with empirical values. For negative ions, instead of the ionization energy the authors use the electron affinity energy.
The problem of ionic-atomic dimensions
This paper shows that in order to determine the ionic radii of the elements, it is sufficient to make use of handbook values for the energy of sublimation (or atomization) and ionization of the substance. In this sense, there is interest in the possibility of estimating the radii for ions in any oxidation state. Some results of the estimates of radii are presented and are in satisfactory agreement with empirical values. For negative ions, instead of the ionization energy the authors use the electron affinity energy
Pauling, Linus; Kamb, Barclay
1986-01-01
An earlier discussion [Pauling, L. (1947) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 542] of observed bond lengths in elemental metals with correction for bond number and resonance energy led to a set of single-bond metallic radii with values usually somewhat less than the corresponding values obtained from molecules and complex ions. A theory of resonating covalent bonds has now been developed that permits calculation of the number of resonance structures per atom and of the effective resonance energy per bond. ...
MASSES, RADII, AND CLOUD PROPERTIES OF THE HR 8799 PLANETS
The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Some studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here, we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike some previous studies, we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends, including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition—some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to whether or not we include the H- and the K-band spectrum in our analysis. Solutions for planets c and d are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that, like in L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present an exploratory evolution calculation that accounts for this effect. Finally we recompute the bolometric luminosity of all three planets.
Atomic Structure of Benzene Which Accounts for Resonance Energy
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
Benzene is a hexagonal molecule of six carbon atoms, each of which is bound to six hydrogen atoms. The equality of all six CC bond lengths, despite the alternating double and single bonds, and the surplus (resonance) energy, led to the suggestion of two resonanting structures. Here, the new atomic structure shows that the bond length equality is due to three carbon atoms with double bond radii bound to three other carbon atoms with resonance bond radii (as in graphene). Consequently, there are two kinds of CH bonds of slightly different lengths. The bond energies account for the resonance energy.
The Observational and Theoretical Tidal Radii of Globular Clusters in M87
Webb, Jeremy J; Harris, William E
2012-01-01
Globular clusters have linear sizes (tidal radii) which theory tells us are determined by their masses and by the gravitational potential of their host galaxy. To explore the relationship between observed and expected radii, we utilize the globular cluster population of the Virgo giant M87. Unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 are used to measure the effective and limiting radii of approximately 2000 globular clusters. To compare with these observations, we simulate a globular cluster population that has the same characteristics as the observed M87 cluster population. Placing these simulated clusters in the well-studied tidal field of M87, the orbit of each cluster is solved and the theoretical tidal radius of each cluster is determined. We compare the predicted relationship between cluster size and projected galactocentric distance to observations. We find that for an isotropic distribution of cluster velocities, theoretical tidal radii are approximately equal to observed limiting radii for Rgc...
Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets
Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard
2012-01-01
The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have compared the photometric and limited spectral data of the planets to the predictions of various atmosphere and evolution models and concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we specify mutually self-consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure yields plausible and self-consistent values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are in fact not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition, some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to the H and K band spectrum. Solutions for planets c and particularly d are less certain but are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that as for L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present a new evolution calculation that predicts cooling tracks on the near-infrared color
Nuclear charge radii of {sup 8,9}Li determined by laser spectroscopy
Ewald, G.; Dax, A.; Goette, S.; Kirchner, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Kuehl, T.; Sanchez, R.; Wojtaszek, A.; Noertershaeuser, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Bushaw, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Drake, G.W.F. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Yan, Z.C. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Zimmermann, C. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik
2004-06-01
The 2S {yields} 3S transition of {sup 6,7,8,9}Li was studied by high-resolution laser spectroscopy using two-photon Doppler-free excitation and resonance-ionization detection. The hyperfine structure splitting and the isotope shift were determined with precision at the 100 kHz level. Combined with recent theoretical work, the changes in nuclear charge radii of {sup 8,9}Li were determined. These are now the lightest short-lived isotopes for which the charge radii have been measured. It is found that the charge radii monotonically decrease with increasing neutron number from {sup 6}Li to {sup 9}Li. (orig.)
Laser Spectroscopy of Muonic Atoms and Ions
Pohl, Randolf; Fernandes, Luis M P; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou; Amaro, Fernando D; Amaro, Pedro; Biraben, François; Cardoso, João M R; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas; Dhawan, Satish; Diepold, Marc; Franke, Beatrice; Galtier, Sandrine; Giesen, Adolf; Gouvea, Andrea L; Götzfried, Johannes; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hildebrandt, Malte; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kirch, Klaus; Knecht, Andreas; Knowles, Paul; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Bigot, Eric-Olivier Le; Liu, Yi-Wei; Lopes, José A M; Ludhova, Livia; Machado, Jorge; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Rabinowitz, Paul; Santos, Joaquim M F dos; Santos, José Paulo; Schaller, Lukas A; Schuhmann, Karsten; Schwob, Catherine; Szabo, Csilla I; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Voss, Andreas; Weichelt, Birgit; Antognini, Aldo
2016-01-01
Laser spectroscopy of the Lamb shift (2S-2P energy difference) in light muonic atoms or ions, in which one negative muon $\\mu^-$ is bound to a nucleus, has been performed. The measurements yield significantly improved values of the root-mean-square charge radii of the nuclei, owing to the large muon mass, which results in a vastly increased muon wave function overlap with the nucleus. The values of the proton and deuteron radii are 10 and 3 times more accurate than the respective CODATA values, but 7 standard deviations smaller. Data on muonic helium-3 and -4 ions is being analyzed and will give new insights. In future, the (magnetic) Zemach radii of the proton and the helium-3 nuclei will be determined from laser spectroscopy of the 1S hyperfine splittings, and the Lamb shifts of muonic Li, Be and B can be used to improve the respective charge radii.
Hvad enhver kordreng skal kunne. Betragtning af motetten Ut Phebi radiis af Josquin Desprez
Christoffersen, Peter Woetmann
2003-01-01
Josquin Desprez, Ut Phebi radiis, motet, prayer mode, hexachord, Ockeghem, Brumel, Isaac, Compère, sound, udtryk......Josquin Desprez, Ut Phebi radiis, motet, prayer mode, hexachord, Ockeghem, Brumel, Isaac, Compère, sound, udtryk...
Radii and Binding Energies in Oxygen Isotopes: A Challenge for Nuclear Forces.
Lapoux, V; Somà, V; Barbieri, C; Hergert, H; Holt, J D; Stroberg, S R
2016-07-29
We present a systematic study of both nuclear radii and binding energies in (even) oxygen isotopes from the valley of stability to the neutron drip line. Both charge and matter radii are compared to state-of-the-art ab initio calculations along with binding energy systematics. Experimental matter radii are obtained through a complete evaluation of the available elastic proton scattering data of oxygen isotopes. We show that, in spite of a good reproduction of binding energies, ab initio calculations with conventional nuclear interactions derived within chiral effective field theory fail to provide a realistic description of charge and matter radii. A novel version of two- and three-nucleon forces leads to considerable improvement of the simultaneous description of the three observables for stable isotopes but shows deficiencies for the most neutron-rich systems. Thus, crucial challenges related to the development of nuclear interactions remain. PMID:27517768
Interaction cross-sections and matter radii of A = 20 isobars
High-energy interaction cross-sections of A=20 nuclei (20N, 20O, 20F, 20Ne, 20Na, 20Mg) on carbon were measured with accuracies of ∼1%. The nuclear matter rms radii derived from the measured cross-sections show an irregular dependence on isospin projection. The largest difference in radii, which amounts to approximately 0.2 fm, has been obtained for the mirror nuclei 20O and 20Mg. The influenc of nuclear deformation and binding energy on the radii is discussed. By evaluating the difference in rms radii of neutron and proton distributions, evidence has been found for the existence of a proton skin for 20Mg and of a neutron skin for 20N. (orig.)
Radii and binding energies in oxygen isotopes: a puzzle for nuclear forces
Lapoux, V; Barbieri, C; Hergert, H; Holt, J D; Stroberg, R
2016-01-01
We present a systematic study of both nuclear radii and binding energies in (even) oxygen isotopes from the valley of stability to the neutron drip line. Both charge and matter radii are compared to state-of-the-art {\\it ab initio} calculations along with binding energy systematics. Experimental matter radii are obtained through a complete evaluation of the available elastic proton scattering data of oxygen isotopes. We show that, in spite of a good reproduction of binding energies, {\\it ab initio} calculations with conventional nuclear interactions derived within chiral effective field theory fail to provide a realistic description of charge and matter radii. A novel version of two- and three-nucleon forces leads to considerable improvement of the simultaneous description of the three observables for stable isotopes, but shows deficiencies for the most neutron-rich systems. Thus, crucial challenges related to the development of nuclear interactions remain.
Beam energy dependence of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii from a blast-wave model
Zhang, S; Chen, J H; Zhong, C
2016-01-01
Beam energy dependence of correlation lengths (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii) is calculated by using a blast-wave model and the results are comparable with those from RHIC-STAR beam energy scan data as well as the LHC-ALICE measurements. The parameters for the blast-wave model as a function of beam energy are configured by fitting Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii at each energy point. Transverse momentum dependence of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii are presented with the extracted parameters for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = $ 200 GeV and 2.76 TeV. From the results it can be found that particle emission duration can not be ignored while calculating Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii with the same parameters. And tuning kinetic freeze-out temperature in a range will result in system lifetime changing in reverse direction as that in RHIC-STAR measurements.
Sub-coulomb transfer method of a nucleon for measure orbital radii
The neutron transfer method is revised to measure neutron orbital radii and possible interest systems to apply it are determined. Its were carried out DWBA preliminary calculations for the system 209 Bi(d,t) 208 Bi. (Author)
Chwastyk, Mateusz; Poma Bernaola, Adolfo; Cieplak, Marek
2015-07-01
We propose to improve and simplify protein refinement procedures through consideration of which pairs of amino acid residues should form native contacts. We first consider 11 330 proteins from the CATH database to determine statistical distributions of contacts associated with a given type of amino acid. The distributions are set across the distances between the α-C atoms that are in contact. Based on this data, we determine typical radii of effective spheres that can be placed on the α-C atoms in order to reconstruct the distribution of the contact lengths. This is done by checking for overlaps with enlarged van der Waals spheres associated with heavy atoms on other amino acids. The resulting contacts can be used to identify non-native contacts that may arise during the time evolution of structure-based models. Here, the radii are used to guide reconstruction of nine missing side chains in a type I cohesin domain with the Protein Data Bank code 1AOH. We first identify the likely missing contacts and then sculpt the corresponding side chains by standard refinement tools to achieve consistency with the expected contact map. One ambiguity in refinement is resolved by determining all-atom conformational energies.
Bounds on radii and magnetic dipole moments of quarks and leptons from LEP, SLC and HERA
Leptons, quarks and gauge bosons are assumed to be pointlike particles in the Standard Model. Stringent bounds on the radii of quarks and leptons and their weak anomalous magnetic moments can be derived from the high-precision measurements at LEP and SLC. We find a model-independent bound of R-17 cm for quark and lepton radii. HERA will provide complementary information on the electromagnetic static properties of the quarks and the parameters of the charged quark currents. (orig.)
Fitted HBT radii versus space-time variances in flow-dominated models
Frodermann, Evan; Heinz, Ulrich; Lisa, Michael Annan
2006-01-01
The inability of otherwise successful dynamical models to reproduce the ``HBT radii'' extracted from two-particle correlations measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is known as the ``RHIC HBT Puzzle.'' Most comparisons between models and experiment exploit the fact that for Gaussian sources the HBT radii agree with certain combinations of the space-time widths of the source which can be directly computed from the emission function, without having to evaluate, at significant e...
Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Barnes, Jason W.
2006-01-01
To aid in the physical interpretation of planetary radii constrained through observations of transiting planets, or eventually direct detections, we compute model radii of pure hydrogen-helium, water, rock, and iron planets, along with various mixtures. Masses ranging from 0.01 Earth masses to 10 Jupiter masses at orbital distances of 0.02 to 10 AU are considered. For hydrogen-helium rich planets, our models are the first to couple planetary evolution to stellar irradiation over a wide range ...
Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data
Han, Qingyan; Rossow, William B.; Lacis, Andrew B.
1994-01-01
A global survey of cloud particle size variations can provide crucial constraints on how cloud processes determine cloud liquid water contents and their variation with temperature, and further, may indicate the magnitude of aerosol effects on clouds. A method, based on a complete radiative transfer model for Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-measured radiances, is described for retrieving cloud particle radii in liquid water clouds from satellite data currently available from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. Results of sensitivity tests and validation studies provide error estimates. AVHRR data from NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 have been analyzed for January, April, July and October in 1987 and 1988. The results of this first survey reveal systematic continental and maritime differences and hemispheric contrasts that are indicative of the effects of associated aerosol concentration differences: cloud droplet radii in continental water clouds are about 2-3 micrometers smaller than in marine clouds, and droplet radii are about 1 micrometer smaller in marine clouds of the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. The height dependencies of cloud droplet radii in continental and marine clouds are also consistent with differences in the vertical profiles of aerosol concentration. Significant seasonal and diurnal variations of effective droplet radii are also observed, particularly at lower latitudes. Variations of the relationship between cloud optical thickness and droplet radii may indicate variations in cloud microphysical regimes.
Structures of Molecules at the Atomic Level: Caffeine and Related Compounds
Heyrovska, Raji
2008-01-01
Recent rsearches have shown that the lengths of the chemical bonds, whether completely or partially covalent or ionic, are sums of the radii of the adjacent atoms and/or ions. On investigating the bond length data for the molecular components of nucleic acids, all were found (for the first time) to be effectively the sums of the covalent radii of the adjacent atoms. This work shows that the bond lengths in caffeine and related molecules are likewise sums of the covalent radii of C, N, O and H. This has enabled arriving at the atomic structures of these molecules, also for the first time.
The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main sequence stars
Jackson, R J
2014-01-01
A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M<0.5Msun), pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1-beta)^{-N} compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where beta is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N \\simeq 0.45+/-0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by the models of Spruit & Weiss (1986) for main sequence stars with the same beta, where N \\sim 0.2 to 0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally-locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and ZAMS K-dwarfs have radii inflated by \\sim 10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrica...
