Wiesner, Margit; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.
This study used longitudinal data from 202 at-risk young men to examine effects of arrests, prior risk factors, and recent life circumstances on job loss across a 7-year period in early adulthood. Repeated failure-time continuous event-history analysis indicated that occurrence of job loss was primarily related to prior mental health problems,…
Pears, Katherine C.; Pierce, Susan L.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.
Timing of first fatherhood was examined in a sample of 206 at-risk, predominantly White men, followed prospectively for 17 years. An event history analysis was used to test a model wherein antisocial behavior, the contextual and familial factors that may contribute to the development of antisocial behavior, and common correlates of such behavior,…
Pears, Katherine C.; Pierce, Susan L.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.
Timing of first fatherhood was examined in a sample of 206 at-risk, predominantly White men, followed prospectively for 17 years. An event history analysis was used to test a model wherein antisocial behavior, the contextual and familial factors that may contribute to the development of antisocial behavior, and common correlates of such behavior, including academic failure, substance use, and early initiation of sexual behaviors, lead both directly and indirectly to an early transition to fat...
Wiesner, Margit; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.
This study used longitudinal data from 202 at-risk young men to examine effects of arrests, prior risk factors, and recent life circumstances on job loss across a 7-year period in early adulthood. Repeated failure-time continuous event-history analysis indicated that occurrence of job loss was primarily related to prior mental health problems, recent arrests, recent drug use, and recent being married/cohabitation. It is argued that long-term effects of criminal justice contact on employment o...
Fields, Sheldon D; Wharton, Mitchell J; Marrero, Anita I; Little, Avril; Pannell, Kraig; Morgan, John H
The purpose of this study was to explore the use of gay-related Internet chat rooms by young men who have sex with other men of color (YMSMC) in a specific catchment area. Participants were 104 YMSMC age 18 to 24 (M = 21.56) who were encountered in two gay-related Internet chat rooms during April 2005. Participants were mainly African American (53.7%, n = 56), HIV-negative (57.6%, n = 60), and online looking for some type of sexual encounter (80.7%, n = 84). The results of this study support the need to develop specific culturally appropriate HIV prevention Internet outreach protocols targeting YMSMC at risk for HIV infection. Lessons learned while conducting this study and recommendations are also discussed. PMID:17113484
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian
in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...
According to a study conducted by the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, HIV-negative gay and bisexual men are at great risk of becoming HIV-positive unless changes in prevention education are made. Investigators studied gay men in four cities and projected their chances of becoming infected with HIV. They found an infection rate of three percent per year for gay and bisexual men under thirty. Low self-esteem, peer pressure, and a need for intimacy were contributing factors to unsafe sexual behavior. PMID:11362379
Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy
The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…
Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.
This paper explores a research and education project seeking positive ways to engage young men in respectful and ethical negotiation within sexual relationships. The experiences of young men aged 16-25 years of age are explored who took part in the Sex & Ethics Violence Prevention Program which was developed in 2006 and continues to be run in several Australian states and in New Zealand. The Program was designed to assist both young women and men to develop enhanced ethical sexual subjectivit...
Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.; Wiesner, Margit; Pears, Katherine C.
Fatherhood can be a turning point in development and in men's crime and substance use trajectories. At-risk boys (N = 206) were assessed annually from ages 12 to 31 years. Crime, arrest, and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use trajectories were examined. Marriage was associated with lower levels of crime and less frequent substance use. Following…
Bulik Cynthia M; Keski-Rahkonen Anna; Raevuori Anu; Rose Richard J; Rissanen Aila; Kaprio Jaakko
Abstract Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Resu...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years. Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL. Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23, and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81. A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among
Moya, Tatiana; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert
A representative sample of 7-14-year-old young people in southeast Brazil (N=1251) was assessed using standardized parent and youth interviews, thereby identifying an "at-risk" group of young people who met one or more DSM-IV criteria for anorexia and/or bulimia nervosa. These young people were compared with an age and gender matched comparison…
An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.
The study was conducted to investigate Russian young men's attitudes towards cosmetics products and their current consumption behavior. The research aim was to find out which factors were behind young Russian male consumers' cosmetics purchasing decisions. The introduction sought to present a foundation for the thesis. The theoretical framework aimed to provide a relevant background on the topic. In this section a brief overview of the portrayal of men is given with the help of cultural e...
Michael P. Keane; Wolpin, Kenneth I.
This paper provides structural estimates of a dynamic model of schooling, work, and occupational choice decisions based on eleven years of observations on a sample of young men from the 1979 youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLSY). The authors find that a suitably extended human capital investment model can in fact do an excellent job of fitting observed data on school attendance, work, occupational choices, and wages in the NLSY data on young men a...
Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal
This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships…
Brown, Jennifer A.; Garzarek, Jessica E.; Donegan, Katharine L.
The purpose of this multiple baseline study across participants was to examine a narrative retell intervention with guided self-monitoring on narrative macrostructure skills in low-income African American young children at risk for language disorders. Three target 4-year-old children in a mixed-age kindergarten class of nine students participated…
Xu, Ziyan; Mayer, Benjamin; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Oexle, Nathalie; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas
Suicidality is common among individuals at risk of psychosis. Emerging findings suggest that mental illness stigma contributes to suicidality. However, it is unclear whether stigma variables are associated with suicidality among young people at risk of psychosis. This longitudinal study assessed perceived public stigma and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor (stigma stress) as predictors of suicidal ideation among individuals at risk of psychosis over the period of one year. One hundred and seventy-two participants between 13 and 35 years of age were included who were at high or ultra-high risk of psychosis or at risk of bipolar disorder. At one-year follow-up, data were available from 73 completers. In multiple logistic regressions an increase of stigma stress (but not of perceived stigma) over one year was significantly associated with suicidal ideation at one-year follow-up, controlling for age, gender, symptoms, comorbid depression and suicidal ideation at baseline. Interventions to reduce public stigma and stigma stress could therefore improve suicide prevention among young people at risk of psychosis. PMID:27419651
The main aim of this thesis was to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of alternative interventions for facilitating help-seeking and improving the mental health of young adult males. Based on recommendations for innovative ways to develop interventions that facilitate mental health help-seeking specific to men (Addis & Mahalik, 2003), the interventions employed in this thesis integrate exercise and psychotherapeutic strategies, and make use of sport as a vehicle for mental health pr...
Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity. PMID:26496914
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.
In the current study, the moderating effects of observed negative and positive affects on the association between intimate partner violence (IPV, physical aggression) and relationship satisfaction were examined over a 5-year period. Multiwave data were obtained from a sample of young-adult men at risk for delinquency and their women partners (n = 121 couples; ages 21-26 years). The trajectory of each partner’s relationship satisfaction and the effects of dyadic IPV and affect were tested usin...
Gallicchio, Lisa; Scherer, Roberta W.; Sexton, Mary
Although removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses remains the primary means of preventing elevated blood lead among young children, reduction of risk through nutritional factors has also been of interest. In this study we evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on blood lead levels by analyzing whether the intakes of certain dietary components a) were associated with blood lead levels independent of lead exposure or b) modified the effect of lead exposure on blood lead. Subjects were...
Perez, Sonia M.; Cruz, Steven
The combination of poverty, inadequate attention, and the difficult period of young adulthood has serious implications for young Puerto Rican men. To draw attention to their strengths, needs, and status, the National Council of La Raza Poverty Project conducted a two-year community-based study on young Puerto Rican men and family poverty. This…
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle;
The paper discusses and analyses results from qualitative research on a Danish youth project named Youth in Development (Danish: “Unge i Vækst”). The project, financially supported by the EU and local authorities, was aimed at finding new ways in the guidance of young adults at risk of being...... of these young people can be understood with a reference to socialization and concepts such as habitus and social and cultural forms of capital. Based on collaboration between relevant local actors (vocational schools, labor marked authorities, business associations and others) a full-time course was organized......-structured interviews with participants, strongly indicates that it is possible to facilitate processes to improve self-confidence in these young people and develop the necessary social competencies to meet the demands of further education and work....
James A. McCubbin
Full Text Available Hypertension has been linked to impaired cognitive/CNS function, and some of these changes may precede development of frank essential hypertension. The stress and fatigue of sleep deprivation may exacerbate these cognitive changes in young adults at risk. We hypothesize that individuals at risk for hypertension will show significant declines in cognitive function during a night of sleep deprivation. Fifty-one young adults were recruited for 28-hour total sleep deprivation studies. Hypertension risk was assessed by mildly elevated resting blood pressure and by family history of hypertension. A series of cognitive memory tasks was given at four test sessions across the sleep deprivation period. Although initially comparable in cognitive performance, persons at risk showed larger declines across the night for several indices of working memory, including code substitution, category, and order recall. These results suggest that cognitive/CNS changes may parallel or precede blood pressure dysregulation in the early stages of hypertension development. The role of CNS changes in the etiology of essential hypertension is discussed.
The aim of the study is to investigate how young men constructing identities in talk about their own use of violence. The study is based on a fieldwork at a youth detention home in Sweden. The data consists of individual interviews and video recordings of the treatment programme Aggression Replacement Training (ART). Detailed analyses have been made of conversations between the young men, between the young men and the trainers, and of the narratives generated in the individual interviews. The...
Hyde, Abbey; Drennan, Jonathan; Howlett, Etaoine; Brady, Dympna
This article reports on a qualitative analysis of theThis article reports on a qualitative analysis of the accounts of young men on their experiences of heterosexual encounters. Based on data collected in Ireland using 17 focus groups with 124 young men aged between 14 and 19 years (a subsection of a wider study), the manner in which intricate peer groupmechanisms acted as surveillance strategies in regulating the young men toward presenting themselves in ways consistent with hegemonic manife...
... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... for oral cancer and the importance of early detection. Multimedia: Video: Are You at Risk for Oral ...
In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the…
Frederiksen, Martin Demant
In the midst of societal optimism, how do young men cope with the loss of a vibrant future? Young Men, Time, and Boredom in the Republic of Georgia provides a vivid exploration of the tension between subjective and societal time and the ways these tensions create experiences of marginality among...
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping
This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…
Mikocka-Walus Antonina A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Methods Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0, analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results Twenty five (27% out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p Conclusions The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative.
Shoveller, Jean A; Knight, Rod; Johnson, Joy; Oliffe, John L; Goldenberg, Shira
In Canada, STI rates are high and rising, especially amongst young men. Meanwhile, the needs of young men regarding STI testing services are poorly understood, as are the socio-cultural and structural factors that influence young men's sexual health-seeking behaviours. To better understand this phenomenon, we draw on interviews with 45 men (ages 15-25) from British Columbia, Canada. Our research reveals how structural forces (e.g. STI testing procedures) interact with socio-cultural factors (e.g. perceptions of masculinities and feminities) to shape young men's experiences with STI testing. STI testing was characterised as both a potentially sexualised experience (e.g. fears of getting an erection during genital examinations), and as a process where young men experience multiple vulnerabilities associated with exposing the male body in clinical service sites. In response, participants drew on dominant ideals of masculinity to reaffirm their predominately hetero-normative gender identities. Despite growing up in an era where sexual health promotion efforts have been undertaken, participants did not feel they had permission to engage in discussions with other men about sexual health issues. Attending to young men's perspectives on STI testing represents a starting point in reforming our approaches to addressing how socio-cultural and structural factors shape these experiences. PMID:20415807
Johnson, Lauren C
Female sex tourism has become an accepted income generator for many underemployed men in Jamaica who seek to reap economic benefits from relationships with visiting tourist women. This issue provides contexts to explore the numerous ways in which health intersects with issues of masculinity, sexuality and marginality. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a popular Jamaican resort town, this paper examines the health implications of female sex tourism for the local population and tourist visitors. Data from this project indicate the need for improved sexually transmitted infection education and HIV outreach work towards men who are involved in transactional sex with tourist women. Due to prevalent perceptions of masculinity and gendered notions of sexuality, men who engage in sex tourism constitute a population that rarely receives the attention of local and national health authorities. Data from this qualitative study suggest that engaging this particular vulnerable population could potentially decrease the risk of STI and HIV infection in the country's most popular resort areas. Research of this kind is urgently needed to better understand the risk factors and challenges for Caribbean populations, as well as to inform future prevention efforts in the region. PMID:27001008
Hughes, Celia Penelope
This article examines the political, social and psychological experiences of a group of young working-class men who in the early-to-mid 1960s became active members in branches of the Labour Party Young Socialists. Concentrated in London's East End, these branches had become increasingly open to the...... context of real social and economic shifts in the men's local landscapes as well as the wider international Cold War climate. Drawing upon oral history interviews with former Young Socialist members, this article explores the cultural and social expression of these working-class men, looking at...
Full Text Available Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early stages of stimulant use show altered decision making processing.158 occasional stimulants users (OSU and 50 comparison subjects (CS performed a "risky gains" decision making task during which they could select safe options (cash in 20 cents or gamble them for double or nothing in two consecutive gambles (win or lose 40 or 80 cents, "risky decisions". The primary analysis focused on risky versus safe decisions. Three secondary analyses were conducted: First, a robust regression examined the effect of lifetime exposure to stimulants and marijuana; second, subgroups of OSU with >1000 (n = 42, or <50 lifetime marijuana uses (n = 32, were compared to CS with <50 lifetime uses (n = 46 to examine potential marijuana effects; third, brain activation associated with behavioral adjustment following monetary losses was probed.There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options.Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring
... Updates News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...
Barron, Michael; Bradford, Simon
This article explores the experiences of gay and bisexual young men in Ireland. It draws on focus groups and individual interviews with a group of gay and bisexual men aged 16 to 25 in Dublin. The article explores how their identities are "discredited" and "othered" through symbolic and material violence, and their bodies become an index in both…
Roberto, Karen A.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Nikzad, Katherina A.
During a 4-year period, aggregated data from Adult Protective Services case files in Virginia revealed 17 cases of sexually abused young, middle-age, and old men. The most common types of sexual abuse across age groups involved instances of sexualized kissing and fondling and unwelcome sexual interest in the individual men's bodies. The majority…
Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan
For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use. PMID:25662567
Dowshen, Nadia; Binns, Helen J.; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) represent an increasing number of new HIV infections in many communities. Many individuals still hold beliefs that may lead to discrimination against HIV-positive individuals. HIV stigma is associated with negative health and psychosocial outcomes and may lead to greater challenges for this marginalized population. This study describes stigma experienced by HIV-positive young MSM, explores its relationship to psychosocial measures, and tests the hypothesi...
Vervaeke, Hylke K.E.; Benschop, Annemieke; Van Den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged up to 18 years who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in the near future. After an 11- to…
King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang
In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purpo...
