Microchip-Based Trapped-Atom Clocks
Vuletic, Vladan; Leroux, Ian D.; Schleier-Smith, Monika H.
2011-01-01
This is a chapter of a recently published book entitled Atom Chips, edited by Jakob Reichel and Vladan Vuletic. The contents of this chapter include: Basic Principles; Atomic-Fountain versus Trapped-Atom Clocks; Optical-Transition Clocks versus Microwave Clocks; Clocks with Magnetically Trapped Atoms--Fundamental Limits and Experimental Demonstrations; Readout in Trapped-Atom Clocks; and Spin Squeezing.
Wynands, Robert
Time is a strange thing. On the one hand it is arguably the most inaccessible physical phenomenon of all: both in that it is impossible to manipulate or modify—for all we know—and in that even after thousands of years mankind's philosophers still have not found a fully satisfying way to understand it. On the other hand, no other quantity can be measured with greater precision. Today's atomic clocks allow us to reproduce the length of the second as the SI unit of time with an uncertainty of a few parts in 1016—orders of magnitude better than any other quantity. In a sense, one can say [1
Compact atomic clock prototype based on coherent population trapping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danet Jean-Marie
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Toward the next generations of compact atomic clocks, clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT offer a very interesting alternative. Thanks to CPT, a quantum interfering process, this technology has made a decisive step in the miniaturization direction. Fractional frequency stability of 1.5x10-10 at 1 s has been demonstrated in commercial devices of a few cm3. The laboratory prototype presented here intends to explore what could be the ultimate stability of a CPT based device. To do so, an original double-Λ optical scheme and a pulsed interrogation have been implemented in order to get a good compromise between contrast and linewidth. A study of two main sources of noise, the relative intensity and the local oscillator (LO noise, has been performed. By designing simple solutions, it led to a new fractional frequency limitation lower than 4x10-13 at 1 s integration. Such a performance proves that such a technology could rival with classical ones as double resonance clocks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femtosecond optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today’s best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in 1018. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.
Poli, N; Gill, P; Tino, G M
2014-01-01
In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femto-second optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in $10^{18}$. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.
Poli, N.; Oates, C. W.; Gill, P.; Tino, G. M.
2013-12-01
In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femtosecond optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in 1018. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.
Optical atomic clocks and metrology
Ludlow, Andrew
2014-05-01
The atomic clock has long demonstrated the capability to measure time or frequency with very high precision. Consequently, these clocks are used extensively in technological applications such as advanced synchronization or communication and navigation networks. Optical atomic clocks are next- generation timekeepers which reference narrowband optical transitions between suitable atomic states. Many optical time/frequency standards utilize state-of-the-art quantum control and precision measurement. Combined with the ultrahigh quality factors of the atomic resonances at their heart, optical atomic clocks have promised new levels of timekeeping precision, orders of magnitude higher than conventional atomic clocks based on microwave transitions. Such measurement capability enables and/or enhances many of the most exciting applications of these clocks, including the study of fundamental laws of physics through the measurement of time evolution. Here, I will highlight optical atomic clocks and their utility, as well as review recent advances in their development and performance. In particular, I will describe in detail the optical lattice clock and the realization of frequency measurement at the level of one part in 1018. To push the performance of these atomic timekeepers to such a level and beyond, several key advances are being explored worldwide. These will be discussed generally, with particular emphasis on our recent efforts at NIST in developing the optical lattice clock based on atomic ytterbium.
Towards a Re-definition of the Second Based on Optical Atomic Clocks
Riehle, Fritz
2015-01-01
The rapid increase in accuracy and stability of optical atomic clocks compared to the caesium atomic clock as primary standard of time and frequency asks for a future re-definition of the second in the International System of Units (SI). The status of the optical clocks based on either single ions in radio-frequency traps or on neutral atoms stored in an optical lattice is described with special emphasis of the current work at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Besides the development and operation of different optical clocks with estimated fractional uncertainties in the 10^-18 range, the supporting work on ultra-stable lasers as core elements and the means to compare remote optical clocks via transportable standards, optical fibers, or transportable clocks is reported. Finally, the conditions, methods and next steps are discussed that are the prerequisites for a future re-definition of the second.
Atomic clocks: the atoms as primary time and frequency standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article, we present the atomic clock as time and frequency standard and as one of the peaceful uses of atoms for development. In the first part, we present the general principles of time and frequency metrology and the key role of the caesium atom in this field as well as the main applications of atomic clocks. In the second part we introduce the different clock technologies based on Ramsey method, with a focus on atomic beam clocks and atomic fountain clocks. (author)
Mikhailov, Eugeniy E; Belcher, Nathan; Novikova, Irina
2009-01-01
We report on the performance of the first table-top prototype atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances with parallel linearly polarized optical fields (lin||lin configuration). Our apparatus uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) tuned to the D1 line of 87Rb with current modulation at the 87Rb hyperfine frequency. We demonstrate cancellation of the first-order light shift by proper choice of rf modulation power, and further improve our prototype clock stability by optimizing the parameters of the microwave lock loop. Operating in these optimal conditions, we measured a short-term fractional frequency stability (Allan deviation) 2*10^{-11} tau^{-1/2} for observation times 1s
Could Atomic clocks be affected by neutrinos?
Hanafi, Hanaa
2016-01-01
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electronic transition frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard in order to derive a time standard since time is the reciprocal of frequency. If the electronic transition frequencies are in an "optical region", we are talking in this case about optical atomic clocks. If they are in an "microwave region" these atomic clocks are made of the metallic element cesium so they are called Cesium atomic clocks. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known despite the different perturbations that can affect them, a lot of researches were made in this domain to show how the transitions can be different for different type of perturbations..Since atomic clocks are very sensitive devices, based on coherent states (A coherent state tends to loose coherence after interacting). One question can arise (from a lot of questions) which is why cosmic neutrinos are not aﬀecting these clocks? The answer to this question requir...
High-Accuracy Microwave Atomic Clock via Magic Optical Lattice
Zhou, Xiaoji; Chen, Xuzong; Chen, Jingbiao
2005-01-01
A microwave atomic clock scheme based on Rb and Cs atoms trapped in optical lattice with magic wavelength for clock transition is proposed. The ac Stark shift of clock transition due to trapping laser can be canceled at some specific laser wavelengths. Comparing with in fountain clock, the cavity related shifts, the collision shift, and the Doppler effect are eliminated or suppressed dramatically in atomic clock when the magic optical lattice is exploited. By carefully analyzing various sourc...
Bondarescu Ruxandra; Schärer Andreas; Jetzer Philippe; Angélil Raymond; Saha Prasenjit; Lundgren Andrew
2015-01-01
The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft's reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gra...
Review of chip-scale atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Research on chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs) based on coherent population trapping (CPT) is reviewed. The background and the inspiration for the research are described, including the important schemes proposed to improve the CPT signal quality, the selection of atoms and buffer gases, and the development of micro-cell fabrication. With regard to the reliability, stability, and service life of the CSACs, the research regarding the sensitivity of the CPT resonance to temperature and laser power changes is also reviewed, as well as the CPT resonance's collision and light of frequency shifts. The first generation CSACs have already been developed but its characters are still far from our expectations. Our conclusion is that miniaturization and power reduction are the most important aspects calling for further research. (review)
Testing spatial α-variation with optical atomic clocks based on highly charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review recent works illustrating the potential use of highly charged ions as the basis of optical atomic clocks of exceptional accuracy and very high sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant, α. The tendency towards large transition energies in highly charged ions can be overcome using level crossings, which allow transitions between different orbitals to be within the range of usual lasers. We present simple scaling laws that demonstrate reduced systematics that could be realised in highly charged ion clocks. Such clocks could allow us to corroborate astronomical studies that suggest a spatial gradient in values of α across the Universe. (authors)
Testing spatial α-variation with optical atomic clocks based on highly charged ions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berengut J. C.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We review recent works illustrating the potential use of highly charged ions as the basis of optical atomic clocks of exceptional accuracy and very high sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant, α. The tendency towards large transition energies in highly charged ions can be overcome using level crossings, which allow transitions between different orbitals to be within the range of usual lasers. We present simple scaling laws that demonstrate reduced systematics that could be realised in highly charged ion clocks. Such clocks could allow us to corroborate astronomical studies that suggest a spatial gradient in values of α across the Universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the performance of the first table-top prototype atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances with parallel linearly polarized optical fields (lin parallel lin configuration). Our apparatus uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) tuned to the D1 line of 87Rb with the current modulation at the 87Rb hyperfine frequency. We demonstrate cancellation of the first-order light shift by the proper choice of rf modulation power and further improve our prototype clock stability by optimizing the parameters of the microwave lock loop. Operating in these optimal conditions, we measured a short-term fractional frequency stability (Allan deviation) 2x10-11τ-1/2 for observation times 1 s≤τ≤20 s. This value is limited by large VCSEL phase noise and environmental temperature fluctuation. Further improvements in frequency stability should be possible with an apparatus designed as a dedicated lin parallel lin CPT resonance clock with environmental impacts minimized.
Atomic clock ensemble in space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission using high-performance clocks and links to test fundamental laws of physics in space. Operated in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station, the ACES clocks, PHARAO and SHM, will generate a frequency reference reaching instability and inaccuracy at the 1 · 10−16 level. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. ACES has now reached an advanced technology maturity, with engineering models completed and successfully tested and flight hardware under development. This paper presents the ACES mission concept and the status of its main instruments.
Satellite virtual atomic clock with pseudorange difference function
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Satellite atomic clocks are the basis of GPS for the control of time and frequency of navigation signals. In the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), a satellite navigation system without the satellite atomic clocks onboard is successfully developed. Thus, the method of time synchronization based on satellite atomic clocks in GPS is not suitable. Satellite virtual atomic clocks are used to implement satellite navigation. With the satellite virtual atomic clocks, the time at which the signals are transmitted from the ground can be delayed into the time that the signals are transmitted from the satellites and the pseudorange measuring can be fulfilled as in GPS. Satellite virtual atomic clocks can implement the navigation, make a pseudorange difference, remove the ephemeris error, and improve the accuracy of navigation positioning. They not only provide a navigation system without satellite clocks, but also a navigation system with pseudorange difference.
Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a formalism to incorporate exchange symmetry considerations into the calculation of collisional frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature 87Sr 1S0 (F=9/2) atomic clock in a magic wavelength optical lattice are presented.
Mapping Out Atom-Wall Interaction with Atomic Clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We explore the feasibility of probing atom-wall interaction with atomic clocks based on atoms trapped in engineered optical lattices. Optical lattice is normal to the wall. By monitoring the wall-induced clock shift at individual wells of the lattice, one would measure the dependence of the atom-wall interaction on the atom-wall separation. We find that the induced clock shifts are large and observable at already experimentally demonstrated levels of accuracy. We show that this scheme may uniquely probe the long-range atom-wall interaction in all three qualitatively distinct regimes of the interaction: van der Waals (image-charge interaction), Casimir-Polder (QED vacuum fluctuations), and Lifshitz (thermal-bath fluctuations) regimes.
Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Jetzer, Philippe; Angélil, Raymond; Saha, Prasenjit; Lundgren, Andrew
2015-01-01
The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft's reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gravitational perturbations in Earth's gravitational field, potentially differentiating between different theories of gravity. This mission can measure multiple relativistic effects all during the course of a single experiment, and constrain the Parametrized Post-Newtonian Parameters around the Earth. A satellite carrying a clock of fractional timing inaccuracy of $\\Delta f/f \\sim 10^{-16}$ in an elliptic orbit around the Earth would constrain the PPN parameters $|\\beta -1|, |\\gamma-1| \\lesssim 10^{-6}$. We also briefly revi...
Mitigating aliasing in atomic clocks
Uys, Hermann; Akhalwaya, Ismail; Sastrawan, Jarrah; Biercuk, Michael
2015-05-01
Passive atomic clocks periodically calibrate a classical local oscillator against an atomic quantum reference through feedback. The periodic nature of this correction leads to undesirable aliasing noise. The Dick Effect, is a special case of aliasing noise consisting of the down-conversion of clock noise at harmonics of the correction frequency to a frequency of zero. To combat the Dick effect and aliasing noise in general, we suggest an extension to the usual feedback protocol, in which we incorporate information from multiple past measurements into the correction after the most recent measurement, approximating a crude low pass anti-aliasing filter of the noise. An analytical frequency domain analysis of the approach is presented and supported by numerical time domain simulations.
Towards development of the lamp-based 113Cd+ ion atomic clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We review the development of the microwave frequency standard based on trapped Cd+ ions. The purpose of this development is to test for a possible variation of the fine structure constant by measuring differences of fractional frequency shifts of two (or three) atomic clocks in strong gravitational potential near the sun. The 113Cd+ ions are trapped in the linear quadrupole rf ion trap, similar to one described elsewhere. The trap region was not shielded from an ambient magnetic field. Approximately 105 Torr of He as a buffer gas is used to cool ions to near room temperature and increase loading efficiency. The ions are optically pumped into the S1/2, F=0 hyperfine level of the ground state by a UV light from the Cd rf discharge lamp. The 106Cd lamp has about 1 Torr of Ar and about 1 mg of 106Cd. With 10 W of rf power, the lamp substantially pumps 113Cd+ ions in the F=0 hyperfine level in one second. The ions are interrogated by one Rabi pulse using microwave radiation tuned to a clock transition ∼ 15.2 GHz that couples 52S1/2 hyperfine levels, F=1, mf=0 - F=0, mf=0. The microwave signal was referenced to a hydrogen maser. Detection, i.e., measurements of how many ions made the microwave transition, was performed using the light from the same 106Cd lamp. The UV light-microwave double-resonance spectrum is at 15.199862903 GHz, 45 Hz higher then the high precision measurement of Cd hyperfine splitting at zero magnetic field. The obtained resonance width of ∼ 0.17 Hz when interrogating for 5 sec and high signal to background light ratio gives an estimated short-term stability below 5x10-13. (author)
Atomic fountains and optical clocks at SYRTE: status and perspectives
Abgrall, M; De Sarlo, L; Guéna, J; Laurent, Ph; Coq, Y Le; Targat, R Le; Lodewyck, J; Lours, M; Rosenbusch, P; Rovera, D; Bize, S
2015-01-01
In this article, we report on the work done with the LNE-SYRTE atomic clock ensemble during the last 10 years. We cover progress made in atomic fountains and in their application to timekeeping. We also cover the development of optical lattice clocks based on strontium and on mercury. We report on tests of fundamental physical laws made with these highly accurate atomic clocks. We also report on work relevant to a future possible redefinition of the SI second.
Testing spatial α-variation with optical atomic clocks based on highly charged ions
Berengut J. C.; Flambaum V. V.; Ong A.
2013-01-01
We review recent works illustrating the potential use of highly charged ions as the basis of optical atomic clocks of exceptional accuracy and very high sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant, α. The tendency towards large transition energies in highly charged ions can be overcome using level crossings, which allow transitions between different orbitals to be within the range of usual lasers. We present simple scaling laws that demonstrate reduced systematics that could be re...
Cold atom Clocks and Applications
Bize, S; Abgrall, M; Marion, H; Maksimovic, I; Cacciapuoti, L; Gruenert, J; Vian, C; Dos Santos, F P; Rosenbusch, P; Lemonde, P; Santarelli, G; Wolf, P; Clairon, A; Luiten, A; Tobar, M; Salomon, C
2005-01-01
This paper describes advances in microwave frequency standards using laser-cooled atoms at BNM-SYRTE. First, recent improvements of the $^{133}$Cs and $^{87}$Rb atomic fountains are described. Thanks to the routine use of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator as an ultra-stable local frequency reference, a fountain frequency instability of $1.6\\times 10^{-14}\\tau^{-1/2}$ where $\\tau $ is the measurement time in seconds is measured. The second advance is a powerful method to control the frequency shift due to cold collisions. These two advances lead to a frequency stability of $2\\times 10^{-16}$ at $50,000s for the first time for primary standards. In addition, these clocks realize the SI second with an accuracy of $7\\times 10^{-16}$, one order of magnitude below that of uncooled devices. In a second part, we describe tests of possible variations of fundamental constants using $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs fountains. Finally we give an update on the cold atom space clock PHARAO developed in collaboration with CNES. This ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bondarescu Ruxandra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft’s reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gravitational perturbations in Earth’s gravitational field, potentially differentiating between different theories of gravity. This mission can measure multiple relativistic effects all during the course of a single experiment, and constrain the Parametrized Post-Newtonian Parameters around the Earth. A satellite carrying a clock of fractional timing inaccuracy of Δ f / f ∼ 10−16 in an elliptic orbit around the Earth would constrain the PPN parameters |β − 1|, |γ − 1| ≲ 10−6. We also briefly review potential constraints by atom interferometers on scalar tensor theories and in particular on Chameleon and dilaton models.
Atomic clocks: A mathematical physics perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Accuracy of atomic clocks (since their introduction in 50's) is increasing by roughly one order per decade. A natural theoretical problem posed by this development is to seek the ultimate accuracy of atomic clocks and means to achieve it. This problem was indeed extensively studied and various bounds on the accuracy are well understood, e.g. shot noise limit. I would present a mathematical minded (but simple) model of atomic clocks and discuss accuracy bounds within the model. (author)
Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi
2016-06-01
In this study we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancelation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits respectively two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 {m^2/s^2} based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s/s) level. Since optical-atomic clocks with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimeter level accuracy in the near future.
Compact, Highly Stable Ion Atomic Clock
Prestage, John
2008-01-01
A mercury-ion clock now at the breadboard stage of development (see figure) has a stability comparable to that of a hydrogen-maser clock: In tests, the clock exhibited an Allan deviation of between 2 x 10(exp -13) and 3 x 10(exp -13) at a measurement time of 1 second, averaging to about 10(exp -15) at 1 day. However, the clock occupies a volume of only about 2 liters . about a hundredth of the volume of a hydrogen-maser clock. The ion-handling parts of the apparatus are housed in a sealed vacuum tube, wherein only a getter pump is used to maintain the vacuum. Hence, this apparatus is a prototype of a generation of small, potentially portable high-precision clocks for diverse ground- and space-based navigation and radio science applications. Furthermore, this new ion-clock technology is about 100 times more stable and precise than the rubidium atomic clocks currently in use in the NAV STAR GPS Earth-orbiting satellites. In this clock, mercury ions are shuttled between a quadrupole and a 16-pole linear radio-frequency trap. In the quadrupole trap, the ions are tightly confined and optical state selection from a Hg-202 radio-frequency-discharge ultraviolet lamp is carried out. In the 16-pole trap, the ions are more loosely confined and atomic transitions resonant at frequency of about 40.507 GHz are interrogated by use of a microwave beam at that frequency. The trapping of ions effectively eliminates the frequency pulling caused by wall collisions inherent to gas-cell clocks. The shuttling of the ions between the two traps enables separation of the state-selection process from the clock microwave- resonance process, so that each of these processes can be optimized independently of the other. The basic ion-shuttling, two-trap scheme as described thus far is not new: it has been the basis of designs of prior larger clocks. The novelty of the present development lies in major redesigns of its physics package (the ion traps and the vacuum and optical subsystems) to effect
Design and Construction of an Atomic Clock on an Atom Chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the design and construction of an atomic clock on an atom chip, intended as a secondary standard, with a stability in the range of few 10-13 at 1 s. This clock is based on a two-photon transition between the hyperfine states |F = 1; mF = -1> and |2; 1> of the electronic ground state of the 87Rb atom. This transition is interrogated using a Ramsey scheme, operating on either a cloud of thermal atoms or a Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to atomic fountain clocks, this clock is magnetically trapped on an atom chip. We describe a theoretical model of the clock stability and the design and construction of a dedicated apparatus. It is able to control the magnetic field at the relative 10-5 level and features a hybrid atom chip, containing DC conductors as well as a microwave transmission line for the clock interrogation. (author)
The quantum beat principles and applications of atomic clocks
Major, F
2007-01-01
This work attempts to convey a broad understanding of the physical principles underlying the workings of these quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the early development of mechanical clocks and the introduction of electronic time-keeping as embodied in the quartz-controlled clocks. While the book makes no pretense at being a history of atomic clocks, it nevertheless takes a historical perspective in its treatment of the subject. Intended for nonspecialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering, The Quantum Beat covers a wide range of salient topics relevant to atomic clocks, treated in a broad intuitive manner with a minimum of mathematical formalism. Detailed descriptions are given of the design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; the revolutionary changes that the advent of the laser has made possible, such as laser cooling, optical pumping, the formation of "optical molasses," and the cesium "fountain" stand...
Atomic Clocks with Suppressed Blackbody Radiation Shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a concept of atomic clocks where the blackbody radiation shift and its fluctuations can be suppressed by 1-3 orders of magnitude independent of the environmental temperature. The suppression is based on the fact that in a system with two accessible clock transitions (with frequencies ν1 and ν2) which are exposed to the same thermal environment, there exists a 'synthetic' frequency νsyn ∝ (ν1-ε12ν2) largely immune to the blackbody radiation shift. For example, in the case of 171Yb+ it is possible to create a synthetic-frequency-based clock in which the fractional blackbody radiation shift can be suppressed to the level of 10-18 in a broad interval near room temperature (300±15 K). We also propose a realization of our method with the use of an optical frequency comb generator stabilized to both frequencies ν1 and ν2, where the frequency νsyn is generated as one of the components of the comb spectrum.
Using Atomic Clocks to Detect Gravitational Waves
Loeb, Abraham
2015-01-01
Atomic clocks have recently reached a fractional timing precision of $<10^{-18}$. We point out that an array of atomic clocks, distributed along the Earth's orbit around the Sun, will have the sensitivity needed to detect the time dilation effect of mHz gravitational waves (GWs), such as those emitted by supermassive black hole binaries at cosmological distances. Simultaneous measurement of clock-rates at different phases of a passing GW provides an attractive alternative to the interferometric detection of temporal variations in distance between test masses separated by less than a GW wavelength, currently envisioned for the eLISA mission.
