Sample records for asynchronous usability testing

  1. Crowdsourcing for Usability Testing

    Liu, Di; Kuipers, Rebecca; Bias, Randolph


    While usability evaluation is critical to designing usable websites, traditional usability testing can be both expensive and time consuming. The advent of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower offer an intriguing new avenue for performing remote usability testing with potentially many users, quick turn-around, and significant cost savings. To investigate the potential of such crowdsourced usability testing, we conducted two similar (though not completely parallel) usability studies which evaluated a graduate school's website: one via a traditional usability lab setting, and the other using crowdsourcing. While we find crowdsourcing exhibits some notable limitations in comparison to the traditional lab environment, its applicability and value for usability testing is clearly evidenced. We discuss both methodological differences for crowdsourced usability testing, as well as empirical contrasts to results from more traditional, face-to-face usability testing.

  2. Crowdsourcing for Usability Testing

    Liu, Di; Lease, Matthew; Kuipers, Rebecca; Bias, Randolph


    While usability evaluation is critical to designing usable websites, traditional usability testing can be both expensive and time consuming. The advent of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower offer an intriguing new avenue for performing remote usability testing with potentially many users, quick turn-around, and significant cost savings. To investigate the potential of such crowdsourced usability testing, we conducted two similar (though not completely paral...

  3. Cross cultural usability testing

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam


    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user. This r...... performed, in terms of number of think aloud events and number of usability problems found, when both the evaluators and the test users are local. These results are however limited to the Danish context and need to be investigated in other cultural settings.......In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user. This...... hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  4. Integrated Usability Testing

    Andrei Ternauciuc


    Full Text Available It is essential to regularly test the usability of a learning management system, in order to ensure a fast adoption by new users and rapidly shift the focus from the platform to the content and the learning experience. Quantitative testing yields the most reliable results due to the large number of data points acquired, but lacks the in-depth analysis of the qualitative research from a controlled testing setup. We are proposing in this paper an integrated usability testing tool, which can replace a certain type of laboratory testing, where the users’ actions on the real platform are measured and analyzed. We conducted tests with the tool and compared the results with a small scale laboratory test using the same scenarios. The results seem to confirm the proposed tool as a viable alternative to the laboratory test.

  5. Iterative usability testing: ensuring a usable clinical workstation.

    Coble, J. M.; Karat, J.; Orland, M. J.; Kahn, M. G.


    Once the users' needs are determined, how does one ensure that the resulting software meets the users' needs? This paper describes our application of a process, usability testing, that is used to measure the usability of systems as well as guide modifications to address usability problems. Usability testing is not a method to elicit opinions about software, but rather a method to determine scientifically a product's level of usability. Our application of usability testing is designed to deter...

  6. Iterative usability testing: ensuring a usable clinical workstation.

    Coble, J M; Karat, J; Orland, M J; Kahn, M G


    Once the users' needs are determined, how does one ensure that the resulting software meets the users' needs? This paper describes our application of a process, usability testing, that is used to measure the usability of systems as well as guide modifications to address usability problems. Usability testing is not a method to elicit opinions about software, but rather a method to determine scientifically a product's level of usability. Our application of usability testing is designed to determine the current usability level of a workstation designed for the clinician's use, determine specific problems with the Clinical Workstation's usability, and then evaluate the effectiveness of changes that address those problems. PMID:9357724

  7. Usability testing a practical guide for librarians

    Blakiston, Rebecca


    Do you want to improve the usability of your library website, but feel that it is too difficult, time-consuming, or expensive? Usability Testing: A Practical Guide for Librarians will teach you how to make the case for usability testing, define your audience and their goals, select a usability testing method appropriate for your particular context, plan for an in-house usability test, conduct an effective in-house usability test, analyze usability test results, and create and implement a plan for ongoing, systematic usability testing. Step-by-step instructions, along with a myriad of examples,