Kipke, Michele D.; Weiss, George; Ramirez, Marizen; Dorey, Fred; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Ford, Wesley
Little is known about young men who have sex with men's use of club drugs and the risk factors associated with such use. A structured survey was administered in 2005 to 496 young men who were 18-22 years old (40% were 18-19 years old); self-identified as with a same-sex sexuality (83%), bisexual (16%), and/or had had sex with a man (97%); Caucasian (35%), African American (24%), and Latino of Mexican descent (40%). Subjects were recruited from gay-identified venues in Los Angeles, California ...
Marcell, Arik V; Jagers, Robert J; Mayden, Bronwyn; Mobley, Cynthia
Recent recommendations advocate involving young men in reproductive health programs. We know little about how young men perceive their reproductive health needs. For this study, 47 African American young men (mean age, 17.9 years) recruited from four community-based organizations completed a brief survey to explore life priorities and perceptions of health needs across 12 to 14, 15 to 19, and 20 to 25-year-olds. Participants' life priorities varied by age group with overall top categories, including education, economics, and family members. Health was listed as a salient life priority among older participants aged 15 to 25 years, though it was not highly ranked. Participants' top health concerns included sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, with limited mention of other reproductive health concerns. Understanding where young men start from when thinking about reproductive health can better help us meet their needs. Future studies warrant examining how health needs change over time among a larger and more diverse sample of young men. PMID:19477738
Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Gambling among young people is a significant public health concern. While an understanding of the aetiology of gambling problems is crucial for prevention, there is limited knowledge about the onset of and the risk factors for problem gambling among youth. This thesis aims to estimate the incidence of a first episode of problem gambling and to examine some potential risk factors for problem gambling among Swedish young women and men. In Study I, we analysed data among the 16 to 24 year-...
Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik;
diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease or a......BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort...
Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria;
, New York, area. PATIENT(S): Unselected young college students (n = 222). INTERVENTION(S): A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a brief questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels. RESULT(S): Subjects were aged 18-22 years......(S): Our study provides the first data in 70 years on semen quality and reproductive hormones in young men in the United States with unknown fertility. These data suggest that, overall, reproductive parameters in our study population of young college students from the northeastern United States are similar...
Coulter, Rebecca Priegert
Interviews with 10 young men ages 15-20 explored why they voluntarily participate in gender equity activities. The influences of teachers, family, and peers in shaping gender consciousness enabled them to recognize male privilege. Ways to give males tools to understand gender relations are recommended. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)
Rowan, Tanyia Perry
Motivation as a factor in academic success is well documented in the literature and an important construct in educational planning. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore motivating factors for at-risk students who successfully graduated from high school. The framework for this study was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs…
Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Cass, Kamila M; Ford, Jennifer A
This study examined biopsychosocial factors related to body dissatisfaction in young men within multivariate and moderator contexts. A female sample was included as a gender comparison. Male (n=111) and female (n=236) undergraduates filled out self-report questionnaires assessing body mass index (BMI), media influence, a history of weight-related teasing, and socially prescribed perfectionism, along with various indices of body dissatisfaction. Perceived pressure from the media was consistently related to body dissatisfaction in men whereas multiple biopsychosocial variables accounted for body dissatisfaction in women. Socially prescribed perfectionism and a history of weight teasing each moderated the relationship between BMI and male body dissatisfaction, identifying men low in body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate that applying a biopsychosocial framework to the study of body dissatisfaction in men is useful and suggest the need for including other factors, such as male peers and sports involvement, in understanding contributors to male body image. PMID:18463012
Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J;
BACKGROUND: In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice in men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and...... reproductive hormone levels in young men. METHODS: Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters and...... reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: There was an inverse relation between processed red meat intake and total sperm count. The adjusted relative differences in total sperm counts for men in increasing quartiles of processed meat intake were 0 (ref), -3 (95% confidence...
Full Text Available Background: With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. Methods: Two STI clinic nurses encouraged 37 CT positive heterosexual young people (aged 16–25 years, called index clients, to recruit peers from their social and sexual networks using the web-based screening strategy. Eligible peers (young, living in the study area could request a home-based CT test and recruit other peers. Results: Twelve (40% index clients recruited 35 peers. Two of these peers recruited other peers (n = 7. In total, 35 recruited peers were eligible for participation; ten of them (29% requested a test and eight tested. Seven tested for the first time and one (13% was positive. Most peers were female friends (80%. Nurses were positive about using the strategy. Conclusions: The screening strategy is feasible for targeting the hidden social network. However, uptake among men and recruitment of sex-partners is low and RDS stopped early. Future studies are needed to explore the sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and impact of strategies that target people at risk who are not effectively reached by regular health care.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158504.html Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be at Higher Risk for ... 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young gay and bisexual men may be much more likely ...
Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E.; Robinson, E. Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X.
The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery ...
Full Text Available Background and Design: Becker nevus (BN, characterized by sharply and irregularly bordered, unilaterally localized, hyperpigmented macules and patches which can go along with hypertrichosis, is a kind of hamartomatous lesion that predominantly affects males 4-6 times more frequently than females. It is usually seen in peripubertal period. There are scarce epidemiological data on BN and the prevalence in our country is also unknown. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of BN among young adult males in Turkey.Materials and Methods: 8207 male candidates from different regions of Turkey who would be selected as a student in a governmental school and were referred to the dermatology outpatient clinic between March 2012 and August 2012, were included in our study. In addition to comprehensive medical examination, candidates were also inspected for the presence of BN, its localization, the asociation with hypertrichosis, and the findings were recorded.Results: The mean age of the candidates was 20.02±1.40 (range: 18-22 years and the mean age at BN onset was 12.2. BN was detected in 68 out of 8207 candidates (two different localizations in one subject. The prevalence of BN was calculated as 0.82%. The distribution of BN localization was as follows: mostly on the pectoral region ( 24.64%, and in decreasing order, on the scapular region (23.18%, shoulder (18.84%, infrascapular region (17.39%, arm (5.80%, abdomen (5.80% and the thigh (4.35%. Hypertrichosis was present on 34 out of 69 BN (49.2% that were found in 68 subjects.Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that BN was mainly localized on the pectoral and scapular regions, the prevalence was 0.82% and, 49,2% of the lesions were hypertrichotic.
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010
Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…
de la Peña Aguilera, Cristina
Children living in risk environments can experience traumatic events that could affect their future life. Providing these children with the necessary strategies to cope with adversity and to develop in an optimal way is needed in order to avoid trauma or being damaged for the rest of their lives. Because of this reason, a systematic literature review was performed with the aim to examine how resilience is defined and implemented in studies focusing on young children at risk. The search was do...
Malcolm, Michael; George S. Naufal
Substitutes for marital sexual gratification may impact the decision to marry. Proliferation of the Internet has made pornography an increasingly low-cost substitute. We investigate the effect of Internet usage, and of pornography consumption specifically, on the marital status of young men. We show that increased Internet usage is negatively associated with marriage formation. Pornography consumption specifically has an even stronger effect. Instrumental variables and a number of robustness ...
Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X
The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893
Holloway, Ian W.; Rice, Eric; Gibbs, Jeremy; Winetrobe, Hailey; Dunlap, Shannon; Rhoades, Harmony
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are increasingly using mobile smartphone applications (“apps”), such as Grindr, to meet sex partners. A probability sample of 195 Grindrusing YMSM in Southern California were administered an anonymous online survey to assess patterns of and motivations for Grindr use in order to inform development and tailoring of smartphone-based HIV prevention for YMSM. The number one reason for using Grindr (29%) was to meet “hook ups.” Among those participants who us...
Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold;
BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...... system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested potential mechanisms....
Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Busko, Vesna; Landripet, Ivan
In spite of a growing presence of pornography in contemporary life, little is known about its potential effects on young people's sexual socialization and sexual satisfaction. In this article, we present a theoretical model of the effects of sexually explicit materials (SEM) mediated by sexual scripting and moderated by the type of SEM used. An on-line survey dataset that included 650 young Croatian men aged 18-25 years was used to explore empirically the model. Descriptive findings pointed to significant differences between mainstream and paraphilic SEM users in frequency of SEM use at the age of 14, current SEM use, frequency of masturbation, sexual boredom, acceptance of sex myths, and sexual compulsiveness. In testing the model, a novel instrument was used, the Sexual Scripts Overlap Scale, designed to measure the influence of SEM on sexual socialization. Structural equation analyses suggested that negative effects of early exposure to SEM on young men's sexual satisfaction, albeit small, could be stronger than positive effects. Both positive and negative effects-the latter being expressed through suppression of intimacy-were observed only among users of paraphilic SEM. No effect of early exposure to SEM was found among the mainstream SEM users. To counterbalance moral panic but also glamorization of pornography, sex education programs should incorporate contents that would increase media literacy and assist young people in critical interpretation of pornographic imagery. PMID:18561012
Southern African HIV Clinicians Society Consensus Committee
resistance among those with undiagnosed acute HIV infection during PrEP initiation and among those with sub-optimal adherence who become HIV infected while on PrEP. Risk compensation (increasing sexual behaviours that can result in exposure to HIV while on PrEP may become a concern, and clinicians should continue to support MSM clients to continue to use condoms, condom-compatible lubrication and practice safer sex. Research is ongoing to assess optimum dosing regimens, potential long-term effects and alternative PrEP medications. Recommendations for the use of PrEP among other at-risk individuals, and the components of these recommendations, will be informed by future evidence. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:40-55.
Gaskins, Audrey Jane; Mendiola, Jaime; Afeiche, Myriam;
) watching with sperm parameters in a population of young, healthy men. METHODS: Men aged 18-22 years (n=189) from the Rochester Young Men's Study (2009-2010) participated in this analysis. Physical activity (h/week of moderate and vigorous exercise) and TV watching (h/week of TV, video or DVD watching) over...
Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis
Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.
Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn;
factors for alcoholism, such as risk use of alcohol, psychiatric diagnosis at conscription, parental divorce, low emotional control and contact with police and child care authorities, seemed to be more common among those who were recruited to blue-collar occupations compared to those who were recruited to......The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood and...... adolescence, e.g. risk use of alcohol, was collected among 49,323 men, born 1949-1951, at conscription for compulsory military training 1969/1970. Data on socio-economic group was obtained from the 1975 census and data on alcoholism diagnoses from the national in-patient care register 1976-1983. Several risk...
Lavoie Kim L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial function has been shown to be a highly sensitive marker for the overall cardiovascular risk of an individual. Furthermore, there is evidence of important sex differences in endothelial function that may underlie the differential presentation of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women relative to men. As such, measuring endothelial function may have sex-specific prognostic value for the prediction of CVD events, thus improving risk stratification for the overall prediction of CVD in both men and women. The primary objective of this study is to assess the clinical utility of the forearm hyperaemic reactivity (FHR test (a proxy measure of endothelial function for the prediction of CVD events in men vs. women using a novel, noninvasive nuclear medicine -based approach. It is hypothesised that: 1 endothelial dysfunction will be a significant predictor of 5-year CVD events independent of baseline stress test results, clinical, demographic, and psychological variables in both men and women; and 2 endothelial dysfunction will be a better predictor of 5-year CVD events in women compared to men. Methods/Design A total of 1972 patients (812 men and 1160 women undergoing a dipyridamole stress testing were recruited. Medical history, CVD risk factors, health behaviours, psychological status, and gender identity were assessed via structured interview or self-report questionnaires at baseline. In addition, FHR was assessed, as well as levels of sex hormones via blood draw. Patients will be followed for 5 years to assess major CVD events (cardiac mortality, non-fatal MI, revascularization procedures, and cerebrovascular events. Discussion This is the first study to determine the extent and nature of any sex differences in the ability of endothelial function to predict CVD events. We believe the results of this study will provide data that will better inform the choice of diagnostic tests in men and women and bring the quality of
Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques
Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820
Junqing, Wu; Qiuying, Yang; Jianguo, Tao; Wei, Yuan; Liwei, Bo; Yuxian, Li; Yumei, Zhou; Kangshou, Yao; Weiqun, Lu; Lu, Chen; Ersheng, Gao
The purpose of the study was to evaluate semen quality in young Chinese men and to establish reference values. Normal healthy young men from seven geographical areas were enrolled. The study showed that the mean sperm volume was 2.61 mL, and mean percent of sperm with forward progression was 59.89, while median of semen viability was 79.0%, and geometric mean of semen density was 55.45 x 10(6)/mL. Proportion of routine semen indexes that met World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were as follows: 81.9% for semen volume, 91.1% for liquefaction time, 93.4% for viscosity, 90.8% for pH, 81.3% for sperm with forward progression, 65.3% for sperm viability, 93.8% for semen density, 98.8% for normal sperm morphology, and 89.1% for total sperm count. Participants whose sperm met all WHO standard parameters accounted for 42.3%. Because the infertility rate in China is about 10-15%, the fifteenth percentile of semen parameters might be used as the lower limit of reference values, which may be more appropriate for young Chinese men. The fifteenth percentiles of parameters in this study were as follows: 1.5 mL for semen volume, 7.2 for pH value, 45% for proportion of sperm with forward progression, 68% for sperm viability, 30 x 10(6)/mL for semen density, 68% for proportion of sperm with normal morphology, and 50 x 10(6) for total sperm count. PMID:12057790
This study examines the demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural circumstances of young men and young women (aged 15-29) in Upper Egypt. Where appropriate, comparison is made with the rest of the country. It explores the perceptions of young men and women regarding the challenges and opportunities they face as they attempt to gain access to education, employment, services, and civic engage...
Mathur, Sanyukta; Higgins, Jenny A; Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Rasmussen, Mariko; Kelley, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S
Compared to a large body of work on how gender may affect young women's vulnerability to HIV, we know little about how masculine ideals and practices relating to marriage and fertility desires shape young men's HIV risk. Using life-history interview data with 30 HIV-positive and HIV-negative young men aged 15-24 years, this analysis offers an in-depth perspective on young men's transition through adolescence, the desire for fatherhood and experience of sexual partnerships in rural Uganda. Young men consistently reported the desire for fatherhood as a cornerstone of masculinity and transition to adulthood. Ideally young men wanted children within socially sanctioned unions. Yet, most young men were unable to realise their marital intentions. Gendered expectations to be economic providers combined with structural constraints, such as limited access to educational and income-generating opportunities, led some young men to engage in a variety of HIV-risk behaviours. Multiple partnerships and limited condom use were at times an attempt by some young men to attain some part of their aspirations related to fatherhood and marriage. Our findings suggest that young men possess relationship and parenthood aspirations that - in an environment of economic scarcity - may influence HIV-related risk. PMID:26540470
Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A
In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity. PMID:26489851
Maria Mercedes Diaz Rodriguez
Full Text Available The city of León has pioneered the development of community health programs, developing comprehensive health programs such as the project ‘A New Initiative for the Americas’, a university hospital, a hospital ‘Mother´s Friend’, teaching assistance municipality, including many others. In the last five years, a group of professionals from different fields of medicine, psychology, and social work has focused on the task of working together with the community, National Police, My Family, MINED, as well as national and international NGOs to study the youth phenomenon and its impact on society. There have been five meetings with teenagers and young people promoted by the Departmental Board of Save the Children and Youth Leonesa, where the UNAN León is actively participating. Based on these meetings, a possibility of a descriptive cross-sectional study on the characterization of young people at risk of social exclusion of the peripheral area of the city of Leon arose, and the results are revealing.