The strongest gravitational lenses: III. The order statistics of the largest Einstein radii
Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Meneghetti, Massimo; Bartelmann, Matthias
2014-01-01
The Einstein radius (ER) of a gravitational lens encodes information about decisive quantities such as halo mass, concentration, triaxiality, and orientation with respect to the observer. Thus, the largest Einstein radii can potentially be utilised to test the predictions of the LCDM model. Hitherto, studies have focussed on the single largest observed ER. We extend those studies by employing order statistics to formulate exclusion criteria based on the n largest Einstein radii and apply these criteria to the strong lensing analysis of 12 MACS clusters at z>0.5. We obtain the order statistics of Einstein radii by a MC approach, based on the semi-analytic modelling of the halo population on the past lightcone. After sampling the order statistics, we fit a GEV distribution to the first-order distribution, which allows us to derive analytic relations for the order statistics of the Einstein radii. We find that the Einstein radii of the 12 MACS clusters are not in conflict with the LCDM expectations. Our exclusio...
Kuechler, Erich R; Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M
2016-04-28
To better represent the solvation effects observed along reaction pathways, and of ionic species in general, a charge-dependent variable-radii smooth conductor-like screening model (VR-SCOSMO) is developed. This model is implemented and parameterized with a third order density-functional tight binding quantum model, DFTB3/3OB-OPhyd, a quantum method which was developed for organic and biological compounds, utilizing a specific parameterization for phosphate hydrolysis reactions. Unlike most other applications with the DFTB3/3OB model, an auxiliary set of atomic multipoles is constructed from the underlying DFTB3 density matrix which is used to interact the solute with the solvent response surface. The resulting method is variational, produces smooth energies, and has analytic gradients. As a baseline, a conventional SCOSMO model with fixed radii is also parameterized. The SCOSMO and VR-SCOSMO models shown have comparable accuracy in reproducing neutral-molecule absolute solvation free energies; however, the VR-SCOSMO model is shown to reduce the mean unsigned errors (MUEs) of ionic compounds by half (about 2-3 kcal/mol). The VR-SCOSMO model presents similar accuracy as a charge-dependent Poisson-Boltzmann model introduced by Hou et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2303 (2010)]. VR-SCOSMO is then used to examine the hydrolysis of trimethylphosphate and seven other phosphoryl transesterification reactions with different leaving groups. Two-dimensional energy landscapes are constructed for these reactions and calculated barriers are compared to those obtained from ab initio polarizable continuum calculations and experiment. Results of the VR-SCOSMO model are in good agreement in both cases, capturing the rate-limiting reaction barrier and the nature of the transition state. PMID:27131539
Kuechler, Erich R.; Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.
2016-04-01
To better represent the solvation effects observed along reaction pathways, and of ionic species in general, a charge-dependent variable-radii smooth conductor-like screening model (VR-SCOSMO) is developed. This model is implemented and parameterized with a third order density-functional tight binding quantum model, DFTB3/3OB-OPhyd, a quantum method which was developed for organic and biological compounds, utilizing a specific parameterization for phosphate hydrolysis reactions. Unlike most other applications with the DFTB3/3OB model, an auxiliary set of atomic multipoles is constructed from the underlying DFTB3 density matrix which is used to interact the solute with the solvent response surface. The resulting method is variational, produces smooth energies, and has analytic gradients. As a baseline, a conventional SCOSMO model with fixed radii is also parameterized. The SCOSMO and VR-SCOSMO models shown have comparable accuracy in reproducing neutral-molecule absolute solvation free energies; however, the VR-SCOSMO model is shown to reduce the mean unsigned errors (MUEs) of ionic compounds by half (about 2-3 kcal/mol). The VR-SCOSMO model presents similar accuracy as a charge-dependent Poisson-Boltzmann model introduced by Hou et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2303 (2010)]. VR-SCOSMO is then used to examine the hydrolysis of trimethylphosphate and seven other phosphoryl transesterification reactions with different leaving groups. Two-dimensional energy landscapes are constructed for these reactions and calculated barriers are compared to those obtained from ab initio polarizable continuum calculations and experiment. Results of the VR-SCOSMO model are in good agreement in both cases, capturing the rate-limiting reaction barrier and the nature of the transition state.
Do stars converging to the slow-rotator sequence possess inflated radii?
Lanzafame, Alessandro C; Distefano, Elisa
2016-01-01
Average stellar radii in open clusters can be estimated from rotation periods and projected rotational velocities under the assumption of random orientation of the spin axis. Such estimates are independent of distance, interstellar absorption, and models, but their validity can be limited by missing data (truncation) or data that only represent upper/lower limits (censoring). We present a new statistical analysis method to estimate average stellar radii in the presence of censoring and truncation. We use theoretical distribution functions of the projected stellar radius $R \\sin i$ to define a likelihood function in the presence of censoring and truncation. Average stellar radii in magnitude bins are then obtained by a maximum likelihood parametric estimation procedure. This method is capable of recovering the average stellar radius within a few percent with as few as $\\approx$ 10 measurements. Here it is applied for the first time to the dataset available for the Pleiades. We find an agreement better than $\\a...
Absolute masses and radii determination in multiplanetary systems without stellar models
Almenara, J M; Mardling, R; Barros, S C C; Damiani, C; Bruno, G; Bonfils, X; Deleuil, M
2015-01-01
The masses and radii of extrasolar planets are key observables for understanding their interior, formation and evolution. While transit photometry and Doppler spectroscopy are used to measure the radii and masses respectively of planets relative to those of their host star, estimates for the true values of these quantities rely on theoretical models of the host star which are known to suffer from systematic differences with observations. When a system is composed of more than two bodies, extra information is contained in the transit photometry and radial velocity data. Velocity information (finite speed-of-light, Doppler) is needed to break the Newtonian $MR^{-3}$ degeneracy. We performed a photodynamical modelling of the two-planet transiting system Kepler-117 using all photometric and spectroscopic data available. We demonstrate how absolute masses and radii of single-star planetary systems can be obtained without resorting to stellar models. Limited by the precision of available radial velocities (38 $ms^{...
Masses and radii of spherical nuclei calculated in various microscopic approaches
The quality of the description of nuclear masses and charge radii, calculated in various microscopic approaches, is studied. The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB), extended Thomas-Fermi model with Strutinski integral (ETFSI), relativistic mean field (RMF) and macroscopic-microscopic(MM) approaches are considered. In the HFB approximation, both finite-range (Gogny) and zero-range (Skyrme) effective forces are used. Spherical even-even nuclei (116 nuclides), from light (A=16) to heavy (A=220) ones, with known experimental mass are chosen for the study. A general result is that the best description of masses of considered nuclei is obtained in the MM and ETFSI approaches, while the best charge radii are obtained within the RMF and ETFSI approximations. The behaviour of nuclear masses and radii, when one moves far off the β-stability line, is also studied. (orig.)
Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii
Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg
2012-09-23
High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365μm diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped eometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.
Development of Experiments to Measure D and 4He Charge Radii with Elastic Electron Scattering Method
Saudi, Sheikh
Charge radii are one of the important physical characteristics to understand the electromagnetic structure of nuclei. For light nuclei, they are playing a more critical role to better understand the nucleon-nucleon interaction and test the existing models for bound states. Recent measurements of proton radius, done with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy, showed about 7 standard deviation lower than previous experimental results. This discrepancy triggered the so called "Proton Radius Puzzle" in physics world. Several groups are preparing to perform new experiments to extract the proton radius with better precision and model independent methods. It is equally important to perform new experiments for light nuclei, like deuteron (D) and helium-4 (4He), to verify the existing results for their radii. In this thesis work, we have developed an experimental method based on coincidence detection of the scattered electrons and recoiled light nuclei to measure the charge radii of deuteron and helium-4 with high accuracy.
Proton distribution radii of $^{12-19}$C illuminate features of neutron halos
Kanungo, R; Hagen, G; Jansen, G R; Navratil, P; Ameil, F; Atkinson, J; Ayyad, Y; Cortina-Gil, D; Dillmann, I; Estradé, A; Evdokimov, A; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Guastalla, G; Janik, R; Kimura, M; Knöbel, R; Kurcewicz, J; Litvinov, Yu A; Marta, M; Mostazo, M; Mukha, I; Nociforo, C; Ong, H J; Pietri, S; Prochazka, A; Scheidenberger, C; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Suzuki, Y; Takechi, M; Tanaka, J; Tanihata, I; Terashima, S; Vargas, J; Weick, H; Winfield, J S
2016-01-01
Proton radii of $^{12-19}$C densities derived from first accurate charge changing cross section measurements at 900$A$ MeV with a carbon target are reported. A thick neutron surface evolves from $\\sim$ 0.5 fm in $^{15}$C to $\\sim$ 1 fm in $^{19}$C. The halo radius in $^{19}$C is found to be 6.4$\\pm$0.7 fm as large as $^{11}$Li. Ab initio calculations based on chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces reproduce well the radii.
ON THE LAPLACIAN SPECTRAL RADII OF TREES WITH NEARLY PERFECT MATCHINGS
Li ZHANG; Jiayu SHAO
2009-01-01
Let T_(2k+1) be the set of trees on 2k+1 vertices with nearly perfect matchings, and let S_(2k+2) be the set of trees on 2k+2 vertices with perfect matchings. The largest Laplacian spectral radii of trees in T_(2k+1) and S_(2k+2) and the corresponding trees were given by Guo (2003). In this paper, the authors determine the second to the sixth largest Laplacian spectral radii among all trees in T_(2k+1) and give the corresponding trees.
A Bayesian Approach to Jointly Estimate Tire Radii and Vehicle Trajectory
Özkan, Emre; Lundquist, Christian; Gustafsson, Fredrik
2011-01-01
High-precision estimation of vehicle tire radii is considered, based on measurements on individual wheel speeds and absolute position from a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The wheel speed measurements are subject to noise with time-varying covariance that depends mainly on the road surface. The novelty lies in a Bayesian approach to estimate online the time-varying radii and noise parameters using a marginalized particle filter, where no model approximations are needed such as in ...
Redlich, Matthias; Bartelmann, Matthias
2014-01-01
Based on techniques developed in the previous papers of this series, we investigate the impact of galaxy-cluster mergers on the order statistics of the largest Einstein radii. We show that the inclusion of mergers significantly shifts the extreme value distribution of the largest Einstein radius to higher values, typically increasing the expected value by ${\\sim}10\\%$. A comparison with current data reveals that the largest observed Einstein radius agrees excellently well with the theoretical predictions of the $\\Lambda$CDM model at redshifts $z > 0.5$. At redshifts $z < 0.5$, our results are somewhat more controversial. Although cluster mergers also increase the expected values of the order statistics of the $n$ largest Einstein radii by ${\\sim}10\\%$, the theoretically expected values are notably lower (${\\sim}3\\sigma$ deviation for $n = 12$) than the largest Einstein radii of a selected sample of SDSS clusters in the redshift range $0.1 \\leq z \\leq 0.55$. The uncertainties of the observed Einstein radii ...
Mean-square radii in mixed-species systems in two dimensions
Sandoval, J H; Jensen, A S; Yamashita, M T
2016-01-01
We calculate the root-mean-square radii for a three-body system in two dimensions compounded by two identical bosons ($A$) and a distinguishable particle ($B$). We use a pairwise Dirac-delta potential in order to study the universal regime. For a $B/A$ mass ratio of $0.01$ the system displays eight three-body bound states, which one by one disappears into the continuum as the mass ratio is increased, and eventually leaving only the ground and the first excited states. Energies and radii of the states for small mass ratios can be understood by use of the Coulomb-like Born-Oppenheimer potential at small distances where the lowest-lying of these states are located. For large mass ratio the radii of the two remaining bound states are consistent with a slightly asymmetric three-body structure. We found that the radii diverge at the mass ratio threshold where the three-body excited states disappear. The divergences are linear in the inverse energy deviations from the corresponding two-body thresholds.
MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF NUTRIENT FORAMINA OF 200 HUMAN RADII IN GUJARAT
Swati
2014-10-01
Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: radius is situated on the outer aspect of the forearm. Its anterior surface shows presence of nutrient canal transmitting nutrient artery. Nutrient artery is the major blood supply of long bone mainly during the growing period and early phase of ossification. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Nutrient arterial supply is also essential for survival of osteocytes in procedures such as bone grafts. Location, number and position of nutrient foramen play an important role in academic, clinical as well as surgical cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted in anatomy department, with the aim of Morphometric study of nutrient foramina of human radii. 200 human radii were studied at anatomy departments of SMT.NHLMMC, BJ medical college, Ahmedabad and Govt. Medical College Baroda. Observation and discussion: out of 200 human radii, in 197 radii there was single nutrient foramen on each radius and foraminal index was indicating that its position was near the upper end of radius. CONCLUSION: as per results of foraminal index, nutrient foramen in radius was located nearer to the upper end as compared to the lower end pointing towards the elbow. So the lower end of the radius is the growing end.
Staggering of the nuclear charge radii in a superfluid model with good particle number
Horoi, M
1991-01-01
A simple superfluid model with an effective four body interaction of monopole pairing type is used to explain the staggering of the charge radii in the isotope chains. The contribution of deformation and of the particle number projection are analyzed for the Sn isotopes. Good results are obtained for the staggering parameters and neutron pairing energies.
The mass and angular momentum distribution of simulated massive galaxies to large radii
Wu, Xufen; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Hilz, Michael; Churazov, Eugene; Lyskova, Natalya
2012-01-01
We study the mass distributions, circular velocity curves (CVCs), line-of-sight kinematics and angular momenta out to many Re for a sample of 42 cosmological zoom simulations of massive galaxies. In order to reduce the particle noise at large radii, we temporally smooth the observables of the simulated galaxies in a static potential. The mass of the simulated galaxies is parametrised by vcirc at r=5Re. We find: (i) The projected stellar density distributions at large radii can be well fitted by S'ersic functions. The S'ersic indices range from 3 to 13 and correlate with stellar mass and galaxy size (low n, low mass, small size). (ii) The dark matter halo density profiles are consistent with simple power-law models, corresponding to flat dark matter CVCs for lower-mass systems, and rising CVCs for high-mass halos. (iii) The massive systems have nearly flat total CVCs at large radii, while the less massive systems have mildly decreasing CVCs. The slope of the CVC at large radii correlates with S'ersic index and...
Neutron drops radii probed by the neutron skin thickness of nuclei
Zhao, P W
2016-01-01
Multi-neutron systems are crucial to understand the physics of neutron-rich nuclei and neutron stars. Neutron drops, neutrons confined in an external field, are investigated systematically in both non-relativistic and relativistic density functional theories and with ab initio calculations. We demonstrate a strong linear correlation, which is universal in the realm of mean-field models, between the root-mean-square (rms) radii of neutron drops and the neutron skin thickness of Pb-208 and Ca-48; i.e., the difference between the neutron and proton rms radii of a nucleus. Due to its high quality, this correlation can be used to deduce the radii of neutron drops from the measured neutron skin thickness in a model-independent way, and the radii obtained for neutron drops can provide a useful constraint for realistic three neutron forces. This correlation, together with high- precision measurements of the neutron skin thicknesses of Pb-208 and Ca-48, will have an enduring impact on the understanding of multi-neutro...