An atomic clock with $10^{-18}$ instability
Hinkley, N; Phillips, N B; Schioppo, M; Lemke, N D; Beloy, K; Pizzocaro, M; Oates, C W; Ludlow, A D
2013-01-01
Atomic clocks have been transformational in science and technology, leading to innovations such as global positioning, advanced communications, and tests of fundamental constant variation. Next-generation optical atomic clocks can extend the capability of these timekeepers, where researchers have long aspired toward measurement precision at 1 part in $\\bm{10^{18}}$. This milestone will enable a second revolution of new timing applications such as relativistic geodesy, enhanced Earth- and space-based navigation and telescopy, and new tests on physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we describe the development and operation of two optical lattice clocks, both utilizing spin-polarized, ultracold atomic ytterbium. A measurement comparing these systems demonstrates an unprecedented atomic clock instability of $\\bm{1.6\\times 10^{-18}}$ after only $\\bm{7}$ hours of averaging.
Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi
2016-08-01
In this study, we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancellation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks (OACs) and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits, respectively, two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 m2 s- 2 based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s s-1) level. Since OACs with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimetre level accuracy in the near future.
Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr87 using the 1S0 → 3P0 transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr87 atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10-15 and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10-15 level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr88 by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10-14. (author)
Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Liu, Xiaochi; Guérandel, Stéphane; De Clercq, Emeric; Boudot, Rodolphe
2016-06-01
This article reports on the development and short-term fractional frequency stability of a continuous-regime (CW) Cs vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). The push-pull optical pumping technique is used to increase the number of atoms that participate to the clock transition, yielding a typical CPT resonance contrast of 25% for a CPT linewidth of about 450 Hz. The clock short-term fractional frequency stability is measured to be 3 x 10-13 τ-1/2 up to 100 seconds averaging time, in correct agreement with the signal-to-noise ratio limit. The mid-term frequency stability results are currently mainly limited by laser power effects. The detection of high-contrast narrow Raman-Ramsey fringes is demonstrated with this setup by making the atoms interact with a light pulse sequence.
Quantum Network of Atom Clocks: A Possible Implementation with Neutral Atoms
Kómár, P.; Topcu, T.; Kessler, E. M.; Derevianko, A.; Vuletić, V.; Ye, J.; Lukin, M. D.
2016-08-01
We propose a protocol for creating a fully entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state of neutral atoms in spatially separated optical atomic clocks. In our scheme, local operations make use of the strong dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg excitations, which give rise to fast and reliable quantum operations involving all atoms in the ensemble. The necessary entanglement between distant ensembles is mediated by single-photon quantum channels and collectively enhanced light-matter couplings. These techniques can be used to create the recently proposed quantum clock network based on neutral atom optical clocks. We specifically analyze a possible realization of this scheme using neutral Yb ensembles.
Gravitational wave detection with optical lattice atomic clocks
Kolkowitz, Shimon; Pikovski, Igor; Langellier, Nicholas; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ye, Jun
2016-01-01
We propose a space-based gravitational wave detector consisting of two spatially separated, drag-free satellites sharing ultra-stable optical laser light over a single baseline. Each satellite contains an optical lattice atomic clock, which serves as a sensitive, narrowband detector of the local frequency of the shared laser light. A synchronized two-clock comparison between the satellites will be sensitive to the effective Doppler shifts induced by incident gravitational waves (GWs) at a lev...
Atomic Clocks and Variations of the FIne Structure Constant
Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute
1995-01-01
We describe a new test for possible variations of the fine structure constant alpha by comparisons of rates between clocks based on hyperfine transitions in alkali atoms with different atomic number Z. H-maser, Cs, and Hg(+) clocks have a different dependence on alpha via relativistic contributions of order (Z-alpha)(sup 2). Recent H-maser vs Hg(+) clock comparison data improve laboratory limits on a time variation by 100-fold to give dot-alpha less than or equal to 3.7 x 10(exp -14)/yr. Future laser cooled clocks (Be(+), Rb, Cs, Hg(+), etc.), when compared, will yield the most sensitive of all tests for dot-alpha/alpha.
The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission
Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill
2012-01-01
The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.
Microwave Atomic Clock in the Optical Lattice with Specific Frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A scheme for a microwave atomic clock is proposed for Cs or Rb atoms trapped in a blue detuned optical lattice. The ac Stark shift of the clock transition due to a trapping laser is calculated. We analyze it at some specific laser wavelength. Compared with the case of the fountain clock, the cavity related shifts, the collision shift and the Doppler effect are eliminated or suppressed dramatically in an atomic lattice clock. By analyzing various sources of clock uncertainty, a microwave atomic lattice clock with a high accuracy and small volume is feasible
Tests of local position invariance using continuously running atomic clocks
Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James L; Swanson, Thomas B; Ekstrom, Christopher R; 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.010102
2013-01-01
Tests of local position invariance (LPI) made by comparing the relative redshift of atomic clocks based on different atoms have been carried out for a variety of pairs of atomic species. In most cases, several absolute frequency measurements per year are used to look for an annual signal, resulting in tests that can span on order of a decade. By using the output of continuously running clocks, we carry out LPI tests with comparable or higher precision after less than 1.5 years. These include new measurements of the difference in redshift anomalies \\beta\\ for hyperfine transitions in Rb87 and Cs133 and in H and Cs133 and a measurement comparing Rb87 and H, resulting in a stringent limit on LPI, \\beta(Rb) - \\beta(H)=(-2.7 +/- 4.9) x 10^(-7). The method of making these measurements for continuous clocks is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quadratic Zeeman coefficient was previously measured by using the single pulse spectroscopy method, in which the experimental resolution is limited by the line width of the spectrum of the clock transition. In this paper, an accurate measurement of the quadratic Zeeman coefficient is presented by using the Ramsey atom interferometer. The line width of the central Ramsey fringe of the 87Rb clock transition, which depends on the interrogation time, is much narrower than that of the single pulse spectroscopy method. The measurement uncertainty of less than 1 Hz G−2 is realized, which is much better than the other current existing results. The measured quadratic Zeeman coefficient of the 87Rb clock transition is 575.33±0.36 Hz G−2 by the Raman Ramsey atom interferometer, and 575.48 ± 0.30 Hz G−2 by the microwave Ramsey atom interferometer, which coincides well with the theoretical result of 575.15 Hz G−2 calculated by the Breit–Rabi formula. (paper)
Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles
Schioppo, M; McGrew, W F; Hinkley, N; Fasano, R J; Beloy, K; Yoon, T H; Milani, G; Nicolodi, D; Sherman, J A; Phillips, N B; Oates, C W; Ludlow, A D
2016-01-01
Atomic clocks based on optical transitions are the most stable, and therefore precise, timekeepers available. These clocks operate by alternating intervals of atomic interrogation with dead time required for quantum state preparation and readout. This non-continuous interrogation of the atom system results in the Dick effect, an aliasing of frequency noise of the laser interrogating the atomic transition. Despite recent advances in optical clock stability achieved by improving laser coherence, the Dick effect has continually limited optical clock performance. Here we implement a robust solution to overcome this limitation: a zero-dead-time optical clock based on the interleaved interrogation of two cold-atom ensembles. This clock exhibits vanishingly small Dick noise, thereby achieving an unprecedented fractional frequency instability of $6 \\times 10^{-17} / \\sqrt{\\tau}$ for an averaging time $\\tau$ in seconds. We also consider alternate dual-atom-ensemble schemes to extend laser coherence and reduce the stan...
A mathematical model for the atomic clock error in case of jumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We extend the mathematical model based on stochastic differential equations describing the error gained by an atomic clock to the cases of anomalous behavior including jumps and an increase of instability. We prove an exact iterative solution that can be useful for clock simulation, prediction, and interpretation, as well as for the understanding of the impact of clock error in the overall system in which clocks may be inserted as, for example, the Global Satellite Navigation Systems. (authors)
Atomic clocks as a tool to monitor vertical surface motion
Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Lundgren, Andrew; Hetényi, György; Houlié, Nicolas; Jetzer, Philippe; Bondarescu, Mihai
2015-01-01
Atomic clock technology is advancing rapidly, now reaching stabilities of $\\Delta f/f \\sim 10^{-18}$, which corresponds to resolving $1$ cm in equivalent geoid height over an integration timescale of about 7 hours. At this level of performance, ground-based atomic clock networks emerge as a tool for monitoring a variety of geophysical processes by directly measuring changes in the gravitational potential. Vertical changes of the clock's position due to magmatic, volcanic, post-seismic or tidal deformations can result in measurable variations in the clock tick rate. As an example, we discuss the geopotential change arising due to an inflating point source (Mogi model), and apply it to the Etna volcano. Its effect on an observer on the Earth's surface can be divided into two different terms: one purely due to uplift and one due to the redistribution of matter. Thus, with the centimetre-level precision of current clocks it is already possible to monitor volcanoes. The matter redistribution term is estimated to b...
Next Generation JPL Ultra-Stable Trapped Ion Atomic Clocks
Burt, Eric; Tucker, Blake; Larsen, Kameron; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert
2013-01-01
Over the past decade, trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on two directions: 1) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements, and 2) ultra-stable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate performance. In this paper we present a new ultra-stable trapped ion clock designed, built, and tested in the second category. The first new standard, L10, will be delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use in characterizing DoD space clocks.
From atomic clocks to coordinate times
Petit, G.
2006-08-01
The IAU'1991 Resolution A4, complemented by IAU'2000 Resolution B1.3-4, provide rigorous definitions for barycentric and geocentric reference systems in a relativistic framework and define the coordinate times of these systems as TCB and TCG, respectively. Other coordinate times in use are TT, defined from TCG through IAU'2000 Resolution B1.9, and TDB, whose rigorous definition from TCB is now proposed. For practical use, these coordinate times must be realized and the proper time provided by atomic clocks (Atomic time AT) is used to generate all coordinate times. The present sequence is AT => TT ||> TCG -> TCB ||> TDB, where the sign => indicates the complex series of operations involved in generating International atomic time TAI and where ||> is an exact transformation. The paper examines the uncertainty of realization of TAI and the uncertainty brought by the transformation TCG -> TCB. On-going and future evolutions of atomic clocks are reviewed along with their impact on the diagram of time transformations.
Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space: Scientific Objectives and Mission Status
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cacciapuoti, L. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1 - P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands)], E-mail: Luigi.Cacciapuoti@esa.int; Dimarcq, N.; Santarelli, G.; Laurent, P.; Lemonde, P.; Clairon, A. [SYRTE-CNRS UMR8630, Observatoire de Paris, 61, avenue de l' Observatoire 75014 Paris (France); Berthoud, P.; Jornod, A. [Observatoire de Neuchatel, 58, rue de l' Observatoire, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Reina, F.; Feltham, S. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1 - P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Salomon, C. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, 24, rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)
2007-04-15
Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission in fundamental physics that will operate a new generation of atomic clocks in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station. Fractional frequency instability and inaccuracy at the 10{sup -16} level will be achieved. The on-board time base, distributed on Earth via a microwave link, will be used for space-to-ground as well as ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards. Based on these comparisons, ACES will perform fundamental physics tests and develop applications in time and frequency metrology, universal time scales, global positioning and navigation, geodesy, and gravimetry. After a general overview of the mission concept and its scientific objectives, the present status of ACES instruments and sub-systems will be discussed.
Gravitational wave detection with optical lattice atomic clocks
Kolkowitz, Shimon; Langellier, Nicholas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L; Ye, Jun
2016-01-01
We propose a space-based gravitational wave detector consisting of two spatially separated, drag-free satellites sharing ultra-stable optical laser light over a single baseline. Each satellite contains an optical lattice atomic clock, which serves as a sensitive, narrowband detector of the local frequency of the shared laser light. A synchronized two-clock comparison between the satellites will be sensitive to the effective Doppler shifts induced by incident gravitational waves (GWs) at a level competitive with other proposed space-based GW detectors, while providing complementary features. The detected signal is a differential frequency shift of the shared laser light due to the relative velocity of the satellites, rather than a phase shift arising from the relative satellite positions, and the detection window can be tuned through the control sequence applied to the atoms' internal states. This scheme enables the detection of GWs from continuous, spectrally narrow sources, such as compact binary inspirals, ...
Synchronization of Active Atomic Clocks via Quantum and Classical Channels
Roth, Alexander
2016-01-01
Superradiant lasers based on atomic ensembles exhibiting ultra-narrow optical transitions can emit light of unprecedented spectral purity and may serve as active atomic clocks. We consider two frequency-detuned active atomic clocks, which are coupled in a cascaded setup, i.e. as master & slave lasers, and study the synchronization of the slave to the master clock. In a setup where both atomic ensembles are coupled to a common cavity mode such synchronization phenomena have been predicted by Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 154101 (2014)] and experimentally observed by Weiner et al. [arXiv:1503.06464 (2015)]. Here we demonstrate that synchronization still occurs in cascaded setups but exhibits distinctly different phase diagrams. We study the characteristics of synchronization in comparison to the case of coupling through a common cavity. We also consider synchronization through a classical channel where light of the master laser is measured phase sensitively and the slave laser is injection locked by feed...
Daugey, Thomas; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe
2015-01-01
This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596~GHz frequency source. A 2.298~GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally-controlled two-port AlN-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24000 at 68$^{\\circ}$C, is frequency multiplied by 2 to 4.596~GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the HBAR is measured to be $-23$~ppm/$^{\\circ}$C at 2.298~GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596~GHz source is $-105$~dBrad$^2$/Hz at 1~kHz offset and $-150$~dBrad$^2$/Hz at 100~kHz offset. The 4.596~GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator (LO) in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter (VCPS) implemented in the 2.298~GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming...
Generating and probing entangled states for optical atomic clocks
Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan
2016-05-01
The precision of quantum measurements is inherently limited by projection noise caused by the measurement process itself. Spin squeezing and more complex forms of entanglement have been proposed as ways of surpassing this limitation. In our system, a high-finesse asymmetric micromirror-based optical cavity can mediate the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating entanglement in an 171 Yb optical lattice clock. I will discuss approaches for creating, characterizing, and optimally utilizing these nonclassical states for precision measurement, as well as recent progress toward their realization. This research is supported by DARPA QuASAR, NSF, and NSERC.
Atomic clocks: new prospects in metrology and geodesy
Delva, Pacôme
2013-01-01
We present the latest developments in the field of atomic clocks and their applications in metrology and fundamental physics. In the light of recent advents in the accuracy of optical clocks, we present an introduction to the relativistic modelization of frequency transfer and a detailed review of chronometric geodesy.
Quantum Atomic Clock Synchronization: An Entangled Concept of Nonlocal Simultaneity
Abrams, D.; Dowling, J.; Williams, C.; Jozsa, R.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that two spatially separated parties (Alice and Bob) can utilize shared prior quantum entanglement, as well as a classical information channel, to establish a synchronized pair of atomic clocks.
Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping
Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Hetényi, György; Boschi, Lapo; Jetzer, Philippe; Balakrishna, Jayashree; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05636.x
2012-01-01
The geoid is the true physical figure of the Earth, a particular equipotential surface of the gravity field of the Earth that accounts for the effect of all subsurface density variations. Its shape approximates best (in the sense of least squares) the mean level of oceans, but the geoid is more difficult to determine over continents. Satellite missions carry out distance measurements and derive the gravity field to provide geoid maps over the entire globe. However, they require calibration and extensive computations including integration, which is a non-unique operation. Here we propose a direct method and a new tool that directly measures geopotential differences on continents using atomic clocks. General Relativity Theory predicts constant clock rate at sea level, and faster (resp. slower) clock rate above (resp. below) sea level. The technology of atomic clocks is on the doorstep of reaching an accuracy level in clock rate that is equivalent to 1 cm in determining equipotential surface (including geoid) he...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2–4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be −23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is −105 dB rad2/Hz at 1 kHz offset and −150 dB rad2/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10−9 at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10−11 τ−1/2 up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance
Trapping of neutral mercury atoms and prospects for optical lattice clocks.
Hachisu, H; Miyagishi, K; Porsev, S G; Derevianko, A; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G; Takamoto, M; Katori, H
2008-02-01
We report vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the (1)S(0)-(3)P(1) intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest nonradioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for "new physics" beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than 10;{-18}. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant. PMID:18352368
Trapping of Neutral Mercury Atoms and Prospects for Optical Lattice Clocks
Hachisu, H; Porsev, S G; Derevianko, A; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G; Takamoto, M; Katori, H
2007-01-01
We report a vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the ${}^1S_0-{}^3P_1$ intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest non-radioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for ``new physics'' beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than $10^{-18}$. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant.
Precision Excited State Lifetime Measurements for Atomic Parity Violation and Atomic Clocks
Sell, Jerry; Patterson, Brian; Gearba, Alina; Snell, Jeremy; Knize, Randy
2016-05-01
Measurements of excited state atomic lifetimes provide a valuable test of atomic theory, allowing comparisons between experimental and theoretical transition dipole matrix elements. Such tests are important in Rb and Cs, where atomic parity violating experiments have been performed or proposed, and where atomic structure calculations are required to properly interpret the parity violating effect. In optical lattice clocks, precision lifetime measurements can aid in reducing the uncertainty of frequency shifts due to the surrounding blackbody radiation field. We will present our technique for precisely measuring excited state lifetimes which employs mode-locked ultrafast lasers interacting with two counter-propagating atomic beams. This method allows the timing in the experiment to be based on the inherent timing stability of mode-locked lasers, while counter-propagating atomic beams provides cancellation of systematic errors due to atomic motion to first order. Our current progress measuring Rb excited state lifetimes will be presented along with future planned measurements in Yb.
A Movable-Cavity Cold Atom Space Clock
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BIAN Feng-Gang; WEI Rong; JIANG Hai-Feng; WANG Yu-Zhu
2005-01-01
@@ We present an experimental scheme of a cold atom space clock with a movable cavity. By using a single microwave cavity, we find that the clock has a significant advantage, i.e. the longitudinal cavity phase shift is eliminated. A theoretical analysis has been carried out in terms of the relation between the atomic transition probability and the velocity of the moving cavity by taking into account the velocity distribution of cold atoms. The requirements for the microwave power and its stability for atomic πr /2 excitation at different moving velocities of the cavity lead to the determination of the proper working parameters of the rubidium clock in frequency accuracy 10-17. Finally,the mechanical stability for the scheme is analysed and the ways of solving the possible mechanical instability of the device are proposed.
Searching for dark matter with optical atomic clocks
Wcislo, Piotr; Bober, Marcin; Cygan, Agata; Lisak, Daniel; Ciurylo, Roman; Zawada, Michal
2016-01-01
One of the most fundamental questions of modern physics is the existence of yet unknown forms of matter and interactions. The total mass density of the Universe appears to be dominated by some hypothetical dark matter (DM). However, beyond its gravitational interaction at galactic scale, little is known about the DM nature and properties. One possibility is that it has a form of stable topological defects built from light scalar fields which, for nonzero DM-SM coupling, would result in transient variations of fundamental constants. Optical atomic clocks, highly sensitive to variations of the fine-structure constant, seem to be natural candidates for such searches. Here we demonstrate the first experimental constraint on the strength of transient DM-SM coupling determined with optical atomic clocks. Instead of measuring the phase difference between two distant clocks we determine a common component of their readouts. We show that our constraint, even for one-day measurement, greatly exceeds previous laboratory...
Conceptual Design of a Micron-Scale Atomic Clock
Hannah, Eric C
2007-01-01
A theoretical proposal for reducing an entire atomic clock to micron dimensions. A phosphorus or nitrogen atom is introduced into a fullerene cage. This endohedral fullerene is then coated with an insulating shell and a number of them are deposited as a thin layer on a silicon chip. Next to this layer a GMR sensor is fabricated which is close to the endohedral fullerenes. This GMR sensor measures oscillating magnetic fields on the order of micro-gauss from the nuclear spins varying at the frequency of the hyperfine transition (413 MHz frequency). Given the micron scale and simplicity of this system only a few transistors are needed to control the waveforms and to perform digital clocking. This new form of atomic clock exhibits extremely low power (nano watts), high vibration and shock resistance, stability on the order of 10^{-9}, and is compatible with MEMS fabrication and chip integration. As GMR sensors continue to improve in sensitivity the stability of this form of atomic clock will increase proportionat...
2e-18 total uncertainty in an atomic clock
Nicholson, T L; Hutson, R B; Marti, G E; Bloom, B J; McNally, R L; Zhang, W; Barrett, M D; Safronova, M S; Strouse, G F; Tew, W L; Ye, J
2014-01-01
The pursuit of better atomic clocks has advanced many research areas, providing better quantum state control, new insights in quantum science, tighter limits on fundamental constant variation, and improved tests of relativity. The record for the best stability and accuracy is currently held by optical lattice clocks. This work takes an important step towards realizing the full potential of a many-particle clock with a state-of-the-art stable laser. Here, we achieve fractional stability of 2.2e-16 at 1 s by using seconds-long coherent interrogations of our clock transition in a low-density system not limited by atomic interactions. With this better stability, we perform a new accuracy evaluation of our clock, improving many systematic uncertainties that limited our previous measurements, such as the lattice ac Stark and blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts. For the lattice ac Stark systematic, we identify the lattice laser frequency where the scalar and tensor components of the shift cancel, allowing for state ind...
Modeling and Estimation of Stationary and Non-stationary Noises of Rubidium Atomic Clock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepak Mishra,
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Noise estimation of atomic clock is one of the important research areas in the field of atomic clock development and application. Most of the atomic clocks are having random-stochastic noises and periodic noises due to temperature variation. Random-stochastic noises have a well identified signature in time domain but periodic noises are difficult to analyze in time domain. However, in this paper, an effort is made to identify and analyze the deterministic trends of both random-stochastic noises and periodic noises due to variation in temperature using an alternate approach of least-squares normalized-error (LSNE regression algorithm. A MATLAB based application with graphical user interface (GUI is developed to estimate and analyze random-stochastic noises and periodic noises and re-estimate the stability of rubidium atomic clock after removing these noises from the raw phase data. The estimation of stationary noises are done using Allan variance from time domain data and noise profile is calculated using curve fit method. The estimation of periodic noises due to temperature variation is carried in frequency domain through spurious analysis of the frequency data of atomic clock.
The Deep Space Atomic Clock: Ushering in a New Paradigm for Radio Navigation and Science
Ely, Todd; Seubert, Jill; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert
2013-01-01
The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the on-orbit performance of a high-accuracy, high-stability miniaturized mercury ion atomic clock during a year-long experiment in Low Earth Orbit. DSAC's timing error requirement provides the frequency stability necessary to perform deep space navigation based solely on one-way radiometric tracking data. Compared to a two-way tracking paradigm, DSAC-enabled one-way tracking will benefit navigation and radio science by increasing the quantity and quality of tracking data. Additionally, DSAC also enables fully-autonomous onboard navigation useful for time-sensitive situations. The technology behind the mercury ion atomic clock and a DSAC mission overview are presented. Example deep space applications of DSAC, including navigation of a Mars orbiter and Europa flyby gravity science, highlight the benefits of DSAC-enabled one-way Doppler tracking.
Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report an experimental study of an all-optical three-photon-absorption resonance (known as an 'N resonance') and discuss its potential application as an alternative to atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping. We present measurements of the N-resonance contrast, width and light shift for the D1 line of 87Rb with varying buffer gases, and find good agreement with an analytical model of this resonance. The results suggest that N resonances are promising for atomic clock applications
Enhancing coherence in molecular spin qubits via atomic clock transitions
Shiddiq, Muhandis; Komijani, Dorsa; Duan, Yan; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Coronado, Eugenio; Hill, Stephen
2016-03-01
Quantum computing is an emerging area within the information sciences revolving around the concept of quantum bits (qubits). A major obstacle is the extreme fragility of these qubits due to interactions with their environment that destroy their quantumness. This phenomenon, known as decoherence, is of fundamental interest. There are many competing candidates for qubits, including superconducting circuits, quantum optical cavities, ultracold atoms and spin qubits, and each has its strengths and weaknesses. When dealing with spin qubits, the strongest source of decoherence is the magnetic dipolar interaction. To minimize it, spins are typically diluted in a diamagnetic matrix. For example, this dilution can be taken to the extreme of a single phosphorus atom in silicon, whereas in molecular matrices a typical ratio is one magnetic molecule per 10,000 matrix molecules. However, there is a fundamental contradiction between reducing decoherence by dilution and allowing quantum operations via the interaction between spin qubits. To resolve this contradiction, the design and engineering of quantum hardware can benefit from a ‘bottom-up’ approach whereby the electronic structure of magnetic molecules is chemically tailored to give the desired physical behaviour. Here we present a way of enhancing coherence in solid-state molecular spin qubits without resorting to extreme dilution. It is based on the design of molecular structures with crystal field ground states possessing large tunnelling gaps that give rise to optimal operating points, or atomic clock transitions, at which the quantum spin dynamics become protected against dipolar decoherence. This approach is illustrated with a holmium molecular nanomagnet in which long coherence times (up to 8.4 microseconds at 5 kelvin) are obtained at unusually high concentrations. This finding opens new avenues for quantum computing based on molecular spin qubits.
Enhancing coherence in molecular spin qubits via atomic clock transitions.
Shiddiq, Muhandis; Komijani, Dorsa; Duan, Yan; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Coronado, Eugenio; Hill, Stephen
2016-03-17
Quantum computing is an emerging area within the information sciences revolving around the concept of quantum bits (qubits). A major obstacle is the extreme fragility of these qubits due to interactions with their environment that destroy their quantumness. This phenomenon, known as decoherence, is of fundamental interest. There are many competing candidates for qubits, including superconducting circuits, quantum optical cavities, ultracold atoms and spin qubits, and each has its strengths and weaknesses. When dealing with spin qubits, the strongest source of decoherence is the magnetic dipolar interaction. To minimize it, spins are typically diluted in a diamagnetic matrix. For example, this dilution can be taken to the extreme of a single phosphorus atom in silicon, whereas in molecular matrices a typical ratio is one magnetic molecule per 10,000 matrix molecules. However, there is a fundamental contradiction between reducing decoherence by dilution and allowing quantum operations via the interaction between spin qubits. To resolve this contradiction, the design and engineering of quantum hardware can benefit from a 'bottom-up' approach whereby the electronic structure of magnetic molecules is chemically tailored to give the desired physical behaviour. Here we present a way of enhancing coherence in solid-state molecular spin qubits without resorting to extreme dilution. It is based on the design of molecular structures with crystal field ground states possessing large tunnelling gaps that give rise to optimal operating points, or atomic clock transitions, at which the quantum spin dynamics become protected against dipolar decoherence. This approach is illustrated with a holmium molecular nanomagnet in which long coherence times (up to 8.4 microseconds at 5 kelvin) are obtained at unusually high concentrations. This finding opens new avenues for quantum computing based on molecular spin qubits. PMID:26983539
Atomic clocks comparison by means of television chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The various methods and techniques of time and frequency dissemination are presented. One of them, the Line 10 Method, was used to compare two atomic clocks, localized in different places is a distance of more or less four-hundred kilometers. The results are compared with parallel results obtained with another method, physical transport, giving the necessary experimental basis of the applicability of the Line 10 Method in Brazil
Suppressing Loss of Ions in an Atomic Clock
Prestage, John; Chung, Sang
2010-01-01
An improvement has been made in the design of a compact, highly stable mercury- ion clock to suppress a loss of ions as they are transferred between the quadrupole and higher multipole ion traps. Such clocks are being developed for use aboard spacecraft for navigation and planetary radio science. The modification is also applicable to ion clocks operating on Earth: indeed, the success of the modification has been demonstrated in construction and operation of a terrestrial breadboard prototype of the compact, highly stable mercury-ion clock. Selected aspects of the breadboard prototype at different stages of development were described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The following background information is reviewed from previous articles: In this clock as in some prior ion clocks, mercury ions are shuttled between two ion traps, one a 16- pole linear radio-frequency trap, while the other is a quadrupole radio-frequency trap. In the quadrupole trap, ions are tightly confined and optical state selection from a 202Hg lamp is carried out. In the 16-pole trap, the ions are more loosely confined and atomic transitions are interrogated by use of a microwave beam at approximately 40.507 GHz. The trapping of ions effectively eliminates the frequency pulling that would otherwise be caused by collisions between clock atoms and the wall of a gas cell. The shuttling of the ions between the two traps enables separation of the state-selection process from the clock microwave-resonance process, so that each of these processes can be optimized independently of the other. This is similar to the operation of an atomic beam clock, except that with ions the beam can be halted and reversed as ions are shuttled back and forth between the two traps. When the two traps are driven at the same radio frequency, the strength of confinement can be reduced near the junction between the two traps, depending upon the relative phase of the RF voltage used to operate each of the two traps, and
Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms; Horloge a reseau optique a atomes de strontium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baillard, X
2008-01-15
This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr{sup 87} using the {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr{sup 87} atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10{sup -15} and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10{sup -15} level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr{sup 88} by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10{sup -14}. (author)
Stability of a trapped atom clock on a chip
Szmuk, Ramon; Maineult, Wilfried; Reichel, Jakob; Rosenbusch, Peter
2015-01-01
We present a compact atomic clock interrogating ultracold 87Rb magnetically trapped on an atom chip. Very long coherence times sustained by spin self-rephasing allow us to interrogate the atomic transition with 85% contrast at 5 s Ramsey time. The clock exhibits a fractional frequency stability of $5.8\\times 10^{-13}$ at 1 s and is likely to integrate into the $1\\times10^{-15}$ range in less than a day. A detailed analysis of 7 noise sources explains the measured frequency stability. Fluctuations in the atom temperature (0.4 nK shot-to-shot) and in the offset magnetic field ($5\\times10^{-6}$ relative fluctuations shot-to-shot) are the main noise sources together with the local oscillator, which is degraded by the 30% duty cycle. The analysis suggests technical improvements to be implemented in a future second generation set-up. The results demonstrate the remarkable degree of technical control that can be reached in an atom chip experiment.
Integrated physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) has been successfully realized by integrating vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), neutral density (ND) filter, λ/4 wave plate, 87Rb vapor cell, photodiode (PD), and magnetic coil into a cuboid metal package with a volume of about 2.8 cm3. In this physics package, the critical component, 87Rb vapor cell, is batch-fabricated based on MEMS technology and in-situ chemical reaction method. Pt heater and thermistors are integrated in the physics package. A PTFE pillar is used to support the optical elements in the physics package, in order to reduce the power dissipation. The optical absorption spectrum of 87Rb D1 line and the microwave frequency correction signal are successfully observed while connecting the package with the servo circuit system. Using the above mentioned packaging solution, a CSAC with short-term frequency stability of about 7 × 10−10 τ−1/2 has been successfully achieved, which demonstrates that this physics package would become one promising solution for the CSAC. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Using Clocks and Atomic Interferometry for Gravity Field Observations
Müller, Jürgen
2016-07-01
New technology developed in the frame of fundamental physics may lead to enhanced capabilities for geodetic applications such as refined observations of the Earth's gravity field. Here, we will present new sensor measurement concepts that apply atomic interferometry for gravimetry and clock measurements for observing potential values. In the first case, gravity anomalies can be determined by observing free-falling atoms (quantum gravimetry). In the second case, highly precise optical clocks can be used to measure differences of the gravity potential over long distances (relativistic geodesy). Principally, also inter-satellite ranging between test masses in space with nanometer accuracy belongs to these novel developments. We will show, how the new measurement concepts are connected to classical geodetic concepts, e.g. geopotential numbers and clock readings. We will illustrate the application of these new methods and their benefit for geodesy, where local and global mass variations can be observed with unforeseen accuracy and resolution, mass variations that reflect processes in the Earth system. We will present a few examples where geodesy will potentially benefit from these developments. Thus, the novel technologies might be applied for defining and realizing height systems in a new way, but also for fast local gravimetric surveys and exploration.
Resolved atomic interaction sidebands in an optical clock transition
Bishof, Michael; Swallows, Matthew D; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria
2011-01-01
We report the observation of resolved atomic interaction sidebands (ISB) in the ${}^{87}$Sr optical clock transition when atoms at microkelvin temperatures are confined in a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice. The ISB are a manifestation of the strong interactions that occur between atoms confined in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry and disappear when the confinement is relaxed along one dimension. The emergence of ISB is linked to the recently observed suppression of collisional frequency shifts in [1]. At the current temperatures, the ISB can be resolved but are broad. At lower temperatures, ISB are predicted to be substantially narrower and usable as powerful spectroscopic tools in strongly interacting alkaline-earth gases.
Individual Optical Addressing of Atomic Clock Qubits With Stark Shifts
Lee, Aaron; Smith, Jacob; Richerme, Phillip; Neyenhuis, Brian; Hess, Paul; Zhang, Jiehang; Monroe, Chris
2016-05-01
In recent years, trapped ions have proven to be a versatile quantum information platform, enabled by their long lifetimes and high gate fidelities. Some of the most promising trapped ion systems take advantage of groundstate hyperfine ``clock'' qubits, which are insensitive to background fields to first order. This same insensitivity also makes σz manipulations of the qubit impractical, eliminating whole classes of operations. We prove there exists a fourth-order light shift, or four-photon Stark shift, of the clock states derived from two coherent laser beams whose beatnote is close to the qubit splitting. Using a mode-locked source generates a large light shift with only modest laser powers, making it a practical σz operation on a clock qubit. We experimentally verify and measure the four-photon Stark shift and demonstrate its use to coherently individually address qubits in a chain of 10 Yb 171 ions with low crosstalk. We use this individual addressing to prepare arbitrary product states with high fidelity and also to apply independent σz terms transverse to an Ising Hamiltonian. This work is supported by the ARO Atomic Physics Program, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Measurement and Verification, and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.
Automated Synthesis of Skew-Based Clock Distribution Networks
José Luis Neves; Eby G. Friedman
1998-01-01
In this paper a top-down methodology is presented for synthesizing clock distribution networks based on application-dependent localized clock skew. The methodology is divided into four phases: 1) determination of an optimal clock skew schedule for improving circuit performance and reliability; 2) design of the topology of the clock tree based on the circuit hierarchy and minimum clock path delays; 3) design of circuit structures to implement the delay values associated with the branches of th...
Atomic clocks: A brief history and current status of research in India
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Poonam Arora; Amrita Awasthi; Vattikonda Bharath; Aishik Acharya; Suchi Yadav; Aashish Agarwal; Amitava Sen Gupta
2014-02-01
Frequency corresponding to the energy difference between designated levels of an atom provides precise reference for making a universally accurate clock. Since the middle of the 20th century till now, there have been tremendous efforts in the field of atomic clocks making time the most accurately measured physical quantity. National Physical Laboratory India (NPLI) is the nation’s timekeeper and is developing an atomic fountain clock which will be a primary frequency standard. The fountain is currently operational and is at the stage of complete frequency evaluation. In this paper, a brief review on atomic time along with some of the recent results from the fountain clock will be discussed.
Accelerating the averaging rate of atomic ensemble clock stability using atomic phase lock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We experimentally demonstrated that the stability of an atomic clock improves at its fastest rate τ −1 (where τ is the averaging time) when the phase of a local oscillator is genuinely compared to the continuous phase of many atoms in a single trap (an atomic phase lock). For this demonstration, we developed a simple method that repeatedly monitors the atomic phase while retaining its coherence by observing only a portion of the whole ion cloud. Using this new method, we measured the continuous phase over three measurement cycles, and thereby improved the stability scaling from τ−1/2 to τ −1 during the three measurement cycles. This simple method provides a path by which atomic clocks can approach a quantum projection noise limit, even when the measurement noise is dominated by the technical noise. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the construction and preliminary characterization of an atomic clock on an atom chip. A sample of magnetically trapped 87Rb atoms is cooled below 1 μK, close to Bose- Einstein condensation temperature. The trapped states |F = 1; mF = -1> and |F = 2;mF = 1> define our two-photon clock transition. Atoms are trapped around a field B0 = 3.23 G, where the clock frequency is first-order insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. We have designed an atom chip that includes a microwave coplanar waveguide which drives the 6.835 GHz transition. The whole clock cycle is performed in the vicinity of the chip surface, making the physics package compact (5 cm)3. We first describe the experimental setup of the clock, and the optical bench that has been developed and characterized during this thesis. We then give the results obtained for atom cooling, which led to obtaining a 3 104 atoms Bose-Einstein condensate. We finally present the results obtained by Ramsey spectroscopy of the clock transition. We measure coherence times exceeding 10 seconds with our setup, dominated by atom losses. A preliminary measurement shows that the clock relative frequency stability is of 6 10-12 at 1 s, limited by technical noise. Our goal is to reach a stability in the low 10-13 at 1 s, i.e. better than commercial clocks and competitive with today's best compact clocks. (author)
Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock
Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu
2016-06-01
The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a new fabrication method to manufacture alkali reference cells having dimensions larger than standard micromachined cells and smaller than glass-blown ones, for use in compact atomic devices such as vapour-cell atomic clocks or magnetometers. The technology is based on anodic bonding of silicon and relatively thick glass wafers and fills a gap in cell sizes and technologies available up to now: on one side, microfabrication technologies with typical dimensions ≤ 2 mm and on the other side, classical glass-blowing technologies for typical dimensions of about 6–10 mm or larger. The fabrication process is described for cells containing atomic Rb and spectroscopic measurements (optical absorption spectrum and double resonance) are reported. The analysis of the bonding strength of our cells was performed and shows that the first anodic bonding steps exhibit higher bonding strengths than the later ones. The spectroscopic results show a good quality of the cells. From the double-resonance signals, we predict a clock stability of ≈3 × 10−11 at 1 s of integration time, which compares well to the performance of compact commercial Rb atomic clocks. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Targat, R
2007-07-15
Atomic fountains, based on a microwave transition of Cesium or Rubidium, constitute the state of the art atomic clocks, with a relative accuracy close to 10{sup -16}. It nevertheless appears today that it will be difficult to go significantly beyond this level with this kind of device. The use of an optical transition, the other parameters being unchanged, gives hope for a 4 or 5 orders of magnitude improvement of the stability and of the relative uncertainty on most systematic effects. As for motional effects on the atoms, they can be controlled on a very different manner if they are trapped in an optical lattice instead of experiencing a free ballistic flight stage, characteristic of fountains. The key point of this approach lies in the fact that the trap can be operated in such a way that a well chosen, weakly allowed, J=0 {yields} J=0 clock transition can be free from light shift effects. In this respect, the strontium atom is one of the most promising candidate, the 1S{sub 0} {yields} 3P{sub 0} transition has a natural width of 1 mHz, and several other easily accessible transitions can be used to efficiently laser cool atoms down to 10 {mu}K. This thesis demonstrates the experimental feasibility of an optical lattice clock based on the strontium atom, and reports on a preliminary evaluation of the relative accuracy with the fermionic isotope {sup 87}Sr, at a level of a few 10{sup -15}. (author)
Aging studies on micro-fabricated alkali buffer-gas cells for miniature atomic clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report an aging study on micro-fabricated alkali vapor cells using neon as a buffer gas. An experimental atomic clock setup is used to measure the cell's intrinsic frequency, by recording the clock frequency shift at different light intensities and extrapolating to zero intensity. We find a drift of the cell's intrinsic frequency of (−5.2 ± 0.6) × 10−11/day and quantify deterministic variations in sources of clock frequency shifts due to the major physical effects to identify the most probable cause of the drift. The measured drift is one order of magnitude stronger than the total frequency variations expected from clock parameter variations and corresponds to a slow reduction of buffer gas pressure inside the cell, which is compatible with the hypothesis of loss of Ne gas from the cell due to its permeation through the cell windows. A negative drift on the intrinsic cell frequency is reproducible for another cell of the same type. Based on the Ne permeation model and the measured cell frequency drift, we determine the permeation constant of Ne through borosilicate glass as (5.7 ± 0.7) × 10−22 m2 s−1 Pa−1 at 81 °C. We propose this method based on frequency metrology in an alkali vapor cell atomic clock setup based on coherent population trapping for measuring permeation constants of inert gases
Aging studies on micro-fabricated alkali buffer-gas cells for miniature atomic clocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdullah, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Gruet, F.; Mileti, G., E-mail: gaetano.mileti@unine.ch [Laboratoire Temps-Fréquence, Institut de Physique, Université de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel CH-2000 (Switzerland)
2015-04-20
We report an aging study on micro-fabricated alkali vapor cells using neon as a buffer gas. An experimental atomic clock setup is used to measure the cell's intrinsic frequency, by recording the clock frequency shift at different light intensities and extrapolating to zero intensity. We find a drift of the cell's intrinsic frequency of (−5.2 ± 0.6) × 10{sup −11}/day and quantify deterministic variations in sources of clock frequency shifts due to the major physical effects to identify the most probable cause of the drift. The measured drift is one order of magnitude stronger than the total frequency variations expected from clock parameter variations and corresponds to a slow reduction of buffer gas pressure inside the cell, which is compatible with the hypothesis of loss of Ne gas from the cell due to its permeation through the cell windows. A negative drift on the intrinsic cell frequency is reproducible for another cell of the same type. Based on the Ne permeation model and the measured cell frequency drift, we determine the permeation constant of Ne through borosilicate glass as (5.7 ± 0.7) × 10{sup −22} m{sup 2} s{sup −1 }Pa{sup −1} at 81 °C. We propose this method based on frequency metrology in an alkali vapor cell atomic clock setup based on coherent population trapping for measuring permeation constants of inert gases.
Trapping of Neutral Mercury Atoms and Prospects for Optical Lattice Clocks
Hachisu, H.; Miyagishi, K.; Porsev, S. G.; Derevianko, A.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.; Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.
2007-01-01
We report a vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the ${}^1S_0-{}^3P_1$ intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest non-radioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for ``new physics'' beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than $10^{-18}$. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based ...
Apparatus for fermion atomic clock, atom interferometry and quantum pumping experiments
Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A.; Field, J.; Aubin, S.
2010-03-01
We present the current state of an apparatus designed to create and manipulate ultracold bosonic and fermionic Rb and K isotopes for a fermion atomic clock, atom interferometry, microwave trapping, and quantum pumping experiments. Quantum pumping is a phenomenon which can precisely control bias-less flow of single electrons in a circuit. Using ultracold atoms on atom chips, we can test theoretical predictions which have not yet been verified due to experimental difficulties in solid state systems. The apparatus design consists of a magneto-optical trap, magnetic transport system, atom chip, and optical dipole trap. We have demonstrated basic laser cooling and trapping and are working towards transport of the collected atoms to the atom chip for cooling to quantum degeneracy. Once quantum degeneracy is achieved at the chip, micro-magnetic reservoirs of ultracold atoms connected by a 1D ``wire'' create a circuit for various quantum pumping schemes. These schemes are also more broadly applicable to atomtronics experiments.
Decreasing the uncertainty of atomic clocks via real-time noise distinguish
Dong, Richang; Wei, Rong; Wang, Wenli; Zou, Fan; Du, Yuanbo; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Yuzhu
2016-01-01
The environmental perturbation on atoms is the key factor restricting the performance of atomic frequency standards, especially in long term scale. In this letter, we demonstrate a real-time noise distinguish operation of atomic clocks. The operation improves the statistical uncertainty by about an order of magnitude of our fountain clock which is deteriorated previously by extra noises. The frequency offset bring by the extra noise is also corrected. The experiment proves the real-time noise distinguish operation can reduce the contribution of ambient noises and improve the uncertainty limit of atomic clocks.
Clock-transition spectrum of 171Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An optical atomic clock with 171Yb atoms is devised and tested. By using a two-stage Doppler cooling technique, the 171Yb atoms are cooled down to a temperature of 6±3 μK, which is close to the Doppler limit. Then, the cold 171Yb atoms are loaded into a one-dimensional optical lattice with a wavelength of 759 nm in the Lamb—Dicke regime. Furthermore, these cold 171Yb atoms are excited from the ground-state 1S0 to the excited-state 3P0 by a clock laser with a wavelength of 578 nm. Finally, the 1S0–3P0 clock-transition spectrum of these 171Yb atoms is obtained by measuring the dependence of the population of the ground-state 1S0 upon the clock-laser detuning. (general)
Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.
Susceptibility of Redundant Versus Singular Clock Domains Implemented in SRAM-Based FPGA TMR Designs
Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan
2016-01-01
We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their clock-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain (DTMR) provides an improved TMR methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs over redundant clocks.
Composite pulses in Hyper-Ramsey spectroscopy for the next generation of atomic clocks
Zanon-Willette, T; Yudin, V I; Taichenachev, A V
2016-01-01
The next generation of atomic frequency standards based on an ensemble of neutral atoms or a single-ion will provide very stringent tests in metrology, applied and fundamental physics requiring a new step in very precise control of external systematic corrections. In the proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, we present a generalization of the recent Hyper-Ramsey spectroscopy with separated oscillating fields using composites pulses in order to suppress field frequency shifts induced by the interrogation laser itself. Sequences of laser pulses including specific selection of phases, frequency detunings and durations are elaborated to generate spectroscopic signals with a strong reduction of the light-shift perturbation by off resonant states. New optical clocks based on weakly allowed or completely forbidden transitions in atoms, ions, molecules and nuclei will benefit from these generalized Ramsey schemes to reach relative accuracies well below the 10$^{-18}$ level.