Holloway, Ian W; Rice, Eric; Gibbs, Jeremy; Winetrobe, Hailey; Dunlap, Shannon; Rhoades, Harmony
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are increasingly using mobile smartphone applications ("apps"), such as Grindr, to meet sex partners. A probability sample of 195 Grindr-using YMSM in Southern California were administered an anonymous online survey to assess patterns of and motivations for Grindr use in order to inform development and tailoring of smartphone-based HIV prevention for YMSM. The number one reason for using Grindr (29 %) was to meet "hook ups." Among those participants who used both Grindr and online dating sites, a statistically significantly greater percentage used online dating sites for "hook ups" (42 %) compared to Grindr (30 %). Seventy percent of YMSM expressed a willingness to participate in a smartphone app-based HIV prevention program. Development and testing of smartphone apps for HIV prevention delivery has the potential to engage YMSM in HIV prevention programming, which can be tailored based on use patterns and motivations for use. PMID:24292281
Bertelli Claire; Jaton Katia; Baud David; Kulling Jean-Pierre; Greub Gilbert
Abstract Background Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young men in Switzerland is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in young Swiss men. Methods 517 young Swiss men were enrolled in this cross-sectional study during their compulsory military recruitment. Participants completed a questionnaire and gave urine samples which were screened for C. trachomatis DNA by PCR. Genotyp...
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.
Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Emmanuel, Diona; Durant, Sarah; Rhodes, Scott D
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent 64.0% of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 13 years. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by HIV/AIDS; the rate of HIV infection for YMSM between the ages of 13 and 24 represents 72.0% of new infections among youth. To understand the current state of the science meant to prevent HIV for YMSM, we reviewed studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for YMSM. Five literature databases were searched, from their inception through October 2015, using key words associated with HIV prevention intervention evaluation studies for YMSM. The review criteria included behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals, YMSM between 13 and 24 years of age, and longitudinal repeated measures design. A total of 15 YMSM behavioral HIV prevention intervention studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and reported statistically significant findings. Common outcomes included unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS risk behavior, condom use, HIV testing, safer sex attitude, and HIV prevention communication. Participant age, representation of Black/African American YMSM, application of theoretical and model underpinnings, congruence of assessment measures used, follow-up assessment times, and application of process evaluation were inconsistent across studies. To advance HIV prevention intervention research for YMSM, future studies should be theory-based, identify common constructs, utilize standard measures, include process evaluation, and evaluate sustained change over standard periods of time. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate the needs of the diverse, well-educated, web-connected millennial generation and differentiate between adolescent YMSM (13 to 18 years of age) and young adulthood YMSM (19 to 24 years of age). Because Black/African American YMSM represent more than 50% of new HIV infections, future HIV
Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Pardee, Dana J; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Rob; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Young adult transgender men who have sex with men (TMSM) engage in sexual behaviors that place them at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. To date, no HIV and STI prevention interventions have been developed specifically for young adult TMSM. To address this gap, the current study aimed to (1) adapt a small group-based behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed for young transgender women ("LifeSkills") to address the unique HIV and STI prevention needs of young TMSM ages 18-29 years and (2) conduct a pilot evaluation of the intervention ("LifeSkills for Men"; LS4M). LS4M was carried out in an iterative approach with community input along the way, which allowed for refinement of the intervention manual and enhanced participant acceptability. A LS4M Task Force was convened to guide intervention development/adaptation and study implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted to examine the sexual health needs, concerns, and stressors facing young TMSM (n = 12; mean age = 23.8 years; 16.7% people of color). Next, LS4M was pilot tested (n = 17; mean age = 24.3 years; 23.5% people of color) to assess acceptability with the study population and feasibility of all study procedures. Overall attendance, participation rates, and positive feedback from participants demonstrate that LS4M is highly acceptable and feasible to carry out with young TMSM. Trends in outcome measures across 4 months of follow-up suggest that participation in the intervention may improve mental health, reduce internalized stigma, and reduce HIV- and STI-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention enrolling young TMSM with recent sexual risk behavior at baseline and with a control group is warranted. Lessons learned for future work with young TMSM are discussed. PMID:26753882
Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian
Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…
Martos, Alexander J.
Over 30 years after HIV was first recognised in the USA, the epidemic continues to pose a disproportionate threat to vulnerable and marginalised populations. Increasing HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men has spurred debate around the content and approach to HIV prevention interventions directed towards this vulnerable population.…
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.
The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…
Yamanis, Thespina J; Fisher, Jacob C; Moody, James W; Kajula, Lusajo J
Social network influence on young people's sexual behavior is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research identified networks of mostly young men in Dar es Salaam who socialize in "camps". This study describes network characteristics within camps and their relationship to young men's concurrent sexual partnerships. We conducted surveys with a nearly complete census of ten camp networks (490 men and 160 women). Surveys included name generators to identify camp-based networks. Fifty seven percent of sexually active men (n = 471) reported past year concurrency, measured using the UNAIDS method. In a multivariable model, men's individual concurrency was associated with being a member of a closer knit camp in which concurrency was the normative behavior. Younger men who had older members in their networks were more likely to engage in concurrency. Respondent concurrency was also associated with inequitable personal gender norms. Our findings suggest strategies for leveraging social networks for HIV prevention among young men. PMID:26271813
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young women receiving family planning services are at risk for both unintended pregnancy and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection. Methods We performed a secondary analysis using data from a previously published randomized controlled trial evaluating access to emergency contraception on reproductive health outcomes. Women aged 15 to 24 years were recruited from two Planned Parenthood clinics and two community health clinics in San Francisco. Demographic information and sexual history were obtained by interview. HSV-2 seropositivity was determined by fingerstick blood test. New pregnancies were measured by self-report, urine testing and medical chart review. Subjects were evaluated for incident HSV-2 infection and pregnancy at a 6-month follow-up appointment. Women who were pregnant or intending to become pregnant at enrolment were excluded. Results At enrolment 2,104 women were screened for HSV-2 and 170 (8.1% were seropositive. Eighty-seven percent of initially seronegative women completed the study (n = 1,672 and 73 (4.4% became HSV-2 seropositive. HSV-2 seroincidence was 7.8 cases per 100 person-years. One hundred and seventeen women (7% became pregnant and 7 (6% of these had a seroincident HSV-2 infection during the study. After adjustment for confounders, predictors of incident HSV-2 infection were African American race and having multiple partners in the last six months. Condom use at last sexual encounter was protective. Conclusion HSV-2 seroincidence and the unintended pregnancy rate in young women were high. Providers who counsel women on contraceptive services and sexually transmitted infection prevention could play an expanded role in counselling women about HSV-2 prevention given the potential sequelae in pregnancy. The potential benefit of targeted screening and future vaccination against HSV-2 needs to be assessed in this population.
Full Text Available Die vielfältigen Verantwortungen junger jemenitischer Männer gegenüber ihren Familien stehen im Mittelpunkt dieser empirischen Untersuchung. Bei dem Werk handelt es sich um eine Lizenziatsarbeit in Form einer klassischen Ethnografie, basierend auf einer Feldforschung in den Jahren 2003 und 2004 in der Altstadt von Sana’a, Jemen. Das Fazit der gesamten Studie wird mit dem Titel Zuerst die Freunde, dann die Frau vorweggenommen.The diverse responsibilities of young Yemenite men with regard to their families are the central theme of this empirical study. This text can be described as a classic ethnography that is based on fieldwork the licentiate performed in the old town of Sana’a, Jemen in 2003 and 2004. The conclusion of the entire study is already anticipated by the title of the work: First Come the Friends, then the Wife (Zuerst die Freunde, dann die Frau.
Ford, Wesley L.; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna
Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.
Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.
Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...
Hopkins, Megan; Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Aldana, Ursula S.; Gándara, Patricia
Newcomer young men confront numerous obstacles that limit their chances for attainment and achievement. Using social and cultural capital frameworks and a case study methodology, this article examines how four Latino newcomer young men navigated an urban U.S. high school. It reveals how teachers and a counselor cultivated capital and how the young…
Hermans, R.C.J.; Herman, C.P.; Larsen, J.K.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
This study examined whether young men adjusted their snack-food intake to that of a same-sex eating companion. Additionally, hunger was assessed as a possible moderating variable. A total of 59 young men (M age = 21.73) participated. An interaction between participants’ hunger and confederate's inta
Full Text Available Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Infection was also reported in 3.7% of healthy individuals. These highly reported frequencies of infection prompted concerns about the possibility of a new, widespread retroviral epidemic. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS provides an opportunity to assess the prevalence of XMRV infection and its association with HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men. Reliable detection of XMRV infection requires the application of multiple diagnostic methods, including detection of human antibodies to XMRV and detection of XMRV nucleic acid. We, therefore, tested 332 patient plasma and PBMC samples obtained from recent visits in a subset of patients in the MACS cohort for XMRV antibodies using Abbott prototype ARCHITECT chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs and for XMRV RNA and proviral DNA using a XMRV single-copy qPCR assay (X-SCA. Although 9 of 332 (2.7% samples showed low positive reactivity against a single antigen in the CMIA, none of these samples or matched controls were positive for plasma XMRV RNA or PBMC XMRV DNA by X-SCA. Thus, we found no evidence of XMRV infection among men in the MACS regardless of HIV-1 serostatus.
Lemos, M P; Karuna, S T; Mize, G J; Fong, Y; Montano, S M; Ganoza, C; Lama, J R; Sanchez, J; McElrath, M J
We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less immunoglobulin A (IgA) and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than that in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively present in the colon, whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (P<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources, and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877
Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P
In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by providi
Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.
We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…
Martos, A J; Valera, P; Bockting, W O; Wilson, P A
Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were analyzed to explore how a Sexual Health Model (SHM) developed by Robinson et al. (The sexual health model: application of a sexological approach to HIV prevention. Health Educ Res 2002; 17:43-57) could be used as a framework for HIV prevention in YBMSM. Content analysis identified five key themes within SHM: (i) race/ethnicity, including the cultural diversity and unique challenges of YBMSM; (ii) disclosure, as the ongoing process of self-identification rather than a single instance of 'coming out'; (iii) sex, in terms of practices, behaviors and health; (iv) daily challenges, microaggressions and acute instances of discrimination; and (v) the self, resilience and identity. Technology represents a new component for the SHM that may be relevant to YBMSM. YBMSM are in need of comprehensive sexual health programs that go beyond typical HIV frameworks. A tailored SHM could be used for identifying and addressing the specific sexual health needs of YBMSM in research and intervention. PMID:27081188
Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Homonegativity, or the stigma associated with homosexuality, may be an important social factor influencing racial disparities in HIV. This research, conducted using an intersectional framework, examines experiences of homonegativity among YBMSM with a particular emphasis on the influence of the Black Church. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with YBMSM ages 16-24. Interview transcripts were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis, guided by principles of grounded theory and constant comparative method. The Black Church is an integral aspect of YBMSM's identity, history, family, and community life. As such, the Church's construction of homosexuality dominated throughout YBMSM's lives. The expectations of masculinity facing YBMSM emphasize expectations of physical and sexual dominance, which are viewed as incompatible with homosexuality. Participants describe complex decision-making around whether to disclose their sexuality and to whom, and weigh the consequences of disclosure and non-disclosure. For many YBMSM, their multiple, intersecting identities significantly influenced their experiences with homonegativity and their decisions about disclosing their sexual orientation. Findings lend support for the need to develop community-, family-, and church-based stigma reduction interventions that address homonegativity among YBMSM. PMID:26373283
Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Davenport, Tracey A; Hurley, Patrick J; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B.
Background Young men are particularly vulnerable to suicide, drug, and alcohol problems and yet fail to seek appropriate help. An alternative or adjunct to face-to-face services has emerged with widespread uptake of the Internet and related communication technologies, yet very little evidence exists that examines the capacity of the Internet to engage young men and promote help seeking. Objective To explore young people’s attitudes and behaviors in relation to mental health and technology use...
Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of social frustration of personality of city studying youth – pupils of the 10th grade of secondary school, college students, high school students, working and getting additional education young men and women.Methods: testing, survey, statistical data processing.Results. The article summarizes aspects of the frustration research, substantiates the possibility of studying the social frustration of personality and empirical criteria for its expressiveness: high values and the relationship of frustration indicators under the influence of external (interpersonal and internal (intrapersonal frustrators, the relationship of frustration indicators and indicators of social adaptation / disadaptation of personality. Empirically proven increase in number of frustrated young people among the students and working person, compared with school and college students; high frustration of young women – schoolgirls and female college students, compared with young men – schoolboys and college students, as well as a very high frustration of working young men. Depending on the social status and sexual differentiation of young people set the dynamics of expression of social frustration; differences in the content of leading frustrators in each of life spheres of young men and women; summation of interpersonal and intrapersonal frustrators, associated with the expressiveness of social adaptation / disadaptation of young men and women. Highlighted the psychological characteristics of young men and women, enhancing expressiveness of their social frustration.Application of the results: psychological services in high schools and personnel services in different companies.
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.
This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…
Abd-Alazeez, M.; Kirkham, A; Ahmed, H. U.; Arya, M; Anastasiadis, E.; Charman, S C; Freeman, A; Emberton, M
Background:Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has the potential to serve as a non-invasive triage test for men at risk of prostate cancer. Our objective was to determine the performance characteristics of mpMRI in men at risk before the first biopsy using 5 mm template prostate mapping (TPM) as the reference standard. Methods:One hundred and twenty-nine consecutive men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer, who had no prior biopsy, underwent mpMRI (T1/T2-weighted, dif...
Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…
Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the biochemical outcomes of young men treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2005, 1,665 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy ± hormone therapy (HT) ± external beam radiotherapy and underwent ≥2 years of follow-up. Patients were stratified on the basis of age: ≤60 (n = 378) and >60 years (n = 1,287). Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/mL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association of variables with freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF). Results: Median follow-up was 68 months (range, 24-180) for men ≤60 years and 66 months (range, 24-200) for men >60. For the entire group, the actuarial 5- and 8-year FFbF rates were 94% and 88%, respectively. Men ≤60 demonstrated similar 5- and 8-year FFbF (95% and 92%) compared with men >60 (93% and 87%; p = 0.071). A larger percent of young patients presented with low-risk disease; lower clinical stage, Gleason score (GS), and pretreatment PSA values; were treated after 1997; did not receive any HT; and had a high biologic effective dose (BED) of radiation (all ps <0.001). On multivariate analysis, PSA (p = 0.001), GS (p = 0.005), and BED (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with FFbF, but age was not (p = 0.665). Conclusion: Young men achieve excellent 5- and 8-year biochemical control rates that are comparable to those of older men after prostate brachytherapy. Young age should not be a deterrent when considering brachytherapy as a primary treatment option for clinically localized prostate cancer.
MUSTANSKI, BRIAN; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C.
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18–24 year old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Le...
Célia Landmann Szwarcwald
Full Text Available Behavioral surveillance surveys have been carried among military conscripts, in Brazil, since 1996. This paper presents the results of the 2007 survey and compares actual findings with those obtained in previous studies carried out in the period 1999-2002. The conscripts were selected with a two stage sampling stratified by geographical region. The study included a self-reported questionnaire and blood collection for HIV and syphilis testing. Data from 35,432 conscripts aged 17-20 years old were analyzed. The findings show a reduction in regular condom use, with fixed and casual partners, mainly among those with poor educational level. The proportion of conscripts that have sex with other men was maintained (3.2%, but the index of risky sexual behavioral showed worsening results in this group. Also, the HIV prevalence rate increased from 9 to 11.3 per 10,000 in 2007, though the increase was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the evidences found in this paper indicate the need of reformulate policy among young adults.
Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup;
Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P
Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro
Correlates of condom breakage (reported by 19% of 398 young black who have sex with men) for anal insertive sex included the following: condoms drying out (P = 0.018), erection loss during application (P = 0.03), and using erection-enhancing drugs (P = 0.003). Breakage was 2.7 times greater for HIV-positive men (P = 0.001). Breakage was associated with testing positive for urethral infections (P = 0.012). PMID:26760179
Kling, Johanna; Rodgers, Rachel F; Frisén, Ann
Appearance investment has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of body dissatisfaction. Despite this, few studies have explored men's investment in their appearance. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine appearance investment as a prospective predictor of young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals. A community sample of 187 young men participated in a study at ages 21 and 24. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that appearance investment, as hypothesized, was a prospective predictor of increases in leanness orientation, media-ideal internalization, and muscularity behaviors. However, appearance investment did not predict increases in muscularity dissatisfaction. The present findings highlight the importance of including appearance investment in sociocultural models of the development of men's body image, and suggest that appearance investment may be an important target variable to consider when designing body dissatisfaction prevention and intervention programs tailored to young men. PMID:26523688
Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K;
The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis of...... sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...
Nompumelelo B. Zondi
Full Text Available Literature is highly influenced by society and cultural contexts in which it is produced or read. It is a reflection of how a particular society constructs reality. The values, beliefs and norms transferred from one generation to another reflect, in the main, that society’s way of life. When creative writers use verbal art forms like novels, short stories or drama, they do so in order to create an allusive and fictitious setting which enable them to comment on contemporary issues without blatantly seeming to do so. In this sense it becomes a prerogative for artists to remark on what is happening in communities without being directly confrontational. In our view, it is also their responsibility to approach literature from an angle that reflects changing times, thus challenging anything that is contrary. In 2013 we involved our final year undergrad literature class in a project whose aim was to sensitize them on gender disparities still affecting our society today. Five of nine groups comprising ten students each – both men and women-chose to study the work of an acclaimed Zulu writer, D.B.Z. Ntuli (1982. Based on the comments of the male students in those groups the discussion was stretched to the entire class. It was perturbing to discover that we are still producing male students who are not sensitive to gender disparities. In this article we argue that indifference displayed by these young men where issues of gender were concerned call for attention. This article presents the callous treatment of women characters in the selected short story and examples of comments made by male students on their reading of the text. We also contend that we are still far from reaping the fruits of our hard -won democracy given that Zulu men in the study still seems to lack an understanding of basic human rights. Their failure to understand obvious gender-based violence as an intolerable social ill.En ons dog ons lewer pragtige jongmanne op. Literatuur word
Pharr, Jennifer R.; Lough, Nancy L.; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.
Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly.
Jones, Emily Taylor
Background and Purpose: Little is known about influences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on dietary intake and body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary status, body fat distribution and leptin in overweight young men with and without OSAS in comparison to published values for normal weight counterparts. Methods: Groups were comprised of 24 sedentary overweight young men with and without OSAS, who had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2. Serum ...
Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Botsko, MICHAEL; Golub, Sarit A.
As HIV infection rates remain high among young gay and bisexual men, investigations into determinants of sexual risk are paramount. This study examined independent and interactive effects of substance use, mental health, perceived benefits of unprotected sex, and type of sex partner on odds of not using condoms. Analyses included 188 high-risk substance using HIV-negative and unknown status young gay and bisexual men (ages 18–29). Substance use and endorsing favorable attitudes towards unprot...
When I set about researching for my thesis and began looking for articles and books on assaults on young men in Ireland, I discovered it was a subject, which had been largely ignored by both Sociologists and Criminologists. In contrast to the wide scale research on Youth Drug Culture or Youth Delinquency, there are very few studies about the nature and extent of assaults on young men in Ireland. Faced with this problem I set about researching articles and pieces written on...
This thesis is concerned with examining what the influence of reading is, on those young men who choose to read. Looking at the responses of a number of young men, a tripartite approach details the reading history of each respondent, discusses participants’ responses to their general reading, and examines participants reading and responses to John Boyne’s novel The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. The research aims were to develop both a theoretical and empirical understanding of how reading in...
Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve
The article examines the use of newer, interactive information and communication technologies (ICTs) in young men's health promotion (HP), drawing on gender theory, HP research and evidence on young men's Internet usage. The focus is on highlighting an agenda for research in terms of emerging issues. New forms of social media ICT (for example 'web 2'-based on-line social networking sites, micro-blogging services, i-phones and podcasts) have the potential to enable young men to engage with health information in new and interesting ways. Given concerns about young men's engagement with health services, innovative ICT formats, particularly using the Internet, have been tried. However, issues persist around surfing 'addiction', quality control and equal access. Approaches to HP using new ICTs offer distributed control over information content and quality and a lay social context for accessing information. Online communities can potentially legitimize young men's participation in discourses around health, and support sustained engagement. The article discusses how this could support young men to re-conceptualize healthy choices in the context of masculine imperatives and responsible citizenship if specific conditions are met (for trusting engagement) and risks addressed (such as commercial disinformation). The skill requirements for young men to engage effectively with new ICTs are explored, focusing on health literacy (HL). It is predicted that social marketing approaches to HP for young men will increasingly include new ICTs, making specific requirements for HL. These approaches may appeal narrowly to hegemonic masculinities or broadly to multiple masculinities, including those historically marginalized. Recommendations are made for future research. PMID:20427372
Onyango, Stephen; Komsi, Pia
This thesis is part of the project “Young Euroman”. The purpose of this study is to investigate the social integration of second-generation young men with immigrant backgrounds in Finnish society. We map out factors that either promote or hinder the integration of second generation immigrants. This thesis was carried out as a literature review of academic articles. Selection criteria for the articles were that they should discuss the social integration of second- generation immigrant men....
Klevens, Joanne; Restrepo, Ofelia; Roca, Juanita
Based on an existing database, we explored childhood experiences that differentiated men who became delinquent or involved in substance abuse from those who did not (referred to as resilient) despite growing up in equally adverse circumstances, among a sub sample of men (n=168) included in a previous study on delinquency in five different cities in Colombia. The findings show that resilient men tend to perceive their caregiver as affectionate, available when needed, aware of their whereabouts...
Saavala Minna; Char Arundhati; Kulmala Teija
Abstract Background We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. Methods This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on ...
Umbreit, John; Blair, Kwang-Sun
A study examined the use of structural analysis as part of an assessment-based intervention of a 4-year-old boy whose noncompliance and aggressive behavior put him at risk for behavioral disorders and expulsion from his childcare center. The intervention was found to reduce immediately the noncompliance and aggressive behavior. (Author/CR)
Davis, Kelly Cue; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F
Research suggests that many men have used a variety of tactics to avoid using condoms when having sex with women. Guided by previous work demonstrating that men's use of coercive condom resistance tactics was predicted by negative attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, and sexual sensation seeking, the current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether similar constructs were associated with a variety of resistance tactics. A community sample of 313 moderate-drinking men participated, of whom 80% reported employing at least one condom use resistance tactic since adolescence. The LPA revealed three classes of men. In general, men with the least negative beliefs about women, low levels of sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, and positive beliefs about condoms (Condom Positive/Low Hostility) reported less use of resistance tactics than men with moderate sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, negative beliefs about condoms, and moderate (Condom Negative/Moderate Hostility) or high (Condom Negative/High Hostility) negative attitudes about women. The classes also differed in terms of their sexual behaviors. This study demonstrated that sexual risk behavior interventions should not only address the tactics through which men resist using condoms but also tailor these efforts to men's individual characteristics. PMID:23548069
Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N = 569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and sexual risk, we compare and contrast three subgroups: (1) YMSM with no history of homelessness, (2) YMSM with a past history of homelessness but who w...
Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M
Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017
Ozonoff, Sally; Gregory S. Young; Landa, Rebecca J; Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne L.; Messinger, Daniel; Stone, Wendy L.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Iosif, Ana Maria
Background The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) made before age 3 has been found to be remarkably stable in clinic- and community-ascertained samples. The stability of an ASD diagnosis in prospectively ascertained samples of infants at risk for ASD due to familial factors has not yet been studied, however. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends intensive surveillance and screening for this high-risk group, which may afford earlier identification. Therefore, it is critical to...
Dungey, Claire Elisabeth; Meinert, Lotte
enforced through discipline, prepare young people to expect that waiting and enduring hardship will pay off in the end. This expectation makes the status of adulthood particularly vulnerable because the jobs and opportunities that young men learn to wait for often do not come into being by waiting.......This chapter explores various perspectives on the shifting notion of adulthood in Uganda. Invoking Paul Willis’ book ‘Learning to Labour (2000 ) concerning working class lads in Great Britain, we explore the implicit curriculum of how young men in Uganda learn to habituate the practice...... of waiting which is both characterised by creativity and passivity. Based on fieldwork in Kisoro and Tororo, we argue that young men learn to habituate the practice of waiting through schooling which leads them toward a kind of educated, docile but often frustrated and unstable adulthood. A growing body...
Cranston, Ross D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Febo, Irma; Duffill, Kathryn; Siegel, Aaron; Engstrom, Jarret C.; Nikiforov, Alexyi; Park, Seo-Young; Brand, Rhonda M.; Jacobson, Cindy; Giguere, Rebecca; Dolezal, Curtis; Frasca, Timothy; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Schwartz, Jill L.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Objectives The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) at risk of HIV infection. Methods MSM and TGW aged 18–30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2) in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV) 1% gel. Results 248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants’ average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs) at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV)-2 (16.1% by serology) and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (10.1% by NAAT). 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs) were infections (N = 56) or gastrointestinal (N = 46) and were mild (69.6%) or moderate (28.0%). Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1) to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10) and of mild (87.2%) or moderate (10.3%) severity. Conclusions In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360 PMID:27362788
Full Text Available The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women (TGW at risk of HIV infection.MSM and TGW aged 18-30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2 in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV 1% gel.248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants' average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV-2 (16.1% by serology and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT (10.1% by NAAT. 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs were infections (N = 56 or gastrointestinal (N = 46 and were mild (69.6% or moderate (28.0%. Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1 to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10 and of mild (87.2% or moderate (10.3% severity.In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360.
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.
The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…
In an attempt to resist moral panics over children's media consumption, and especially girls' consumption of hyper-sexualised popular media, this paper aims to offer a more positive account of popular culture and young children's, especially girls', engagement with it. By adopting a historical approach to modern childhood and the moral panics…
Feigelman, William; Gorman, Bernard S.; Lesieur, Henry
Although many clinical studies document a relationship between gambling and suicidality, evidence of this association in general population surveys has been mixed. Probing this association in a nationally representative sample of young adults with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, we made same gender comparisons of…
Prabhjot Kour, X
Drug use and dependence among young people is one of the major problems in the world and is still under recognized in the developing countries. The magnitude of the problem is rising in India, especially Punjab, where the menace of drug abuse is debilitating the physical and mental welfare of the young people. So this study is an attempt to understand the reasons for drug use at an early age. Various theoretical perspectives were employed to understand the perceptions and attitudes of young p...
Hart, R J; Doherty, D A; McLachlan, R I;
biased sources such as recruits from infertility clinics, self-selected volunteer sperm donors for research or artificial insemination or once-fertile men seeking vasectomy. It is well known that studies requiring semen analysis have low recruitment rates which consequently question their validity...
Although the majority of US male teenagers now believe pregnancy prevention is a male responsibility and are willing to use contraception, their actual contraceptive use is inconsistent. Moreover, teens are more likely to receive contraceptive information from the mass media or schools than from a health care provider. According to a national survey, only 32% of sexually experienced teen males and 17% of male virgins have received contraceptive information from a health care provider. Funding remains a significant obstacle to initiating reproductive health programs for young men. Thus, clinics must seek alternative funding resources, especially from foundations. A new US Urban Institute publication profiles 24 programs in 14 states that have effectively involved young men in pregnancy prevention and provided information on the male role in reproduction. Common features of these programs include coordination with existing community resources, attempts to reach young men in community settings where they congregate, and male outreach and clinic staff. PMID:12348578
Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; GHORBANI, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat
Background Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men’s lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men’s health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20–30 years from three ...
Pyky, Riitta; Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Mäntysaari, Matti; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija
Background Sedentary behavior is associated with poor well-being in youth with adverse trajectories spanning to adulthood. Still, its determinants are poorly known. Our aim was to profile sedentary and non-sedentary young men and to clarify their differences in a population-based setting. Methods A total of 616 men (mean age 17.9, SD 0.6) attending compulsory conscription for military service completed a questionnaire on health, health behavior, socioeconomic situation and media use. They und...
Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming; Madsbad, Sten; Vaag, Allan A
not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.......We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...
Woodhall, Sarah C; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H; Clifton, Soazig; Saunders, Pamela; da Silva, Filomeno; Alexander, Sarah; Wellings, Kaye; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M
Background In the context of widespread opportunistic chlamydia screening among young adults, we aimed to quantify chlamydia testing and diagnosis among 16–24 year olds in Britain in relation to risk factors for prevalent chlamydia infection. Methods Using data from sexually experienced (≥1 lifetime sexual partner) 16-year-old to 24-year-old participants in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (conducted 2010–2012), we explored socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with prevalent chlamydia infection (detected in urine; n=1832), self-reported testing and self-reported diagnosis in the last year (both n=3115). Results Chlamydia prevalence was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2% to 4.3%) in women and 2.3% (1.5% to 3.4%) in men. A total of 12.3% of women and 5.3% men had a previous chlamydia diagnosis. Factors associated with prevalent infection were also associated with testing and diagnosis (eg, increasing numbers of sexual partners), with some exceptions. For example, chlamydia prevalence was higher in women living in more deprived areas, whereas testing was not. In men, prevalence was higher in 20–24 than 16–19 year olds but testing was lower. Thirty per cent of women and 53.7% of men with ≥2 new sexual partners in the last year had not recently tested. Conclusions In 2010–2012 in Britain, the proportion of young adults reporting chlamydia testing was generally higher in those reporting factors associated with chlamydia. However, many of those with risk factors had not been recently tested, leaving potential for undiagnosed infections. Greater screening and prevention efforts among individuals in deprived areas and those reporting risk factors for chlamydia may reduce undiagnosed prevalence and transmission. PMID:26290483
Jumaev, B.Sh.; Halimov, R.R.; Shavakhabov, Sh.
Purpose Examining the early and late results of adult urethroplasty in the adult patients. Materials and methods During the period from January 2006 to December 2013 at the Republican Specialized Center of Urology (training base of Tashkent Medical Academy) urethroplasty using various techniques was performed in 68 men. Mean age was 23.4 ±2.6 years (from 18 to 26 years). All patients have had previously foreskin removing (circumcision). Some form of surgical intervention on the penis was perf...
Full Text Available Main goal of this paper is to provide insight into perspective of unemployed youth at risk or with potential risks in enviroment, aboutstatus and experiance of being unemployed. Krounauer model of social excluasion was taken as the base for interpretation of riskfactors related to unemployment. Mentioned model is defi ned with six dimesions: exclusion from labour market, economic exclusion,social isolation, institutional exclusion, spatial and cultural exclusion. Five focus groups with 19 unemployed youth (age from 18 to27 years from 4 cities in Croatia and from two types of institutions (croatian employment service and center for social welfare havebeen conducted. Results implicate that unemployment represents important factor for integration and independence of youth, andrelevant risk factor especially for economical exclusion. However, result shows that unemployment does not lead to social isolation asthird key dimesion in social exclusion model. These results are, to some extant, similar to results in other countries in EU, especiallyin south-east European countries (Italy, Spain, Greecee where research results show that unemployment do not neccessarily leads tosocial exclusion due to the strong family and friends support. Results can be used for the creation of public strategies in coping withrisk of (longterm youth unemployment and also with risk of their social exclusion.
Harrison, A; Cleland, J; Gouws, E; Frohlich, J
Methods: Analysis of sexual behaviour data for men 15–24 years (n = 314) from representative cross sectional household survey. Results: 13.1% of 15–24 year old men experienced sexual debut before age 15. Men with sexual debut at less than age 15 were more likely to report risk behaviours at first sexual experience: no condom use (19%), a casual partner (26.8%), and not feeling they had been "ready and wanted to have sex" (19.5%). In multivariate analysis, early sexual debut was strongly associated with ⩾3 partners in the past 3 years (OR = 10.26, p<0.01). Conclusions: Men who initiate sex before age 15 form a distinct risk group in this setting. Specific interventions are needed for young men in the preteen years, before sexual debut. PMID:15923298
Barth, Jürgen; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik
QUESTION UNDER STUDY Depression in young adults is common, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Our study gives a point prevalence estimate of depression in young Swiss men, and describes the association between depression and education, material and social resources, and job/school satisfaction. METHODS We used data from the cross-sectional Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents (ch-x) from 2010 to 2011 comprising 9,066 males aged between 18 and 25 years. Depression was assessed b...
Powell, Terrinieka W; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Latkin, Carl A
The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD both genetic and environmental factors have important roles. The characteristic affective disturbance and impulsive aggression are linked to imbalances in the central serotonin system, and most of the genetic association studies focused on serotonergic candidate genes. However, the efficacy of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 blocking antipsychotic drugs in BPD treatment also suggests involvement of the dopamine system in the neurobiology of BPD. Methods In the present study we tested the dopamine dysfunction hypothesis of impulsive self- and other-damaging behaviors: borderline and antisocial traits were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis (SCID for DSM-IV in a community-based US sample of 99 young adults from low-to-moderate income families. For the BPD trait analyses a second, independent group was used consisting of 136 Hungarian patients with bipolar or major depressive disorder filling out self-report SCID-II Screen questionnaire. In the genetic association analyses the previously indicated polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT Val158Met and dopamine transporter (DAT1 40 bp VNTR were studied. In addition, candidate polymorphisms of the DRD2 and DRD4 dopamine receptor genes were selected from the impulsive behavior literature. Results The DRD2 TaqI B1-allele and A1-allele were associated with borderline traits in the young adult sample (p = 0.001, and p = 0.005, respectively. Also, the DRD4 -616 CC genotype appeared as a risk factor (p = 0.02. With severity of abuse accounted for in the model, genetic effects of the DRD2 and DRD4 polymorphisms were still significant (DRD2 TaqIB: p = 0.001, DRD2 TaqIA: p = 0.008, DRD4 -616 C/G: p = 0.002. Only the DRD4 promoter finding was replicated in the independent sample of psychiatric inpatients (p = 0.007. No association was found with the COMT and DAT1 polymorphisms. Conclusions Our results
Previous work suggests that supplemental ascorbic acid (AA) may inhibit intestinal copper absorption by stabilizing the less absorbable cuprous state. The authors studied copper absorption in healthy men (age 19-32) fed a constant diet with different amounts of ascorbic acid supplements. The 6 men were confined to a metabolic unit for the entire 14 week study. The basal diet consisted of a 7 day rotating menu which provided an average of 2.1 mg Cu/d and was adequate in all other nutrients except AA (5 mg/d). The basal diet was supplemented with either zero, 60, or 600 mg of AA daily, added to grape juice and consumed at each meal. All feces were collected. Blood was taken weekly for monitoring AA and copper status. Copper absorption was determined by both balance and 65Cu stable isotope techniques. As determined by fecal Cu excretion, varying intakes of AA between 0.1 to 10 times the RDA had no significant effect on copper retention. This is consistent with the lack of change in serum ceruloplasmin and serum Cu throughout the study
Young men are difficult to reach with conventional nutrition information and they have a low intake of vegetables and fruits and whole grain cereals. The low intake of these foods gives rise to concern about their future health. Few intervention studies have focused on improving young men’s consumption of vegetables, fruits and whole grain cereals and few studies have explored important correlates of young men’s intake of vegetables. This study is a part of a larger project with the aim t...
Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Aagaard, Per;
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4 days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3+/-0.9 yrs) and 11 old (67.2+/-1.0 yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single...
Dumas, Michael J.
In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…
This article examines the sexually explicit comments and references to pornography in young men's answers to a survey about sexuality education. Instead of viewing these remarks as simply impertinent and therefore discountable, I argue that they offer insights into the constitution of masculine identity and an erotic deficit in sexuality…
Williams, Lindy; Kabamalan, Midea; Ogena, Nimfa
We examine data from a national survey of 15-27 year olds in the Philippines to assess attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation, and we analyze the marital and nonmarital union experiences of 25-27 year olds. We find that attitudes toward cohabitation remain quite conservative among young Filipinos, although men view cohabitation more favorably…
Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie
Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…
Van Thompson, Carlyle; Schwartz, Paul J.
This chapter will center on the continuing impact of systemic and persistent educational trauma experienced by Black and Latino males and how trauma affects their current learning. The young men's counterstories from a phenomenological study and documentary are included.
This article, based on an ethnographic study of an urban General Education Development (GED) program, suggests that for some marginalized young men of color, Adult education programs are counter-spaces of spatial justice in opposition to previous negative school spaces. Framed by critical race theory (CRT) and drawing on critical geography and…
Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.
The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12 w
Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.
Buston, Katie; Wight, Daniel
This paper focuses on young men's views on the school sex education they have received, the influence of this sex education on their intended or actual behaviour, and the extent to which other sources of information complement or supplement school sex education. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and eight group discussions were conducted with male…
Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven
Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…
Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital...
A. V. Gordienko
Full Text Available Objective: to reveal carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disturbances and their possible importance in examined young men with early arterial hypertension (AH. Subjects and methods. A total of 130 men aged 40.3 ± 4.3 years were examined. There were 3 patient groups: stage I hypertensive disease with a history of AH (n = 61; primarily diagnosed hypertensive disease without evidence of long-term AH (n = 39; a control group noncardiovascular diseases (n = 30. Results. The patients with long-term AH were more commonly found to have a compromised history of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, signs of insulin resistance and subclinical atherosclerosis than those with the primarily diagnosed disease and the control group. Conclusion. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disturbances are latent in young men with long-term AH. Both 2and 1-hour oral glucose tolerance tests are recommended for the early diagnosis of glycemic disorders in the above patient cohort.
Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily
When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…
Tanskanen Minna M.; Kyröläinen Heikki; Santtila Matti; Tammelin Tuija
Study aim: to develop and estimate the validity of non-exercise methods to predict VO2max among young male conscripts entering military service in order to divide them into the different physical training groups. Material and methods: fifty males (age 19.7 ± 0.3 years) reported their physical activity before military service by IPAQ and SIVAQ questionnaires. Furthermore, Jackson’s non-exercise method was used to estimate VO2max. Body mass and height were measured, body mass index ...
Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.
Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…
Emetu, Roberta E.; Marshall, Alexandra; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Yarber, William L.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Crosby, Richard A.; Graham, Cynthia A.
Objective: This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief, novel, theory-driven, self-guided, home-based intervention designed to promote condom use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Participants: Thirty YMSM were recruited from a large public US midwestern university during spring of 2012. Methods: The intervention was tested using a…
Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita
Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…
Do, Tri D.; Hudes, Esther S.; Proctor, Kristopher; Han, Chung-Sook; Choi, Kyung-Hee
We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of recent HIV testing (within the past year) among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) in two U.S. cities. We conducted serial, cross-sectional, interviewer-administered surveys of 908 API MSM aged 15-25 years, sampled from randomly selected…
Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.
The Internet has opened many doors with its accessibility to information, entertainment and web-based communities. For young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the Internet can provide access to information on relevant sexual behavior and health information, stories from other men about relationship issues, and a venue for locating potential sexual and dating partners. Understanding YMSM’s motivations for going online for information, advice or sexual relationships, is important as the Interne...