Nuclear charge radii and electric monopole transitions in the interacting boson model
Van Isacker, P
2012-01-01
The interacting boson model (IBM) of Arima and Iachello is applied to calculate nuclear charge radii and electric monopole transitions of even-even nuclei in the rare-earth region. Consistent operators are used for the two observables. A relation between summed M1 strength and $\\rho({\\rm E0})$ values is pointed out.
Structures of Molecules at the Atomic Level: Caffeine and Related Compounds
Heyrovska, Raji; Narayan, Saraswathi
2008-01-01
Recent rsearches have shown that the lengths of the chemical bonds, whether completely or partially covalent or ionic, are sums of the radii of the adjacent atoms and/or ions. On investigating the bond length data for the molecular components of nucleic acids, all were found (for the first time) to be effectively the sums of the covalent radii of the adjacent atoms. This work shows that the bond lengths in caffeine and related molecules are likewise sums of the covalent radii of C, N, O and H...
Charge radii and nuclear moments of neutron-deficient potassium isotopes
Minamisono, K.; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Hughes, M.; Strum, R.; Tarazona, D.; Asberry, H. B.; Cooper, K.; Hammerton, K.; Klose, A.; Mantica, P. F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Geppert, Ch.; Harris, J.; Ringle, R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Rossi, D. M.; Ryder, C. A.; Smith, A.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C.
2014-09-01
The monotonic change of charge radii of K isotopes across N = 20 suggests a reduction of the shell gap. A systematic study of the charge radii and ground state magnetic and quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient 35-37K isotopes is underway at the BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU to investigate the anomalous trend in charge radii. The K isotopes were produced by fragmentation of a 40Ca beam, thermalized in a linear gas cell, extracted at an energy of 30 keV, and transported to BECOLA. The K ion beam was cooled and bunched, and neutralized in a Na vapor cell. Laser-induced fluorescence was detected as a function of the Doppler-tuned laser frequency and time relative to the release of the beam bunch. The beta-NMR technique was used to determine ground-state nuclear moments, where hyperfine splittings are too small to resolve using collinear laser spectroscopy. The monotonic change of charge radii of K isotopes across N = 20 suggests a reduction of the shell gap. A systematic study of the charge radii and ground state magnetic and quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient 35-37K isotopes is underway at the BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU to investigate the anomalous trend in charge radii. The K isotopes were produced by fragmentation of a 40Ca beam, thermalized in a linear gas cell, extracted at an energy of 30 keV, and transported to BECOLA. The K ion beam was cooled and bunched, and neutralized in a Na vapor cell. Laser-induced fluorescence was detected as a function of the Doppler-tuned laser frequency and time relative to the release of the beam bunch. The beta-NMR technique was used to determine ground-state nuclear moments, where hyperfine splittings are too small to resolve using collinear laser spectroscopy. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-11-02511.
A systematic study of the ground-state properties of even-even rare earth nuclei has been performed in the framework of the Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) theory using the parameter set NL-Sh. Nuclear radii, isotope shifts and deformation properties of the heavier rare-earth nuclei have been obtained, which encompass atomic numbers ranging from Z=60 to Z=70 and include a large range of isospin. It is shown that RMF theory is able to provide a good and comprehensive description of the empirical binding energies of the isotopic chains. At the same time the quadrupole deformations β2 obtained in the RMF theory are found to be in good agreement with the available empirical values. The theory predicts a shape transition from prolate to oblate for nuclei at neutron number N=78 in all the chains. A further addition of neutrons up to the magic number 82 brings about the spherical shape. For nuclei above N-82, the RMF theory predicts the well-known onset of prolate deformation at about N-88, which saturates at about N-102. The deformation properties display an identical behaviour for all the nuclear chains. A good description of the above deformation transitions in the RMF theory in all the isotopic chains leads to a successful reproduction of the anomalous behaviour of the empirical isotopic shifts of the rare-earth nuclei. The RMF theory exhibits a remarkable success in providing a unified and microscopic description of various empirical data. (orig.)
Isospin and Z$^{1/3}$ Dependence of the Nuclear Charge Radii
Zhang, S Q; Zhou, S G; Zeng, J Y
2002-01-01
Based on the systematic investigation of the data available for $A \\geq 40$, a $Z^{1/3}$ dependence for the nuclear charge radii is shown to be superior to the generally accepted $A^{1/3}$ law. A delicate scattering of data around $R_c/Z^{1/3}$ is infered as owing to the isospin effect and a linear dependence of $R_c/Z^{1/3}$ on $N/Z$ (or $(N-Z)/2$) is found. This inference is well supported by the microscopic Relativistic Continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov (RCHB) calculation conducted for the proton magic Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb isotopes including the exotic nuclei close to the neutron drip line. With the linear isospin dependence provided by the data and RCHB theory, a new isospin dependent $Z^{1/3}$ formula for the nuclear charge radii is proposed.
The stellar accretion origin of stellar population gradients in massive galaxies at large radii
Hirschmann, Michaela; Ostriker, Jeremiah P; Forbes, Duncan A; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Davé, Romeel; Oser, Ludwig; Karabal, Emin
2014-01-01
We investigate the evolution of stellar population gradients from $z=2$ to $z=0$ in massive galaxies at large radii ($r > 2R_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) using ten cosmological zoom simulations of halos with $6 \\times 10^{12} M_{\\odot} < M_{\\mathrm{halo}} < 2 \\times 10^{13}M_{\\odot}$. The simulations follow metal cooling and enrichment from SNII, SNIa and AGB winds. We explore the differential impact of an empirical model for galactic winds that reproduces the mass-metallicity relation and its evolution with redshift. At larger radii the galaxies, for both models, become more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. In the wind model, fewer stars are accreted, but they are significantly more metal poor resulting in steep global metallicity ($\\langle \
This paper presents a method to reconstruct the absolute shape of a sphere—i.e. a topography of radii—using the sphere interferometer of PTB in combination with a stitching approach. The method allows for the reconstruction of absolute radii instead of the relative shape deviations which result from conventional sphericity measurements. The sphere interferometer was developed for the volume determination of spherical material measures—in particular the spheres of the Avogadro project—by precise diameter measurements with an uncertainty of 1 nm or less. In the scope of the present work a procedure has been implemented that extends the applicability of the interferometer to fields where not the volume or diameter but the direction-dependent radii are of interest. The results of the reconstruction were compared quantitatively to the independent results of sphericity measurements from CSIRO
Charge radii and structural evolution in Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes
Rodriguez-Guzman, R; Robledo, L M; Perez-Martin, S
2010-01-01
The evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes in neutron-rich Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes, including both even-even and odd-A nuclei, is studied within a self-consistent mean-field approximation based on the D1S Gogny interaction. Neutron separation energies and charge radii are calculated and compared with available data. A correlation between a shape transition and a discontinuity in those observables is found microscopically. While in Sr and Zr isotopes the steep behavior observed in the isotopic dependence of the charge radii is a consequence of a sharp prolate-oblate transition, the smooth behavior found in Mo isotopes has its origin in an emergent region of triaxiality.
Nuclear charge radii from X-ray transitions in muonic C, O and N
Dubler, T; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Vuilleumier, J L; Walter, H K
1973-01-01
Energies of muonic X-rays permit an almost model independent determination of nuclear root mean square (rms) radii for light and medium nuclei, which can be compared to those obtained from elastic electron scattering experiments at low momentum transfer. In the present experiment the X-ray energies of the K series of C, N and O up to the 6p-1s transition are determined with an accuracy of +or-15 eV from which rms radii are deduced comparable in precision to the electron scattering data. Muons from the CERN muon channel were stopped in a target, which contained 70 gr dimethylglyoxim (C/sub 4/H /sub 8/N/sub 2/O/sub 2/) and 18 gr rhodium powder. (0 refs).
Redlich, Matthias; Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Bartelmann, Matthias
2014-01-01
Based on techniques developed in the previous papers of this series, we investigate the impact of galaxy-cluster mergers on the order statistics of the largest Einstein radii. We show that the inclusion of mergers significantly shifts the extreme value distribution of the largest Einstein radius to higher values, typically increasing the expected value by ${\\sim}10\\%$. A comparison with current data reveals that the largest observed Einstein radius agrees excellently well with the theoretical...
Neutron drops radii probed by the neutron skin thickness of nuclei
Zhao, P. W.; Gandolfi, S
2016-01-01
Multi-neutron systems are crucial to understand the physics of neutron-rich nuclei and neutron stars. Neutron drops, neutrons confined in an external field, are investigated systematically in both non-relativistic and relativistic density functional theories and with ab initio calculations. We demonstrate a strong linear correlation, which is universal in the realm of mean-field models, between the root-mean-square (rms) radii of neutron drops and the neutron skin thickness of Pb-208 and Ca-4...
Constraining the radii of neutron stars with terrestrial nuclear laboratory data
Neutron star radii are primarily determined by the pressure of isospin asymmetric matter which is proportional to the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy. Available terrestrial laboratory data on the isospin diffusion in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies constrain the slope of the symmetry energy. Using this constraint, we show that the radius (radiation radius) of a 1.4 solar mass (Msun) neutron star is between 11.5 (14.4) and 13.6 (16.3) km
Anomalous behaviour of matter radii of proton-rich Ga, Ge, As, Se and Br nuclei
Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaeler, R. [Instituto de Fisica-Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lima, G.F. [Inst. di Fisica, Univ. Sao Paulo (Brazil)]|[FACENS, Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba (Brazil); Villari, A.C.C. [GANIL, IN2P3-CNRS/DSM-CEA (France)]|[Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Mittig, W.; Casandjian, J.M.; Lewitowicz, M. [IN2P3-CNRS/DSM-CEA, GANIL (France); Chartier, M. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Orr, N.A.; Angelique, J.C. [ISMRA et Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Audi, G. [CSNSM, Orsay Campus (France); Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Donzaud, C.; MacCormick, M.; Stephan, C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Tassan-Got, L. [IPN Orsay (France); Gillibert, A.; Hirata, D. [Open University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Lukyanov, S.; Morrissey, D.J.; Sherrill, B.M. [Michigan State University, NSCL, East Lansing, MI (United States); Ostrowski, A.N. [GANIL, IN2P3-CNRS/DSM-CEA (France)]|[Institut fur Physik, Universitat Mainz (Germany); Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2005-09-01
Proton-rich isotopes of Ga, Ge, As, Se and Br had their total reaction cross-sections ({sigma}{sub R}) measured. Root-mean-squared matter radii were determined from Glauber model calculations, which reproduced the experimental {sigma}{sub R} values. For all isotopic series a decrease of the r{sub rms} with increasing neutron number and a correlation with deformation was observed. (orig.)
The results of conservative and surgical treatments of styloiditis radii de Quervain
Yucel, Mustafa
2004-01-01
Though styloiditis radii de Quervain is a little disease condition, it sometimes necessitates surgery. in this research we examined the result of 147 patients who was admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics of Ev. Krankenhaus retrospectively. We compared corticosteroid which mentionted injection with conservative treatment. We prefer conservative methods instead of corticosteroid treatment which mentionted in the literature. Conservative treatment was necessary in 78,91% of cases. 31 of ou...
Research on Flow Pattern of Nitrogen Tetroxide Liquid in the Different Bend Radii Pipes
Hao Pengfei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available N2O4 is a common rocket fuel propellants, it has the characteristics of low boiling point and a large viscosity , the friction between viscosity fluids and pipeline dramatic leads to a huge sticky heat, therefore, the vaporization phenomenon often occurs in the pipeline, particularly in bending of the viscous heat. For this reason, the research of the different bending radii vaporized fluid conditions for optimizing the piping and precise the filling flow is significant. In this paper, the MIXTURE mixed flow model is used to achieve the numerical simulation the pipelines filling of the three different bending radii, it still have not solved the mass transfer problem between the different phases. Therefore, the custom functions are needed to define the mass transfer problems from the liquid phase to the vapor phase. Though the contrast among the volume phase cloud of six different elbow models , we have the following conclusions: 1 In the entire pipeline transportation, the distribution vaporization rate from the inlet pipe to the outlet pipe follows the distribution of the first increasing and then decreasing, the gas rates of the elbow area is highest; 2Analyzing the sticky heat for different bend radii, we have the conclusion that the lowest bending vaporization the of the optimal radius is 0.45m. The above conclusions are drawn in good agreement with the actual law, can effectively guide the engineering practice, have important significance for the future design for the optimization of the fuel pipeline transportation.
Radii in the $sd$ shell and the $s_{1/2}$ "halo" orbit: A game changer
Bonnard, J
2016-01-01
Proton radii of nuclei in the $sd$ shell depart appreciably from the asymptotic law, $\\rho_{\\pi}=\\rho_0A^{1/3}$. The departure exhibits systematic trends fairly well described by a single phenomenological term in the Duflo-Zuker formulation, which also happens to explain the sudden increase in slope in the isotope shifts of several chains at neutron number $N=28$. It was recently shown that this term is associated with the abnormally large size of the $s_{1/2}$ and $p$ orbits in the $sd$ and $pf$ shells respectively. Further to explore the problem, we propose to calculate microscopically radii in the former. Since the (square) radius is basically a one body operator, its evolution is dictated by single particle occupancies determined by shell model calculations. Assuming that the departure from the asymptotic form is entirely due to the $s_{1/2}$ orbit, the expectation value $\\langle s_{1/2}|r^2|s_{1/2}\\rangle$ is determined by demanding that its evolution be such as to describe well nuclear radii. It does, f...
RADII OF RAPIDLY ROTATING STARS, WITH APPLICATION TO TRANSITING-PLANET HOSTS
The currently favored method for estimating radii and other parameters of transiting-planet host stars is to match theoretical models to observations of the stellar mean density ρ*, the effective temperature Teff, and the composition parameter [Z]. This explicitly model-dependent approach is based on readily available observations, and results in small formal errors. Its performance will be central to the reliability of results from ground-based transit surveys such as TrES, HAT, and SuperWASP, as well as to the space-borne missions MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler. Here, I use two calibration samples of stars (eclipsing binaries (EBs) and stars for which asteroseismic analyses are available) having well-determined masses and radii to estimate the accuracy and systematic errors inherent in the ρ* method. When matching to the Yonsei-Yale stellar evolution models, I find the most important systematic error results from selection bias favoring rapidly rotating (hence probably magnetically active) stars among the EB sample. If unaccounted for, this bias leads to a mass-dependent underestimate of stellar radii by as much as 4% for stars of 0.4 Msun, decreasing to zero for masses above about 1.4 Msun. Relative errors in estimated stellar masses are three times larger than those in radii. The asteroseismic sample suggests (albeit with significant uncertainty) that systematic errors are small for slowly rotating, inactive stars. Systematic errors arising from failings of the Yonsei-Yale models of inactive stars probably exist, but are difficult to assess because of the small number of well-characterized comparison stars having low mass and slow rotation. Poor information about [Z] is an important source of random error, and may be a minor source of systematic error as well. With suitable corrections for rotation, it is likely that systematic errors in the ρ* method can be comparable to or smaller than the random errors, yielding radii that are accurate to about 2% for most stars.
Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Hydrogen
Beyer, A.; Parthey, Ch G.; Kolachevsky, N.; Alnis, J.; Khabarova, K.; Pohl, R.; Peters, E.; Yost, D. C.; Matveev, A.; Predehl, K.; Droste, S.; Wilken, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Hänsch, T. W.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Salomon, Ch; Laurent, Ph; Udem, Th
2013-12-01
Precise determinations of transition frequencies of simple atomic systems are required for a number of fundamental applications such as tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the determination of fundamental constants and nuclear charge radii. The sharpest transition in atomic hydrogen occurs between the metastable 2S state and the 1S ground state. Its transition frequency has now been measured with almost 15 digits accuracy using an optical frequency comb and a cesium atomic clock as a reference [1]. A recent measurement of the 2S - 2P3/2 transition frequency in muonic hydrogen is in significant contradiction to the hydrogen data if QED calculations are assumed to be correct [2, 3]. We hope to contribute to this so-called "proton size puzzle" by providing additional experimental input from hydrogen spectroscopy.
Disk radii and grain sizes in Herschel-resolved debris disks
The radii of debris disks and the sizes of their dust grains are important tracers of the planetesimal formation mechanisms and physical processes operating in these systems. Here we use a representative sample of 34 debris disks resolved in various Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) programs to constrain the disk radii and the size distribution of their dust. While we modeled disks with both warm and cold components, and identified warm inner disks around about two-thirds of the stars, we focus our analysis only on the cold outer disks, i.e., Kuiper-belt analogs. We derive the disk radii from the resolved images and find a large dispersion for host stars of any spectral class, but no significant trend with the stellar luminosity. This argues against ice lines as a dominant player in setting the debris disk sizes, since the ice line location varies with the luminosity of the central star. Fixing the disk radii to those inferred from the resolved images, we model the spectral energy distribution to determine the dust temperature and the grain size distribution for each target. While the dust temperature systematically increases toward earlier spectral types, the ratio of the dust temperature to the blackbody temperature at the disk radius decreases with the stellar luminosity. This is explained by a clear trend of typical sizes increasing toward more luminous stars. The typical grain sizes are compared to the radiation pressure blowout limit s blow that is proportional to the stellar luminosity-to-mass ratio and thus also increases toward earlier spectral classes. The grain sizes in the disks of G- to A-stars are inferred to be several times s blow at all stellar luminosities, in agreement with collisional models of debris disks. The sizes, measured in the units of s blow, appear to decrease with the luminosity
Form Factors and charge radii of heavy flavored mesons in a potential model
Das, T; Bordoloi, N S
2016-01-01
We report the results for charge radii of heavy flavored mesons ($D^+, D^0, D^+_s, B^+, B^0, B^0_s$) in a QCD model with the potential $V(r)=-4\\frac{\\alpha_s}{3r}+br+c$ by incorporating two scales $r^{short}$ and $r^{long}$ as an integration limit so that the perturbative procedure can be improved in a potential model. We also obtain the analytical expressions for Form Factors in terms of momentum transfer ($Q^2$). The obtained results are compared with our earlier works and with the other theoretical models.
The quantization of the radii of coordination spheres cubic crystals and cluster systems
Melnikov, G.; Emelyanov, S.; Ignatenko, N.; Ignatenko, G.
2016-02-01
The article deals with the creation of an algorithm for calculating the radii of coordination spheres and coordination numbers cubic crystal structure and cluster systems in liquids. Solution has important theoretical value since it allows us to calculate the amount of coordination in the interparticle interaction potentials, to predict the processes of growth of the crystal structures and processes of self-organization of particles in the cluster system. One option accounting geometrical and quantum factors is the use of the Fibonacci series to construct a consistent number of focal areas for cubic crystals and cluster formation in the liquid.
Charge radii and structural evolution in Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes
Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sarriguren, P.; Robledo, L. M.; Perez-Martin, S.
2010-01-01
The evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes in neutron-rich Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes, including both even-even and odd-A nuclei, is studied within a self-consistent mean-field approximation based on the D1S Gogny interaction. Neutron separation energies and charge radii are calculated and compared with available data. A correlation between a shape transition and a discontinuity in those observables is found microscopically. While in Sr and Zr isotopes the steep behavior observed in the is...
Plastic set of smooth large radii of curvature thermal conductance specimens at light loads.
Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.
1972-01-01
Thermal contact conductance test data at high vacuum were obtained from two Armco iron specimens having smooth, large radii of curvature, convex, one-half wave length surfaces. The data are compared with calculations based on two macroscopic elastic deformation theories and an empirical expression. Major disagreement with the theories and fair agreement with the empirical expression resulted. Plastic deformation of all the contacting surfaces was verified from surface analyzer statistics. These results indicate that the theoretical assumption of macroscopic elastic deformation is inadequate for accurate prediction of heat transfer with light loads for Armco iron specimens similar to those used in this investigation.
Hydration properties and ionic radii of actinide(III) ions in aqueous solution
Ionic radii of actinide(III) cations (from U(III) to Cf(III)) in aqueous solution have been derived for the first time starting from accurate experimental determination of the ion-water distances obtained by combining extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results and molecular dynamics (MD) structural data. A strong analogy has been found between the lanthanide and actinide series concerning hydration properties. The existence of a contraction of the An-O distance along the series has been highlighted, while no decrease of the hydration number is evident up to Cf(III). (authors)
In hot water: effects of temperature-dependent interiors on the radii of water-rich super-Earths
Thomas, Scott W
2016-01-01
Observational advancements are leading to increasingly precise measurements of super-Earth masses and radii. Such measurements are used in internal structure models to constrain interior compositions of super-Earths. It is now critically important to quantify the effect of various model assumptions on the predicted radii. In particular, models often neglect thermal effects, a choice justified by noting that the thermal expansion of a solid Earth-like planet is small. However, the thermal effects for water-rich interiors may be significant. We have systematically explored the extent to which thermal effects can influence the radii of water-rich super-Earths over a wide range of masses, surface temperatures, surface pressures and water mass fractions. We developed temperature-dependent internal structure models of water-rich super-Earths that include a comprehensive temperature-dependent water equation of state. We found that thermal effects induce significant changes in their radii. For example, for super-Eart...
Fairfield, D. H.; Acuna, M. H.; Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.
1987-01-01
The MPTE/CCE magnetic field experiment has been used to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the frequency and extent of magnetic field distortion in the near-tail region at less than 8.8 earth radii. The variation of this distortion with Kp, radial distance, longitude, and near-equatorial latitude is reported. It has been found that taillike distortions from the dipole field direction may reach 80 deg near the MPTE/CE apogee of 8.8 earth radii. The Bz field component in dipole coordinates was always positive within 0.5 earth radii of the equatorial current sheet, indicating the neutral lines were never seen inside of 8.8 earth radii. Fields were most taillike near midnight and during times of high Kp. At 8.5 earth radii the equatorial field magnitude depressions were roughly half the dipole field strength of 51 nT. These depressions are larger at lesser distances, reaching -40 nT at 3.4 earth radii for Kp of 2- or less and -80 nT and Kp of 3+ and greater.
Bu, De-Fu; Gan, Zhao-Ming; Yang, Xiao-hong
2015-01-01
In previous works, it has been shown that strong winds exist in hot accretion flows around black holes. Those works focus only on the region close to the black hole thus it is unknown whether or where the wind production stops at large radii. In this paper, we investigate this problem based on hydrodynamical numerical simulations. For this aim, we have taken into account the gravity of both the central black hole and the nuclear star clusters. When calculating the latter, we assume that the velocity dispersion of stars is a constant and the gravitational potential of the nuclear star cluster $\\propto \\sigma^2 \\ln (r)$, where $\\sigma$ is the velocity dispersion of stars and $r$ is the distance from the center of the galaxy. Different from previous works, we focus on the region where the gravitational potential is dominated by the star cluster. We find that, same as the accretion flow at small radii, the mass inflow rate decreases inward and the flow is convectively unstable. However, trajectory analysis has sh...
Extracting temperature and transverse flow by fitting transverse mass spectra and HBT radii together
He, Ronghua; Chen, Jianyi; Wu, Qingxin; Huo, Lei
2016-01-01
Single particle transverse mass spectra and HBT radii of identical pion and identical kaon are analyzed with a blast-wave parametrization under the assumptions local thermal equilibrium and transverse expansion. Under the assumptions, temperature parameter $T$ and transverse expansion rapidity $\\rho$ are sensitive to the shapes of transverse mass $m_\\text T$ spectrum and HBT radius $R_\\text{s}(K_\\text T)$. Negative and positive correlations between $T$ and $\\rho$ are observed by fitting $m_\\text{T}$ spectrum and HBT radius $R_\\text s (K_\\text T)$, respectively. For a Monte Carlo simulation using the blast-wave function, $T$ and $\\rho$ are extracted by fitting $m_T$ spectra and HBT radii together utilizing a combined optimization function $\\chi^2$. With this method, $T$ and $\\rho$ of the Monte Carlo sources can be extracted. Using this method for A Multi-Phase Transport model (AMPT) at RHIC energy, the differences of $T$ and $\\rho$ between pion and kaon are observed obviously, and the tendencies of $T$ and $\\r...
Impact of surface imperfections on the Casimir force for lenses of centimeter-size curvature radii
The impact of imperfections, which are always present on surfaces of lenses with centimeter-size curvature radii, on the Casimir force in the lens-plate geometry is investigated. It is shown that the commonly used formulation of the proximity force approximation is inapplicable for spherical lenses with surface imperfections, such as bubbles and pits. More general expressions for the Casimir force are derived that take surface imperfections into account. Using these expressions, we show that surface imperfections can both increase and decrease the magnitude of the Casimir force up to a few tens percent when compared with the case of a perfectly spherical lens. We demonstrate that the Casimir force between a perfectly spherical lens and a plate described by the Drude model can be made approximately equal to the force between a sphere with some surface imperfection and a plate described by the plasma model, and vice versa. In the case of a metallic sphere and a semiconductor plate, approximately the same Casimir forces are obtained for four different descriptions of charge carriers in the semiconductor if appropriate surface imperfections on the lens surface are present. The conclusion is made that there is a fundamental problem in the interpretation of measurement data for the Casimir force using spherical lenses of centimeter-size radii.
Extraction of the rms Radii of 13C from Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients
林承键; 刘祖华; 张焕乔; 吴岳伟; 杨峰; 阮明
2001-01-01
The asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) for three bound states of 13C (12 C+n) are extracted from the angular distributions of 12C(d,p) reactions at E1ab = 11.8MeV. With these ANCs, the calculated root-meansquare (rms) radii of these three states agree with our previous results. The ANCs are 1.93±0.17, 1.84±0.16and 0.149±0.012fm-1/2, and the rms radii 〈r2〉1/2 are 3.39±0.31, 5.04±0.75 and 3.68±0.40fm for the ground state, the first and third excitation states, respectively. Further analyses show that the first excitation state with D1=50.3% is a true neutron halo state, while the third excitation state with D1=25.2% is a neutron skin state.
The post-merger elliptical NGC 1700 stellar kinematic fields to four effective radii
Statler, T S; Cecil, G N; Statler, Thomas S; Smecker-Hane, Tammy; Cecil, Gerald N
1995-01-01
We have measured the stellar motions in the elliptical galaxy NGC 1700 along four position angles, to very large radii, using absorption features in spectra obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Our data extend the coverage of the stellar velocity field by a factor of 5 (2.5 times further in radius and twice as many PAs) beyond previous work. We have attained 10 km/s accuracy in the mean velocity out to nearly 2 effective radii (r_e), and errors are < 15% of the maximum rotation speed out to nearly 3 r_e. The lack of detectable minor-axis rotation and the nearly identical kinematics on the +/- 45 degree PAs suggest that NGC 1700 is nearly oblate for r < 2.5 r_e. Beyond this radius, twisting of the morphological and kinematic axes indicate increasing triaxiality, an intrinsic twist, or both. The velocity distribution in the low-amplitude counterrotating core is weakly skewed in the direction of rotation, arguing against a central stellar disk. The small skewness and the depression of the central v...
Laser spectroscopy investigation of the nuclear moments and radii of lutetium isotopes
Georg, U; Keim, M; Klein, A; Neugart, R; Neuroth, M; Schulz, C; Rao, P M; Lievens, P
1998-01-01
Collinear laser spectroscopy experiments in the LuI transition $5d6s\\!^{2} \\; ^{2}\\!D_{3/2} \\rightarrow 5d6s6p \\; ^{2}\\!D_{3/2}$ were performed on all lutetium isotopes in the range of $^{161-179}$Lu. The nuclear spins, magnetic moments and quadrupole moments were determined from the hyperfine structures observed for 19 ground states and 11 isomers. Variations in the mean square charge radii as a function of neutron number were obtained from the isotope shifts. These data considerably extend the systematics of the properties of nuclei in the upper rare-earth region. A particular feature is the appearance of high-spin and low-spin ground states and isomeric states in the vicinity of the stable $^{175}$Lu, partly arising from aligned neutron pairs. The present results clearly show that the deformation properties are nearly independent of the occupancy and the coupling of single-particle states. Theoretical predictions of deformation are confirmed in a consistent description of the measured radii and quadrupole ...