Improvement in medium-long term frequency stability of integrating sphere cold atom clock
Liu, Peng; Wan, Jinyin; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Yaning; Xiao, Ling; Cheng, Huadong; Liu, Liang
2016-01-01
The medium-long term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock was improved.During the clock operation, Rb atoms were cooled and manipulated using cooling light diffusely reflected by the inner surface of a microwave cavity in the clock. This light heated the cavity and caused a frequency drift from the resonant frequency of the cavity. Power fluctuations of the cooling light led to atomic density variations in the cavity's central area, which increased the clock frequency instability through a cavity pulling effect. We overcame these limitations with appropriate solutions. A frequency stability of 3.5E-15 was achieved when the integrating time ? increased to 2E4 s.
Study on the clock-transition spectrum of cold 171Yb ytterbium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a detailed study of the clock-transition spectrum of cold 171Yb ytterbium atoms in a 1D optical lattice. A typical clock-transition spectrum with a carrier-sideband structure is observed. After minimizing the power broadening effect and compensating the stray magnetic field, the carrier linewidth is narrowed to about 16 Hz for a 60 ms interrogation time. By increasing the interrogation time to 150 ms, the linewidth is further reduced to 6.8 Hz. By applying the bias magnetic field parallel to the clock-laser polarization, a two-peak spectrum corresponding to two π transitions is obtained. Finally, spin polarization of atoms to a single desired Zeeman sublevel of the ground state is also demonstrated. The presented results will be very useful for developing better optical lattice clocks. (letter)
An atomic clock with $1\\times 10^{-18}$ room-temperature blackbody Stark uncertainty
Beloy, K; Phillips, N B; Sherman, J A; Schioppo, M; Lehman, J; Feldman, A; Hanssen, L M; Oates, C W; Ludlow, A D
2014-01-01
The Stark shift due to blackbody radiation (BBR) is the key factor limiting the performance of many atomic frequency standards, with the BBR environment inside the clock apparatus being difficult to characterize at a high level of precision. Here we demonstrate an in-vacuum radiation shield that furnishes a uniform, well-characterized BBR environment for the atoms in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Operated at room temperature, this shield enables specification of the BBR environment to a corresponding fractional clock uncertainty contribution of $5.5 \\times 10^{-19}$. Combined with uncertainty in the atomic response, the total uncertainty of the BBR Stark shift is now $1\\times10^{-18}$. Further operation of the shield at elevated temperatures enables a direct measure of the BBR shift temperature dependence and demonstrates consistency between our evaluated BBR environment and the expected atomic response.
Loading a fountain clock with an enhanced low-velocity intense source of atoms
Dobrev, G.; Gerginov, V.; Weyers, S.
2016-04-01
We present experimental work for improved atom loading in the optical molasses of a cesium fountain clock, employing a low-velocity intense source of atoms [Lu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 77, 3331 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3331], which we modify by adding a dark-state pump laser. With this modification the atom source has a mean flux of 4 ×108 atoms/s at a mean atom velocity of 8.6 m/s. Compared to fountain operation using background gas loading, we achieve a significant increase of the loaded and detected atom number by a factor of 40. Operating the fountain clock with a total number of detected atoms Nat=2.9 ×106 in the quantum projection noise-limited regime, a frequency instability σy(1 s ) =2.7 ×10-14 is demonstrated.
Loading of a fountain clock with an enhanced Low-Velocity Intense Source of atoms
Dobrev, Georgi; Weyers, Stefan
2016-01-01
We present experimental work for improved atom loading in the optical molasses of a caesium fountain clock, employing a low-velocity intense source of atoms (LVIS) [Lu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996)], which we modified by adding a "dark" state pump laser. With this modification the atom source has a mean flux of $4 \\times 10^{8}$ atoms/s at a mean atom velocity of $8.6$ m/s. Compared to fountain operation using background gas loading, we achieved a significant increase of the loaded and detected atom number by a factor of 40. Operating the fountain clock with a total number of detected atoms $N_{\\mathrm{at}}=2.9 \\times 10^6$ in the quantum projection noise-limited regime, a frequency instability $\\sigma_y\\left(1\\text{s}\\right)=2.7 \\times 10^{-14}$ was demonstrated.
A precise clock distribution network for MRPC-based experiments
Wang, S.; Cao, P.; Shang, L.; An, Q.
2016-06-01
In high energy physics experiments, the MRPC (Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber) detectors are widely used recently which can provide higher-resolution measurement for particle identification. However, the application of MRPC detectors leads to a series of challenges in electronics design with large number of front-end electronic channels, especially for distributing clock precisely. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a universal scheme of clock transmission network for MRPC-based experiments with advantages of both precise clock distribution and global command synchronization. For precise clock distributing, the clock network is designed into a tree architecture with two stages: the first one has a point-to-multipoint long range bidirectional distribution with optical channels and the second one has a fan-out structure with copper link inside readout crates. To guarantee the precision of clock frequency or phase, the r-PTP (reduced Precision Time Protocol) and the DDMTD (digital Dual Mixer Time Difference) methods are used for frequency synthesis, phase measurement and adjustment, which is implemented by FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in real-time. In addition, to synchronize global command execution, based upon this clock distribution network, synchronous signals are coded with clock for transmission. With technique of encoding/decoding and clock data recovery, signals such as global triggers or system control commands, can be distributed to all front-end channels synchronously, which greatly simplifies the system design. The experimental results show that both the clock jitter (RMS) and the clock skew can be less than 100 ps.
Bondarescu, Mihai; Jetzer, Philippe; Lundgren, Andrew
2015-01-01
Modern optical atomic clocks along with the optical fiber technology currently being developed can measure the geoid, which is the equipotential surface that extends the mean sea level on continents, to a precision that competes with existing technology. In this proceeding, we point out that atomic clocks have the potential to not only map the sea level surface on continents, but also look at variations of the geoid as a function of time with unprecedented timing resolution. The local time series of the geoid has a plethora of applications. These include potential improvement in the predictions of earthquakes and volcanoes, and closer monitoring of ground uplift in areas where hydraulic fracturing is performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192 GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192 GHz output signal are measured to be −42, −100, −117 dB rad2/Hz and −129 dB rad2/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10−14 at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN JingBiao
2009-01-01
This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.
Two-step pulse observation for Raman-Ramsey coherent population trapping atomic clocks
Yano, Yuichiro; Kajita, Masatoshi
2014-01-01
We propose a two-step pulse observation method to enhance frequency stability for coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clocks. The proposed method is a Raman-Ramsey scheme with low light intensity at resonance observation, and provides a Ramsey-CPT resonance with both reduced frequency sensitivity to the light intensity and a high signal-to-noise ratio by reducing the repumping into a steady dark state. The resonance characteristics were calculated based on density matrix analysis of a $\\Lambda$-type three level system that was modeled on the $^{133}$Cs-D$_1$ line, and the characteristics were also measured using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a Cs vapor cell.
Dzuba, V A
2016-01-01
Hyperfine-induced electric dipole contributions may significantly increase probabilities of otherwise very weak electric octupole and magnetic quadrupole atomic clock transitions (e.g. transitions between $s$ and $f$ electron orbitals). These transitions can be used for exceptionally accurate atomic clocks, quantum information processing and search for dark matter. They are very sensitive to new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as temporal variation of the fine structure constant, the Lorentz invariance and Einstein equivalence principle violation. We formulate conditions under which the hyperfine-induced electric dipole contribution dominates. Due to the hyperfine quenching the electric octupole clock transition in $^{173}$Yb$^+$ is two orders of magnitude stronger than that in currently used $^{171}$Yb$^+$. Some enhancement is found in $^{143}$Nd$^{13+}$, $^{149}$Pm$^{14+}$, $^{147}$Sm$^{14+}$, and $^{147}$Sm$^{15+}$ ions.
High speed fiber-based clock enhancement of NRZ data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tong Wu; Kun Qiu
2005-01-01
A scheme for all-fiber clock enhancement of non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect in nonlinear fibers is proposed and demonstrated in simulation. The simulation results indicate that the clock-to-data ratio of NRZ signals at 64 Gb/s can be increased to 22.94 dB by using this scheme, and the pattern effect in clock enhanced signals is very weak. The ability of high speed operation up to 140 Gb/s of this scheme is also proved in our simulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A scheme for a Ramsey-coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock that eliminates the acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is proposed and experimentally studied. Driven by a periodically microwave modulated current, the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emits a continuous beam that switches between monochromatic and multichromatic modes. Ramsey-CPT interference has been studied with this mode-switching beam. In eliminating the AOM, which is used to generate pulsed laser in conventional Ramsey-CPT atomic clock, the physics package of the proposed scheme is virtually the same as that of a conventional compact CPT atomic clock, although the resource budget for the electronics will slightly increase as a microwave switch should be added. By evaluating and comparing experimentally recorded signals from the two Ramsey-CPT schemes, the short-term frequency stability of the proposed scheme was found to be 46% better than the scheme with AOM. The experimental results suggest that the implementation of a compact Ramsey-CPT atomic clock promises better frequency stability
Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy
Stadnik, Y. V.; Flambaum, V. V.
2016-01-01
Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field $\\phi = \\phi_0 \\cos(m_\\phi t)$, can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the Standard Model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive new limits on ...
Influence of relativistic effects on satellite-based clock synchronization
Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng
2016-03-01
Clock synchronization between the ground and satellites is a fundamental issue in future quantum telecommunication, navigation, and global positioning systems. Here, we propose a scheme of near-Earth orbit satellite-based quantum clock synchronization with atmospheric dispersion cancellation by taking into account the spacetime background of the Earth. Two frequency entangled pulses are employed to synchronize two clocks, one at a ground station and the other at a satellite. The time discrepancy of the two clocks is introduced into the pulses by moving mirrors and is extracted by measuring the coincidence rate of the pulses in the interferometer. We find that the pulses are distorted due to effects of gravity when they propagate between the Earth and the satellite, resulting in remarkably affected coincidence rates. We also find that the precision of the clock synchronization is sensitive to the source parameters and the altitude of the satellite. The scheme provides a solution for satellite-based quantum clock synchronization with high precision, which can be realized, in principle, with current technology.
Topcu, T
2016-01-01
We predict the possibility of "triply-magic" optical lattice trapping of neutral divalent atoms. In such a lattice, the ${^1}\\!S_{0}$ and ${^3}\\!P_{0}$ clock states and an additional Rydberg state experience identical optical potentials, fully mitigating detrimental effects of the motional decoherence. In particular, we show that this triply magic trapping condition can be satisfied for Yb atom at optical wavelengths and for various other divalent systems (Ca, Mg, Hg and Sr) in the UV region. We assess the quality of triple magic trapping conditions by estimating the probability of excitation out of the motional ground state as a result of the excitations between the clock and the Rydberg states. We also calculate trapping laser-induced photoionization rates of divalent Rydberg atoms at magic frequencies. We find that such rates are below the radiative spontaneous-emission rates, due to the presence of Cooper minima in photoionization cross-sections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present projects for future space missions using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms. They will enable fundamental physics experiments testing quantum physics, physics beyond the standard model of fundamental particles and interactions, special relativity, gravitation and general relativity
Proposal of a dual-ball atomic fountain clock
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chunyan Shi; Rong Wei; Zichao Zhou; Tang Li; Yuzhu Wang
2011-01-01
@@ A simple improved structure is designed to trap and launch two cold atomic balls vertically at the same time, which works like "two fountains", but is more compact since most components of the "two fountains"are shared.It is expected to improve the stability of the fountain markedly.%A simple improved structure is designed to trap and launch two cold atomic balls vertically at the same time, which works like “two fountains”, but is more compact since most components of the “two fountains”are shared. It is expected to improve the stability of the fountain markedly.
Microwave lensing frequency shift of the PHARAO laser-cooled microgravity atomic clock
Peterman, Phillip; Gibble, Kurt; Laurent, Phillipe; Salomon, Christophe
2016-04-01
We evaluate the microwave lensing frequency shift of the microgravity laser-cooled caesium clock PHARAO. We find microwave lensing frequency shifts of δν/ν = 11 × 10-17 to 13 × 10-17, larger than the shift of typical fountain clocks. The shift has a weak dependence on PHARAO parameters, including the atomic temperature, size of the atomic cloud, detection laser intensities, and the launch velocity. We also find the lensing frequency shift to be insensitive to selection and detection spatial inhomogeneities and the expected low-frequency vibrations. We conservatively assign a nominal microwave lensing frequency uncertainty of ±4 × 10-17.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bondarescu Mihai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Modern optical atomic clocks along with the optical fiber technology currently being developed can measure the geoid, which is the equipotential surface that extends the mean sea level on continents, to a precision that competes with existing technology. In this proceeding, we point out that atomic clocks have the potential to not only map the sea level surface on continents, but also look at variations of the geoid as a function of time with unprecedented timing resolution. The local time series of the geoid has a plethora of applications. These include potential improvement in the predictions of earthquakes and volcanoes, and closer monitoring of ground uplift in areas where hydraulic fracturing is performed.
Dzuba, V A
2016-01-01
Sun's gravitation potential at earth varies during a year due to varying Earth-Sun distance. Comparing the results of very accurate measurements of atomic clock transitions performed at different time in the year allows us to study the dependence of the atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential. We examine the measurement data for the ratio of the frequencies in Hg$^+$ and Al$^+$ clock transitions and absolute frequency measurements (with respect to caesium frequency standard) for Dy, Sr, H, hyperfine transitions in Rb and H, and obtain significantly improved limits on the values of the gravity related parameter of the Einstein Equivalence Principle violating term in the Standard Model Extension Hamiltonian $c_{00} = (3.0 \\pm 5.7) \\times 10^{-7}$ and the parameter for the gravity-related variation of the fine structure constant $\\kappa_{\\alpha} = (-5.3 \\pm 10) \\times 10^{-8}$.
Distinguishing between evidence and its explanations in the steering of atomic clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum theory reflects within itself a separation of evidence from explanations. This separation leads to a known proof that: (1) no wave function can be determined uniquely by evidence, and (2) any chosen wave function requires a guess reaching beyond logic to things unforeseeable. Chosen wave functions are encoded into computer-mediated feedback essential to atomic clocks, including clocks that step computers through their phases of computation and clocks in space vehicles that supply evidence of signal propagation explained by hypotheses of spacetimes with metric tensor fields. The propagation of logical symbols from one computer to another requires a shared rhythm—like a bucket brigade. Here we show how hypothesized metric tensors, dependent on guesswork, take part in the logical synchronization by which clocks are steered in rate and position toward aiming points that satisfy phase constraints, thereby linking the physics of signal propagation with the sharing of logical symbols among computers. Recognizing the dependence of the phasing of symbol arrivals on guesses about signal propagation transports logical synchronization from the engineering of digital communications to a discipline essential to physics. Within this discipline we begin to explore questions invisible under any concept of time that fails to acknowledge unforeseeable events. In particular, variation of spacetime curvature is shown to limit the bit rate of logical communication. - Highlights: • Atomic clocks are steered in frequency toward an aiming point. • The aiming point depends on a chosen wave function. • No evidence alone can determine the wave function. • The unknowability of the wave function has implications for spacetime curvature. • Variability in spacetime curvature limits the bit rate of communications
Distinguishing between evidence and its explanations in the steering of atomic clocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myers, John M., E-mail: myers@seas.harvard.edu [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hadi Madjid, F., E-mail: gmadjid@aol.com [82 Powers Road, Concord, MA 01742 (United States)
2014-11-15
Quantum theory reflects within itself a separation of evidence from explanations. This separation leads to a known proof that: (1) no wave function can be determined uniquely by evidence, and (2) any chosen wave function requires a guess reaching beyond logic to things unforeseeable. Chosen wave functions are encoded into computer-mediated feedback essential to atomic clocks, including clocks that step computers through their phases of computation and clocks in space vehicles that supply evidence of signal propagation explained by hypotheses of spacetimes with metric tensor fields. The propagation of logical symbols from one computer to another requires a shared rhythm—like a bucket brigade. Here we show how hypothesized metric tensors, dependent on guesswork, take part in the logical synchronization by which clocks are steered in rate and position toward aiming points that satisfy phase constraints, thereby linking the physics of signal propagation with the sharing of logical symbols among computers. Recognizing the dependence of the phasing of symbol arrivals on guesses about signal propagation transports logical synchronization from the engineering of digital communications to a discipline essential to physics. Within this discipline we begin to explore questions invisible under any concept of time that fails to acknowledge unforeseeable events. In particular, variation of spacetime curvature is shown to limit the bit rate of logical communication. - Highlights: • Atomic clocks are steered in frequency toward an aiming point. • The aiming point depends on a chosen wave function. • No evidence alone can determine the wave function. • The unknowability of the wave function has implications for spacetime curvature. • Variability in spacetime curvature limits the bit rate of communications.
Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.
2016-05-01
Hyperfine-induced electric dipole contributions may significantly increase probabilities of otherwise very weak electric octupole and magnetic quadrupole atomic clock transitions (e.g., transitions between s and f electron orbitals). These transitions can be used for exceptionally accurate atomic clocks, quantum information processing, and the search for dark matter. They are very sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model, such as temporal variation of the fine-structure constant, the Lorentz invariance, and Einstein equivalence principle violation. We formulate conditions under which the hyperfine-induced electric dipole contribution dominates and perform calculations of the hyperfine structure and E3, M2 and the hyperfine-induced E1 transition rates for a large number of atoms and ions of experimental interest. Due to the hyperfine quenching the electric octupole clock transition in +173Yb is 2 orders of magnitude stronger than that in currently used +171Yb. Some enhancement is found in 13+143Nd, 14+149Pm, 14+147Sm, and 15+147Sm ions.
Quantum projection noise limited stability of a 88Sr+ atomic clock
Jian, B.; Dubé, P.; Madej, A. A.
2016-06-01
The evaluated accuracy of a single trapped 88Sr+ ion clock referenced to the 5s2 S 1/2 - 4d 2 D 5/2 transition at 445 THz at the National Research Council of Canada has reached 1.2 x 10-17 over recent years. On the other hand, the stability of an atomic clock determines how long the signals from two similar clocks have to be compared to reach a given level of uncertainty. Here, we report on the improvement of the stability of NRC's 88Sr+ single ion clock by reducing the Allan deviation from 1 x 10-14 to 3 x 10-15 at 1 second averaging time. This is done by the implementation of a clear out laser that transfers the ion from the metastable state to the ground state at each cycle, followed by a state-preparation step that transfers the ion to the desired ground state magnetic sublevel of the probed transition.
Wang, Y. P.; Lu, Z. P.; Sun, D. S.; Wang, N.
2016-01-01
In order to better express the characteristics of satellite clock bias (SCB) and improve SCB prediction precision, this paper proposed a new SCB prediction model which can take physical characteristics of space-borne atomic clock, the cyclic variation, and random part of SCB into consideration. First, the new model employs a quadratic polynomial model with periodic items to fit and extract the trend term and cyclic term of SCB; then based on the characteristics of fitting residuals, a time series ARIMA ~(Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average) model is used to model the residuals; eventually, the results from the two models are combined to obtain final SCB prediction values. At last, this paper uses precise SCB data from IGS (International GNSS Service) to conduct prediction tests, and the results show that the proposed model is effective and has better prediction performance compared with the quadratic polynomial model, grey model, and ARIMA model. In addition, the new method can also overcome the insufficiency of the ARIMA model in model recognition and order determination.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a joint theoretical and experimental characterization of the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance excited on the D1 line of 87Rb atoms by bichromatic linearly polarized laser light. We observe high-contrast transmission resonances (up to ≅25%), which makes this excitation scheme promising for miniature all-optical atomic clock applications. We also demonstrate cancellation of the first-order light shift by proper choice of the frequencies and relative intensities of the two laser-field components. Our theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Nuclear clocks based on resonant excitation of gamma-transitions
Peik, Ekkehard
2015-01-01
We review the ideas and concepts for a clock that is based on a radiative transition in the nucleus rather than in the electron shell. This type of clock offers advantages like an insensitivity against field-induced systematic frequency shifts and the opportunity to obtain high stability from interrogating many nuclei in the solid state. Experimental work concentrates on the low-energy (about 8 eV) isomeric transition in Th-229. We review the status of the experiments that aim at a direct optical observation of this transition and outline the plans for high-resolution laser spectroscopy experiments.
Nuclear clocks based on resonant excitation of gamma-transitions
Peik, Ekkehard; Okhapkin, Maxim
2015-01-01
We review the ideas and concepts for a clock that is based on a radiative transition in the nucleus rather than in the electron shell. This type of clock offers advantages like an insensitivity against field-induced systematic frequency shifts and the opportunity to obtain high stability from interrogating many nuclei in the solid state. Experimental work concentrates on the low-energy (about 8 eV) isomeric transition in Th-229. We review the status of the experiments that aim at a direct opt...
A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock
Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R.; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kellogg, James R.; Prestage, John D.
2016-05-01
We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm3 in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, it was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was subsequently pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of 171Y b+. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10-11/τ1/2.
Inner-shell magnetic dipole transition in Tm atom as a candidate for optical lattice clocks
Sukachev, D; Tolstikhina, I; Kalganova, E; Vishnyakova, G; Khabarova, K; Tregubov, D; Golovizin, A; Sorokin, V; Kolachevsky, N
2016-01-01
We consider a narrow magneto-dipole transition in the $^{169}$Tm atom at the wavelength of $1.14\\,\\mu$m as a candidate for a 2D optical lattice clock. Calculating dynamic polarizabilities of the two clock levels $[\\text{Xe}]4f^{13}6s^2 (J=7/2)$ and $[\\text{Xe}]4f^{13}6s^2 (J=5/2)$ in the spectral range from $250\\,$nm to $1200\\,$nm, we suggest the "magic" wavelength for the optical lattice at $807\\,$nm. Frequency shifts due to black-body radiation (BBR), the van der Waals interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and other effects which can perturb the transition frequency are calculated. The transition at $1.14\\,\\mu$m demonstrates low sensitivity to the BBR shift corresponding to $8\\times10^{-17}$ in fractional units at room temperature which makes it an interesting candidate for high-performance optical clocks. The total estimated frequency uncertainty is less than $5 \\times 10^{-18}$ in fractional units. By direct excitation of the $1.14\\,\\mu$m transition in Tm atoms loaded into an optical dipole ...
Status of the atomic fountain clock at the National Research Council of Canada
Beattie, S.; Alcock, J.; Jian, B.; Gertsvolf, M.; Bernard, J.