Lynch, Fionnuala; Mills, Carla; Daly, Irenee; Fitzpatrick, Carol
Suicide rates in young Irish males have risen markedly in the past 10 years, and suicide is now the leading cause of death in young men in the 15-24-year-old age range. This is the first large-scale study in Ireland that set out to identify young people at risk of psychiatric disorders, including depressive disorders, and suicidal ideation. Seven…
Jaffee, S; Caspi, A; Moffitt, T E; Belsky, J; Silva, P
This 20-year longitudinal study showed that the young adult offspring of teen mothers are at risk for a range of adverse outcomes including early school leaving, unemployment, early parenthood, and violent offending. We tested how much the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes could be accounted for by social selection (in which a woman's characteristics that make her an inadequate parent also make her likely to bear children in her teens) versus social influence (in which the consequences of becoming a teen mother also bring harm to her children, apart from any characteristics of her own). The results provided support for both mechanisms. Across outcomes, maternal characteristics and family circumstances together accounted for approximately 39% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes. Consistent with a social-selection hypothesis, maternal characteristics accounted for approximately 18% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes; consistent with a social-influence hypothesis, family circumstances accounted for 21% of the teen childbearing effect after controlling for maternal characteristics. These results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but at supporting individual at-risk mothers and their children. PMID:11393652
Stueve, Ann; O'Donnell, Lydia; Duran, Richard; San Doval, Alexi; Geier, Jamie
Adolescent and young adult males who have sex with men (MSM) remain at high risk of HIV infection. Many sexual risk factors have been identified, yet the role of substance use remains controversial. We assess the extent to which urban young MSM report being "high" on drugs or alcohol during sex and the association between being "high" and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). During summer 2000, 3,075 MSM aged 15-25 years completed a 20-minute interview for the Community Intervention Trial for Youth Project. Participants were asked about their last sexual contact with main and nonmain partners, including whether they were "high on drugs or alcohol." 18.6% of MSM with a main partner reported being high during their last sexual encounter; 25.0% reported UAI. Among men with a nonmain partner, 29.3% reported being high, and 12.3% reported UAI. Being high was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse with nonmain partners (odds ratio = 1.66, p = .02). HIV prevention should include messages about the potential dangers of drinking and drug use in situations where sexual encounters with nonmain partners may occur. PMID:12512849
Full Text Available Background. Some factors which have been considered to be responsible for female athlete triad include the specific type and amount of high intensity training in young female athletes (especially when begun before puberty, reduced body weight, a lower percentage of fat tissue, and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to estimate the risk of amenorrhoea in female athletes with menstrual irregularity, on the basis of body composition results, nutritional factors, and endocrine factors. Material and methods. Fifty-five female professional athletes with menstrual irregularities, of mean ages 17.9 ±2.1 years, with mean training histories of 5.8 ±2.6 years, and BMIs of 20.6 ±1.4 kg/m2 participated in the study. The first group (ED included athletes from endurance disciplines (n = 30, while the second group (WD consisted of females from weight category disciplines (n = 25. A second classification was also employed, distinguishing between the group of athletes (IH with luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone ratio LH/FSH < 0.6 (n = 24 – diagnosed as hypofunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis – and a second group (GR containing athletes with LH/FSH > 0.6, diagnosed as a good result (n = 31. Nutritional status was evaluated on the basis of body composition analysis using the BIA method employing a Harpenden skinfold callipers, which yielded measurements of the percentage of adipose tissue (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and skinfold thickness (ST. Nutritional values were estimated by examining dietary records for 7 consecutive days, and using threefold recall for the last 24 h. Moreover, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol (E, progesterone (P, and serum leptin levels were measured. Results. Significant differences were found between the hormone levels of for each discipline group: for LH, the ED group had 3.6 ±2.5 mlU/ml, and the WC group had 5.4 ±2.4 mlU/ml (p < 0.05, while for FSH, the
Janssen, M; de Wit, J; Hospers, H J; van Griensven, F
The higher levels of HIV risk behaviour that have been found in young gay men with lower socio-economic status (SES, among others defined as educational achievement) may result from unequal effects of safer sex interventions. We conducted semi-structured focus group interviews with an educationally diverse sample of 113 young gay men living in The Netherlands. The objective was to bring to light men's salient ('accessible') beliefs about using condoms since information about beliefs might facilitate the formulation of 'personally relevant' safer sex messages that enhance in-depth message processing. We found several educational differences in the areas of knowledge about HIV preventive behaviour, cognitive schemas about the factors involved in HIV transmission, perceived pros and cons of using condoms, perceived social pressure to use condoms and feelings of being in control of protective action. This may suggest that, for intervention efforts to be effective in motivating the diversity of young gay men to engage in safer sex, interventions should convey tailor-made messages that match recipients' educational degree. Several implications for the formulation of such messages are discussed. PMID:11177464
Mustanski, Brian; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18- to 24-year-old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Level of Internet use was high in this sample and the majority of participants reported using the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Black and Latino youth used the Internet less frequently than White youth, and after controlling for age, education, and frequency of Internet use, Black youth were 70% less likely to use the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to the role of the Internet in finding sexual health information, sexual minority identity development, and sexual risk taking behaviors. Participants reported that the Internet filled an important and unmet need for sexual health education. It allowed for connections to the gay community and support during the coming out process, but also exposure to homophobic messages. There was no evidence of increased risk behaviors with partners met online, but at the same time the potential for the use of the Internet to facilitate safer sex communication was largely untapped. Our findings generally present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM. PMID:20182787
Full Text Available Background Circulating levels of adiponectin and testosterone decrease in obese men and this increases risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives The purpose of this study was to survey changes of serum adiponectin and testosterone concentrations following twelve weeks resistance training in obese young men. Patients and Methods In a semi-experimental study, twenty one obese young men were randomly placed in two groups: resistance training (26.5 ± 2.8 years and control (27.4 ± 2.9 years. General characteristics of subjects and serum levels of adiponectin and testosterone were assessed before and after training. Resistance training protocol consisted of twelve weeks weight training (3 sessions per week, 10 exercises, 3 sets of 8 - 12 repetitions in each exercise, intensity 60% - 80% of one repetition maximum, rest between sets 1 minute and between exercises 2 minutes, duration of main training 20 - 40 minutes per each session. Results Resistance training had no significant effect on body weight and body mass index (P > 0.05, whereas it decreased body fat percent (P = 0.017. Also, serum adiponectin (8.1 ± 1.8 vs. 10.5 ± 2.3 μg/mL and testosterone concentrations (6.9 ± 2.4 vs. 8.2 ± 1.7 ng/mL were increased after resistance training (P = 0.033, P = 0.018 respectively, while there were no significant changes in serum levels of these hormones in control group (P > 0.05. Conclusions Twelve weeks of resistance training increased serum concentrations of adiponectin and testosterone in obese young men. With respect to inverse associations between changes of adiponectin and testosterone with BFP and insulin level variations after resistance training, it is recommended that obese young men do resistance training to benefit useful decreasing/preventive effects of this type of training against the risks of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof
Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18–23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake. PMID:24348155
Al Mulla KMA; Pugh; Hossain; Behrens
Background: The Federal Ministry of Health of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a vigorous AIDS control programme that conforms to international guidelines. Available information on HIV infection in the Al Ain district (UAE) shows a low incidence among its citizens and a low frequency of spread by the sexual route. This is in keeping with cultural factors perceived to have withstood the potential for sexual spread in the Arabian Gulf area. However, there is an acknowledged concern for the risk to young male citizens while traveling abroad to popular destinations such as India, Thailand, and the Philippines. Methods: The authors attempted to determine the knowledge and attitude about AIDS among Emirati males (aged 18-25 years) by confidential, self-administered questionnaire (modification of a tested approach in the UK). A total sample of 298 subjects participated (94% response), comprising 47 medical students (16%), 194 nonmedical students (65%), and 57 school graduates (19%). Of all participants, 253 (85%) were unmarried. Results: Salient discriminatory findings were that medical students significantly differed from the other two groups in stating that AIDS could not be identified in a person by appearance (p=.003) and that the use of condoms was protective while traveling abroad (pAsian countries outside the Gulf region and 20% intended to visit. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a prevailing uncertainty about AIDS knowledge and a possible fear of AIDS, both of which tend to increase acceptance of special education programmes. PMID:9815461
Franssens, Dirk; Hospers, Harm; Kok, Gerjo
Abstract The aim of this prospective study was to identify relevant determinants of young gay and bisexual men?s (YGBM) condom use when having anal sex with casual partners. Respondents (185 YGBM in the midst of their coming-out; mean age 18.9) completed an online questionnaire on social-cognitive determinants of condoms use derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Azjen, 1991) at wave 1. At six months follow-up (wave 2) sexual behavior with casual partners was assessed. A tota...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97 DNA was detected in nearly 5% of anal samples collected from HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal, Canada. The rate of detection of HPV97 in the genital tract of Canadian women is unknown. Whether HPV97 is a local epidemic in HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal is also unknown. The prevalence of human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97 was assessed in cervicovaginal cells from women living in Canada and in anal samples from HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto. Findings Cervicovaginal lavages collected from 904 women (678 HIV-seropositive, 226 HIV-seronegative women living in Canada and anal cells collected from 123 HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto were tested for the presence of HPV97 with PCR. HPV97-positive samples were further tested by PCR-sequencing for molecular variant analysis to assess if all HPV97-positive men were infected with the same strain. All cervicovaginal samples were negative for HPV97. HPV97 was detected in anal samples from 6 HIV-seropositive men (4.9%, 95% confidence interval 2.0-10.5%, of whom five had high-grade and one had low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, in addition to 2 to 8 HPV genital genotypes per sample. Four HPV97 variants were defined by four variation sites in the viral control region. Conclusion These findings indicate that HPV97 infects in the anal canal of HIV-seropositive men but is not detected in the genital tract of women.
Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.
Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, d...
Bauermeister, José A.
Structural changes in the acceptability of same-sex relationships may provide young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) with opportunities to develop expectations about their ideal future relationships. Expectations about the future may act as a promotive factor in youths’ lives and reduce HIV risk-taking behaviors; however, few studies have examined the relationship between ideation of a future relationship and sexual behaviors of YGBM. In this study, we examined the relationship between romantic id...
Stein, J A; Rotheram-Borus, M.-J.; Swendeman, D; Milburn, N. G.
Reduction in the incidence of high-risk sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men is a priority. We examined the roles of proximal substance use and delinquency-related variables, and more distal demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors of serious high-risk sexual behaviors among 248 HIV-positive young males, aged 15–24 years. In a mediated latent variable model, demographics (ethnicity, sexual orientation and poverty) and background psychosocial factors (coping style, peer norms, e...
Gradin Franzén, Anna
This ethnographic study explores treatment practices and staff-resident interaction at a detention home for young men, drawing on video recorded conversations and interviews. It investigates ideological dilemmas inherent in the institutional setting and how these produce complex subject positions to uptake, negotiate or refuse. Study I explores a core treatment dilemma: coercion vs. freedom, involving the dual institutional goal of coercing residents into norm abiding behavior and of producin...
Vinader Caerols, Concepción; Monleón Verdú, Santiago; Parra Gimeno, Andrés
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute...
Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan; Darya Ivanovna Gvozdeva; Inna Nikolaevna Astafyeva
The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of social frustration of personality of city studying youth – pupils of the 10th grade of secondary school, college students, high school students, working and getting additional education young men and women.Methods: testing, survey, statistical data processing.Results. The article summarizes aspects of the frustration research, substantiates the possibility of studying the social frustration of personality and empirical criteria ...
Yoon, Eun Sun; Jung, Su Jin; Cheun, Sung Kun; Oh, Yoo Sung; Kim, Seol Hyang; Jae, Sae Young
Background and Objectives Increased central arterial stiffness is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Acute aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness, while acute resistance exercise may increase arterial stiffness, but this is not a universal finding. We tested whether an acute resistance exercise program was associated with an increase in arterial stiffness in healthy young men. Subjects and Methods Thirteen healthy subjects were studied under parallel experimental conditi...
This paper examines the drivers of male perpetration of violence against adult family members and intimate partners in Cape Town, South Africa. Data on 1,369 young men from the Cape Area Panel Study are analyzed and significant causal pathways are examined for the full sample and for disaggregated samples of African and coloured respondents. Socioeconomic disadvantage plays a role in a culture of patriarchal violence, but its effects are largely mediated by behavioural factors such as routine...
Anema, Aranka; Marshall, Brandon D L; Stevenson, Benjamin; Gurm, Jasmine; Montaner, Gabriela; Small, Will; Roth, Eric A; Lima, Viviane D; Montaner, Julio S G; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S
An emerging body of evidence suggests that intergenerational sexual partnerships may increase risk of HIV acquisition among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, no studies have comprehensively evaluated literature in this area. We applied a scoping review methodology to explore the relationships between age mixing, HIV risk behavior, and HIV seroconversion among YMSM. This study identified several individual, micro-, and meso-system factors influencing HIV risk among YMSM in the context of intergenerational relationships: childhood maltreatment, coming of age and sexual identity, and substance use (individual-level factors); family and social support, partner characteristics, intimate partner violence, connectedness to gay community (micro-system factors); and race/ethnicity, economic disparity, and use of the Internet (meso-system factors). These thematic groups can be used to frame future research on the role of age-discrepant relationships on HIV risk among YMSM, and to enhance public health HIV education and prevention strategies targeting this vulnerable population. PMID:24272070
Rasberry, Catherine N; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H; Robin, Leah
Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected from Black and Latino YMSM aged 13-19 through web-based questionnaires (N = 415) and interviews (N = 32). School nurses were the staff members youth most often reported willingness to talk to about HIV testing (37.8%), STD testing (37.1%), or condoms (37.3%), but least often reported as safe to talk to about attraction to other guys (11.4%). Interviews revealed youth reluctance to talk with school staff including nurses when uncertain of staff members' perceptions of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people or perceiving staff to lack knowledge of LGBTQ issues, communities, or resources. Nurses may need additional training to effectively reach Black and Latino YMSM. PMID:25519713
Siconolfi, Daniel E; Kapadia, Farzana; Moeller, Robert W; Eddy, Jessica A; Kupprat, Sandra A; Kingdon, Molly J; Halkitis, Perry N
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at greater risk for body dissatisfaction, compared to their heterosexual peers. However, differences within YMSM populations are understudied, precluding the identification of YMSM who are at greatest risk. This study examined body dissatisfaction in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of YMSM ages 18-19 in New York City. Using cross-sectional data from the baseline visit of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM (N = 591), body dissatisfaction was assessed using the Male Body Attitudes Scale. Three outcomes were modeled using linear regression: (1) overall body dissatisfaction, (2) muscularity dissatisfaction, and (3) body fat dissatisfaction. Covariates in the models included race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, BMI, gay community affiliation, and internalized homonegativity. White YMSM experienced greater body dissatisfaction across the three models. Internalized homonegativity was a statistically significant predictor of dissatisfaction across the three models, though its association with body dissatisfaction was relatively small. The findings point to future avenues of research, particularly qualitative research to explore demographic and cultural nuances in body attitudes among YMSM. PMID:26370403
Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R
The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252
Brown, Eleanor; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Jerotich, Miriam; le May, Victoria
The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men's (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a "modern" outlook and with aspirations to marry "educated" women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders - campaigners, government and local leaders - to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition. PMID:27578345
Chopra, Pankaj; Fox, Andrew S.; Chen, Kailei; White, Andrew T.J.; Roseboom, Patrick H.; Keles, Sunduz
Children with an anxious temperament (AT) are at a substantially increased risk to develop anxiety and depression. The young rhesus monkey is ideal for studying the origin of human AT because it shares with humans the genetic, neural, and phenotypic underpinnings of complex social and emotional functioning. Heritability, functional imaging, and gene expression studies of AT in young monkeys revealed that the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) is a key environmentally sensitive substrate of this at risk phenotype. Because epigenetic marks (e.g., DNA methylation) can be modulated by environmental stimuli, these data led us to hypothesize a role for DNA methylation in the development of AT. To test this hypothesis, we used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to examine the cross-sectional genome-wide methylation levels in the Ce of 23 age-matched monkeys (1.3 ± 0.2 years) phenotyped for AT. Because AT reflects a continuous trait-like variable, we used an analytical approach that is consistent with this biology to identify genes in the Ce with methylation patterns that predict AT. Expression data from the Ce of these same monkeys were then used to find differentially methylated candidates linked to altered gene regulation. Two genes particularly relevant to the AT phenotype were BCL11A and JAG1. These transcripts have well-defined roles in neurodevelopmental processes, including neurite arborization and the regulation of neurogenesis. Together, these findings represent a critical step toward understanding the effects of early environment on the neuromolecular mechanisms that underlie the risk to develop anxiety and depressive disorders. PMID:25411484
Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard
In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18–60. This study asks how is the bisexual identity and experience of stigma different for Latino men along the generational spectrum, and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many visitors, including military troops, who enter highland regions from low altitude areas may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS, which negatively impacts workable man-hours and increases healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population level risk factors and build a multivariate model, which might be applicable to reduce the effects of AMS on Chinese young men traveling to this region. Methods Chinese highland military medical records were used to obtain data of young men (n = 3727 who entered the Tibet plateau between the years of 2006-2009. The relationship between AMS and travel profile, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were evaluated by logistic regression. Univariate logistic models estimated the crude odds ratio. The variables that showed significance in the univariate model were included in a multivariate model to derive adjusted odds ratios and build the final model. Data corresponding to odd and even years (2 subsets were analyzed separately and used in a simple cross-validation. Results Univariate analysis indicated that travel profile, prophylactic use, ethnicity, and province of birth were all associated with AMS in both subsets. In multivariate analysis, young men who traveled from lower altitude (600-800 m vs. 1300-1500 m, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.32-1.44 to higher altitudes (4100-4300 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 3.94-4.12; 3600-3700 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 2.71-2.74 by air or rapid land transport for emergency mission deployment (emergency land deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.08-2.11; normal air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.00-2.20; emergency air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.40-3.34 during the cold season (cold vs. warm, AOR = 1.25-1.28 are at great risk for developing AMS. Non-Tibetan male soldiers (Tibetan vs. Han, AOR = 0.03-0.08, born and raised in lower provinces (eastern vs. northwestern, AOR = 1
Kobrak, Paul; Ponce, Rafael; Zielony, Robert
This qualitative study explored the social experiences and HIV-related sexual practices of 30 young gay and bisexual men who moved to New York City in the past 3 years from other countries or elsewhere in the United States. For many migrants, a key basis of vulnerability to HIV was their engagement with New York City's unfamiliar sexual culture. Many recent arrivals migrated from places with small gay communities and low HIV prevalence, and some came with a practice of limited condom use. Participants described encountering an abundance of sexual opportunity in New York City, accessible to even the newest arrivals through internet sex sites. Some migrants expressed surprise that few men they met were interested in dating or establishing trust before having sex. Although frequent HIV testing was common, HIV status, testing history, and condom use were seldom discussed with sex partners for some men even with new partners or before sex without condoms. International and in-country migrants who are beginning to navigate New York City's gay sexual culture may be more vulnerable to HIV infection than established residents if they are inexperienced in encountering vast sexual opportunity, are less practiced in local norms of sexual communication, or if their lack of economic resources or social connections encourages them to have sex for money or shelter. This article suggests HIV prevention interventions for urban migrants and other men who have sex with men. PMID:25896489
Liberato, Selma C; Bressan, Josefina; Hills, Andrew P.