Calculation of a shadow cone formed by scattering of an ion beam from an atom
The shadow cone formed by the scattering of ions from an atom was calculated using Moliere potential. Calculated radii of the shadow cone by replacing the Thomas-Fermi radius, a sub(TF), with 0.85 a sub(TF) show a good agreement with an experiment for 1 keV helium ions on a titanium atom. (author)
Efficiency of Inventory in Uneven-Aged Forests on Sample Plots with Different Radii
Anamarija Jazbec
2011-04-01
needed for field measurements on differently sized plots was later measured in order to estimate the efficiency of differently sized plots. From these data measurement time (t for all plot sizes was assessed in dependence on plot area (P using the equation t=a*PČb. Walking time and distance between the plots were measured, from which the travel speed in the field was calculated. The efficiency of plots of a particular size was evaluated by the precision of estimate and the time needed for measurements. The achieved efficiency index was evaluated as the product of squared sample error and total time expressed in relation to the efficiency of 20mradius plots. The efficiency for differently sized plotswas also assessed by means of the expected accuracy at given sampling intensity of 5% area (5% cruise, as set down in the Forest Management Regulations. The results show the differences in the estimate of structural elements in dependence on plot sizes, especially for tree number. The differences were confirmed as statistically significant (RMANOVA: F = 2.31, df = 102, p < 0.0001. Subsequent testing revealed that on the plots with radii less than 7 m the estimate of tree number was statistically significantly lower than in the larger plots. Asimilar trend did not prove to be statistically significant either for the basal area (ANOVA PM: F = 0.72, df = 102, p =0.8772 or for the volume (ANOVA PM: F = 0.78 df = 102, p = 0.8124. Expectedly a more precise estimate was obtained with an increase in plot size. Considerable improvement in the precision was observed up to plot radii of about 13 m. The trend was slowed down with further increase: consequently, in terms of precision, plots with at least the above radii are recommended. The assessment accuracy of tree numbers in the smallest plots was better by 10% than that of the basal area; however, this difference decreases as the plot size increases, to become equal at plots with radii of about 12 m. The difference in the assessment
Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas
1999-01-01
Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.
Charge radii of octet and decuplet baryons in chiral constituent quark model
Neetika Sharma; Harleen Dahiya
2013-09-01
The charge radii of the spin-$\\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ octet and spin-$\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ decuplet baryons have been calculated in the framework of chiral constituent quark model ( CQM) using a general parametrization method (GPM). Our results are not only comparable with the latest experimental studies but also agree with other phenomenological models. The effects of (3) symmetry breaking pertaining to the strangeness contribution and GPM parameters pertaining to the one-, two- and three-quark contributions have also been investigated in detail and are found to be the key parameters in understanding the non-zero values for the neutral octet $(n, \\sum^{0}, \\Xi, )$ and decuplet $(^{0}, \\sum^{*0}, \\Xi^{*0})$ baryons.
Neutron Star Radii, Universal Relations, and the Role of Prior Distributions
Steiner, A W; Brown, E F
2015-01-01
We investigate constraints on neutron star structure arising from the assumptions that neutron stars have crusts, that recent calculations of pure neutron matter limit the equation of state of neutron star matter near the nuclear saturation density, that the high-density equation of state is limited by causality and the largest high-accuracy neutron star mass measurement, and that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. We explore the role of prior assumptions by considering two classes of equation of state models. In a first, the intermediate- and high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise polytropes. In the second class, the high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise continuous line segments. The smallest density at which high-density matter appears is varied in order to allow for strong phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density. We critically examine correlations among the pressure of matter, radii, maximum masses...
Data Selection Criteria for Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron Star Radii with X-ray Bursts
Ozel, Feryal; Guver, Tolga
2015-01-01
Data selection and the determination of systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopic measurements of neutron star radii from thermonuclear X-ray bursts have been the subject of numerous recent studies. In one approach, the uncertainties and outliers were determined by a data-driven Bayesian mixture model, whereas in a second approach, data selection was performed by requiring that the observations follow theoretical expectations. We show here that, due to inherent limitations in the data, the theoretically expected trends are not discernible in the majority of X-ray bursts even if they are present. Therefore, the proposed theoretical selection criteria are not practical with the current data for distinguishing clean data sets from outliers. Furthermore, when the data limitations are not taken into account, the theoretically motivated approach selects a small subset of bursts with properties that are in fact inconsistent with the underlying assumptions of the method. We conclude that the data-driven selection...
Neutron star radii and crusts: uncertainties and unified equations of state
Fortin, M; Raduta, A R; Gulminelli, F; Zdunik, J L; Haensel, P; Bejger, M
2016-01-01
The uncertainties in neutron star (NS) radii and crust properties due to our limited knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) are quantitatively analysed. We first demonstrate the importance of a unified microscopic description for the different baryonic densities of the star. If the pressure functional is obtained matching a crust and a core EOS based on models with different properties at nuclear matter saturation, the uncertainties can be as large as $\\sim 30\\%$ for the crust thickness and $4\\%$ for the radius. Necessary conditions for causal and thermodynamically consistent matchings between the core and the crust are formulated and their consequences examined. A large set of unified EOS for purely nucleonic matter is obtained based on 24 Skyrme interactions and 9 relativistic mean-field nuclear parametrizations. In addition, for relativistic models 17 EOS including a transition to hyperonic matter at high density are presented. All these EOS have in common the property of describing a $2\\;M_\\odot$ star a...
Inflation of fireballs, the gluon wind and the homogeneity of the HBT radii at RHIC
Csoergoe, T
2003-01-01
The ellipsoidally expanding fireball hydrodynamics with source terms in the momentum and energy equations is solved analytically, using the non-relativistic approximation. It is found that energy transport from high-p sub t jets of gluons to the medium leads to a transient, exponential inflation of the fireballs created in high energy heavy ion collisions. In this transient, inflatory period, the slopes of the single particle spectra are exponentially increasing, while the HBT radius parameters are exponentially decreasing with time. This effect is shown to be similar to the development of the homogeneity of our Universe due to an inflatory period. Independently of the initial conditions, and the exact value of freeze-out time and temperature, the measurables (single particle spectra, the correlation functions, slope parameters, elliptic flow, HBT radii and cross terms) become time-independent during the late, non-inflatory stages of the expansion, and they satisfy a new kind of scaling laws. If the expansion...
Inflation of fireballs, the gluon wind and the homogeneity of the HBT radii at RHIC
Csörgö, T
2003-01-01
We solve analytically the ellipsoidally expanding fireball hydrodynamics with source terms in the momentum and the energy equations, using the non-relativistic approximation. We find that energy transport from high pt jets of gluons to the medium leads to a transient, exponential inflation of the fireballs created in high energy heavy ion collisions. In this transient, inflatory period, the slopes of the single particle spectra increase, while the HBT radius parameters decrease exponentially with time. This effect is shown to be similar to the development of the homogeneity of our Universe due to an inflatory period. Independently of the initial conditions, and the exact value of the freeze-out time and temperature, the meausurables (single particle spectra, the correlation functions, the slope parameters, elliptic flow, HBT radii and cross terms) become time independent during the late, non-inflatory stages of the expansion, and they satisfy new kind of scaling laws. If the expansion starts with a transient ...
HBT radii from the UrQMD transport approach at different energies
Lisa M.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We present results on Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT radii extracted from the Ultra-relativistic Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD approach to relativistic heavy ion collisions. The present investigation provides a comparison of results from pure hadronic transport calculations to a Boltzmann + Hydrodynamic hybrid approach with an intermediate hydrodynamic phase. For the hydrodynamic phase different Equations of State (EoS have been employed, i.e. bag model, hadron resonance gas and a chiral EoS. The influence of various freeze-out scenarios has been investigated and shown to be negligible if hadronic rescatterings after the hydrodynamic evolution are included. Furthermore, first results of the source tilt from azimuthal sensitive HBT and the direct extraction from the transport model are presented and exhibit a very good agreement with E895 data at AGS.
Charge radii of magnesium isotopes by laser spectroscopy a structural study over the $sd$ shell
Schug, M; Krieger, A R
We propose to study the evolution of nuclear sizes and shapes over the magnesium chain by measuring the root-mean-square charge radii of $^{21 - 32}$Mg, essentially covering the entire $\\textit{sd}$ shell. Our goal is to detect the structural changes, which in the neutron-deficient isotopes may originate from clustering, in a way similar to neon, and on the neutron-rich side would characterize the transition to the "island of inversion". We will combine, for the first time, the sensitive $\\beta$-detection technique with traditional fluorescence spectroscopy for isotope-shift measurements and in such a way gain access to the exotic species near the ${N}$ = 8 and ${N}$ = 20 shell closures.
Bu, De-Fu; Yuan, Feng; Gan, Zhao-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Hong
2016-02-01
Previous works show that strong winds exist in hot accretion flows around black holes. Those works focus only on the region close to the black hole, so it is unknown whether or where the wind production stops at large radii. In this paper, we investigate this problem with hydrodynamical simulations. We take into account the gravities of both the black hole and the nuclear star clusters. For the latter, we assume that the velocity dispersion of stars is a constant and its gravitational potential \\propto {σ }2{ln}(r), where σ is the velocity dispersion of stars, and r is the distance from the center of the galaxy. We focus on the region where the gravitational potential is dominated by the star cluster. We find that, just as for the accretion flow at small radii, the mass inflow rate decreases inward, and the flow is convectively unstable. However, a trajectory analysis shows that there is very little wind launched from the flow. Our result, combined with the results of Yuan et al.’s study from 2015, indicates that the mass flux of wind launched from hot accretion flow {\\dot{M}}{{wind}}={\\dot{M}}{{BH}}(r/20{r}s), with r≲ {R}A\\equiv {{GM}}{{BH}}/{σ }2. Here, {\\dot{M}}{{BH}} is the accretion rate at the black hole horizon, and RA is similar to the Bondi radius. We argue that the inward decrease of inflow rate is not due to mass loss via wind, but to convective motion. The disappearance of wind outside RA must be due to the change of the gravitational potential, but the exact reason remains to be probed.
Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis
2016-01-01
Complete radii in the fossil record preceding recent humans and Neandertals are very scarce. Here we introduce the radial remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in the Sierra de Atapuerca between 1976 and 2011 and which have been dated in excess of 430 ky (thousands of years) ago. The sample comprises 89 specimens, 49 of which are attributed to adults representing a minimum of seven individuals. All elements are described anatomically and metrically, and compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans in order to examine the phylogenetic polarity of certain radial features. Radial remains from SH have some traits that differentiate them from those of recent humans and make them more similar to Neandertals, including strongly curved shafts, anteroposterior expanded radial heads and both absolutely and relatively long necks. In contrast, the SH sample differs from Neandertals in showing a high overall gracility as well as a high frequency (80%) of an anteriorly oriented radial tuberosity. Thus, like the cranial and dental remains from the SH site, characteristic Neandertal radial morphology is not present fully in the SH radii. We also analyzed the cross-sectional properties of the SH radial sample at two different levels: mid-shaft and at the midpoint of the neck length. When standardized by shaft length, no difference in the mid-shaft cross-sectional properties were found between the SH hominins, Neandertals and recent humans. Nevertheless, due to their long neck length, the SH hominins show a higher lever efficiency than either Neandertals or recent humans. Functionally, the SH radial morphology is consistent with more efficient pronation-supination and flexion-extension movements. The particular trait composition in the SH sample and Neandertals resembles more closely morphology evident in recent human males. PMID:26767960
Measurements of Faraday Rotation through the Solar Corona at 4.6 Solar Radii
Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, P. D.; Buffo, J. J.; Spangler, S. R.
2013-07-01
Identifying and understanding (1) the coronal heating mechanism and (2) the acceleration mechanism for the high-speed solar wind are two of the most important modern problems in solar physics. Many competing models of the high-speed solar wind depend on the solar magnetic field inside heliocentric distances of 5 solar radii. We report on sensitive VLA full-polarization observations made in August, 2011, at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz (each with a bandwidth of 128 MHz) of the radio galaxy 3C228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6 - 5.0 solar radii. Observations at 5.0 GHz (C-band frequencies) permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These Faraday rotation observations provide unique information on the plasma density and magnetic field strength in this region of the corona. The measured Faraday rotation on this day was lower than our a priori expectations, but we have successfully modeled the measurement in terms of observed properties of the corona on the day of observation. Further, 3C228 provides two lines of sight (separated by 46”) that allow measurement of differential Faraday rotation. These data may provide constraints on the magnitude of coronal currents and, thus, on the role Joule heating plays in the corona. Fluctuations in the observed rotation measure may also place constraints on wave-turbulence models by constraining the magnitude of coronal Alfvén waves.
THE MASS-RADIUS RELATION FOR 65 EXOPLANETS SMALLER THAN 4 EARTH RADII
We study the masses and radii of 65 exoplanets smaller than 4 R ⊕ with orbital periods shorter than 100 days. We calculate the weighted mean densities of planets in bins of 0.5 R ⊕ and identify a density maximum of 7.6 g cm–3 at 1.4 R ⊕. On average, planets with radii up to R P = 1.5 R ⊕ increase in density with increasing radius. Above 1.5 R ⊕, the average planet density rapidly decreases with increasing radius, indicating that these planets have a large fraction of volatiles by volume overlying a rocky core. Including the solar system terrestrial planets with the exoplanets below 1.5 R ⊕, we find ρP = 2.43 + 3.39(R P/R ⊕) g cm–3 for R P < 1.5 R ⊕, which is consistent with rocky compositions. For 1.5 ≤ R P/R ⊕ < 4, we find M P/M ⊕ = 2.69(R P/R ⊕)0.93. The rms of planet masses to the fit between 1.5 and 4 R ⊕ is 4.3 M ⊕ with reduced χ2 = 6.2. The large scatter indicates a diversity in planet composition at a given radius. The compositional diversity can be due to planets of a given volume (as determined by their large H/He envelopes) containing rocky cores of different masses or compositions
Neutron star radii, universal relations, and the role of prior distributions
We investigate constraints on neutron star structure arising from the assumptions that neutron stars have crusts, that recent calculations of pure neutron matter limit the equation of state of neutron star matter near the nuclear saturation density, that the high-density equation of state is limited by causality and the largest high-accuracy neutron star mass measurement, and that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. We explore the role of prior assumptions by considering two classes of equation of state models. In a first, the intermediate- and high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise polytropes. In the second class, the high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise continuous line segments. The smallest density at which high-density matter appears is varied in order to allow for strong phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density. We critically examine correlations among the pressure of matter, radii, maximum masses, the binding energy, the moment of inertia, and the tidal deformability, paying special attention to the sensitivity of these correlations to prior assumptions about the equation of state. It is possible to constrain the radii of 1.4M CircleDot neutron stars to be larger than 10 km, even without consideration of additional astrophysical observations, for example, those from photospheric radius expansion bursts or quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries. We are able to improve the accuracy of known correlations between the moment of inertia and compactness as well as the binding energy and compactness. We also demonstrate the existence of a correlation between the neutron star binding energy and the moment of inertia. (orig.)
Neutron star radii, universal relations, and the role of prior distributions
Steiner, A. W.; Lattimer, J. M.; Brown, E. F.