2016-06-01
Despite the rapid advances in optical frequency standards, caesium fountain clocks retain a critical role as the most accurate primary frequency standards available. At the National Research Council Canada, we are working to develop a second generation caesium fountain clock. Work is currently underway to improve several systems of FCs1, such as the laser system and microwave local oscillator, which will be incorporated into its refurbished version, FCs2. In addition, we have added an optical pumping stage which has increased the detected atom number by over a factor of six. In collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), we are planning on replacing the physics package of FCs1. We will report on several recent improvements to FCs1, along with our progress in the development of FCs2.
Highly charged ions for atomic clocks and search for variation of the fine structure constant
Dzuba, V A
2015-01-01
We review a number of highly charged ions which have optical transitions suitable for building extremely accurate atomic clocks. This includes ions from Hf$^{12+}$ to U$^{34+}$, which have the $4f^{12}$ configuration of valence electrons, the Ir$^{17+}$ ion, which has a hole in almost filled $4f$ subshell, the Ho$^{14+}$, Cf$^{15+}$, Es$^{17+}$ and Es$^{16+}$ ions. Clock transitions in most of these ions are sensitive to variation of the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$ ($\\alpha = e^2/\\hbar c$). E.g., californium and einsteinium ions have largest known sensitivity to $\\alpha$-variation while holmium ion looks as the most suitable ion for experimental study. We study the spectra of the ions and their features relevant to the use as frequency standards.
Frequency ratios of Sr, Yb and Hg based optical lattice clocks and their applications
Takamoto, Masao; Das, Manoj; Nemitz, Nils; Ohkubo, Takuya; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Takano, Tetsushi; Akatsuka, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Katori, Hidetoshi
2015-01-01
This article describes the recent progress of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium ($^{87}$Sr), ytterbium ($^{171}$Yb) and mercury ($^{199}$Hg) atoms. In particular, we present frequency comparison between the clocks locally via an optical frequency comb and between two Sr clocks at remote sites using a phase-stabilized fibre link. We first review cryogenic Sr optical lattice clocks that reduce the room-temperature blackbody radiation shift by two orders of magnitude and serve as a reference in the following clock comparisons. Similar physical properties of Sr and Yb atoms, such as transition wavelengths and vapour pressure, have allowed our development of a compatible clock for both species. A cryogenic Yb clock is evaluated by referencing a Sr clock. We also report on a Hg clock, which shows one order of magnitude less sensitivity to blackbody radiation, while its large nuclear charge makes the clock sensitive to the variation of fine-structure constant. Connecting all three types of clocks by an o...
Chaotic map based key agreement with/out clock synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to address Bergamo et al.'s attack, Xiao et al. proposed a key agreement protocol using chaotic maps. Han then presented three attacks on Xiao et al.'s protocol. To enhance the security of key agreement based on chaotic maps, Chang et al. proposed a new key agreement using passphrase, which works in clock synchronization environment. However, their protocol still has some issues: one is its passphrase is not easy to remember and much longer than password; the second one is it cannot resist guessing attack if the constructed passphrase is easy to remember and also has already existed in some rational dictionaries; the third one is it cannot work without clock synchronization. In this paper, we will present two different key agreement protocols, which can resist guessing attack. The first one works in clock synchronization environment. The second one can work without clock synchronization. They both use authenticated password for secure communications. The protocols are secure against replaying attacks and a shared session key can be established.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B K Sahoo
2014-08-01
We present here an overview of the role of the multipolar black-body radiation (BBR) shifts in the single ion atomic clocks to appraise the anticipated 10-18 uncertainty level. With an attempt to use the advanced technologies for reducing the instrumental uncertainties at the unprecedented low, it is essential to investigate contributions from the higher-order systematics to achieve the ambitious goal of securing the most precise clock frequency standard. In this context, we have analysed contributions to the BBR shifts from the multipolar polarizabilities in a few ion clocks.
δ-electron spectroscopy and the atomic clock effect in heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of strongly bound electrons in superheavy quasimolecular systems with combined nuclear charge numbers Z = ZP + ZT ≥ 110 are investigated. The emission of δ-electrons may serve as an atomic clock for nuclear reactions which is associated with the large overlap of the electron probability density with the nuclear interior. Excitation and emission rates of inner-shell electrons in collisions of very heavy ions with beam energies at or above the nuclear Coulomb barrier depend explicitly on details of the nuclear dynamics. Theoretical and experimental results are reviewed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main focus of this paper is the theoretical study of the 3P1→1S0 intercombination transition probabilities of the group-IIIA ions that are excellent candidates for high-accuracy atomic clocks. The importance of relativistic effects on the intercombination transition probabilities is made apparent by comparing their calculated values with those of the allowed 1P1→1S0 transition probabilities. In striking contrast to the allowed transition probabilities, the intercombination transition probabilities exhibit a strong Z dependence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, Anders
2005-01-01
Timing jitter of an OPLL based clock recovery is investigated. We demonstrate how loop gain, input and VCO signal jitter, loop filter bandwidth and a loop time delay influence jitter of the extracted clock signal......Timing jitter of an OPLL based clock recovery is investigated. We demonstrate how loop gain, input and VCO signal jitter, loop filter bandwidth and a loop time delay influence jitter of the extracted clock signal...
High-precision atomic clocks with highly charged ions: nuclear spin-zero $f^{12}$-shell ions
Dzuba, V. A.; Derevianko, A; Flambaum, V. V.
2012-01-01
Optical atomic clocks using highly-charged ions hold an intriguing promise of metrology at the 19th significant figure. Here we study transitions within the $4f^{12}$ ground-state electronic configuration of highly charged ions. We consider isotopes lacking hyperfine structure and show that the detrimental effects of coupling of electronic quadrupole moments to gradients of trapping electric field can be effectively reduced by using specially chosen virtual clock transitions. The estimated sy...
Effects of getters on hermetically sealed micromachined cesium–neon cells for atomic clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The wafer-level integration technique of PageWafer® (SAES Getters’ solution for getter film integration into wafer to wafer bonded devices) has been tested in hermetically sealed miniature glass-Si-glass cells filled with Cs and Ne, e.g. for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) atomic clock applications. Getter effects on the cell atmosphere are analyzed by quadruple mass spectroscopy and coherent population trapping (CPT) spectroscopy. The quadruple mass spectroscopy revealed that the residual gases (H2, O2, N2 and CO2) that are attributed to anodic bonding process are drastically reduced by the getter films while desirable gases such as Ne seem to remain unaffected. The impurity pressure in the getter-integrated cells was measured to be less than 4 × 10−2 mbar, i.e. pressure 50 times lower than the one measured in the cells without getter (2 mbar). Consequently, the atmosphere of the getter-integrated cells is much more pure than that of the getter-free cells. CPT signals obtained from the getter-integrated cells are stable and are, in addition, similar to each other within a cell batch, suggesting the strong potential of applications of this getter film and especially for its wafer-level integration to MEMS atomic clocks and magnetometers. (paper)
Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator
Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit
2016-01-05
A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.
Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy
Stadnik, Y. V.; Flambaum, V. V.
2016-08-01
Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field ϕ =ϕ0cos(mϕt ) , can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the standard model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive limits on the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, as well as its quadratic interactions with the photon and light quarks. For the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, our derived limits improve on existing constraints by up to 2-3 orders of magnitude.
Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy
Stadnik, Y V
2016-01-01
Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field $\\phi = \\phi_0 \\cos(m_\\phi t)$, can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the Standard Model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive new limits on the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, as well as its quadratic interactions with the photon and light quarks. For the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, our derived limits improve on existing constraints by up to $2-3$ orders of magnitude.
Effects of variation of fundamental constants from big bang to atomic clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental 'constants' in expanding Universe. I discuss effects of variation of the fine structure constant alpha=e2/h c, strong interaction and quark mass. The measurements of these variations cover lifespan of the Universe from few minutes after Big Bang to the present time and give controversial results. There are some hints for the variation in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, quasar absorption spectra and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. A billion times enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic energy levels. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics
Progress of the ~(87)Rb Fountain Clock
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Zi-Chao; WEI Rong; SHI Chun-Yan; LV De-Sheng; LI Tang; WANG Yu-Zhu
2009-01-01
A fountain atomic clock based on cold ~(87)Rb atoms has been in operation in our laboratory for several months.We therefore report the design of the rubidium fountain clock including its physical package,optical system and daily operation.Ramsey fringes have been attained with the signal to noise ratio of about 100.
Progress of the 87Rb Fountain Clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A fountain atomic clock based on cold 87 Rb atoms has been in operation in our laboratory for several months. We therefore report the design of the rubidium fountain clock including its physical package, optical system and daily operation. Ramsey fringes have been attained with the signal to noise ratio of about 100
0.75 atoms improve the clock signal of 10,000 atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kruse, I.; Lange, K; Peise, Jan;
2016-01-01
Since the pioneering work of Ramsey, atom interferometers are employed for precision metrology, in particular to measure time and to realize the second. In a classical interferometer, an ensemble of atoms is prepared in one of the two input states, whereas the second one is left empty. In this ca...
Explaining atomic clock behavior in a gravitational field with only 1905 Relativity
Hidalgo-Gato, Rafael A Valls
2010-01-01
Supported only in the two 1905 Einstein's papers on Relativity and a very rigid respect for the historical context, an analysis is done of the derivation of the universal mass-energy relationship. It is found, contrary to the today accepted Physics knowledge, that a body's Rest Mass measures its Potential Energy in the 1905 context. After emphasizing the difference between 1905 Relativity (1905R) and Special Relativity (SR), the developing of a 1905R relativistic gravity is started for a small mass m material point moving in the central gravitational field of a great mass M one. A formula for the rest mass m_0 as a function of its distance r from M is obtained. Finally, those results are applied to an atomic clock in a gravitational field, reaching a factor to obtain the clock time rate change very close to the GR one. The factors from 1905R and GR are compared, emphasizing the absent of a singularity in 1905R. In the conclusions, a new road for the development of a 1905R relativistic mechanics is declared, r...
Atomic ion clock with two ion traps, and method to transfer ions
Prestage, John D. (Inventor); Chung, Sang K. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
An atomic ion clock with a first ion trap and a second ion trap, where the second ion trap is of higher order than the first ion trap. In one embodiment, ions may be shuttled back and forth from one ion trap to the other by application of voltage ramps to the electrodes in the ion traps, where microwave interrogation takes place when the ions are in the second ion trap, and fluorescence is induced and measured when the ions are in the first ion trap. In one embodiment, the RF voltages applied to the second ion trap to contain the ions are at a higher frequency than that applied to the first ion trap. Other embodiments are described and claimed.
Laurent, Devenoges; André, Stefanov; Antoine, Jallageas; Jacques, Morel; Thomas, Südmeyer; Pierre, Thomann
2016-01-01
We report the evaluation of the second order Zeeman shift in the continuous atomic fountain clock FoCS-2. Because of the continuous operation and its geometrical constraints, the methods used in pulsed fountain are not applicable. We use here time-resolved Zeeman spectroscopy to probe the magnetic field profile in the clock. The pulses of ac magnetic excitation allow us to measure the Zeeman frequency with spatial resolution and to evaluate the Zeeman shift with an uncertainty smaller than 10E-16 in relative units.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis reports the first results towards the realization of an optical clock using trapped strontium atoms. This set up would combine advantages of the different approaches commonly used to develop an atomic frequency standard. The first part describes the cold atoms source which is implemented. A magneto-optical trap operating on the 1S0-1P1 transition at 461 nm is loaded from an atomic beam decelerated by a Zeeman slower. The 461 nm laser is obtained by sum-frequency mixing in a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. The second part is devoted to the different stages developed to achieve the direct excitation of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in 87Sr. This line has a theoretical natural width of 10-3 Hz. Before this detection, we obtained an estimate of the resonance frequency by measuring absolute frequencies of several allowed optical transitions. (author)
原子钟、原子弹哪个更重要%Which one is more important, Atomic Bomb or Atomic Clock?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李滚; 蔡成林; 袁海波
2003-01-01
@@ 1945年原子弹(Atomic Bomb)在广岛长崎爆炸之前,一般人很难理解原子弹的威力,原子钟(Atomic Clock)也不是大家都能一睹为快的;但是,原子弹和原子钟的概念的确已是家喻户晓.
Reduction of Timing Jitter by Clock Recovery based on an Optical Phase-Locked Loop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders; Jeppesen, Palle
We numerically investigate the phase noise requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators in a PLL-based clock recovery. Suggestions for reducing the timing jitter are given.......We numerically investigate the phase noise requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators in a PLL-based clock recovery. Suggestions for reducing the timing jitter are given....
Compact Yb$^+$ optical atomic clock project: design principle and current status
Lacroûte, Clément; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Millo, Jacques; Saleh, Khaldoun; Bigler, Emmanuel; Boudot, Rodolphe; Giordano, Vincent; Kersalé, Yann
2016-01-01
We present the design of a compact optical clock based on the $^2S_{1/2} \\rightarrow ^2D_{3/2}$ 435.5 nm transition in $^{171}$Yb$^+$. The ion trap will be based on a micro-fabricated circuit, with surface electrodes generating a trapping potential to localize a single Yb ion a few hundred $\\mu$m from the electrodes. We present our trap design as well as simulations of the resulting trapping pseudo-potential. We also present a compact, multi-channel wavelength meter that will permit the frequency stabilization of the cooling, repumping and clear-out lasers at 369.5 nm, 935.2 nm and 638.6 nm needed to cool the ion. We use this wavelength meter to characterize and stabilize the frequency of extended cavity diode lasers at 369.5 nm and 638.6 nm.
Umemura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Junko; Wada, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Minami, Yoichi; Watanabe, Hitomi; Kondoh, Gen; Takeda, Junji; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Horie, Kyoji; Yagita, Kazuhiro
2013-01-01
We previously reported emergence and disappearance of circadian molecular oscillations during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and reprogramming of differentiated cells, respectively. Here we present a robust and stringent in vitro circadian clock formation assay that recapitulates in vivo circadian phenotypes. This assay system first confirmed that a mutant ES cell line lacking Casein Kinase I delta (CKIδ) induced ∼3 hours longer period-length of circadian rhythm than the wild type, which was compatible with recently reported results using CKIδ null mice. In addition, this assay system also revealed that a Casein Kinase 2 alpha subunit (CK2α) homozygous mutant ES cell line developed significantly longer (about 2.5 hours) periods of circadian clock oscillations after in vitro or in vivo differentiation. Moreover, revertant ES cell lines in which mutagenic vector sequences were deleted showed nearly wild type periods after differentiation, indicating that the abnormal circadian period of the mutant ES cell line originated from the mutation in the CK2α gene. Since CK2α deficient mice are embryonic lethal, this in vitro assay system represents the genetic evidence showing an essential role of CK2α in the mammalian circadian clock. This assay was successfully applied for the phenotype analysis of homozygous mutant ES cells, demonstrating that an ES cell-based in vitro assay is available for circadian genetic screening. PMID:23840637
Reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied extensively in recent years and many protocols are put forward based on the point of statistical signal processing, which is an effective way to optimize accuracy. However, the accuracy derived from the statistical data can be improved mainly by sufficient packets exchange, which will consume the limited power resources greatly. In this paper, a reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization is proposed to optimize sync accuracy without expending additional sync packets. As a contribution, a linear weighted fusion scheme for multiple clock deviations is constructed with the collaborative sensing of clock timestamp. And the fusion weight is defined by the covariance of sync errors for different clock deviations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in terms of sync overhead and sync accuracy
Reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Xin, E-mail: xinshih86029@gmail.com; Zhao, Xiangmo, E-mail: xinshih86029@gmail.com; Hui, Fei, E-mail: xinshih86029@gmail.com; Ma, Junyan, E-mail: xinshih86029@gmail.com; Yang, Lan, E-mail: xinshih86029@gmail.com [School of Information Engineering, Chang' an University, Xi' an City (China)
2014-10-06
Clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied extensively in recent years and many protocols are put forward based on the point of statistical signal processing, which is an effective way to optimize accuracy. However, the accuracy derived from the statistical data can be improved mainly by sufficient packets exchange, which will consume the limited power resources greatly. In this paper, a reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization is proposed to optimize sync accuracy without expending additional sync packets. As a contribution, a linear weighted fusion scheme for multiple clock deviations is constructed with the collaborative sensing of clock timestamp. And the fusion weight is defined by the covariance of sync errors for different clock deviations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in terms of sync overhead and sync accuracy.
Stability limits of an optical frequency standard based on free Ca atoms
Sherman, J A
2011-01-01
We have quantified a short term instability budget for an optical frequency standard based on cold, freely expanding calcium atoms. Such systems are the subject of renewed interest due to their high frequency stability and relative technical simplicity compared to trapped atom optical clocks. By filtering the clock laser light at 657 nm through a high finesse cavity, we observe a slight reduction in the optical Dick effect caused by aliased local oscillator noise. The ultimately limiting technical noise is measured using a technique that does not rely on a second clock or fs-comb.
Phase noise analysis of clock recovery based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders
2007-01-01
A detailed theoretical analysis of a clock-recovery (CR) scheme based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop is presented. The analysis emphasizes the phase noise performance, taking into account the noise of the input data signal, the local voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), and the laser....... It is shown that a large loop length results in a higher timing jitter of the recovered clock signal. The impact of the loop length on the clock signal jitter can be reduced by using a low-noise VCO and a low loop filter bandwidth. Using the model, the timing jitter of the recovered optical and...... electrical clock signal can be evaluated. We numerically investigate the timing jitter requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators, in order for the recovered clock signal to have less jitter than that of the input signal. The timing jitter requirements for the free-running laser and the...
Venkatraman, Vinu; Pétremand, Yves; de Rooij, Nico; Shea, Herbert
2013-03-01
With the rising need for microfabricated chip-scale atomic clocks to enable high precision timekeeping in portable applications, there has been active interest in developing miniature (pumping in double-resonance clocks. We reported in 2012 a first microfabricated chip-scale Rubidium dielectric barrier discharge lamp. The device's preliminary results indicated its high potential for optical pumping applications and wafer-scale batch fabrication. The chip-scale plasma light sources were observed to be robust with no obvious performance change after thousands of plasma ignitions, and with no electrode erosion from plasma discharges since the electrodes are external. However, as atomic clocks have strict lamp performance requirements including less than 0.1% sub-second optical power fluctuations, power consumption less than 20 mW and a device lifetime of at least several years, it is important to understand the long-term reliability of these Rb planar mini-lamps, and identify the operating conditions where these devices can be most reliable and stable. In this paper, we report on the reliability of such microfabricated lamps including a continuous several month run of the lamp where the optical power, electrical power consumption and temperature stability were continuously monitored. We also report on the effects of temperature, rf-power and the lamp-drive parasitics on the optical power stability and discuss steps that could be taken to further improve the device's performance and reliability.
Precision Clock Evaluation Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...
Frequency Ratio of ${}^{199}$Hg and ${}^{87}$Sr Optical Lattice Clocks beyond the SI Limit
Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi
2015-01-01
We report on a frequency ratio measurement of a ${}^{199}$Hg-based optical lattice clock referencing a ${}^{87}$Sr-based clock. Evaluations of lattice light shift, including atomic-motion-dependent shift, enable us to achieve a total systematic uncertainty of $7.2 \\times 10^{-17}$ for the Hg clock. The frequency ratio is measured to be $\
Ultrafast all-optical clock recovery based on phase-only linear optical filtering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Azana, Jose
2014-01-01
We report on a novel, efficient technique for all-optical clock recovery from RZ-OOK data signals based on spectral phase-only (all-pass) optical filtering. This technique significantly enhances both the recovered optical clock quality and energy efficiency in comparison with conventional amplitude...... optical filtering approaches using a Fabry-Perot filter. The proposed concept is validated through recovery of the optical clock from a 640 Gbit/s RZ-OOK data signal using a commercial linear optical waveshaper. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...
A high precision TDC based on a multi-phase clock
Qi, Zhong; Li, Deyuan; Yang, Lei; Yao, Zeen; Li, Dongcang
2015-01-01
The design of a high-precision time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a multiphase clock implemented using a single field-programmable gate array is discussed in this paper. The TDC can increase the resolution of the measurement by using time interpolation. A phase-locked loop is used to generate four multiphase clocks whose frequencies are the same and whose phases are 0{\\deg}, 45{\\deg}, 90{\\deg}, and 135{\\deg}. In addition, the duty ratios of the four clocks are 50%. By utilizing four multiphase clocks to make up the interpolation clock, one clock period can be divided into eight uniform parts. The resolution of the TDC can be improved to 1/8 of a clock period. Furthermore, we have also designed a discriminator circuit for identifying the start and stop signals. On the basis of this circuit, the TDC can still measure the time interval of two signals when the start and stop signals are uncertain. The experimental results indicate that the time resolution of the TDC can achieve the theoretical value, and th...
S-Wave Collisional Frequency Shift of a Fermion Clock
Hazlett, Eric L; Stites, Ronald W; Gibble, Kurt; O'Hara, Kenneth M
2012-01-01
We report an s-wave collisional frequency shift of an atomic clock based on fermions. In contrast to bosons, the fermion clock shift is insensitive to the population difference of the clock states, set by the first pulse area in Ramsey spectroscopy, \\theta_1. The fermion shift instead depends strongly on the second pulse area \\theta_2. It allows the shift to be canceled, nominally at \\theta_2 = \\pi/2, but correlations shift the null to slightly larger \\theta_2. The shift applies to optical lattice clocks and increases with the spatial inhomogeneity of the clock excitation field, naturally large at optical frequencies.
Rydberg Spectroscopy in an Optical Lattice: Blackbody Thermometry for Atomic Clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10-16 accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10-18.