  8. Integration of MSFC Usability Lab with Usability Testing

    Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally


    As part of the Stage Analysis Branch, human factors engineering plays an important role in relating humans to the systems of hardware and structure designs of the new launch vehicle. While many branches are involved in the technical aspects of creating a launch vehicle, human factors connects humans to the scientific systems with the goal of improving operational performance and safety while reducing operational error and damage to the hardware. Human factors engineers use physical and computerized models to visualize possible areas for improvements to ensure human accessibility to components requiring maintenance and that the necessary maintenance activities can be accomplished with minimal risks to human and hardware. Many methods of testing are used to fulfill this goal, such as physical mockups, computerized visualization, and usability testing. In this analysis, a usability test is conducted to test how usable a website is to users who are and are not familiar with it. The testing is performed using participants and Morae software to record and analyze the results. This analysis will be a preliminary test of the usability lab in preparation for use in new spacecraft programs, NASA Enterprise, or other NASA websites. The usability lab project is divided into two parts: integration of the usability lab and a preliminary test of the usability lab.

  9. Usability Testing Of Web Mapping Portals

    Petr Voldán


    Full Text Available This study presents a usability testing as method, which can be used to improve controlling of web map sites. Study refers to the basic principles of this method and describes particular usability tests of mapping sites. In this paper are identified potential usability problems of web sites:, Google maps and The usability testing was focused on problems related with user interfaces, addresses searching and route planning of the map sites.

  10. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.


    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four...

  11. Usability Study and Usability Tests for CheapSleep Finland Oy Website

    Jia LIU


    Friendly usability of the website is indispensable. Although companies understand the importance of usability, there are only small numbers of companies conducting usability tests on their business websites. CheapSleep Finland Oy requested to test usability of its business website. Thus one objective of this thesis is to carry out usability tests for business website of CheapSleep Finland Oy.

  12. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole


    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed as a...... synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... be performed as an asynchronous (parallel) iteration: Only a few components are changed in each stepand this calculation is in general based on components from differentprevious iterates. For the asynchronous iteration it turns out thatsimple tests of existence and non-existence can be based on...

  13. A usability test is not an interview

    Hertzum, Morten


    systems development, yet test procedures vary and the quality of test results is sometimes contested. While there is no single accepted procedure for usability specialists to follow when conducting usability tests, these tests normally involve users who think out loud while using a system and an evaluator......Usability tests are conducted to gauge users’ experience with a system, preferably before it is released for real use, and thereby find any problems that prevent users from completing their tasks, slow them down, or otherwise degrade their user experience. Such tests are important to successful...... who observes the users’ behavior and listens in on their thoughts. This common core of usability tests is illustrated in Figure 1. The possible variations include, for example, whether the users work individually or in pairs, whether the evaluator is in the room with the user or in an adjoining room...

  14. Qualitative Marketing Research Through Usability Testing

    Orzan Mihai


    Full Text Available Usability is an attribute of any good product, just as its functionality. It refers mainly to the utility of a product for its indented users, as well as to its ease of use. And whilst a correct functionality is critical for the commercial success of any product, its value comes through the human needs that it fulfills, which is determined through various marketing research techniques. In parallel, the IT&C community has developed in the last two decades its own type of research, called usability testing, used mainly to evaluate interface ease of use and all usability problems associated products. This article aims at finding the right place for usability testing and usability professionals in the marketing community, as well as drawing a wider picture, from a marketing research perspective, on one of the most popular topics in IT&C community for the benefit of marketing scholars and professionals.

  15. The influence of age in usability testing.

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Schmutz, Sven; Sauer, Juergen


    The effects of age in usability testing were examined in an experiment. Sixty users from two age groups (M = 23.0 yrs, M = 58.1 yrs) operated two technical devices (keyboard-based and touchscreen-based smartphones). In addition to various performance measures (e.g. task completion time, task completion rate), several subjective measures were taken (e.g. perceived usability, affect, and workload). The results showed better performance scores for younger adults than older adults for task completion time. For older adult users there was a mismatch between usability ratings and task completion time but not between usability ratings and task completion rate. Age-related differences in the importance of speed and accuracy in task completion point to the need to consider more strongly the factor user age in usability research and practice. PMID:26360221

  16. Collecting online data with usability testing software

    Maryam Moayeri


    Although the internet can no longer be described as a new phenomenon, the growth of its social structure together with the emergence of social interaction hold potential for new research methods. This paper explores the development of participant observation linked with usability testing to conduct online research. The application of usability testing tools has the potential of collecting, analysing, and presenting dynamic data that was previously difficult to capture with more traditional to...