Background Osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developed countries. Increasing peak bone mass in young people may be the most important primary prevention strategy to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dietary factors and physical activity on bone mineralization in young men. Methods Thirty-five healthy men aged 18–25 y had anthropometric measures, body composition, resting metabolic rate...
The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men\\'s psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men\\'s narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009\\/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants\\' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend\\'s inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.
McCormack, M; Wignall, L.
This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had,...
Veinot, Tiffany Christine; Meadowbrooke, Chrysta Cathleen; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, Jose Artruro
Background We lack a systematic portrait of the relationship between community involvement and how people interact with information. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are a population for which these relationships are especially salient: their gay community involvement varies and their information technology use is high. YMSM under age 24 are also one of the US populations with the highest risk of HIV/AIDS. Objective To develop, test, and refine a model of gay community involvement (GCI)...
ZHUO Qin; SUN Rui; GOU Ling Yan; PIAO Jian Hua; LIU Jian Min; TIAN Yuan; ZHANG Yu Hui; YANG Xiao Guang
Objective Doubly labeled water (DLW) method is the gold standard for measuring total energy expenditure (TEE). We used this method to measure TEE in Chinese young men. Methods Sixteen healthy young men age 23±1 years with body mass index 22.0±1.4 kg/m2 were recruited. TEE was measured by the DLW method, and basal energy expenditure (BEE) was determined by indirect calorimetry. We also conducted 24-h activity, energy balance and factorial approach to estimate energy requirements of the subjects. Results TEE of subjects by DLW method was 9.45±0.57 MJ/day (2258±180 kcal/day). The 24-h activity was 10.80±0.33 MJ/day (2582±136 kcal/day). The energy requirement, derived from energy balance observations, was 9.93±1.32 MJ/day (2373±315 kcal/day). The BEE of 6.65±0.28 MJ/day (1589±67 kcal/day), calculated by the adjusted Schofield equation, was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that measured by indirect calorimetry, 5.99±0.66 MJ/day (1433±158 kcal/day). The TEE derived from the factorial approach was 10.31±0.43 MJ/day (2463±104 kcal/day). Conclusion The TEE of Chinese young men measured by the DLW method was about 10%lower than the current recommended nutrient intake (RNI), suggesting that the RNI for Chinese men maybe overestimated. Further studies are warranted to determine the value of the estimated energy requirement.
Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth
Background: The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective: This qualitative study investigated the ways that young…
Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, K; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Hougaard, D; Brixen, K; Hagen, C; Andersen, Marianne
CONTEXT: Aging in men is associated with changes in levels of sex hormones. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in sex hormones in young and elderly men and the significance of comorbidity and fat mass on sex hormones in elderly men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PATIENTS: 783 men aged 20-29 years and...... 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. MEASUREMENTS: Sex hormones and SHBG were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist......-circumference ≥102cm). RESULTS: Sex hormones were lower and SHBG higher in elderly men compared to the young cohort. Lower cut-offs for TT in healthy, young and elderly men were similar (Lower cut-off (95%CI): Young: 11.7 (11.2-12.1) vs. elderly: 11.2 (10.3-12.1) nmol/l), but lower and higher cut-offs of BT and FT...
Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie
There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…
Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…
Baggio, Stéphanie; Iglesias, Katia; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard
Emerging adulthood is a period of life transition, in which youths are no longer adolescents but have not yet reached full adulthood. Measuring emerging adulthood is crucial because of its association with psychopathology and risky behaviors such as substance use. Unfortunately, the only validated scale for such measurement has a long format (Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood [IDEA]-31 items). This study aimed to test whether a shorter form yields satisfactory results without substantial loss of information among a sample of young Swiss men. Data from the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors were used (N = 5,049). IDEA, adulthood markers (e.g., parenthood or financial independence), and risk factors (i.e., substance use and mental health issues) were assessed. The results showed that an 8-item, short-form scale (IDEA-8) with four factors (experimentation, negativity, identity exploration, and feeling in between) returned satisfactory results, including good psychometric properties, high convergence with the initial scale, and strong empirical validity. This study was a step toward downsizing a measure of emerging adulthood. Indeed, this 8-item short form is a good alternative to the 31-item long form and could be more convenient for surveys with constraints on questionnaire length. Moreover, it should help health care practitioners in identifying at-risk populations to prevent and treat risky behaviors. PMID:24973242
Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Hill, Lauren M; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne
Research on network-level influences on HIV risk behaviors among young men in sub-Saharan Africa is severely lacking. One significant gap in the literature that may provide direction for future research with this population is understanding the degree to which various HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs cluster within men's social networks. Such research may help us understand which HIV-related norms and behaviors have the greatest potential to be changed through social influence. Additionally, few network-based studies have described the structure of social networks of young men in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the structure of men's peer networks may motivate future research examining the ways in which network structures shape the spread of information, adoption of norms, and diffusion of behaviors. We contribute to filling these gaps by using social network analysis and multilevel modeling to describe a unique dataset of mostly young men (n = 1249 men and 242 women) nested within 59 urban social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the means, ranges, and clustering of men's HIV-related normative beliefs and behaviors. Networks in this urban setting varied substantially in both composition and structure and a large proportion of men engaged in risky behaviors including inconsistent condom use, sexual partner concurrency, and intimate partner violence perpetration. We found significant clustering of normative beliefs and risk behaviors within these men's social networks. Specifically, network membership explained between 5.78 and 7.17% of variance in men's normative beliefs and between 1.93 and 15.79% of variance in risk behaviors. Our results suggest that social networks are important socialization sites for young men and may influence the adoption of norms and behaviors. We conclude by calling for more research on men's social networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and map out several areas of future inquiry. PMID:26874081
Анатолий Степанович Пуликов
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the state of the physical development of the autonomic regulation of the functions and adaptive capacity in relation to the characteristics of the distribution of the lateral phenotype in boys.Methodology: The study on a voluntary basis with the informed consent of 124 apparently healthy young student branch of State Educational Institution of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University V.P. Astafieva in Zheleznogorsk.Anthropometric measurements were carried out by a well-known and accepted techniques that meet modern requirements.Definition of motor and sensory asymmetries person evaluated by the method proposed by N.N. Bragin (1988.Results: In boys, living in the influence of the MCC to the impact of «small and ultra-low doses» of radiation in more than half of the cases, pravolateralny phenotype, regardless of their physical constitution with the highest rate in andromorfnogo type on SDI and voltage adaptation mechanisms, prevalence figures sympathetic tone autonomic regulation. Poor adaptation was observed only in young men with levolateralnym and mixed phenotype. Youth with levolateralnym phenotype were the smallest in size cohort (7,5-12,5%. However, among them there is a tendency to predominance boys and ginekomorfnogo endomorph body types, with poor adaptation, stress adaptation mechanisms and parasympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation. The young men of mixed lateral phenotype was weak distinction constitutional type body, with a predominance of one to ginekomorfnogo and mesomorphic body types on SDI. In the same group, a fairly wide variation between satisfactory and unsatisfactory adaptation and stress coping mechanisms with the same measure of the number of young men from the parasympathetic and sympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation.Practical implications: medicine, psychology, developmental physiology, anthropology, neuroscience.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-14
Full Text Available Women are known to have particular heterogeneity in stroke etiology related to childbearing and hormonal factors. Although there are continued acute stroke treatment advances focusing on clot dissolution or extraction, effective secondary prevention of stroke, however, is dependent on an accurate etiological determination of the stroke. Otherwise, more strokes are likely to follow. Analysis of young women’s stroke etiology in a large stroke registry incorporating contemporary neurovascular and parenchymal imaging and cardiac imaging. Young people (18-49 years old with stroke were consecutively accrued over a 4 year period and an investigative protocol prospectively applied that incorporated multimodality magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, cardiac echo and stroke relevant blood investigations. All patients were classified according to an expanded Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment − TOAST − classification and neurological deficit by the National Institute of Health stroke admission scores. In 511 registry derived, young stroke patients (mean age 39.8 years, 95% confidence interval: 39.1; 40.7 years, gender (women n=269, 53% the etiological categories (women; men included: i small vessel disease (30/55;25/55, ii cardioembolic (16/42;26/42, iii large vessel cervical and intracranial disease (24/43;19/43, the other category (132/226; 91/226, which included, iv substance abuse (15/41; 26/41, 4.6, v prothrombotic states (22/37;15/37, vi dissection (11/30;19/30, vii cerebral venous thrombosis (15/19; 4/19, 12.4, viii vasculitis (8/12; 4/12, ix migraine related (10/11, 1/11 and x miscellaneous vasculopathy (38/52;14/52. The latter entities comprised of aortic arch atheroma, vessel redundancy syndrome, vertebrobasilar hypoplasia, arterial fenestrations and dolichoectasia. Some conditions occurred solely in women, such as eclampsia (5, Call Fleming syndrome (4, fibromuscular dysplasia (3 and Moya Moya syndrome (2. Categories aside
Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Edwardson, Charlotte L.; Wilmot, Emma G.; Yates, Thomas; Gorely, Trish; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Ashra, Nuzhat; Khunti, Kamlesh; Nimmo, Myra A.; Davies, Melanie J.
Aims Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a serious and prevalent chronic disease, is traditionally associated with older age. However, due to the rising rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the younger population. Sedentary (sitting) behaviour has been shown to be associated with greater risk of cardio-metabolic health outcomes, including T2DM. Little is known about effective interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate, through a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design, whether a group-based structured education workshop focused on sitting reduction, with self-monitoring, reduced sitting time. Methods Adults aged 18–40 years who were either overweight (with an additional risk factor for T2DM) or obese were recruited for the Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes (STAND) RCT. The intervention programme comprised of a 3-hour group-based structured education workshop, use of a self-monitoring tool, and follow-up motivational phone call. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 3 and 12 months after baseline. The primary outcome measure was accelerometer-assessed sedentary behaviour after 12 months. Secondary outcomes included other objective (activPAL) and self-reported measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity, and biochemical, anthropometric, and psycho-social variables. Results 187 individuals (69% female; mean age 33 years; mean BMI 35 kg/m2) were randomised to intervention and control groups. 12 month data, when analysed using intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) and per-protocol analyses, showed no significant difference in the primary outcome variable, nor in the majority of the secondary outcome measures. Conclusions A structured education intervention designed to reduce sitting in young adults at risk of T2DM was not successful in changing behaviour at 12 months. Lack of change may be due to the brief nature of such an intervention and lack of focus
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Full Text Available Percent body fat content was found in apparently normal healthy 30 young (17-20 Yrs. and 30 middle aged men (30-46 Yrs. by measuring the skinfold and girth. None of the subjects were athletes or did regular physical exercise. Body density was calculated using mean of the four skinfold measurements as per the equations advocated by Durnin and Womersley, while percent body fat content was calculated from the body density by the Siri′s equation. The mean % body fat content by this method in young men was 15.87 +/- 3.85% and in middle aged men was 24.75 +/- 3.55%. Ten percent of the young subjects and 90% of the middle aged subjects were found to be obese. Percent body fat content was also calculated from the girth measurements as advocated by McArdle et al. The mean of % body fat content with this method was 14.91 +/- 3.82% in young men and 24.30 +/- 3.35% in middle aged men. On comparison, the difference in percent body fat content calculated by both the methods was found to be significant in young men but not for middle aged men. The correlation, coefficient between girth method and skinfold method was 0.95 in case of young men and 0.90 for middle aged men. Therefore, we advocate that girth measurements can be used to determine percent body fat content, main advantage being simplicity of technique and requirement of inexpensive instruments for measurement.
Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexterity (associated with experience in non-consumers) in both sexes. On the other hand, male consumers had a lower heart rate than non-consumers, independently of the phase, while female consumers had a higher state anxiety and performed worse in attention than controls, also independently of the phase. These results help to understand the extent of performance impairment of different tasks produced by risk alcohol consumption in young men and women. PMID:25314039
Doroszko, Adrian; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Janus, Agnieszka; Jakubowski, Maciej; Turek, Aleksandra; Ilnicka, Paulina; Szuba, Andrzej; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between endothelial dysfunction and aspirin response in a young healthy population (102 men aged 18-40). Initial concentrations of the NO pathway metabolites (ADMA, l-arginine, SDMA), cardiovascular risk markers, oxidative stress markers (MDA, thiol index), sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, VEGF, thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1α and arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation (to separate aspirin resistant from sensitive group) were measured. Flow-mediated-vasodilation (FMD) was measured before and after intravenous infusion of 16.0 g of l-arginine. Measurements were repeated following aspirin administration (75 mg/24 h) for 4 days. Both groups were homogenous regarding demographic and biochemical characteristics reflecting cardiovascular risk. Aspirin resistant subjects were characterized by lower baseline FMD and higher FMD following aspirin and l-arginine treatment, as compared to aspirin sensitive control. MDA and nitrotyrosine were greater, whereas thiol index was lower in aspirin resistant men. The sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin and VEGF levels were similar in the analyzed groups. Thromboxane in aspirin resistant subjects was greater both at baseline and following aspirin therapy. However, a significant decrease following aspirin treatment was present in both groups. Aspirin resistance in young men is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which could be due to oxidative stress resulting from lipid peroxidation. PMID:25697550
Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T
Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702
Peter A Newman
: The intersecting influence of multi-level factors on rectal microbicide acceptability suggests that social–structural interventions to ensure widespread access, low cost and to mitigate stigma and discrimination against gay and other MSM and transgender women in the Thai health care system and broader society will support the effectiveness of rectal microbicides, in combination with other prevention technologies, in reducing HIV transmission. Education, outreach and small-group interventions that acknowledge differences between MSM and transgender women may support rectal microbicide implementation among most-at-risk populations in Thailand.
Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce
Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…
Limberg, Jacqueline K; Johansson, Rebecca E; Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G
We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease. PMID:26747505
Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J;
STUDY QUESTION: Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male...... reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried...... out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the...
Eric Julian Manalastas
Full Text Available In this exploratory study, I investigated lived experiences of unrequited love among young Filipino gay men in order to explore unrequited love beyond its heteronormative forms. Analysis of qualitative accounts from 11 out gay men who participated in focus groups indicated that unrequited love was a highly meaningful subjective experience involving a spectrum of negative affect, uncertainty, and self-esteem lowering. Non-reciprocity was often attributed to a lack of matching on dimensions like availability, sexual orientation, relationship goals, and personality. Non-homophobic social support was important in the reduction of uncertainty and management of distress, in addition to other strategies for coping with rejection and non-formation of the desired love relationship.
The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...... plans of both men and women, and by separating the effect by level of academic ability, race and family income. The results show that unrestricted access to the pill caused high ability women to move towards occupations with higher wages, higher occupational prestige scores and higher male ratios. The...... estimated effects for women with low grades and from low selectivity colleges are in the opposite direction. Men were also affected by unrestricted access to the pill, as their aspirations shifted towards traditionally male dominated occupations, across all ability groups. The biggest effect of unrestricted...
Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario
Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males. PMID:26626441
Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.
The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women....... Dental status and facial morphology were recorded in 13 male students aged 20-26 years. Functional examinations included bite-force measurements and electromyographic recordings of masseter activity. A biopsy was removed from the masseter of each participant during surgical extraction of a wisdom tooth......, and the tissue examined for myosin ATPase activity. Further, the cross-sectional areas of the different fibre types were measured. In spite of using age-matched healthy men and women with a full complement of teeth, statistically significant sex differences were found among measures related to muscle...
Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N
Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008
Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul;
We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...
Mario Eugénio Tchamo; Marcos André Moura dos Santos; Marcelus Brito de Almeida; António Manuel Machado Prista e Silva; Carol Góis Leandro
ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years) were divided into four groups (low birth weight < 2.500 g, LBW, n = 49; insufficient birth weight ≥ 2.500 g and < 3.000 g, IBW, n = 27; normal birth weight ...
Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria;
Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes...... of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake and an...
Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin
Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449
Sweeney, Lorna; Owens, Christabel; Malone, Kevin
The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men's psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men's narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend's inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk. PMID:25323463
Full Text Available Introduction: 5-alpha reductase inhibitors can reduce the risk of prostate cancer but can be associated with significant side effects. A library of nomograms which predict the risk of clinical endpoints relevant to dutasteride treatment may help determine if chemoprevention is suited to the individual patient. Methods: Data from the REDUCE trial was used to identify predictive factors for nine endpoints relevant to dutasteride treatment. Using the treatment and placebo groups from the biopsy cohort, Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression models were used to build 18 nomograms, whose predictive ability was measured by concordance index and calibration plots. Results: A total of 18 nomograms assessing the risks of cancer, high-grade cancer, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN, atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP, erectile dysfunction (ED, acute urinary retention (AUR, gynecomastia, urinary tract infection (UTI and BPH-related surgery either on or off dutasteride were created. The nomograms for cancer, high grade cancer, ED, AUR, and BPH-related surgery demonstrated good discrimination and calibration while those for gynecomastia, UTI, HGPIN, and ASAP predicted no better than random chance. Conclusions: To aid patients in determining whether the benefits of dutasteride use outweigh the risks, we have developed a comprehensive metagram that can generate individualized risks of 9 outcomes relevant to men considering chemoprevention. Better models based on more predictive markers are needed for some of the endpoints but the current metagram demonstrates potential as a tool for patient counseling and decision making that is accessible, intuitive, and clinically relevant.
Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian
Young men who have sex with men are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS, and most new infections occur in serious romantic dyads. Young people experience substantial psychosocial and neurocognitive change between adolescence and emerging adulthood which impacts engagement in risk behaviors. We aimed to examine developmental change in the association between sexual partnership characteristics and condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Data were taken from an analytic sample of 114 young adult MSM from a longitudinal study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth with 4-year follow-up. Rates of CAI were approximately 12 times higher in serious compared to casual partnerships, but this effect diminished in size over time. Partner age differences and violence were associated with more CAI, and these associations strengthened across development. Characteristics of serious relationships (e.g., power dynamics) were also examined. We discuss the need for HIV prevention strategies that address dyadic influences on CAI during this critical developmental period. PMID:25861731
Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Ng, Yu Leung
This study is among the first to examine the sexual risk behaviors and attendant factors of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Hong Kong using location-aware gay social networking mobile applications ("gay apps"). Among the 213 YMSM (Mage = 21.52, SD = 2.29 years, range 17-25) who reported their recent (past six months) sexual history with male partners and gay apps use, inconsistent condom use (ICU) during anal sex was fairly common (60.2% regular partners, 45.8% non-regular partners). One-fifth of the sample reported condomless internal ejaculation (CIE) during anal sex (19.3% insertive, 19.8% receptive). Frequent "Grindr" and "Jack'd" users were less likely to report anal sex, and hence ICU, with regular [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.72] and non-regular (AOR = 0.62) partners, respectively. Sexual partnering via apps doubled the odds of ICU with both regular (AOR = 1.99) and non-regular (AOR = 2.17) partners. The odds of ICU with regular partners also increased with relationship status (AOR = 2.86 exclusive, AOR = 3.23 non-exclusive) but reduced for those who never had STI/HIV testing (AOR = 0.27). With non-regular partners, YMSM's likelihood of ICU increased with more recent partners (AOR = 3.25) and drug use (AOR = 3.79), but reduced with group sex (AOR = 0.15). The odds of receptive CIE increased with alcohol consumption (AOR = 4.04), non-exclusive relationship (AOR = 4.10), and more recent partners (AOR = 2.47), but reduced with group sex (AOR = 0.15) and older age (AOR = 0.84). For insertive CIE, the odds increased with bisexual YMSM (AOR = 2.89), exclusive relationship (AOR = 3.97), and longtime apps-use (AOR = 1.81). The findings identify meaningful differences among YMSM app-users that inform sexual health intervention and suggest attention on alcohol or drug use during sex and condomless sex with non-exclusive regular partners. PMID:26444390
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help
Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A
eight men who were tested less than seven days after the injury had a dysfunctional score. Among groups of the remaining692 men who were tested at later time points after injury, the rates were only marginally raised (range 21.4% to 26.5%) above the population level. Among men tested before injury, the......: Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1220 young men who had been admitted to hospital for concussion between the ages of 16 and 24 (identified in a national register of admissions) and who had also been cognitively tested by the Danish conscription draft board. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Score on the draft board's cognitive...... screening test, dichotomised as dysfunctional or non-dysfunctional (20.4% of the general population of Danish men appearing before the draft board had a dysfunctional score). RESULTS: 700 of the 1220 men had been tested after sustaining concussion; 520 had been tested before concussion. Four (50%) of the...
The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 ± 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 ± 0.76 and 7.39 ± 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 ± 2 and 122 ± 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 ± 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs
Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas
Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample. PMID:24515803
Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Ahmad, Husam
This study examined the relation between waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triceps skin-fold thickness and percentage body fat in young Syrian men. The aim was to develop equations that can use these anthropometric characteristics to estimate percentage body fat in this group of subjects. A total of 2470 healthy Syrian men aged 18-19 years were enrolled in the study in 2010-2011. The anthropometric characteristics of all subjects were measured. The percentage body fat of 213 of the subjects was determined using the deuterium dilution (DD) technique as a reference method. The validity of using WC, HC, WHpR and WHtR to calculate percentage body fat, in comparison with the reference method (DD technique), was assessed by calculating biases and limits of agreement. The estimates of percentage body fat using 'WC' and 'WC with triceps skin-fold' measurements ranged from 13.00±5.56% to 14.55±8.63%, and were lower than those determined using the reference method (21.32±6.42%). A better prediction equation is proposed for young adults, based on a multiple linear regression model using WC, HC and WHtR. PMID:26971838
Halle, B; Halle, D M; Torfing, T;
consequence of acetabular retroversion on standardized x-rays. Men aged 26-55 years who earlier had a total hip arthroplasty were included in the case group. This group was compared to a control-group of men treated as trauma patients. The study indicates that acetabular dysplasia and retroversion and a......We studied the role of acetabulum geometry and head neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis of the hip in young men. Contrary to previous studies we evaluated the significance of the anterior, posterior and total coverage of the femoral head, the influence of the femoral neck and the...... relative decreased head neck ratio are associated with osteoarthritis of the hip in young men....
Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are the only group in which rates of new HIV infections are increasing in the United States. Alcohol and drug use have been linked to HIV risk, but evidence suggests that these associations may change across development and by relationship type. Data were taken from an analytic sample of 114 YMSM enrolled in a longitudinal study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth with 4 years of participant follow-up. For the sample as a whole, alcohol use b...
Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.
Research examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sexual risk outcomes among men who have sex with men (MSM) has yielded inconsistent results. Using a web-based survey, single-identified (e.g., not in a relationship) young MSM (N = 431) between the ages of 18 and 24 years who sought romantic partners online were asked to respond to items regarding their BMI, body image (e.g., attribution, dissatisfaction, and pride), and sexual risk behaviors. We used Poisson regressions t...
Noguchi, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Ryoya; Kimura, Akira
[Purpose] This study was designed to determine whether smoking affects endothelium function after cold therapy in young men. [Subjects] The final cohort included 27 healthy men (age, 20–21 years). Because an impact on vascular endothelium function was anticipated to be caused by smoking, the study enrolled 14 participants in a smoking group and 13 in a non-smoking group. [Methods] Vascular endothelial function was assessed by determining the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), using finger-tonome...
Muhihi, Alfa; Njelekela, Marina; Mpembeni, Rose; Masesa, Zablon; KITAMORI, KAZUYA; Mori, Mari; Kato, Norihiro; Mtabaji, Jacob; Yamori, Yukio
Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and middle aged men in a fast growing city of Mwanza in Tanzania. Methods Physical activity was assessed among 97 healthy men aged 20–50years using Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Quest...
Muessig, Kathryn E.; Baltierra, Nina B.; Pike, Emily C.; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B
Young, Black men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men (YBMSM/TW) are at disproportionate risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI). HealthMpowerment.org (HMP) is a mobile phone optimised online intervention that utilises behaviour change and gaming theories to reduce risky sexual behaviours and build community among HIV-positive and negative YBMSM/TW. The intervention is user-driven, provides social support, and utilises a point reward syste...
Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi;
. RESULTS: The LBW subjects displayed a variety of metabolic and prediabetic abnormalities, including elevated fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels, reduced insulin-stimulated glycolytic flux, and hepatic insulin resistance. Nevertheless, in vivo mitochondrial function was normal in LBW subjects......, as was the expression of OXPHOS genes. CONCLUSIONS: These data support and expand previous findings of abnormal glucose metabolism in young men with LBW. In addition, we found that the young, healthy men with LBW exhibited hepatic insulin resistance. However, the study does not support the hypothesis that muscle...
Denne oppgåva er ei komparativ studie av teaterfenomena angry young men (1956-1966) og in your face -teater (1993-1999). Dette er to av dei viktigaste periodane i britisk teater etter 1950. Eg har valt å fokusere på John Osborne (1929-1994) og hans stykke "Look Back in Anger" (1956) som representant for angry young men og Mark Ravenhill (fødd 1966) og hans stykke "Shopping and Fucking" (1996) frå in your face -teater. Utgangspunktet for denne undersøkinga er fylgjande problemstilling: k...
Carew, Caitlin L; Tatham, Erica L; Milne, Andrea M; MacQueen, Glenda M; Hall, Geoffrey B C
Ruminative brooding is associated with increased vulnerability to major depression. Individuals who regularly ruminate will often try to reduce the frequency of their negative thoughts by actively suppressing them. We aim to identify the neural correlates underlying thought suppression in at-risk and depressed individuals. Three groups of women were studied; a major depressive disorder group, an at-risk group (having a first degree relative with depression) and controls. Participants performed a mixed block-event fMRI paradigm involving thought suppression, free thought and motor control periods. Participants identified the re-emergence of "to-be-suppressed" thoughts ("popping" back into conscious awareness) with a button press. During thought suppression the control group showed the greatest activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, followed by the at-risk, then depressed group. During the re-emergence of intrusive thoughts compared to successful re-suppression of those thoughts, the control group showed the greatest activation of the anterior cingulate cortices, followed by the at-risk, then depressed group. At-risk participants displayed anomalies in the neural regulation of thought suppression resembling the dysregulation found in depressed individuals. The predictive value of these changes in the onset of depression remains to be determined. PMID:26067869
Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.
Qualitative data can be a powerful tool in developing interventions for substance use and other HIV-risk behaviors. Mixed-methods design offers researchers the ability to obtain data that provides both breadth and depth to their research. However, the integration of qualitative data in mixed-methods research has been limited. This paper describes the qualitative design of the Healthy Young Men’s Study, a longitudinal mixed-method study with an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have s...
Shaw, Louis B.
Although elderly men and women share many of the same problems as they age, their lives are likely to follow different courses. Women are more likely than men to live into old old-age and are more likely to spend part of their young old-age caring for husbands or parents. By providing this unpaid care women might enter retirement earlier, rather than prolonging their working lives. Because they live longer, but are less likely than men to live with someone who will care for them, women are al...
Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira
Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592
Allebeck, P.; Allgulander, C.; Fisher, L D
Suicide seems to be increasing in young people in various countries and causes the greatest loss of years of life under the age of 65 in the Swedish population. Data from a national survey of 50,465 conscripts in Sweden were used in a prospective follow up study to assess personality and behavioural predictors of suicide in young men. Altogether 247 completed suicides occurred in the cohort during 13 years' follow up. Baseline data on social conditions, psychological assessments, and psychiat...
Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari
Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.