The clock system for LHAASO WCDA based on reduced White Rabbit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to the large scale of Water Cherenkov Detector Array in Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory, the front-end digitization is imperative. Thus a clock distribution system is desired, which broadcasts the synchronous clock signals with low jitter to the front-end electronics distributed in the field of 90000 m2. The White Rabbit protocol provides an option, which has been approved to achieve sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter in the synchronization of around 1000 nodes in the order of 10 km. But the hierarchy of the original is too complex for Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory application. Thus we proposed a reduced scheme based on the White Rabbit protocol. The validation circuit shows that the clock skew due to the fiber length difference can be adjusted to less than 25 ps and the clock jitter is less than 62 ps. (authors)
Stable clocks and general relativity
Will, C M
1995-01-01
We survey the role of stable clocks in general relativity. Clock comparisons have provided important tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, which underlies metric gravity. These include tests of the isotropy of clock comparisons (verification of local Lorentz invariance) and tests of the homogeneity of clock comparisons (verification of local position invariance). Comparisons of atomic clocks with gravitational clocks test the Strong Equivalence Principle by bounding cosmological variations in Newton's constant. Stable clocks also play a role in the search for gravitational radiation: comparision of atomic clocks with the binary pulsar's orbital clock has verified gravitational-wave damping, and phase-sensitive detection of waves from inspiralling compact binaries using laser interferometric gravitational observatories will facilitate extraction of useful source information from the data. Stable clocks together with general relativity have found important practical applications in navigational systems s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FO1 was the first caesium fountain primary frequency standard in the world. The most recent evaluation in 2002 before improvement reached an accuracy of 1*10-15 when operated with optical molasses. Working as an extremely precise and stable instrument, FO1 has contributed to fundamental physics and technical measurements: - Frequency comparison between Cs and Rb fountains over an interval of 5 years sets an upper limit for a possible variation of the fine structure constant as |alpha/alpha| -15/y. The resolution is about 5 times better than the previous test in our laboratory. The projected accuracy of the space clock PHARAO is 1*10-16. We confirmed its Ramsey cavity performance by testing the phase difference between the two interaction zones in FO1. The measured temperature T dependent frequency shift of the Cs clock induced by the blackbody radiation field is given as nu(T)=154(6)*10-6*(T/300)4[1+ε(T/300)2] Hz with the theoretical value ε = 0,014. The obtained accuracy represents a 3 times improvement over the previous measurement by the PTB group. Some improvements have been carried out on FO1. The new FO1 version works directly with optical molasses loaded by a laser slowed atomic beam. The application of the adiabatic passage method to perform the state selection allows us to determine the atom number dependent frequency shifts due to the cold collision and cavity pulling effects at a level of of 10-16. Recently, the obtained frequency stability is 2,8*10-14*τ-1/2 for about 4*106 detected atoms. The accuracy is currently under evaluation, the expected value is a few times 10-16. (author)
A high stability semiconductor laser system for a $^{88}$Sr-based optical lattice clock
Tarallo, Marco G; Schioppo, Marco; Tino, Guglielmo M
2010-01-01
We describe a frequency stabilized diode laser at 698 nm used for high resolution spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 strontium clock transition. For the laser stabilization we use state-of-the-art symmetrically suspended optical cavities optimized for very low thermal noise at room temperature. Two-stage frequency stabilization to high finesse optical cavities results in measured laser frequency noise about a factor of three above the cavity thermal noise between 2 Hz and 11 Hz. With this system, we demonstrate high resolution remote spectroscopy on the 88Sr clock transition by transferring the laser output over a phase-noise-compensated 200 m-long fiber link between two separated laboratories. Our dedicated fiber link ensures a transfer of the optical carrier with frequency stability of 7 \\cdot 10^{-18} after 100 s integration time, which could enable the observation of the strontium clock transition with an atomic Q of 10^{14}. Furthermore, with an eye towards the development of transportable optical clocks, we in...
Mercury Atomic Frequency Standards for Space Based Navigation and Timekeeping
Tjoelker, R. L.; Burt, E. A.; Chung, S.; Hamell, R. L.; Prestage, J. D.; Tucker, B.; Cash, P.; Lutwak, R.
2012-01-01
A low power Mercury Atomic Frequency Standard (MAFS) has been developed and demonstrated on the path towards future space clock applications. A self contained mercury ion breadboard clock: emulating flight clock interfaces, steering a USO local oscillator, and consuming approx 40 Watts has been operating at JPL for more than a year. This complete, modular ion clock instrument demonstrates that key GNSS size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements can be achieved while still maintaining short and long term performance demonstrated in previous ground ion clocks. The MAFS breadboard serves as a flexible platform for optimizing further space clock development and guides engineering model design trades towards fabrication of an ion clock for space flight.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis describes a Cs - buffer gas vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT), and the main frequency shifts affecting its mid- and long-term stability. The developed atomic clock based on CPT uses two original techniques: a so-called double-Λ scheme for the CPT-resonance excitation and a temporal Ramsey interrogation technique, which produce a high contrast and narrow resonances with reduced light shift dependence. Generally, the mid and long term stability of the vapor cell atomic clock is limited by the collisional shift induced by alkali-buffer gas collisions and the light shift (or the effects depending on the laser intensity). We report on the study of the collisional shift of Cs clock frequency in the presence of Ne, N2 or Ar buffer gas, and its temperature dependence. The coefficient values of this dependence for these three buffer gases were revealed (some of them for the first time), allowing us to realise a cell with optimal combination of buffer gases to cancel the temperature dependence around the working temperature. Following the study of the signal amplitude and the coherence relaxation rate the optimal values for such parameters as interrogation cycle, magnetic field, cell temperature, pressure of the buffer gas mixture, etc. were found for the chosen cell. The investigation on the light shift and the effects depending on the laser intensity allowed us to determine the most sensitive parameters (laser intensity ratio, temperature) and to implement the required stabilizations in order to better control them. Finally, the mid- and long-term clock frequency stability was improved by a factor 40, reaching 2.5 10-14 at 1 hour. (author)
Narumi, Ryohei; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Ukai-Tadenuma, Maki; Ode, Koji L; Kanda, Genki N; Shinohara, Yuta; Sato, Aya; Matsumoto, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroki R
2016-06-14
Absolute values of protein expression levels in cells are crucial information for understanding cellular biological systems. Precise quantification of proteins can be achieved by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of enzymatic digests of proteins in the presence of isotope-labeled internal standards. Thus, development of a simple and easy way for the preparation of internal standards is advantageous for the analyses of multiple target proteins, which will allow systems-level studies. Here we describe a method, termed MS-based Quantification By isotope-labeled Cell-free products (MS-QBiC), which provides the simple and high-throughput preparation of internal standards by using a reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis system, and thereby facilitates both multiplexed and sensitive quantification of absolute amounts of target proteins. This method was applied to a systems-level dynamic analysis of mammalian circadian clock proteins, which consist of transcription factors and protein kinases that govern central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals. Sixteen proteins from 20 selected circadian clock proteins were successfully quantified from mouse liver over a 24-h time series, and 14 proteins had circadian variations. Quantified values were applied to detect internal body time using a previously developed molecular timetable method. The analyses showed that single time-point data from wild-type mice can predict the endogenous state of the circadian clock, whereas data from clock mutant mice are not applicable because of the disappearance of circadian variation. PMID:27247408
Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.
2007-01-01
Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The…
Rosky, David S.; Coy, Bruce H.; Friedmann, Marc D.
1992-03-01
A 2500 gate mixed signal gate array has been developed that integrates custom PLL-based clock recovery and clock synthesis functions with 2500 gates of configurable logic cells to provide a single chip solution for 200 - 1244 MHz fiber based digital interface applications. By customizing the digital logic cells, any of the popular telecom and datacom standards may be implemented.
Realization of a time-scale with an optical clock
Grebing, C; Dörscher, S; Häfner, S; Gerginov, V; Weyers, S; Lipphardt, B; Riehle, F; Sterr, U; Lisdat, C
2015-01-01
Optical clocks are not only powerful tools for prime fundamental research, but are also deemed for the re-definition of the SI base unit second as they surpass the performance of caesium atomic clocks in both accuracy and stability by more than an order of magnitude. However, an important obstacle in this transition has so far been the limited reliability of the optical clocks that made a continuous realization of a time-scale impractical. In this paper, we demonstrate how this dilemma can be resolved and that a time-scale based on an optical clock can be established that is superior to one based on even the best caesium fountain clocks. The paper also gives further proof of the international consistency of strontium lattice clocks on the $10^{-16}$ accuracy level, which is another prerequisite for a change in the definition of the second.
Internal Clock Drift Estimation in Computer Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hicham Marouani
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Most computers have several high-resolution timing sources, from the programmable interrupt timer to the cycle counter. Yet, even at a precision of one cycle in ten millions, clocks may drift significantly in a single second at a clock frequency of several GHz. When tracing the low-level system events in computer clusters, such as packet sending or reception, each computer system records its own events using an internal clock. In order to properly understand the global system behavior and performance, as reported by the events recorded on each computer, it is important to estimate precisely the clock differences and drift between the different computers in the system. This article studies the clock precision and stability of several computer systems, with different architectures. It also studies the typical network delay characteristics, since time synchronization algorithms rely on the exchange of network packets and are dependent on the symmetry of the delays. A very precise clock, based on the atomic time provided by the GPS satellite network, was used as a reference to measure clock drifts and network delays. The results obtained are of immediate use to all applications which depend on computer clocks or network time synchronization accuracy.
Phase Coherent Link of an Atomic Clock to a Self-Referenced Microresonator Frequency Comb
Del'Haye, Pascal; Fortier, Tara; Beha, Katja; Cole, Daniel C; Yang, Ki Youl; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry J; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A
2015-01-01
The counting and control of optical cycles of light has become common with modelocked laser frequency combs. But even with advances in laser technology, modelocked laser combs remain bulk-component devices that are hand-assembled. In contrast, a frequency comb based on the Kerr-nonlinearity in a dielectric microresonator will enable frequency comb functionality in a micro-fabricated and chip-integrated package suitable for use in a wide-range of environments. Such an advance will significantly impact fields ranging from spectroscopy and trace gas sensing, to astronomy, communications, atomic time keeping and photonic data processing. Yet in spite of the remarkable progress shown over the past years, microresonator frequency combs ("microcombs") have still been without the key function of direct f-2f self-referencing and phase-coherent frequency control that will be critical for enabling their full potential. Here we realize these missing elements using a low-noise 16.4 GHz silicon chip microcomb that is coher...
Development of a Transportable Gravity Gradiometer Based on Atom Interferometry
Yu, N.; Kohel, J. M.; Aveline, D. C.; Kellogg, J. R.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.
2007-12-01
JPL is developing a transportable gravity gradiometer based on light-pulse atom interferometers for NASA's Earth Science Technology Office's Instrument Incubator Program. The inertial sensors in this instrument employ a quantum interference measurement technique, analogous to the precise phase measurements in atomic clocks, which offers increased sensitivity and improved long-term stability over traditional mechanical devices. We report on the implementation of this technique in JPL's gravity gradiometer, and on the current performance of the mobile instrument. We also discuss the prospects for satellite-based gravity field mapping, including high-resolution monitoring of time-varying fields from a single satellite platform and multi-component measurements of the gravitational gradient tensor, using atom interferometer-based instruments.
François, B.; Calosso, C. E.; Abdel Hafiz, M.; Micalizio, S.; Boudot, R.
2015-09-01
We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10-14 for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10-14 for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10-15 level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
François, B. [FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, 26 chemin de l’Epitaphe, 25030 Besançon (France); INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Calosso, C. E.; Micalizio, S. [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Abdel Hafiz, M.; Boudot, R. [FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, 26 chemin de l’Epitaphe, 25030 Besançon (France)
2015-09-15
We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be −109 and −141 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is −105 and −138 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10{sup −14} for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10{sup −14} for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10{sup −15} level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be −109 and −141 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is −105 and −138 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10−14 for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10−14 for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10−15 level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards
On-chip clock error characterization for clock distribution system
Shan, Chuan; Galayko, Dimitri; Anceau, François
2013-01-01
In this paper, we investigate a test strategy for characterization of clock error statistics between two clock domains in high-speed clocking systems (gigahertz and more). The method allows an indirect measurement (not based on time interval measurement) of clock error distribution by observing the integrity of a periodic sequence transmitted between two clocking domains. The method is compatible with fully on-chip implementation, and the readout of result to off-chip signals is cadenced at l...
A Transportable Gravity Gradiometer Based on Atom Interferometry
Yu, Nan; Thompson, Robert J.; Kellogg, James R.; Aveline, David C.; Maleki, Lute; Kohel, James M.
2010-01-01
A transportable atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer has been developed at JPL to carry out measurements of Earth's gravity field at ever finer spatial resolutions, and to facilitate high-resolution monitoring of temporal variations in the gravity field from ground- and flight-based platforms. Existing satellite-based gravity missions such as CHAMP and GRACE measure the gravity field via precise monitoring of the motion of the satellites; i.e. the satellites themselves function as test masses. JPL's quantum gravity gradiometer employs a quantum phase measurement technique, similar to that employed in atomic clocks, made possible by recent advances in laser cooling and manipulation of atoms. This measurement technique is based on atomwave interferometry, and individual laser-cooled atoms are used as drag-free test masses. The quantum gravity gradiometer employs two identical atom interferometers as precision accelerometers to measure the difference in gravitational acceleration between two points (Figure 1). By using the same lasers for the manipulation of atoms in both interferometers, the accelerometers have a common reference frame and non-inertial accelerations are effectively rejected as common mode noise in the differential measurement of the gravity gradient. As a result, the dual atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer allows gravity measurements on a moving platform, while achieving the same long-term stability of the best atomic clocks. In the laboratory-based prototype (Figure 2), the cesium atoms used in each atom interferometer are initially collected and cooled in two separate magneto-optic traps (MOTs). Each MOT, consisting of three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating laser beams centered on a quadrupole magnetic field, collects up to 10(exp 9) atoms. These atoms are then launched vertically as in an atom fountain by switching off the magnetic field and introducing a slight frequency shift between pairs of lasers to create a moving
Umemura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Junko; Wada, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Minami, Yoichi; Watanabe, Hitomi; Kondoh, Gen; Takeda, Junji; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Horie, Kyoji; Yagita, Kazuhiro
2013-01-01
We previously reported emergence and disappearance of circadian molecular oscillations during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and reprogramming of differentiated cells, respectively. Here we present a robust and stringent in vitro circadian clock formation assay that recapitulates in vivo circadian phenotypes. This assay system first confirmed that a mutant ES cell line lacking Casein Kinase I delta (CKIδ) induced ∼3 hours longer period-length of circadian rhythm than the w...
Flambaum, V V; Thomas, A W; Young, R D
2004-01-01
We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of $(m_q/\\Lambda_{QCD})$ from recent measurements of hydrogen hyperfine (21 cm) and molecular rotational transitions in quasar absorption systems, atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb$^+$, Hg$^+$ and optical transition in Hg$^+$. Experiments with Cd$^+$, deuterium/hydrogen, molecular SF$_6$ and Zeeman transitions in $^3$He/Xe are also discussed.
Imaging Microwave and DC Magnetic Fields in a Vapor-Cell Rb Atomic Clock
Affolderbach, Christoph; Bandi, Thejesh; Horsley, Andrew; Treutlein, Philipp; Mileti, Gaetano
2015-01-01
We report on the experimental measurement of the DC and microwave magnetic field distributions inside a recently-developed compact magnetron-type microwave cavity, mounted inside the physics package of a high-performance vapor-cell atomic frequency standard. Images of the microwave field distribution with sub-100 $\\mu$m lateral spatial resolution are obtained by pulsed optical-microwave Rabi measurements, using the Rb atoms inside the cell as field probes and detecting with a CCD camera. Asymmetries observed in the microwave field images can be attributed to the precise practical realization of the cavity and the Rb vapor cell. Similar spatially-resolved images of the DC magnetic field distribution are obtained by Ramsey-type measurements. The T2 relaxation time in the Rb vapor cell is found to be position dependent, and correlates with the gradient of the DC magnetic field. The presented method is highly useful for experimental in-situ characterization of DC magnetic fields and resonant microwave structures,...
Punctuated equilibrium in thoroughbred evolution and its model based on asynchronous clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evolutionary patterns of thoroughbreds are estimated in terms of distribution of life-spans, avalanche size of extinction and lineage size. All of them show power-law distribution with exponent of -2.0, and show the characteristics of a particular evolutionary pattern called punctuated equilibrium. In addition, we propose a model based on modulation among asynchronous clocks to explain this kind of power-law distribution
Punctuated equilibrium in thoroughbred evolution and its model based on asynchronous clocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takachi, Yasuhiro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2004-02-01
Evolutionary patterns of thoroughbreds are estimated in terms of distribution of life-spans, avalanche size of extinction and lineage size. All of them show power-law distribution with exponent of -2.0, and show the characteristics of a particular evolutionary pattern called punctuated equilibrium. In addition, we propose a model based on modulation among asynchronous clocks to explain this kind of power-law distribution.
Identifying Nonstationary Clock Noises in Navigation Systems
Patrizia Tavella; Lorenzo Galleani
2008-01-01
The stability of the atomic clocks on board the satellites of a navigation system should remain constant with time. In reality there are numerous physical phenomena that make the behavior of the clocks a function of time, and for this reason we have recently introduced the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR), a measure of the time-varying stability of an atomic clock. In this paper we discuss the dynamic Allan variance for phase and frequency jumps, two common nonstationarities of atomic clocks. T...
Shi, Junbo; Xu, Chaoqian; Li, Yihe; Gao, Yang
2015-08-01
Global Positioning System (GPS) has become a cost-effective tool to determine troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) with accuracy comparable to other atmospheric sensors such as the radiosonde, the water vapor radiometer, the radio occultation and so on. However, the high accuracy of GPS troposphere ZTD estimates relies on the precise satellite orbit and clock products available with various latencies. Although the International GNSS Service (IGS) can provide predicted orbit and clock products for real-time applications, the predicted clock accuracy of 3 ns cannot always guarantee the high accuracy of troposphere ZTD estimates. Such limitations could be overcome by the use of the newly launched IGS real-time service which provides 5 cm orbit and 0.2-1.0 ns (an equivalent range error of 6-30 cm) clock products in real time. Considering the relatively larger magnitude of the clock error than that of the orbit error, this paper investigates the effect of real-time satellite clock errors on the GPS precise point positioning (PPP)-based troposphere ZTD estimation. Meanwhile, how the real-time satellite clock errors impact the GPS PPP-based troposphere ZTD estimation has also been studied to obtain the most precise ZTD solutions. First, two types of real-time satellite clock products are assessed with respect to the IGS final clock product in terms of accuracy and precision. Second, the real-time GPS PPP-based troposphere ZTD estimation is conducted using data from 34 selected IGS stations over three independent weeks in April, July and October, 2013. Numerical results demonstrate that the precision, rather than the accuracy, of the real-time satellite clock products impacts the real-time PPP-based ZTD solutions more significantly. In other words, the real-time satellite clock product with better precision leads to more precise real-time PPP-based troposphere ZTD solutions. Therefore, it is suggested that users should select and apply real-time satellite products with
Study of laser-pumped double-resonance clock signals using a microfabricated cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present our microwave spectroscopic studies on laser-microwave double-resonance (DR) signals obtained from a micro-fabricated Rb vapor cell. This study focuses on the characteristics and systematic shifts of the ground-state 'clock transition' in 87Rb (| Fg = 1,mF = 0) → | Fg = 2, mF = 0)) used in Rb atomic clocks, and represents a first step toward a miniature atomic clock based on the DR scheme. A short-term clock instability below 2 × 1011τ-1/2 is demonstrated, staying below 10-11 up to τ = 104 s.
Collisional Losses, Decoherence, and Frequency Shifts in Optical Lattice Clocks with Bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have quantified collisional losses, decoherence and the collision shift in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock on the highly forbidden transition 1S0-3P0 at 698 nm with bosonic 88Sr. We were able to distinguish two loss channels: inelastic collisions between atoms in the upper and lower clock state and atoms in the upper clock state only. Based on the measured coefficients, we determine the operation parameters at which a 1D-lattice clock with 88Sr shows no degradation due to collisions on the fractional uncertainty level of 10-16.
Highly-charged ions as a basis of optical atomic clockwork of exceptional accuracy
Derevianko, Andrei; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.
2012-01-01
We propose a novel class of atomic clocks based on highly charged ions. We consider highly-forbidden laser-accessible transitions within the $4f^{12}$ ground-state configurations of highly charged ions. Our evaluation of systematic effects demonstrates that these transitions may be used for building exceptionally accurate atomic clocks which may compete in accuracy with recently proposed nuclear clock.
Single-Ion Atomic Clock with $3\\times10^{-18}$ Systematic Uncertainty
Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Chr; Peik, E
2016-01-01
We experimentally investigate an optical frequency standard based on the $^2S_{1/2} (F=0)\\to {}^2F_{7/2} (F=3)$ electric octupole (\\textit{E}3) transition of a single trapped $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ion. For the spectroscopy of this strongly forbidden transition, we utilize a Ramsey-type excitation scheme that provides immunity to probe-induced frequency shifts. The cancellation of these shifts is controlled by interleaved single-pulse Rabi spectroscopy which reduces the related relative frequency uncertainty to $1.1\\times 10^{-18}$. To determine the frequency shift due to thermal radiation emitted by the ion's environment, we measure the static scalar differential polarizability of the \\textit{E}3 transition as $0.888(16)\\times 10^{-40}$ J m$^2$/V$^2$ and a dynamic correction $\\eta(300~\\text{K})=-0.0015(7)$. This reduces the uncertainty due to thermal radiation to $1.8\\times 10^{-18}$. The residual motion of the ion yields the largest contribution $(2.1\\times 10^{-18})$ to the total systematic relative uncertainty of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A lattice clock combines the advantages of ion and neutral atom based clocks, namely the recoil and first order Doppler free spectroscopy allowed by the Lamb-Dicke regime. This lattice light field shifts the energy levels of the clock transition. However a wavelength can be found where the light-shift of the clock states cancelled to first order. In this thesis, we present the latest advances in optical lattice clock with mercury atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the current performances of different optical clock are currently under development, we focus on the concept of optical lattice clock and the features of the mercury that make him an excellent candidate for the realization of an optical lattice clock achievement the uncertainty of the level of 10-17. The second part is devoted to the characterization of the mercury MOT, using a sensitive detection system, which allowed us to evaluate the temperature of different isotopes present in the MOT and have a good evidence of sub-Doppler cooling for the fermionic isotopes. The third part of this these, present the experimental aspects of the implementation and the development of the laser source required for trapping mercury atoms operating near the predicted magic wavelength. Finally, we report on the Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of the 1S0 →3 P0 clock transition in the 199Hg atoms confined in lattice trap. With use of the ultra-stable laser system, linked to LNE-SYRTE primary frequency reference, we have determined the center frequency of the transition for a range of lattice wavelengths and different lattice depths. Analyzing these measurement, we have carried out the first experimental determination of the magic wavelength, which is the crucial step towards achieving a highly accurate frequency standard using mercury. (author)
A mercury optical lattice clock at LNE-SYRTE
De Sarlo, L.; Favier, M.; Tyumenev, R.; Bize, S.