2016-02-01
We investigate constraints on neutron star structure arising from the assumptions that neutron stars have crusts, that recent calculations of pure neutron matter limit the equation of state of neutron star matter near the nuclear saturation density, that the high-density equation of state is limited by causality and the largest high-accuracy neutron star mass measurement, and that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. We explore the role of prior assumptions by considering two classes of equation of state models. In a first, the intermediate- and high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise polytropes. In the second class, the high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise continuous line segments. The smallest density at which high-density matter appears is varied in order to allow for strong phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density. We critically examine correlations among the pressure of matter, radii, maximum masses, the binding energy, the moment of inertia, and the tidal deformability, paying special attention to the sensitivity of these correlations to prior assumptions about the equation of state. It is possible to constrain the radii of 1.4 M_{⊙} neutron stars to be larger than 10km, even without consideration of additional astrophysical observations, for example, those from photospheric radius expansion bursts or quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries. We are able to improve the accuracy of known correlations between the moment of inertia and compactness as well as the binding energy and compactness. We also demonstrate the existence of a correlation between the neutron star binding energy and the moment of inertia.
Neutron star radii, universal relations, and the role of prior distributions
Steiner, A.W. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lattimer, J.M. [Stony Brook University, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brown, E.F. [Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics-Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States)
2016-02-15
We investigate constraints on neutron star structure arising from the assumptions that neutron stars have crusts, that recent calculations of pure neutron matter limit the equation of state of neutron star matter near the nuclear saturation density, that the high-density equation of state is limited by causality and the largest high-accuracy neutron star mass measurement, and that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. We explore the role of prior assumptions by considering two classes of equation of state models. In a first, the intermediate- and high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise polytropes. In the second class, the high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise continuous line segments. The smallest density at which high-density matter appears is varied in order to allow for strong phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density. We critically examine correlations among the pressure of matter, radii, maximum masses, the binding energy, the moment of inertia, and the tidal deformability, paying special attention to the sensitivity of these correlations to prior assumptions about the equation of state. It is possible to constrain the radii of 1.4M {sub CircleDot} neutron stars to be larger than 10 km, even without consideration of additional astrophysical observations, for example, those from photospheric radius expansion bursts or quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries. We are able to improve the accuracy of known correlations between the moment of inertia and compactness as well as the binding energy and compactness. We also demonstrate the existence of a correlation between the neutron star binding energy and the moment of inertia. (orig.)
Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.
2016-05-01
Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations
The Gaia-ESO Survey: Stellar radii in the young open clusters NGC 2264, NGC 2547 and NGC 2516
Jackson, R J; Randich, S; Bragaglia, A; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Lardo, C; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Smiljanic, R; Zaggia, S
2015-01-01
Rapidly rotating, low-mass members of eclipsing binary systems have measured radii significantly larger than predicted by standard models. It has been proposed that magnetic activity is responsible for radius inflation. By estimating the radii of low-mass stars in three young clusters (NGC 2264, NGC 2547, NGC 2516, with ages of 5, 35 and 140 Myr respectively), we aim to establish whether similar radius inflation is seen in single, magnetically active stars. We use radial velocities from the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) and published photometry to establish cluster membership and combine GES measurements of vsini with published rotation periods to estimate average radii for groups of fast-rotating cluster members as a function of their luminosity and age. The average radii are compared with the predictions of both standard evolutionary models and variants that include magnetic inhibition of convection and starspots. At a given luminosity, the stellar radii in NGC 2516 and NGC 2547 are larger than predicted by standar...
The thermal Casimir–Polder interaction of an atom with a spherical plasma shell
The van der Waals and Casimir–Polder interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach at finite temperature. This configuration models the real interaction of an atom with fullerene. The Lifshitz approach is used to find the free energy. We find the explicit expression for the free energy and perform its analysis for (i) high and low temperatures, (ii) large radii of the sphere and (iii) short separation between an atom and sphere. At low temperatures the thermal part of the free energy approaches zero as the fourth power of the temperature, while for high temperatures it is proportional to the first degree of the temperature. The entropy of this system is positive for small radii of the sphere and it becomes negative at low temperatures and for large radii of the sphere. (paper)
1996-01-01
Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.
Reichel, Jakob
2010-01-01
This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.
Nuclear charge radii of light isotopes based on frequency comb measurements
Optical frequency comb technology has been used in this work for the first time to investigate the nuclear structure of light radioactive isotopes. Therefore, three laser systems were stabilized with different techniques to accurately known optical frequencies and used in two specialized experiments. Absolute transition frequency measurements of lithium and beryllium isotopes were performed with accuracy on the order of 10-10. Such a high accuracy is required for the light elements since the nuclear volume effect has only a 10-9 contribution to the total transition frequency. For beryllium, the isotope shift was determined with an accuracy that is sufficient to extract information about the proton distribution inside the nucleus. A Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy on the stable lithium isotopes 6,7Li was performed in order to determine the absolute frequency of the 2S → 3S transition. The achieved relative accuracy of 2 x 10-10 is improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous measurements. The results provide an opportunity to determine the nuclear charge radius of the stable and short-lived isotopes in a pure optical way but this requires an improvement of the theoretical calculations by two orders of magnitude. The second experiment presented here was performed at ISOLDE/CERN, where the absolute transition frequencies of the D1 and D2 lines in beryllium ions for the isotopes 7,9,10,11Be were measured with an accuracy of about 1 MHz. Therefore, an advanced collinear laser spectroscopy technique involving two counter-propagating frequency-stabilized laser beams with a known absolute frequency was developed. The extracted isotope shifts were combined with recent accurate mass shift calculations and the root-mean square nuclear charge radii of 7,10Be and the one-neutron halo nucleus 11Be were determined. Obtained charge radii are decreasing from 7Be to 10Be and increasing again for 11Be. While the monotone decrease can be explained by a nucleon
We report the results of two- and three-pion Bose–Einstein correlations measured in pp, p–Pb and Pb–Pb collisions with ALICE at the LHC. The femtoscopic radii, which characterize the system size at kinetic freeze-out, are extracted. One- and three-dimensional radii are extracted from two-pion correlations. In addition, one-dimensional radii are extracted also from three-pion correlations. The obtained radii increase with event multiplicity and decrease with pair transverse momentum. At comparable multiplicity, the radii measured in p–Pb collisions are more similar to those in pp collisions than in Pb–Pb collisions. The three-dimensional two-pion radii are compared to hydrodynamic predictions at large event multiplicity
Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)
2015-01-22
The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.
Foot, Christopher J
2007-01-01
This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen
The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed
Simulation study on radius dependence in rare-gas atoms injection into single-wall carbon nanotubes
With molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a model was established to investigate the radius dependence of rare-gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar) injection into the sidewall of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The probabilities of the formation of endohedral X at SWNT complexes as a function of incident energies were carefully observed for the SWNTs with different radii. We have compared the maximal probabilities of different rare-gas atoms and different radii of SWNTs. It seems more difficult to form endohedral complexes for larger SWNTs, especially when the incident atom is bigger
The SLUGGS survey: Exploring the metallicity gradients of nearby early-type galaxies to large radii
Pastorello, Nicola; Foster, Caroline; Brodie, Jean P; Usher, Christopher; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Arnold, Jacob A
2014-01-01
Stellar metallicity gradients in the outer regions of galaxies are a critical tool for disentangling the contributions of in-situ and ex-situ formed stars. In the two-phase galaxy formation scenario, the initial gas collapse creates steep metallicity gradients, while the accretion of stars formed in satellites tends to flatten these gradients in the outskirts, particularly for massive galaxies. This work presents the first compilation of extended metallicity profiles over a wide range of galaxy mass. We use the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck telescope in multi-slit mode to obtain radial stellar metallicity profiles for 22 nearby early-type galaxies. From the calcium triplet lines in the near-infrared we measure the metallicity of the starlight up to 3 effective radii. We find a relation between the outer metallicity gradient and galaxy mass, in the sense that lower mass systems show steeper metallicity gradients than more massive galaxies. This result is consistent with a picture in which the ratio of ex-sit...
Alfvenic Turbulence from the Sun to 65 Solar Radii: Numerical predictions.
Perez, J. C.; Chandran, B. D. G.
2015-12-01
The upcoming NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will fly to within 9 solar radii from the solar surface, about 7 times closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft has ever reached. This historic mission will gather unprecedented remote-sensing data and the first in-situ measurements of the plasma in the solar atmosphere, which will revolutionize our knowledge and understanding of turbulence and other processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. This close to the Sun the background solar-wind properties are highly inhomogeneous. As a result, outward-propagating Alfven waves (AWs) arising from the random motions of the photospheric magnetic-field footpoints undergo strong non-WKB reflections and trigger a vigorous turbulent cascade. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of reflection-driven Alfven turbulence in this scenario by means of high-resolution numerical simulations, with the goal of predicting the detailed nature of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations that the SPP mission will measure. In particular, I will place special emphasis on relating the simulations to relevant physical mechanisms that might govern the radial evolution of the turbulence spectra of outward/inward-propagating fluctuations and discuss the conditions that lead to universal power-laws.
The masses, radii and luminosities of the components of U Geminorum
Naylor, T; Long, K S
2005-01-01
We present a phase-resolved spectroscopic study of the secondary star in the cataclysmic variable U Gem. We use our data to measure the radial velocity semi-amplitude, systemic velocity and rotational velocity of the secondary star. Combining this with literature data allows us to determine masses and radii for both the secondary star and white dwarf which are independent of any assumptions about their structure. We use these to compare their properties with those of field stars and find that both components follow field mass-radius relationships. The secondary star has the mass, radius, luminosity and photometric temperature of an M2 star, but a spectroscopic temperature of M4. The latter may well be due to a high metallicity. There is a troubling inconsistency between the radius of the white dwarf inferred from its gravitational redshift and inclination and that inferred from its temperature, flux, and astrometric distance. We find that there are two fundamental limits to the accuracy of the parameters we c...
Ligi, Roxanne; Mourard, Denis; Crida, Aurélien; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Nardetto, Nicolas; Perraut, Karine; Schultheis, Mathias
2015-01-01
Accurate stellar parameters are needed in numerous domains of astrophysics. The position of stars on the H-R diagram is an important indication of their structure and evolution, and it helps improve stellar models. Furthermore, the age and mass of stars hosting planets are required elements for studying exoplanetary systems. We aim at determining accurate parameters of a set of 18 bright exoplanet host and potential host stars from interferometric measurements, photometry, and stellar models. Using the VEGA/CHARA interferometer, we measured the angular diameters of 18 stars, ten of which host exoplanets. We combined them with their distances to estimate their radii. We used photometry to derive their bolometric flux and, then, their effective temperature and luminosity to place them on the H-R diagram. We then used the PARSEC models to derive their best fit ages and masses, with error bars derived from MC calculations. Our interferometric measurements lead to an average of 1.9% uncertainty on angular diameter...
Inflation of fireballs, the gluon wind and the homogeneity of the HBT radii at RHIC
The ellipsoidally expanding fireball hydrodynamics with source terms in the momentum and energy equations is solved analytically, using the non-relativistic approximation. It is found that energy transport from high-pt jets of gluons to the medium leads to a transient, exponential inflation of the fireballs created in high energy heavy ion collisions. In this transient, inflatory period, the slopes of the single particle spectra are exponentially increasing, while the HBT radius parameters are exponentially decreasing with time. This effect is shown to be similar to the development of the homogeneity of our Universe due to an inflatory period. Independently of the initial conditions, and the exact value of freeze-out time and temperature, the measurables (single particle spectra, the correlation functions, slope parameters, elliptic flow, HBT radii and cross terms) become time-independent during the late, non-inflatory stages of the expansion, and they satisfy a new kind of scaling laws. If the expansion starts with a transient inflation caused by the gluon wind, it leads naturally to large transverse flows as well as to the simultaneous equality, and scaling behaviour of the HBT radius parameters, Rside ∼ Rout ∼ Rlong ∼ tf √Tf/m. With certain relativistic corrections, the scaling limit is τf √Tf/mt, where mt is the mean transverse mass of the pair. (author)
Description of Charge Radii in Halo Nuclei Within the Gamow Shell Model
The charge radius of the halo nucleus 6He is studied within the framework of the Gamow Shell Model (GSM). The charge radius carries information about the size of the neutron halo, the recoil of the core, and the effective interaction between valence nucleons. The motivation for this work stems from the precise measurements of charge radii in 6,8He, 11Li, and 11Be. For these weakly bound nuclei, the proper treatment of the particle continuum turns out to be crucial. The GSM is a tool that can properly account for the coupling of the continuum space (of both resonant and scattering character) with that of the bound states. We use a GSM Hamiltonian written explicitly in intrinsic coordinates. This guarantees that the core recoil effect is properly described and the spurious center-of-mass motion is removed. According to our calculations for 6He, the charge radius is very sensitive to (i) the halo extent given by the two-neutron separation energy of the system, and (ii) the p3/2 occupation. In particular, we show that the two-body wave function of halo neutrons in 6He should contain ∼91% of a p3/2 partial wave to reproduce the charge radius. This observation will help us to construct a GSM effective interaction on the interface of p and sd shells that is needed to describe other halo systems
Description of Charge Radii in Halo Nuclei within the Gamow Shell Model
The charge radius of the halo nucleus 6He is studied within the framework of the Gamow Shell Model (GSM). The charge radius carries information about the size of the neutron halo, the recoil of the core, and the effective interaction between valence nucleons. The motivation for this work stems from the precise measurements of charge radii in 6,8He, 11Li, and 11Be. For these weakly bound nuclei, the proper treatment of the particle continuum turns out to be crucial. The GSM is a tool that can properly account for the coupling of the continuum space (of both resonant and scattering character) with that of the bound states. We use a GSM Hamiltonian written explicitly in intrinsic coordinates. This guarantees that the core recoil effect is properly described and the spurious center-of-mass motion is removed. According to our calculations for 6He, the charge radius is very sensitive to (i) the halo extent given by the two-neutron separation energy of the system, and (ii) the p3/2 occupation. In particular, we show that the two-body wave function of halo neutrons in 6He should contain ∼91% of a p3/2 partial wave to reproduce the charge radius. This observation will help us to construct a GSM effective interaction on the interface of p and sd shells that is needed to describe other halo systems.
Bastien, Fabienne A; Pepper, Joshua
2014-01-01
Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, logg. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure logg to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex (Bastien et al. 2013). Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag<13) candidate planet-hosting stars with Teff=4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, an astrophysical bias exists that contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50%...