2016-06-01
We describe the development of an optical lattice clock based on mercury and the results obtained since the 7 th SFSM. We briefly present a new solution for the cooling laser system and an improved lattice trap that allows us to interrogate a few thousand atoms in parallel. This translates into a fractional short term stability of 1.2 x 10-15 at the clock frequency of 1.129 PHz.
Stability Analysis of the In-Orbit Satellite Atomic Clocks%GPS在轨卫星原子钟的稳定性分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李长会; 闫国锋
2012-01-01
导航卫星星载原子钟的相位或频率数据,作为导航系统应用研究的基础,将直接影响导航系统时间尺度建立以及定位的精度和准确性.本文针对由IGS官网提供的四种GPS卫星钟的钟差数据,采用修正阿伦方差进行了稳定性分析,得到了一些有益的结论.%As the application research basis of navigation system, the phase or frequency data of in - orbit satellite atomic clocks directly affect the precision and accuracy of navigation system. This paper analyzes the stability of four types of data of GPS satellite a-tomic clocks which is provided by the official website of IGS using Allan variance method and reaches some beneficial conclusions.
Colloquium: Physics of optical lattice clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently invented and demonstrated optical lattice clocks hold great promise for improving the precision of modern time keeping. These clocks aim at the 10-18 fractional accuracy, which translates into a clock that would neither lose nor gain a fraction of a second over an estimated age of the Universe. In these clocks, millions of atoms are trapped and interrogated simultaneously, dramatically improving clock stability. Here the principles of operation of these clocks are discussed and, in particular, a novel concept of magic trapping of atoms in optical lattices. Recently proposed microwave lattice clocks are also highlights and several applications that employ the optical lattice clocks as a platform for precision measurements and quantum information processing.
Mercury Ion Clock for a NASA Technology Demonstration Mission.
Tjoelker, Robert L; Prestage, John D; Burt, Eric A; Chen, Pin; Chong, Yong J; Chung, Sang K; Diener, William; Ely, Todd; Enzer, Daphna G; Mojaradi, Hadi; Okino, Clay; Pauken, Mike; Robison, David; Swenson, Bradford L; Tucker, Blake; Wang, Rabi
2016-07-01
There are many different atomic frequency standard technologies but only few meet the demanding performance, reliability, size, mass, and power constraints required for space operation. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, referred to as DSAC (Deep-Space Atomic Clock) under NASA's Technology Demonstration Mission program. This clock is expected to provide a new capability with broad application to space-based navigation and science. A one-year flight demonstration is planned as a hosted payload following an early 2017 launch. This first-generation mercury ion clock for space demonstration has a volume, mass, and power of 17 L, 16 kg, and 47 W, respectively, with further reductions planned for follow-on applications. Clock performance with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)*Q limited stability of 1.5E-13/τ(1/2) has been observed and a fractional frequency stability of 2E-15 at one day measured (no drift removed). Such a space-based stability enables autonomous timekeeping of with a technology capable of even higher stability, if desired. To date, the demonstration clock has been successfully subjected to mechanical vibration testing at the 14 grms level, thermal-vacuum operation over a range of 42(°)C, and electromagnetic susceptibility tests. PMID:27019481
Controllable clock circuit design in PEM system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A high-precision synchronized clock circuit design will be presented, which can supply steady, reliable and anti-jamming clock signal for the data acquirement (DAQ) system of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM). This circuit design is based on the Single-Chip Microcomputer and high-precision clock chip, and can achieve multiple controllable clock signals. The jamming between the clock signals can be reduced greatly with the differential transmission. Meanwhile, the adoption of CAN bus control in the clock circuit can prompt the clock signals to be transmitted or masked simultaneously when needed. (authors)
Costanzo, G. A.; Micalizio, S.; Godone, A.; Camparo, J. C.; Levi, F.
2016-06-01
The ac Stark shift, or light shift, is a physical phenomenon that plays a fundamental role in many applications ranging from basic atomic physics to applied quantum electronics. Here, we discuss experiments testing light-shift theory in a cold-atom cesium fountain clock for the Cs D2 transition (i.e., 6 2S1 /2→6 2P3 /2 at 852 nm). Cold-atom fountains represent a nearly ideal system for the study of light shifts: (1) The atoms can be perturbed by a field of arbitrary character (e.g., coherent field or nonclassical field); (2) there are no trapping fields to complicate data interpretation; (3) the probed atoms are essentially motionless in their center-of-mass reference frame, T ˜ 1 μK; and (4) the atoms are in an essentially collisionless environment. Moreover, in the present work the resolution of the Cs excited-state hyperfine splittings implies that the D2 ac Stark shift contains a nonzero tensor polarizability contribution, which does not appear in vapor phase experiments due to Doppler broadening. Here, we test the linearity of the ac Stark shift with field intensity, and measure the light shift as a function of field frequency, generating a "light-shift curve." We have improved on the previous best test of theory by a factor of 2, and after subtracting the theoretical scalar light shift from the experimental light-shift curves, we have isolated and tested the tensor light shift for an alkali D2 transition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we report on the active filtering and amplification of a single mode from an optical femtosecond laser comb with mode spacing of 250 MHz by optical injection of two external-cavity diode lasers operating in cascade to build a narrow linewidth laser for laser cooling of the strontium atoms in an optical lattice clock. Despite the low injection of individual comb mode of approximately 50 nW, a single comb line at 689 nm could be filtered and amplified to reach as high as 10 mW with 37 dB side mode suppression and a linewidth of 240 Hz. This method could be applied over a broad spectral band to build narrow linewidth lasers for various applications
Entangling the lattice clock: Towards Heisenberg-limited timekeeping
Weinstein, Jonathan D.; Beloy, Kyle; Derevianko, Andrei
2009-01-01
We present a scheme for entangling the atoms of an optical lattice to reduce the quantum projection noise of a clock measurement. The divalent clock atoms are held in a lattice at a ``magic'' wavelength that does not perturb the clock frequency -- to maintain clock accuracy -- while an open-shell J=1/2 ``head'' atom is coherently transported between lattice sites via the lattice polarization. This polarization-dependent ``Archimedes' screw'' transport at magic wavelength takes advantage of th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuguo Pan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Satellite orbit error and clock bias are the keys to precise point positioning (PPP. The traditional PPP algorithm requires precise satellite products based on worldwide permanent reference stations. Such an algorithm requires considerable work and hardly achieves real-time performance. However, real-time positioning service will be the dominant mode in the future. IGS is providing such an operational service (RTS and there are also commercial systems like Trimble RTX in operation. On the basis of the regional Continuous Operational Reference System (CORS, a real-time PPP algorithm is proposed to apply the coupling estimation of clock bias and orbit error. The projection of orbit error onto the satellite-receiver range has the same effects on positioning accuracy with clock bias. Therefore, in satellite clock estimation, part of the orbit error can be absorbed by the clock bias and the effects of residual orbit error on positioning accuracy can be weakened by the evenly distributed satellite geometry. In consideration of the simple structure of pseudorange equations and the high precision of carrier-phase equations, the clock bias estimation method coupled with orbit error is also improved. Rovers obtain PPP results by receiving broadcast ephemeris and real-time satellite clock bias coupled with orbit error. By applying the proposed algorithm, the precise orbit products provided by GNSS analysis centers are rendered no longer necessary. On the basis of previous theoretical analysis, a real-time PPP system was developed. Some experiments were then designed to verify this algorithm. Experimental results show that the newly proposed approach performs better than the traditional PPP based on International GNSS Service (IGS real-time products. The positioning accuracies of the rovers inside and outside the network are improved by 38.8% and 36.1%, respectively. The PPP convergence speeds are improved by up to 61.4% and 65.9%. The new approach can
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Aiying Yang; Yunan Sun
2008-01-01
@@ 40-GHz clock modulated signal as a pump to improve the efficiency of four-wave mixing (FWM)-based wavelength conversion in a 26.5-km dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the conjugated FWM component has higher intensity with the clock pumping than that with the continuous-wave (CW) light pumping. The improvement of FWM-based wavelength conversion efficiency is negligible when the pump power is less than Brillouin threshold. But when the pump power is greater than Brillouin threshold, the improvement becomes significant and increases with the increment of pump power. The improvement can increase up to 9 dB if pump power reaches 17 dBm.
RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems
Becker, G. Thomas
1993-01-01
A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.
Prediction of GNSS satellite clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis deals with the characterisation and prediction of GNSS-satellite-clocks. A prerequisite to develop powerful algorithms for the prediction of clock-corrections is the thorough study of the behaviour of the different clock-types of the satellites. In this context the predicted part of the IGU-clock-corrections provided by the Analysis Centers (ACs) of the IGS was compared to the IGS-Rapid-clock solutions to determine reasonable estimates of the quality of already existing well performing predictions. For the shortest investigated interval (three hours) all ACs obtain almost the same accuracy of 0,1 to 0,4 ns. For longer intervals the individual predictions results start to diverge. Thus, for a 12-hours- interval the differences range from nearly 10 ns (GFZ, CODE) until up to some 'tens of ns'. Based on the estimated clock corrections provided via the IGS Rapid products a simple quadratic polynomial turns out to be sufficient to describe the time series of Rubidium-clocks. On the other hand Cesium-clocks show a periodical behaviour (revolution period) with an amplitude of up to 6 ns. A clear correlation between these amplitudes and the Sun elevation angle above the orbital planes can be demonstrated. The variability of the amplitudes is supposed to be caused by temperature-variations affecting the oscillator. To account for this periodical behaviour a quadratic polynomial with an additional sinus-term was finally chosen as prediction model both for the Cesium as well as for the Rubidium clocks. The three polynomial-parameters as well as amplitude and phase shift of the periodic term are estimated within a least-square-adjustment by means of program GNSS-VC/static. Input-data are time series of the observed part of the IGU clock corrections. With the estimated parameters clock-corrections are predicted for various durations. The mean error of the prediction of Rubidium-clock-corrections for an interval of six hours reaches up to 1,5 ns. For the 12-hours
Entangling the lattice clock: Towards Heisenberg-limited timekeeping
Weinstein, Jonathan D; Derevianko, Andrei
2009-01-01
We present a scheme for entangling the atoms of an optical lattice to reduce the quantum projection noise of a clock measurement. The divalent clock atoms are held in a lattice at a ``magic'' wavelength that does not perturb the clock frequency -- to maintain clock accuracy -- while an open-shell J=1/2 ``head'' atom is coherently transported between lattice sites via the lattice polarization. This polarization-dependent ``Archimedes' screw'' transport at magic wavelength takes advantage of the vanishing vector polarizability of the scalar, J=0, clock states of bosonic isotopes of divalent atoms. The on-site interactions between the clock atoms and the head atom are used to engineer entanglement and for clock readout.
Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Steigenberger, Peter; Ziebart, Marek
2014-05-01
depends on the orbit quality and should rather be called GNSS orbit bias instead of SLR bias. When LEO satellite orbits are estimated using GPS, this GPS orbit bias is mapped into the antenna phase center. All LEO satellites, such as CHAMP, GRACE and JASON-1/2, need an adjustment of the radial antenna phase center offset. GNSS orbit translations towards the Sun in the orbital plane do not only propagate into the estimated LEO orbits, but also into derived gravity field and altimetry products. Geometrical mapping of orbit perturbations using an on board GNSS clock is a new technique to monitor orbit perturbations along the orbit and was successfully applied in the modeling of Solar radiation pressure. We show that CODE Solar radiation pressure parameterization lacks dependency with the Sun's elevation, i.e. elongation angle (rotation of Solar arrays), especially at low Sun elevations (eclipses). Parameterisation with the Sun elongation angle is used in the so-called T30 model (ROCK-model) that includes thermal re-radiation. A preliminary version of Solar radiation pressure for the first five Galileo and the GPS-36 satellite is based on 2×180 days of the MGEX Campaign. We show that Galileo clocks map the Yarkowsky effect along the orbit, i.e. the lag between the Sun's illumination and thermal re-radiation. We present the first geometrical mapping of anisotropic thermal emission of absorbed sunlight of an illuminated satellite. In this way, the effects of Solar radiation pressure can be modelled with only two paramaters for all Sun elevations.
Frequency noise processes in a strontium ion optical clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A recent comparison of the frequencies of a pair of optical clocks based on the 674 nm 2S1/2–2D5/2 optical clock transition in 88Sr+ has highlighted the need to understand factors affecting frequency instability. We have developed statistical models to show that our clock is capable of reaching the quantum projection noise limit; for our clock using 100 ms probe pulses, this is ∼3 × 10−15/√τ. However, this optical clock uses atomic transitions with a linear Zeeman shift, which can lead to a degradation in stability in the presence of magnetic field noise. We show that this generally leads to an increase in white frequency noise, even in cases dominated by magnetic field flicker or random walk noise. By taking into account both the quantum projection and magnetic field noise we are able to explain our observed frequency instabilities. This analysis will relate to any optical clock with a linear Zeeman shift where cancellation of this shift is achieved by interrogating pairs of components. Furthermore, implementing automatic control of lasers and minimization of micromotion requires pausing of the frequency servo occasionally; this leads to only a small degradation of frequency stability. (paper)
A Student Laboratory Experiment Based on the Vitamin C Clock Reaction
Vitz, Ed
2007-01-01
The Vitamin C Clock Reaction has now been adapted to serve as a student laboratory experiment in the education process of high-school and college-level general chemistry. Despite of imparting valuable knowledge, it also may be hazardous, as the tincture of iodine contains inflammable substances that may cause burning on prolonged exposure.
Development of a strontium optical lattice clock for space applications
Singh, Yeshpal
2016-07-01
With timekeeping being of paramount importance for modern life, much research and major scientific advances have been undertaken in the field of frequency metrology, particularly over the last few years. New Nobel-prize winning technologies have enabled a new era of atomic clocks; namely the optical clock. These have been shown to perform significantly better than the best microwave clocks reaching an inaccuracy of 1.6x10-18 [1]. With such results being found in large lab based apparatus, the focus now has shifted to portability - to enable the accuracy of various ground based clocks to be measured, and compact autonomous performance - to enable such technologies to be tested in space. This could lead to a master clock in space, improving not only the accuracy of technologies on which modern life has come to require such as GPS and communication networks. But also more fundamentally, this could lead to the redefinition of the second and tests of fundamental physics including applications in the fields of ground based and satellite geodesy, metrology, positioning, navigation, transport and logistics etc. Within the European collaboration, Space Optical Clocks (SOC2) [2-3] consisting of various institutes and industry partners across Europe we have tried to tackle this problem of miniaturisation whilst maintaining stability, accuracy (5x10-17) and robustness whilst keeping power consumption to a minimum - necessary for space applications. We will present the most recent results of the Sr optical clock in SOC2 and also the novel compact design features, new methods employed and outlook. References [1] B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, "An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level," Nature 506, 71-75 (2014). [2] S. Schiller et al. "Towards Neutral-atom Space Optical Clocks (SOC2): Development of high-performance transportable and breadboard optical clocks and
A scheme for implementing quantum clock synchronization algorithm in cavity QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Qin-Qin; Kuang Le-Man
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme for implementing the quantum clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm in cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) formalism. Our method is based on three-level ladder-type atoms interacting with classical and quantized cavity fields. Atom-qubit realizations of three-qubit and four-qubit QCS algorithms are explicitly presented.
KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS BASED ON SW ATOM
Ladislav Burita; Pavel Gardavsky
2014-01-01
The article presents the knowledge systems developed by using the software AToM and the experience with their application for teaching and universities cooperation. The theoretical bases of the solution are Topic Maps; the software AToM is described and individual cases of the knowledge systems are introduced. The article reflects the years of experience in the cooperation of the knowledge systems development with the AION CS Company. Two examples are presented in detail: “Conferences” – know...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘洪毓
2000-01-01
“Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.
Ultrafast Phase Comparator for Phase-Locked Loop-Based Optoelectronic Clock Recovery Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gomez-Agis, F.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Kurimura, S.;
2009-01-01
The authors report on a novel application of a chi((2)) nonlinear optical device as an ultrafast phase comparator, an essential element that allows an optoelectronic phase-locked loop to perform clock recovery of ultrahigh-speed optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) signals. Particular interes...... is devoted to a quasi-phase-matching adhered-ridge-waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) device, which shows a sufficient high temporal resolution to resolve a 640 Gbits OTDM signal.......The authors report on a novel application of a chi((2)) nonlinear optical device as an ultrafast phase comparator, an essential element that allows an optoelectronic phase-locked loop to perform clock recovery of ultrahigh-speed optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) signals. Particular interest...
Baranov, A. A.; Ermak, S. V.; Smolin, R. V.; Semenov, V. V.
2016-06-01
This paper presents the results of two double resonance signals correlation investigation. These signals were observed synchronously in optically oriented Rb87 vapors with laser pumping in a dual scheme: low frequency Mx-magnetometer and microwave frequency discriminator. Analytical studies of the scalar and vector light shift components contribution to the frequency instability of the end resonance microwave transitions are presented. An experimental demonstration of the light shift components mutual compensation in optically pumped Rb87 atoms was provided. The results were processed in terms of Allan variance, which demonstrated an effect of decreasing frequency variation at averaging times more than 100 s for a joint scheme of the end resonance microwave transition and selfgenerating (Mx) magnetometer.
Suppression of collisional shifts in a strongly interacting lattice clock
Swallows, Matthew D; Lin, Yige; Blatt, Sebastian; Martin, Michael J; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun
2010-01-01
Atomic clocks based on neutral atoms confined in optical lattices provide a unique opportunity for precise studies of quantum many-body systems. The 87Sr optical lattice clock at JILA has reached an overall fractional frequency uncertainty of 1x10^-16 [1, 2]. This uncertainty is dominated by two contributions: atomic collisions and frequency shifts due to room-temperature blackbody radiation. The density-dependent frequency shift arises from collisions between fermionic atoms that are subject to slightly inhomogeneous optical excitation [3, 4]. Several theories of the underlying frequency shift mechanism have been proposed [5-7]. A three-dimensional optical lattice clock, where each lattice site contains at most one atom, has been reported [8], and its collisional shift has been characterized with an uncertainty of 7x10^-16. Here we present a different and seemingly paradoxical solution to the problem: by strongly confining atoms in an array of quasi-one-dimensional potentials formed by a two-dimensional opti...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨文可; 孟文东; 韩文标; 谢勇辉; 任晓乾; 胡小工; 董文丽
2016-01-01
高精度时间频率的产生和超高精度时频信号的传递是现代物理学、天文学和计量科学的基础。空间原子钟组计划(Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space, ACES)是由欧洲空间局实施的基于国际空间站(International Space Station, ISS)微重力环境下的新型空间微波原子钟实验验证项目。概要介绍ACES项目基本情况，重点介绍ACES项目的主要科学和技术目标，围绕科学目标而形成的ACES 组成结构，并梳理涉及的关键技术，特别介绍了ACES 将应用的超高精度时频传递技术，为我国自主研究并实现相关空间时间频率系统及其应用提供参考。最后简述了我国正在建设的空间站时频系统主要情况和实施计划。%One of the foundations for the development of modern physics, astronomy and metrology is the generation, transfer and measurement of high precision time frequency signals. As a space mission for the study of high precision time frequency signals, Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space, or ACES, sponsored by European Space Agency to launch in 2017 or later, will take advantage of the excellent stability performance of microwave atomic clocks in a microgravity environment. One clock using laser-cooled Cs atoms working together with one hydrogen maser clock are planned to be placed onboard the International Space Station in hope to produce a frequency standard with both accuracy and stability reaching the level of 10−16. A microwave link along with a laser link will be set up between ACES and ground atomic clocks distributed around the world for high precision comparison and transfer. Various basic researches will benefit from a high precision space atomic clock such as the verification of Einstein’s general relativity, detection of possible time variability of certain fundamental constants in physics, as well as brand new applications such as relativistic gravity and GNSS remote sensing. This paper reviews and summarizes the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.
2007-09-27
Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.
Automatic control of clock duty cycle
Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor); Seefeldt, James D. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
In general, this disclosure is directed to a duty cycle correction (DCC) circuit that adjusts a falling edge of a clock signal to achieve a desired duty cycle. In some examples, the DCC circuit may generate a pulse in response to a falling edge of an input clock signal, delay the pulse based on a control voltage, adjust the falling edge of the input clock signal based on the delayed pulse to produce an output clock signal, and adjust the control voltage based on the difference between a duty cycle of the output clock signal and a desired duty cycle. Since the DCC circuit adjusts the falling edge of the clock cycle to achieve a desired duty cycle, the DCC may be incorporated into existing PLL control loops that adjust the rising edge of a clock signal without interfering with the operation of such PLL control loops.
KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS BASED ON SW ATOM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ladislav Burita
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The article presents the knowledge systems developed by using the software AToM and the experience with their application for teaching and universities cooperation. The theoretical bases of the solution are Topic Maps; the software AToM is described and individual cases of the knowledge systems are introduced. The article reflects the years of experience in the cooperation of the knowledge systems development with the AION CS Company. Two examples are presented in detail: “Conferences” – knowledge system used for education and “MilUNI” –system for military universities cooperation.
Constructive polarization modulation for coherent population trapping clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks
Simulating Future GPS Clock Scenarios with Two Composite Clock Algorithms
Suess, Matthias; Matsakis, Demetrios; Greenhall, Charles A.
2010-01-01
Using the GPS Toolkit, the GPS constellation is simulated using 31 satellites (SV) and a ground network of 17 monitor stations (MS). At every 15-minutes measurement epoch, the monitor stations measure the time signals of all satellites above a parameterized elevation angle. Once a day, the satellite clock estimates the station and satellite clocks. The first composite clock (B) is based on the Brown algorithm, and is now used by GPS. The second one (G) is based on the Greenhall algorithm. The composite clock of G and B performance are investigated using three ground-clock models. Model C simulates the current GPS configuration, in which all stations are equipped with cesium clocks, except for masers at USNO and Alternate Master Clock (AMC) sites. Model M is an improved situation in which every station is equipped with active hydrogen masers. Finally, Models F and O are future scenarios in which the USNO and AMC stations are equipped with fountain clocks instead of masers. Model F is a rubidium fountain, while Model O is more precise but futuristic Optical Fountain. Each model is evaluated using three performance metrics. The timing-related user range error having all satellites available is the first performance index (PI1). The second performance index (PI2) relates to the stability of the broadcast GPS system time itself. The third performance index (PI3) evaluates the stability of the time scales computed by the two composite clocks. A distinction is made between the "Signal-in-Space" accuracy and that available through a GNSS receiver.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courtillot, I
2003-11-01
This thesis reports the first results towards the realization of an optical clock using trapped strontium atoms. This set up would combine advantages of the different approaches commonly used to develop an atomic frequency standard. The first part describes the cold atoms source which is implemented. A magneto-optical trap operating on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition at 461 nm is loaded from an atomic beam decelerated by a Zeeman slower. The 461 nm laser is obtained by sum-frequency mixing in a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. The second part is devoted to the different stages developed to achieve the direct excitation of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition in {sup 87}Sr. This line has a theoretical natural width of 10{sup -3} Hz. Before this detection, we obtained an estimate of the resonance frequency by measuring absolute frequencies of several allowed optical transitions. (author)
AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms
Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth
2015-05-01
We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.
A HTML5 open source tool to conduct studies based on Libet's clock paradigm.
Garaizar, Pablo; Cubillas, Carmelo P; Matute, Helena
2016-01-01
Libet's clock is a well-known procedure in experiments in psychology and neuroscience. Examples of its use include experiments exploring the subjective sense of agency, action-effect binding, and subjective timing of conscious decisions and perceptions. However, the technical details of the apparatus used to conduct these types of experiments are complex, and are rarely explained in sufficient detail as to guarantee an exact replication of the procedure. With this in mind, we developed Labclock Web, a web tool designed to conduct online and offline experiments using Libet's clock. After describing its technical features, we explain how to configure specific experiments using this tool. Its degree of accuracy and precision in the presentation of stimuli has been technically validated, including the use of two cognitive experiments conducted with voluntary participants who performed the experiment both in our laboratory and via the Internet. Labclock Web is distributed without charge under a free software license (GPLv3) since one of our main objectives is to facilitate the replication of experiments and hence the advancement of knowledge in this area. PMID:27623167
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abgrall, M
2003-01-01
The performances of an atomic frequency standard depend drastically on the observation time of the atoms. The interrogation of laser cooled atoms allows to obtain about half a second interaction time in a fountain geometry. This duration could be much more varied in absence of gravity, and would allow a better trade-off between stability and accuracy. The application of this principle is the aim of the PHARAO project, that should attend to the ACES mission planned in 2006 onboard the International Space Station. The first part of this thesis deals with the cold Cs{sup 133} PHARAO fountain. This clock stems from the transformation of a space clock prototype previously tested in microgravity. A detailed evaluation of the whole frequency shifts has been carried out, reaching a 7.7 10{sup -16} accuracy and a 1.7 10{sup -13}{tau}{sup -1/2} short term stability. These values are obtained for 4 10{sup 5} detected atoms, that provides a good stability-accuracy trade-off. This transportable fountain, built at BNM-SYRTE, has been operating at MPQ in Munich (Germany). The collaboration between the 2 laboratories gave a {approx} 10 improvement factor on the measurement accuracy (1.8 10{sup -14}) for the 1S - 2S two photons hydrogen transition. In a second part of this thesis, we present the characterisation of 2 elements of the PHARAO space clock: the construction of a standard extended cavity laser and the test of the phase symmetry between the two interrogating areas of the space cavity. (author)
The physical nature of the 8 o'clock arc based on near-IR IFU spectroscopy with SINFONI
Shirazi, M; Nesvadba, N; Allam, S; Brinchmann, J; Tucker, D
2013-01-01
We present an analysis of near-infrared integral field unit spectroscopy for the gravitationally lensed Lyman break galaxy, the 8 o'clock arc, taken with SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope. We explore the shape of the spatially-resolved H\\beta\\ profile and demonstrate that we can decompose it into three main components that partially overlap (spatially) but are distinguishable when we include the dynamical information. To study the de-lensed morphology of the galaxy we make use of existing B & H imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and construct a rigorous lens model using a Bayesian grid based lens modeling technique. We apply this lens model to the SINFONI data cube to construct the de-lensed H\\beta\\ line map and the velocity and velocity dispersion maps of the galaxy. We explore the dynamical state of the galaxy and find that the 8 o'clock arc has a complex velocity field that is not simply explained by a single rotating disk. The H\\beta\\ profile of the galaxy shows a blue-shifted wing suggesting g...
Optical to microwave clock frequency ratios with a nearly continuous strontium optical lattice clock
Lodewyck, Jérôme; Bookjans, Eva; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Shi, Chunyan; Vallet, Grégoire; Targat, Rodolphe Le; Nicolodi, Daniele; Coq, Yann Le; Guéna, Jocelyne; Abgrall, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Bize, Sébastien
2016-01-01
Optical lattice clocks are at the forefront of frequency metrology. Both the instability and systematic uncertainty of these clocks have been reported to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the best microwave clocks. For this reason, a redefinition of the SI second based on optical clocks seems possible in the near future. However, the operation of optical lattice clocks has not yet reached the reliability that microwave clocks have achieved so far. In this paper, we report on the operation of a strontium optical lattice clock that spans several weeks, with more than 80% uptime. We make use of this long integration time to demonstrate a reproducible measurement of frequency ratios between the strontium clock transition and microwave Cs primary and Rb secondary frequency standards.
Accelerator based atomic physics experiments: an overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atomic Physics research with beams from accelerators has continued to expand and the number of papers and articles at meetings and in journals reflects a steadily increasing interest and an increasing support from various funding agencies. An attempt will be made to point out where interdisciplinary benefits have occurred, and where applications of the new results to engineering problems are expected. Drawing from material which will be discussed in the conference, a list of the most active areas of research is presented. Accelerator based atomic physics brings together techniques from many areas, including chemistry, astronomy and astrophysics, nuclear physics, solid state physics and engineering. An example is the use of crystal channeling to sort some of the phenomena of ordinary heavy ion stopping powers. This tool has helped us to reach a better understanding of stopping mechanisms with the result that now we have established a better base for predicting energy losses of heavy ions in various materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to the development of faster communication networks and improving computer technology beside postprocessing techniques real-time applications and services are more and more created and used in the eld of precise positioning and navigation using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) like GPS. Data formats like RTCM (NTRIP) or RTIGS serve in this manner as basic tool to transmit real-time GNSS observation data to a eld of users. To handle this trend to real-time, the International GNSS Service (IGS) or more precisely the Real-Time Working Group (RTWG) of the IGS started to establish a global GNSS station network several years ago. These reference stations (RTIGS stations) transmit their observation data in real-time via the open internet to registerd users to support the development of potential new real-time products and services. One example for such a new real-time application based on the observations of the RTIGS network is the software RTIGU-Control developed within this PHD thesis. RTIGU-Control fulls 2 main tasks. The rst task is the monitoring (integrity) of the predicted IGS orbit and clock products (IGU products) using real-time observations from the station network. The second task deals with calculating more precise satellite and station clock corrections compared to the predicted values of the IGU solutions based on the already very precise IGU orbit solutions. In a rst step RTIGU-Control calculates based on the IGU orbit predictions together with code-smoothed station observations precise values for the satellite and station clock corrections.The code-smoothed observations are additionally corrected for several corrections eecting the GNSS observations (for example the delay of the signal propagation time due to the atmosphere, relativistic eects, etc.). The second calculation step deals with monitoring the IGU predicted orbits using the calculated clock solution in the calculation step before and again the corrected real-time observations
Recent progress in optically-pumped cesium beam clock at Peking University
Liu, C.; Zhou, S.; Wan, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.
2016-06-01
A compact, long-life, and low-drift cesium beam clock is investigated at Peking University, where the atoms are magnetic-state selected and optically detected. Stability close to that of the best commercial cesium clocks has been achieved from 10 to 105 s. As previously shown, the short-term stability is determined by atomic shot noise or laser frequency noise. The stabilizations of microwave power and C-field improve the long-term stability, with the help of a digital servo system based on field-programmable gate array.
Synthetic dimensions and spin-orbit coupling with an optical clock transition
Livi, L F; Diem, M; Franchi, L; Clivati, C; Frittelli, M; Levi, F; Calonico, D; Catani, J; Inguscio, M; Fallani, L
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a novel way of synthesizing spin-orbit interactions in ultracold quantum gases, based on a single-photon optical clock transition coupling two long-lived electronic states of two-electron $^{173}$Yb atoms. By mapping the electronic states onto effective sites along a synthetic "electronic" dimension, we have engineered synthetic fermionic ladders with tunable magnetic fluxes. We have detected the spin-orbit coupling with fiber-link-enhanced clock spectroscopy and directly measured the emergence of chiral edge currents, probing them as a function of the magnetic field flux. These results open new directions for the investigation of topological states of matter with ultracold atomic gases.
Conveyor belt clock synchronization
Giovannetti, V; Maccone, L; Shapiro, J H; Wong, F N C; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2004-01-01
A protocol for synchronizing distant clocks is proposed that does not rely on the arrival times of the signals which are exchanged, and an optical implementation based on coherent-state pulses is described. This protocol is not limited by any dispersion that may be present in the propagation medium through which the light signals are exchanged. Possible improvements deriving from the use of quantum-mechanical effects are also addressed.
Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with $5 \\times 10^{-17}$ uncertainty at 150 s averaging time
Nemitz, Nils; Takamoto, Masao; Ushijima, Ichiro; Das, Manoj; Ohmae, Noriaki; Katori, Hidetoshi
2016-01-01
Transition frequencies of atoms and ions are among the most accurately accessible quantities in nature, playing important roles in pushing the frontiers of science by testing fundamental laws of physics, in addition to a wide range of applications such as satellite navigation systems. Atomic clocks based on optical transitions approach uncertainties of $10^{-18}$, where full frequency descriptions are far beyond the reach of the SI second. Frequency ratios of such super clocks, on the other hand, are not subject to this limitation. They can therefore verify consistency and overall accuracy for an ensemble of super clocks, an essential step towards a redefinition of the second. However, with the measurement stabilities so far reported for such frequency ratios, a confirmation to $1 \\times 10^{-18}$ uncertainty would require an averaging time $\\tau$ of multiple months. Here we report a measurement of the frequency ratio of neutral ytterbium and strontium clocks with a much improved stability of $4 \\times 10^{-1...
Determination of the thermal radiation effect on an optical strontium lattice clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Optical clocks have the potential to be 100 times more accurate than current best cesium atomic clocks within a fraction of the averaging time. This corresponds to a fractional uncertainty of the clock frequency on the level of 10-18 and requires highaccuracy knowledge of systematic frequency shifts, such that they can be avoided or corrected for. In strontium optical lattice clocks an ensemble of ultracold strontium atoms is confined in an optical lattice, to allow for spectroscopy of the reference transition 5s21S0-5s5p 3P0 in the Lamb-Dicke regime. The by far largest systematic frequency shift of the strontium clock transition is caused by its high sensitivity to blackbody radiation (BBR). The knowledge of the resulting frequency shift limited the achievable clock uncertainty to about 1 x 10-16. In this thesis for the first time an experimental approach was followed, to determine the sensitivity of the strontium clock transition to blackbody radiation. At an environmental temperature of 300 K the resulting frequency shift corresponds to 2.277 8(23) Hz. The achieved uncertainty contributes with 5 x 10-18 to the fractional systematic uncertainty of the clock frequency. The determination is based on a precision measurement of the difference of static polarizabilities of the two clock states Δαdc = α(5s5p 3P0)-α(5s21S0) = 4.078 73(11) x 10-39 Cm2 /V. For this the de Stark shift of the clock transition has been measured in the accurately known electric field of a precision plate capacitor, which has been developed in this work. The attained static polarizability difference Δαdc corresponds to the first term of a power series of the sensitivity to BBR. Higher orders are accumulated as dynamic part of the BBR shift. Which has been modelled using Δαdc and experimental data for other atomic properties. To interrogate the ultracold atoms in the electric field a novel transport technique has been developed, which uses the magic wavelength (813 nm) optical lattice
Ringermacher, Harry I.; Conradi, Mark S.; Cassenti, Brice
2005-01-01
Results of experiments to confirm a theory that links classical electromagnetism with the geometry of spacetime are described. The theory, based on the introduction of a Torsion tensor into Einstein s equations and following the approach of Schroedinger, predicts effects on clocks attached to charged particles, subject to intense electric fields, analogous to the effects on clocks in a gravitational field. We show that in order to interpret this theory, one must re-interpret all clock changes, both gravitational and electromagnetic, as arising from changes in potential energy and not merely potential. The clock is provided naturally by proton spins in hydrogen atoms subject to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance trials. No frequency change of clocks was observed to a resolution of 6310(exp -9). A new "Clock Principle" was postulated to explain the null result. There are two possible implications of the experiments: (a) The Clock Principle is invalid and, in fact, no metric theory incorporating electromagnetism is possible; (b) The Clock Principle is valid and it follows that a negative rest mass cannot exist.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders; Mørk, Jesper
2003-01-01
This paper describes a mathematical model of a balanced opto-electronic phase-locked loop (OPLL), which is required to be very fast for some network applications. OPLL is investigated in terms of clock pulse width, loop filter gain and residuals of the balancing DC level. Based on the guidelines ...
Clocks, Quantum Oscillators and Gravity: A Rigorous Analysis and a New Paradigm
Unnikrishnan, C. S.
2012-07-01
This paper is a comprehensive treatment of clocks in the presence of matter and gravity. With cold atom and single ion based ultra-precision clocks becoming available for research and metrology, a rigorous understanding of the influence of gravity on clocks is necessary, especially in the context of the ever-present cosmic gravity which in fact points to the necessity of a paradigm shift in thinking about time metrology. The phase of a stable oscillator is equivalent to physical time and this identification has enormous consequence in the context of quantum physics and gravity. Every quantum state is a superposition of abstract 'oscillators' and the phase shift induced by gravity is universal, independent of the nature of the oscillator, obeying the equivalence principle and the general principle of relativity. What constitutes a genuine clock and what is its ultimate precision in a measurement of gravitational time dilation is a hard problem in the context of the apparent universal behaviour of waves, quantum states and physical clocks in a gravitational field. In this paper I will establish two results: 1) the proper and the physical time of any clock is completely determined by the dominant cosmic gravitational potentials with small corrections induced by local gravitational potentials, and 2) atom interferometer gravimeters that measure relative phase shift of two stationary states in a gravitational field is not equivalent to two atomic clocks in a gravitational field. The first result provides a rigorous basis for all precision estimates of time accumulated by arbitrarily moving clocks with cosmic frame as the unambiguous decider of physical time, like GPS time, and solves all debates hitherto on clock comparisons. The second result is based on a rigorous treatment of the difference as well as the relation between the gravitational mass and the inertial mass. The result resolves the recent debate whether the measurement of the gravitational phase shift in
An atom laser based on Raman transitions
Moy, G M; Savage, C M
1996-01-01
In this paper we present an atom laser scheme using a Raman transition for the output coupling of atoms. A beam of thermal atoms (bosons) in a metastable atomic state |1> are pumped into a multimode atomic cavity. This cavity is coupled through spontaneous emission to a single mode of another cavity for the ground atomic state, |2>. Above a certain threshold pumping rate a large number of atoms, N2, builds up in this single quantum state and transitions to the ground state of the cavity become enhanced by a factor (N2+1). Atoms in this state are then coupled to the outside of the cavity with a Raman transition. This changes the internal state of the atom and imparts a momentum kick, allowing the atoms to leave the system.
The NIST 27 Al+ quantum-logic clock
Leibrandt, David; Brewer, Samuel; Chen, Jwo-Sy; Hume, David; Hankin, Aaron; Huang, Yao; Chou, Chin-Wen; Rosenband, Till; Wineland, David
2016-05-01
Optical atomic clocks based on quantum-logic spectroscopy of the 1 S0 3 P0 transition in 27 Al+ have reached a systematic fractional frequency uncertainty of 8 . 0 ×10-18 , enabling table-top tests of fundamental physics as well as measurements of gravitational potential differences. Currently, the largest limitations to the accuracy are second order time dilation shifts due to the driven motion (i.e., micromotion) and thermal motion of the trapped ions. In order to suppress these shifts, we have designed and built new ion traps based on gold-plated, laser-machined diamond wafers with differential RF drive, and we have operated one of our clocks with the ions laser cooled to near the six mode motional ground state. We present a characterization of the time dilation shifts in the new traps with uncertainties near 1 ×10-18 . Furthermore, we describe a new protocol for clock comparison measurements based on synchronous probing of the two clocks using phase-locked local oscillators, which allows for probe times longer than the laser coherence time and avoids the Dick effect. This work is supported by ARO, DARPA, and ONR.
An atomic clockwork using phase dependent energy shifts
De Munshi, D; Mukherjee, M
2011-01-01
A frequency stabilized laser referenced to an unperturbed atomic two level system acts as the most accurate clock with femtosecond clock ticks. For any meaningful use, a Femtosecond Laser Frequency Comb (FLFC) is used to transfer the atomic clock accuracy to electronically countable nanosecond clock ticks. Here we propose an alternative clockwork based on the phenomenon that when an atomic system is slowly evolved in a cyclic path, the atomic energy levels gather some phase called the geometric phase. This geometric phase dependent energy shift has been used here to couple the two frequency regimes in a phase coherent manner. It has also been shown that such a technique can be implemented experimentally, bypassing the highly involved setup of a FLFC.
Performance Evaluation of Clock Synchronization Algorithms
Anceaume, Emmanuelle; Puaut, Isabelle
1998-01-01
Clock synchronization algorithms ensure that physically dispersed processors have a common knowledge of time. This report proposes a survey of software fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms: deterministic, probabilistic and statistical ; internal and external ; and resilient from crash to Byzantine failures. Our survey is based on a classification of clock synchronization algorithms (according to their internal structure and to three orthogonal and independent basic building blocks ...
Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock
Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R.; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria
2016-01-01
We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s -wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p - and s -wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.
Comparing a mercury optical lattice clock with microwave and optical frequency standards
Tyumenev, R; Bilicki, S; Bookjans, E; Targat, R Le; Lodewyck, J; Nicolodi, D; Coq, Y Le; Abgrall, M; Guéna, J; De Sarlo, L; Bize, S
2016-01-01
In this paper we report the evaluation of an optical lattice clock based on neutral mercury down to a relative uncertainty of $1.7\\times 10^{-16}$. Comparing this characterized frequency standard to a Cs atomic fountain we determine the absolute frequency of the $^1S_0 \\rightarrow \\phantom{}^3P_0$ transition of $^{199}$Hg as $\
Atomic Electronic Contract Protocol Based on Convertible Signature
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yi-chun; WANG Li-na; ZHANG Huan-guo
2005-01-01
A new class of atomicity, namely contract atomicity is presented. A new technical strategy based on convertible signature and two-phase commitment is proposed for implementing atomicity of electronic contract protocol. A new atomic contract signing protocol is given out by using ElGamal-like convertible undeniable signature and commitment of conversion key, and another new atomic contract signing protocol is brought forward by using RSA-based convertible undeniable signature scheme and commitment of conversion key.These two new protocols are proved to be of atomicity, fairness, privacy, non-repudiation.
Lego clocks : building a clock from parts
Brunner, Michael; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Merrow, Martha
2008-01-01
A new finding opens up speculation that the molecular mechanism of circadian clocks in Synechococcus elongatus is composed of multiple oscillator systems (Kitayama and colleagues, this issue, pp. 1513-1521), as has been described in many eukaryotic clock model systems. However, an alternative intepr
Schiller, S; Nevsky, A; Koelemeij, J C J; Wicht, A; Gill, P; Klein, H A; Margolis, H S; Mileti, G; Sterr, U; Riehle, F; Peik, E; Tamm, C; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Klein, V; Salomon, C; Tino, G M; Lemonde, P; Holzwarth, R; Hänsch, T W; Tamm, Chr.
2007-01-01
The performance of optical clocks has strongly progressed in recent years, and accuracies and instabilities of 1 part in 10^18 are expected in the near future. The operation of optical clocks in space provides new scientific and technological opportunities. In particular, an earth-orbiting satellite containing an ensemble of optical clocks would allow a precision measurement of the gravitational redshift, navigation with improved precision, mapping of the earth's gravitational potential by relativistic geodesy, and comparisons between ground clocks.
Komar, Peter; Kessler, Eric; Bishof, Michael; Jiang, Liang; Sorensen, Anders; Ye, Jun; Lukin, Mikhail
2014-05-01
Shared timing information constitutes a key resource for positioning and navigation with a direct correspondence between timing accuracy and precision in applications such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). By combining precision metrology and quantum networks, we propose here a quantum, cooperative protocol for the operation of a network consisting of geographically remote optical atomic clocks. Using non-local entangled states, we demonstrate an optimal utilization of the global network resources, and show that such a network can be operated near the fundamental limit set by quantum theory yielding an ultra-precise clock signal. Furthermore, the internal structure of the network, combined with basic techniques from quantum communication, guarantees security both from internal and external threats. Realization of such a global quantum network of clocks may allow construction of a real-time single international time scale (world clock) with unprecedented stability and accuracy. See also: Komar et al. arXiv:1310.6045 (2013) and Kessler et al. arXiv:1310.6043 (2013).
Carbon based thirty six atom spheres
Piskoti, Charles R.; Zettl, Alex K.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Cote, Michel; Grossman, Jeffrey C.; Louie, Steven G.
2005-09-06
A solid phase or form of carbon is based on fullerenes with thirty six carbon atoms (C.sub.36). The C.sub.36 structure with D.sub.6h symmetry is one of the two most energetically favorable, and is conducive to forming a periodic system. The lowest energy crystal is a highly bonded network of hexagonal planes of C.sub.36 subunits with AB stacking. The C.sub.36 solid is not a purely van der Waals solid, but has covalent-like bonding, leading to a solid with enhanced structural rigidity. The solid C.sub.36 material is made by synthesizing and selecting out C.sub.36 fullerenes in relatively large quantities. A C.sub.36 rich fullerene soot is produced in a helium environment arc discharge chamber by operating at an optimum helium pressure (400 torr). The C.sub.36 is separated from the soot by a two step process. The soot is first treated with a first solvent, e.g. toluene, to remove the higher order fullerenes but leave the C.sub.36. The soot is then treated with a second solvent, e.g. pyridine, which is more polarizable than the first solvent used for the larger fullerenes. The second solvent extracts the C.sub.36 from the soot. Thin films and powders can then be produced from the extracted C.sub.36. Other materials are based on C.sub.36 fullerenes, providing for different properties.