Nuclear Charge Radii in the Region of Shape Isomerism at Z $\\leq$ 80
2002-01-01
The determination of isotope shifts in the isotopic chain of Hg has led to quite a number of unexpected observations as the transition from slightly oblate to strongly prolate deformation below A~=~186, the shape coexistence in |1|8|5Hg and a huge odd-even staggering of the charge radii in the region 181~@$<$~ Until now it is quite open if the observed instability of the nuclear shape is an isolated and unique feature of the light Hg isotopes and how it changes with Z and depends on the shell and pairing energies.\\\\ \\\\ Therefore we propose to carry out a study of the isotope shifts in the neighbouring isotopes of the elements Au and Pt which can be obtained at ISOLDE as daughters of a primary Hg beam. Resonance ionization spectroscopy will be applied as a novel technique at ISOLDE. The time of flight of the photo ionized Au (or Pt) isotope in a drift tube will be used to get rid of any background events.
Corona charge injection on the free surface of a dielectric liquid can induce electro-hydrodynamical instabilities which lead to convective structure formation. In the previous papers, in a point-to-plane corona discharge electrode configuration, we analysed the dynamics of a free surface of a dielectric liquid under corona charge injection and we studied the influence of the dielectric liquid layer thickness on the corona discharge current. In the present paper, in a particular corona electrode configuration, we investigated the temporal evolution of the convective structures on surfaces with different curvature radii. We also analysed the influence of the convective movement of the dielectric liquid on the corona discharge current. In our experiments we analyzed the dimension and shape of the convective structures obtained on curved surfaces in a flow process as a function of time. Compared to other experiments concerning Benard cells, we observed these structures on spherical support and we also evidenced pentagonal structures. Visual studies of convective cell structures can provide information about the corona current density at the liquid surface. The composite electrode formed by iron sphere electrode and silicone oil determines a modification of the corona current in function of the convective movement dynamics. (authors)
We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)
Masses and mean-square charge radii of isobaric 4p-quintet members with 36≤A≤64
Formulaes which allowed to calculate masses and mean-square charge radii of the members of isobaric 4p-quintets with 36≤A≤64 are derived on the basis of the rule of the equidistance of isobaric multiplet member separation (fission) energies
Gräfener, G; Vink, J S
2011-01-01
(shortened) It has been proposed that the envelopes of luminous stars may be subject to substantial radius inflation. The inflation effect has been discussed in relation to the radius problem of WR stars, but has yet failed to explain the large observed radii of Galactic WR stars. We wish to obtain a physical perspective of the inflation effect, and study the consequences for the radii of WR stars, and LBVs. For WR stars the observed radii are up to an order of magnitude larger than predicted by theory, whilst S Doradus-type LBVs are subject to humongous radius variations, which remain as yet ill-explained. We use a dual approach to investigate the envelope inflation, based on numerical models for stars near the Eddington limit, and a new analytic formalism to describe the effect. An additional new aspect is that we take the effect of density inhomogeneities (clumping) within the outer stellar envelopes into account. Due to the effect of clumping we are able to bring the observed WR radii in agreement with th...
In hot water: effects of temperature-dependent interiors on the radii of water-rich super-Earths
Thomas, Scott W.; Madhusudhan, Nikku
2016-05-01
Observational advancements are leading to increasingly precise measurements of super-Earth masses and radii. Such measurements are used in internal structure models to constrain interior compositions of super-Earths. It is now critically important to quantify the effect of various model assumptions on the predicted radii. In particular, models often neglect thermal effects, a choice justified by noting that the thermal expansion of a solid Earth-like planet is small. However, the thermal effects for water-rich interiors may be significant. We have systematically explored the extent to which thermal effects can influence the radii of water-rich super-Earths over a wide range of masses, surface temperatures, surface pressures and water mass fractions. We developed temperature-dependent internal structure models of water-rich super-Earths that include a comprehensive temperature-dependent water equation of state. We found that thermal effects induce significant changes in their radii. For example, for super-Earths with 10 per cent water by mass, the radius increases by up to 0.5 R⊕ when the surface temperature is increased from 300 to 1000 K, assuming a surface pressure of 100 bar and an adiabatic temperature gradient in the water layer. The increase is even larger at lower surface pressures and/or higher surface temperatures, while changing the water fraction makes only a marginal difference. These effects are comparable to current super-Earth radial measurement errors, which can be better than 0.1 R⊕. It is therefore important to ensure that the thermal behaviour of water is taken into account when interpreting super-Earth radii using internal structure models.
Nuclear charge radii of light isotopes based on frequency comb measurements
Zakova, Monika
2010-02-11
Optical frequency comb technology has been used in this work for the first time to investigate the nuclear structure of light radioactive isotopes. Therefore, three laser systems were stabilized with different techniques to accurately known optical frequencies and used in two specialized experiments. Absolute transition frequency measurements of lithium and beryllium isotopes were performed with accuracy on the order of 10{sup -10}. Such a high accuracy is required for the light elements since the nuclear volume effect has only a 10{sup -9} contribution to the total transition frequency. For beryllium, the isotope shift was determined with an accuracy that is sufficient to extract information about the proton distribution inside the nucleus. A Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy on the stable lithium isotopes {sup 6,7}Li was performed in order to determine the absolute frequency of the 2S {yields} 3S transition. The achieved relative accuracy of 2 x 10{sup -10} is improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous measurements. The results provide an opportunity to determine the nuclear charge radius of the stable and short-lived isotopes in a pure optical way but this requires an improvement of the theoretical calculations by two orders of magnitude. The second experiment presented here was performed at ISOLDE/CERN, where the absolute transition frequencies of the D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} lines in beryllium ions for the isotopes {sup 7,9,10,11}Be were measured with an accuracy of about 1 MHz. Therefore, an advanced collinear laser spectroscopy technique involving two counter-propagating frequency-stabilized laser beams with a known absolute frequency was developed. The extracted isotope shifts were combined with recent accurate mass shift calculations and the root-mean square nuclear charge radii of {sup 7,10}Be and the one-neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be were determined. Obtained charge radii are decreasing from {sup 7}Be to {sup 10}Be and increasing again for
Features of an electrodynamical interpretation suggested by Schroedinger for the wave function are discribed. According to this conception electron charges are continuously distributed all over the volume of an atomic system. The proof is given that classical electrodynamics keeps its action inside atom. Schroedinger's atom has been shown to be the only model in which electrones do not lose their energy for emission when they move around nucleus. A significance of the distributed electron charge self-field is estimated. Practical applications of this conception have been noted including the new trend in quantum electrodynamics. Experimental and theoretical corroborations of the atom model with a continuous electron charge are adduced
Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 23Po,2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 23Po level of helium-like krypton
Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu
Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1997-01-01
We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of...... localization. This effect is correctly described in the GGA but not in the LDA....
The Gaia-ESO Survey: Stellar radii in the young open clusters NGC 2264, NGC 2547, and NGC 2516
Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Randich, S.; Bragaglia, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Smiljanic, R.; Zaggia, S.
2016-02-01
Context. Rapidly rotating, low-mass members of eclipsing binary systems have measured radii that are significantly larger than predicted by standard evolutionary models. It has been proposed that magnetic activity is responsible for this radius inflation. Aims: By estimating the radii of low-mass stars in three young clusters (NGC 2264, NGC 2547, NGC 2516, with ages of ~5, ~35 and ~140 Myr respectively), we aim to establish whether similar radius inflation is seen in single, magnetically active stars. Methods: We use radial velocities from the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) and published photometry to establish cluster membership and then combine GES measurements of projected equatorial velocities with published rotation periods to estimate the average radii for groups of fast-rotating cluster members as a function of their luminosity and age. The average radii are compared with the predictions of both standard evolutionary models and variants that include magnetic inhibition of convection and starspots. Results: At a given luminosity, the stellar radii in NGC 2516 and NGC 2547 are larger than predicted by standard evolutionary models at the ages of these clusters. The discrepancy is least pronounced and not significant (≃10 per cent) in zero age main sequence stars with radiative cores, but more significant in lower-mass, fully convective pre main-sequence cluster members, reaching ≃30 ± 10 per cent. The uncertain age and distance of NGC 2264 preclude a reliable determination of any discrepancy for its members. Conclusions: The median radii we have estimated for low-mass fully convective stars in the older clusters are inconsistent (at the 2-3σ level) with non-magnetic evolutionary models and more consistent with models that incorporate the effects of magnetic fields or dark starspots. The available models suggest this requires either surface magnetic fields exceeding 2.5 kG, spots that block about 30 per cent of the photospheric flux, or a more moderate combination
Wang, D H; Zhang, C M; Lei, Y J; Qu, J L; Song, L M
2015-01-01
We infer the emission positions of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs) based on the Alfven wave oscillation model (AWOM). For most sources, the emission radii of kHz QPOs cluster around a region of 16-19 km with the assumed NS radii of 15 km. Cir X-1 has the larger emission radii of 23-38 km than those of the other sources, which may be ascribed to its large magnetosphere-disk radius or strong NS surface magnetic field. SAX J1808.4-3658 is also a particular source with the relative large emission radii of kHz QPOs of 20 - 23 km, which may be due to its large inferred NS radius of 18 - 19 km. The emission radii of kHz QPOs for all the sources are larger than the NS radii, and the possible explanations of which are presented. The similarity of the emission radii of kHz QPOs (16-19 km) for both the low/high luminosity Atoll/Z sources is found, which indicates that both sources share the similar magnetosphere- disk radii.
Born, Max
1989-01-01
The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.
Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium
Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT). We have employed numerical non-relativistic Hartree–Fock wavefunctions for expectation values of radii and the necessary energy values have been taken from the compilation at NIST. The results obtained with the present method agree very well with the Coulomb approximation results given by Caves (1975). Moreover, electric quadrupole transition probability values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using the WBEPMT
We use variationally improved perturbation theory (VIPT) for calculating the elastic form factors and charge radii of D, Ds, B, Bs and Bc mesons in a quantum chromodynamics (QCD)-inspired potential model. For that, we use linear-cum-Coulombic potential and opt the Coulombic part first as parent and then the linear part as parent. The results show that charge radii and form factors are quite small for the Coulombic parent compared to the linear parent. Also, the analysis leads to a lower as well as upper bounds on the four-momentum transfer Q2, hinting at a workable range of Q2 within this approach, which may be useful in future experimental analyses. Comparison of both the options shows that the linear parent is the better option. (author)
Niembro, R., E-mail: niembror@unican.es; Marcos, S.; Lopez-Quelle, M. [Universidad de Cantabria (Spain); Savushkin, L. N. [St. Petersburg University for Telecommunications (Russian Federation)
2012-03-15
Relativistic nonlinear models based on the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations, including the {sigma}, {omega}, {pi}, and {rho} mesons, are worked out to explore the behavior of the nuclear charge radii and the binding energies of several isotopic chains. We find a correlation between the magnitude of the anomalous kink effect (KE) in the Pb isotopic family and the compressibility modulus (K) of nuclear matter. The KE appears to be sensitive, in particular, to the mechanisms which control the K value. The influence of the symmetry energy on the Ca isotopic chain is also studied. The behavior of the charge radii of single-particle states for some special cases and its repercussion on the nuclear charge radius is analyzed. The effect of pairing correlations on the models improves considerably the quality of the results in both binding energy and KE.
Marinova, K P
2002-01-01
Nuclear Moments and radii of light unstable isotopes are investigated by applying different high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques based on collinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy. A study of nuclear structure in the sd shell is performed on neon isotopes in the extended chain of $^{17-28}$Ne, in particular on the proton-halo candidate $^{17}$Ne. Measurements of hyperfine structure and isotope shift have become possible by introducing an ultra-sensitive non-optical detection method which is based on optical pumping, state-selective collisional ionization and $\\beta$-activity counting. The small effect of nuclear radii on the optical isotope shifts of light elements requires very accurate measurements. The errors are dominated by uncertainties of the Doppler shifts which are conventionally determined from precisely measured acceleration voltages. These uncertainties are removed by measuring the beam energy with simultaneous excitation of two optical lines in parallel / antiparallel beam configuration. ...
On the odd-even staggering of mean square charge radii in the light krypton and strontium region
Lievens, P; Borchers, W; Georg, U; Keim, M; Klein, A; Neugart, R; Vermeeren, L; Silverans, R E
1996-01-01
Recently isotope shifts of $^{72,74-96}$Kr and $^{77-100}$Sr have been measured at the ISOLDE/ CERN mass separator facility by collinear laser spectroscopy. The deduced changes in mean square charge radii reveal sharp transitions in nuclear shape from spherical near the magic neutron number N=50 towards strongly deformed for both the neutron deficient and neutron rich isotopes far from stability. The mean square charge radii of the neutron deficient isotopes exhibit a sign change of the odd-even staggering (OES), i.e. below the neutron number N=46 the radius is systematically larger for the odd-N nuclei than for their even-N neighbours. This is in contrast to the situation of normal OES which is observed for the heavier isotopes. The inversion of the OES is interpreted as an effect of polarization, triggered by the addition of an unpaired neutron and driving the soft even-even core into stable strong deformation.
Rutenberg, Andrew D; Kreplak, Laurent
2016-01-01
Collagen fibril cross-sectional radii show no systematic variation between the interior and the periphery of fibril bundles, indicating an effectively constant rate of collagen incorporation into fibrils throughout the bundle. Such spatially homogeneous incorporation constrains the extracellular diffusion of collagen precursors from sources at the bundle boundary to sinks at the growing fibrils. With a coarse-grained diffusion equation we determine stringent bounds, using parameters extracted from published experimental measurements of tendon development. From the lack of new fibril formation after birth, we further require that the concentration of diffusing precursors stays below the critical concentration for fibril nucleation. We find that the combination of the diffusive bound, which requires larger concentrations to ensure homogeneous fibril radii, and lack of nucleation, which requires lower concentrations, is only marginally consistent with fully-processed collagen using conservative bounds. More real...
Bhaskar Jyoti Hazarika; D K choudhury
2015-01-01
We use variationally improved perturbation theory (VIPT) for calculating the elastic form factors and charge radii of , $D_{s}$, $B$, $B_{s}$ and $B_{c}$ mesons in a quantum chromodynamics (QCD)-inspired potential model. For that, we use linear-cum-Coulombic potential and opt the Coulombic part first as parent and then the linear part as parent. The results show that charge radii and form factors are quite small for the Coulombic parent compared to the linear parent. Also, the analysis leads to a lower as well as upper bounds on the four-momentum transfer 2, hinting at a workable range of 2 within this approach, which may be useful in future experimental analyses. Comparison of both the options shows that the linear parent is the better option.
Gültekin Çelik; Şule Ateş
2008-09-01
Transition probabilities for some excited s–p and p–s transition arrays of neutral nitrogen have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT) for the investigation of effects of expectation values of radii.We have used both numerical non-relativistic Hartree-Fock (NRHF) wave functions and numerical Coulomb approximation (NCA) wave functions to calculate expectation values of radii. The transition probability results obtained using the parameters determined with two different wave functions agree well with each other and accepted values taken from NIST for low values of transition probability. However, the NRHF wave functions present better results for p–s transitions, while NCA wave functions are better in s–p transitions for large values of transition probability.
A universal function Θ(r) describes the empirical relationship between track radii Re and melting temperatures Tm without involving any other materials parameters. The precise form of the function Θ(r) is derived. Track radii Re for mica and NiFe2O4 are calculated from the experimental data of TeO2 and Y3Fe5O12 by using only the Tm values and Θ(r). The good agreement of the calculated values with the data for low and high velocity projectiles confirm the validity of Θ(r) in a broad range of the electronic stopping power Se. Consequences for the damage cross-section velocity effect are discussed. Equations are derived from Θ(r) for the track evolution Re2-Se and the threshold value of Se for track formation which agree with the basic equations of the analytical thermal spike model
HE Jun; DONG Yu-Bing
2005-01-01
We derive the exchange currents of pseudoscalar, vector, and scalar mesons from Feynman diagrams, and use them to calculate the magnetic form factors of nucleon and △(1232). The magnetic moments and electromagnetic radii are obtained by using those form factors and the parameters determined from the masses of nucleon and △(1232).We find the magnetic moments and electromagnetic radii of nucleon and △(1232) can be produced very well in the extended Goldstone-Boson-exchange model in which all of pseudoscalar, vector, and scalar meson nonet are included.The magnetic moments of △(1232) are closer to experiment values and results from lattice calculation than the results obtained by the model without other mesons except for pion and sigma.
Srinivasa R Varanasi; S Yashonath
2012-01-01
A molecular dynamics study of the dependence of diffusivity of the cation on ionic radii in molten AgI is reported.We have employed modified Parinello-Rahman-Vashistha interionic pair potential proposed by Shimojo and Kobayashi. Our results suggest that the diffusivity of the cation exhibits an increase followed by a decrease as the ionic radius is increased. Several structural and dynamical properties are reported.
Study of Nuclear Moments and Mean Square Charge Radii by Collinear Fast-Beam Laser Spectroscopy
2002-01-01
The collinear fast-beam laser technique is used to measure atomic hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of unstable nuclides produced at ISOLDE. This gives access to basic nuclear ground-state and isomeric-state properties such as spins, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, and the variation of the nuclear mean square charge radius within a sequence of isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ Among the various techniques used for this purpose, the present approach is of greatest versatility, due to the direct use of the beams from the isotope separator. Their phase-space properties are exploited to achieve high sensitivity and resolution. The optical spectra of neutral atoms are made accessible by converting the ion beams into fast atomic beams. This is accomplished in the charge-exchange cell which is kept at variable potential ($\\pm$10~kV) for Doppler-tuning of the effective laser wavelength. The basic optical resolution of 10$^{-8}$ requires a 10$^{-5}$ stability of the 60~kV main acceleration voltage and low energy ...
Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations (flicker) of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested
Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)
2014-06-10
Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.
On neutron stars in f(R) theories: Small radii, large masses and large energy emitted in a merger
Aparicio Resco, Miguel; de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Llanes Estrada, Felipe J.; Zapatero Castrillo, Víctor
2016-09-01
In the context of f(R) gravity theories, we show that the apparent mass of a neutron star as seen from an observer at infinity is numerically calculable but requires careful matching, first at the star's edge, between interior and exterior solutions, none of them being totally Schwarzschild-like but presenting instead small oscillations of the curvature scalar R; and second at large radii, where the Newtonian potential is used to identify the mass of the neutron star. We find that for the same equation of state, this mass definition is always larger than its general relativistic counterpart. We exemplify this with quadratic R2 and Hu-Sawicki-like modifications of the standard General Relativity action. Therefore, the finding of two-solar mass neutron stars basically imposes no constraint on stable f(R) theories. However, star radii are in general smaller than in General Relativity, which can give an observational handle on such classes of models at the astrophysical level. Both larger masses and smaller matter radii are due to much of the apparent effective energy residing in the outer metric for scalar-tensor theories. Finally, because the f(R) neutron star masses can be much larger than General Relativity counterparts, the total energy available for radiating gravitational waves could be of order several solar masses, and thus a merger of these stars constitutes an interesting wave source.
Precision atomic physics techniques for nuclear physics with radioactive beams
Blaum, Klaus; Dilling, Jens; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried
2013-01-01
Atomic physics techniques for the determination of ground-state properties of radioactive isotopes are very sensitive and provide accurate masses, binding energies, Q-values, charge radii, spins, and electromagnetic moments. Many fields in nuclear physics benefit from these highly accurate numbers. They give insight into details of the nuclear structure for a better understanding of the underlying effective interactions, provide important input for studies of fundamental symmetries in physics...
Deuteron charge radius from spectroscopy data in atomic deuterium
Pohl, Randolf; Udem, Thomas; Antognini, Aldo; Beyer, Axel; Fleurbaey, Hélène; Grinin, Alexey; Hänsch, Theodor W; Julien, Lucile; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Matveev, Arthur; Biraben, François
2016-01-01
We give a pedagogical description of the method to extract the charge radii and Rydberg constant from laser spectroscopy in regular hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms, that is part of the CODATA least-squares adjustment of the fundamental physical constants. We give a deuteron charge radius from D spectroscopy alone of 2.1415(45) fm. This value is independent of the proton charge radius, and five times more accurate than the value found in the CODATA Adjustment 10.
An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press
Loring, FH
2014-01-01
Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec
Theoretical study of atoms by the electronic kinetic energy density and stress tensor density
Nozaki, Hiroo; Tachibana, Akitomo
2016-01-01
We analyze the electronic structure of atoms in the first, second and third periods using the electronic kinetic energy density and stress tensor density, which are local quantities motivated by quantum field theoretic consideration, specifically the rigged quantum electrodynamics. We compute the zero surfaces of the electronic kinetic energy density, which we call the electronic interfaces, of the atoms. We find that their sizes exhibit clear periodicity and are comparable to the conventional atomic and ionic radii. We also compute the electronic stress tensor density and its divergence, tension density, of the atoms, and discuss how their electronic structures are characterized by them.
Energy Spectra of the Confined Atoms Obtained by Using B-Splines
SHI Ting-Yun; BAO Cheng-Guang; LI Bai-Wen
2001-01-01
We have calculated the energy spectra of one- and two-electron atoms (ions) centered in an impenetrable spherical box by variational method with B-splines as basis functions. Accurate results are obtained for both large and small radii of confinement. The critical box radius of confined hydrogen atom is also calculated to show the usefulness of our method. A partial energy degeneracy in confined hydrogen atom is found when the radius of spherical box is equal to the distance at which a node of single-node wavefunctions of free hydrogen atom is located.
In this paper, we report the numerical and experimental study on micromechanical resonators which are made by introducing defects on an otherwise perfect two-dimensional (2D) silicon phononic crystal (PnC) slab. The 2D PnC slab is made by etching a square array of cylindrical air holes in a free-standing silicon plate with a thickness of 10 µm, while the defects are created by reducing the radii of three rows of air holes at the centre of the 2D PnC slab. Three resonators with different values of reduced radii, i.e., 2 µm, 4 µm and 6 µm, are included in this study. The finite-element-modelling method is used to calculate the band structure of the perfect 2D PnC slab and to analyse the different mode shapes of the structure. The design, numerical modelling, fabrication process, as well as characterization results and discussions of the three PnC resonators are also included. Due to its CMOS-compatibility, aluminium nitride is chosen to be the piezoelectric material of the inter-digital transducers, which are used to generate and detect acoustic waves. Testing is done to characterize the resonant frequency (f), quality factor (Q), as well as insertion loss of each of the three microfabricated PnC resonators and the results are discussed by analysing the simulated transmission spectra, the defected band structures, and the steady-state displacement profiles of the structures at their respective resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the designed PnC resonators with reduced central-hole radii have higher resonant frequency and higher quality factors as compared to their normal Fabry–Perot counterpart, thanks to the higher-frequency modes supported within the cavity and slow sound effect in the lateral direction introduced by the central holes with reduced radii, respectively. As a result, the achieved (f-Q) product can be as high as 2.96 × 1011, which is among the highest for silicon resonators operating in air. (paper)
Local Group Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: II. Stellar Kinematics to Large Radii in NGC 147 and NGC 185
Geha, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Guhathakurta, P.; Gilbert, K. M.; Kalirai, J.; Kirby, E. N.
2009-01-01
We present kinematic and metallicity profiles for the M31 dwarf elliptical (dE) satellite galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The profiles represent the most extensive spectroscopic radial coverage for any dE galaxy, extending to a projected distance of eight half-light radii (8 r_eff = 14'). We achieve this coverage via Keck/DEIMOS multislit spectroscopic observations of 520 and 442 member red giant branch stars in NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. In contrast to previous studies, we find that bo...
Blast-wave model description of the Hanbury-Brown--Twiss radii in pp collisions at LHC energies
Bialas, Andrzej; Florkowski, Wojciech; Zalewski, Kacper
2014-01-01
The blast wave model is applied to the recent data on HBT radii in pp collisions, measured by the ALICE collaboration. A reasonable description of data is obtained for a rather low temperature of the kinetic freeze-out, T ~ 100 MeV, and the transverse profile corresponding to the emission from a shell of a fairly small width 2 d ~ 1.5 fm. The size and the life-time of the produced system are determined for various multiplicities of the produced particles.
Blast-wave model description of the Hanbury-Brown--Twiss radii in pp collisions at LHC energies
Bialas, Andrzej; Zalewski, Kacper
2014-01-01
The blast wave model is applied to the recent data on HBT radii in $pp$ collisions, measured by the ALICE collaboration. A reasonable description of data is obtained for a rather low temperature of the system, $T\\leq$ 120 MeV and the transverse profile corresponding to the emission from a shell of a fairly small width $2 \\delta \\sim 1.5$ fm. The size and the life-time of the produced system are determined for various multiplicities of the produced particles.
De Groof, Anik; Seaton, Daniel B.; Rachmeler, Laurel; Berghmans, David
2015-04-01
The EUV telescope PROBA2/SWAP has been observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since February 2010. SWAP's wide field-of-view provides a unique and continuous view of the extended EUV corona up to 2-3 solar radii. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, low-noise composites were produced that reveal large-scale, EUV-emitting, coronal structures. These extended structures appear mainly above or at the edges of active regions and typically curve towards the poles. As they persist for multiple Carrington rotations and cannot easily be related to white-light features, they give an interesting view on how the coronal magnetic field is structured between 1.3 and 2-3 solar radii, in the gap between SDO/AIA’s FOV and typical lower boundaries of coronagraph FOVs. With the help of magnetic field models, we analyse the geometry of the extended EUV structures in more detail and compare with sporadic EUV coronagraph measurements up to as close as 1.5Rs. The opportunities that Solar Orbiter’s future observations will bring are explored.
Neutron density distributions from antiprotonic 208Pb and 209Bi atoms
Klos, B.; Trzcinska, A.; Jastrzebski, J.; Czosnyka, T.; Kisielinski, M.; Lubinski, P.; Napiorkowski, P.; Pienkowski, L.; Hartmann, F. J.; Ketzer, B.; Ring, P.; Schmidt, R.; von Egidy, T.; Smolanczuk, R.; S. Wycech
2007-01-01
The X-ray cascade from antiprotonic atoms was studied for 208Pb and 209Bi. Widths and shifts of the levels due to the strong interaction were determined. Using modern antiproton-nucleus optical potentials the neutron densities in the nuclear periphery were deduced. Assuming two parameter Fermi distributions (2pF) describing the proton and neutron densities the neutron rms radii were deduced for both nuclei. The difference of neutron and proton rms radii /\\r_np equal to 0.16 +-(0.02)_{stat} +-...
Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy of extremely neutron-deficient barium isotopes
Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy (FACS) has been used to measure the nuclear mean square radii and moments of the extremely neutron-deficient isotopes 120-124Ba. At N=65 an abrupt change in nuclear mean square charge radii is observed which can be understood in terms of the occupation of the spin-orbit partner g7/2 5/2[413] neutron and g9/2 9/2[404] proton orbitals and the consequent enhancement of the n-p interaction. (orig.)
The relevance of Quantum Electrodynamics (Qed) in contemporary atomic structure theory is reviewed. Recent experimental advances allow both the production of heavy ions of high charge as well as the measurement of atomic properties with a precision never achieved before. The description of heavy atoms with few electrons via the successive incorporation of one, two, etcetera photons in a rigorous manner and within the bound state Furry representation of Qed is technically feasible. For many-electron atoms the many-body (correlation) effects are very important and it is practically impossible to evaluate all the relevant Feynman diagrams to the required accuracy. Thus, it is necessary to develop a theoretical scheme in which the radiative and nonradiative effects are taken into account in an effective way making emphasis in electronic correlation. Preserving gauge invariance, and avoiding both continuum dissolution and variational collapse are basic problems that must be solved when using effective potential methods and finite-basis representations of them. In this context, we shall discuss advances and problems in the description of atoms as Qed bound states. (Author)
Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; 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Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; 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Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; 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Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym
2016-01-01
We report on the measurement of freeze-out radii for pairs of identical-charge pions measured in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV as a function of collision centrality and the average transverse momentum of the pair $k_{\\rm T}$. Three-dimensional sizes of the system (femtoscopic radii), as well as direction-averaged one-dimensional radii are extracted. The radii decrease with $k_{\\rm T}$, following a power-law behavior. This is qualitatively consistent with expectations from a collectively expanding system, produced in hydrodynamic calculations. The radii also scale linearly with $\\left^{1/3}$. This behaviour is compared to world data on femtoscopic radii in heavy-ion collisions. While the dependence is qualitatively similar to results at smaller $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$, a decrease in the $R_{\\rm out}/R_{\\rm side}$ ratio is seen, which is in qualitative agreement with specific predictions from hydrodynamic models. The results provide further evidence for the production of a collective, strongly c...
The thermal Casimir-Polder interaction of an atom with spherical plasma shell
Khusnutdinov, Nail R
2012-01-01
The van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach at finite temperature. The Lifshits approach is used to find the free energy. We find the close expression for the free energy and make the analysis of it for i) high and low temperatures, ii) large radii of sphere and ii) short distance from sphere. At low temperatures the thermal part of the free energy tends to zero as forth power of the temperature while for high temperatures it is proportional to the first degree of the temperature. We show that the entropy of this system is positive for small radii of sphere and it becomes negative at low temperatures and for large radii of the sphere.