  17. The impact of usability reports and user test observations on developers understanding of usability data

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Nielsen, Christian Monrad; Pedersen, Michael Bach;


    A usability evaluation provides a strong and rich basis for understanding and improving the design of user interaction with a software system. Exploiting this evaluation requires feedback that significantly impacts the developers' understanding of usability data about the interaction design of the...... system. This article presents results from an exploratory study of 2 ways of providing feedback from a usability evaluation: observation of user tests and reading usability reports. A case study and a field experiment were used to explore how observation and usability reports impact developers......' understanding of usability data. The results indicate that observation of user tests facilitated a rich understanding of usability problems and created empathy with the users and their work. The usability report had a strong impact on the developers' understanding of specific usability problems and supported a...

  18. Usability Testing of User Manuals

    Møller, Margrethe H.


    Many guidelines and several standards exist for the development of good user manuals. But even though technical writers comply with all guidelines, problems will typically arise when users apply the manual in practice. Therefore, it is useful to have real users test the manual before...... it is published. This article discusses user tests in the form of think-aloud tests, with examples from the research project ”User Manuals for older adults"....

  19. Web Usability Testing in a Polytechnic Library

    Wegener, Debby R.; Moi, May Goh-Ong Ai; Li, Mae Lim Mei


    The Temasek Polytechnic Library in Singapore launched its new digital library portal in December 2002. Circumstances precluded usability testing prior to this so it was with some concern that the library web team monitored its use. A few months later it became clear the users were having problems, so a new website was designed. This article deals…

  20. Remote Evaluation Of An Interface Usability Using Asynchronous Auto-Logging Methodology

    Tarus Nicholas Kiprotich


    Full Text Available Abstract The need of developing more usable web applications has motivated the development of a number of techniques methods and tools to address web usability issues. In recent years many automated remote usability evaluation methods have been employed. Despite the advantages offered by these methods usability evaluation is still a difficult and a time consuming task partly due to complexity of the tools used and partly due to expertise required. Analysing data obtained from web server logs can reveal usage pattern of users. This gives a highly improved understanding of users behaviour. This information can then be utilized in improving a web e application way which usability interfa evaluation of a web application can be approached. State transition network STN was preferred in this work. This paper presents a model for automated remote usability evaluation which automatically generates specific usability information of a remote web application.

  1. The fidelity of prototype and testing environment in usability tests

    Uebelbacher, Andreas; Sauer, Jürgen


    This doctoral thesis investigated what setup of a usability test can best support valid test outcomes. Several aspects of contextual fidelity were manipulated in experimental usability studies, to examine their impact on test results. The first study demonstrated that the medium of prototype presentation has effects on test outcomes, which have not been found in previous research. Using a more hypothesis-driven approach, it was shown that participants exhibited more reading activity when usin...

  2. Usability Testing : The Relation between Tasks and Issues

    Madireddy, Avinash


    The Usability of a website can be evaluated using various methods. One of the methods is usability testing, which is widely used and employed by the usability tester due to its low cost and user friendliness. The results of usability testing can be affected positively or negatively by several factors such as evaluator’s role, number of users, test environment, tasks, usability problem report, usability measures, and other factors. For more than a decade, the number of users plays a key role i...

  3. Methods of Usability Testing in Libraries Web Sites

    Eman Fawzy


    Full Text Available A Study about libraries' web sites evaluation, that is the Usability, the study talking about methods of usability testing and define it, and its important in web sites evaluation, then details the methods of usability: questionnaire, core groups, testing experimental model, cards arrangement, and composed evaluation.

  4. Usability Testing: Too Early? Too Much Talking? Too Many Problems?

    Hertzum, Morten


    Usability testing has evolved in response to a search for tests that are cheap, early, easy, and fast. In addition, it accords with a situational definition of usability, such as the one propounded by ISO. By approaching usability from an organizational perspective, this author argues that...

  5. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: Research designs for usability testing

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD


    The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in...

  6. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    Clemmensen, Torkil


    tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research, and the......The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross-cultural...... field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability...

  7. New Options for Usability Testing Projects in Business Communication Courses

    Jameson, Daphne A.


    The increasing availability of recording technologies makes it easier to include usability testing projects in business communication courses. Usability testing is a method of discovering whether people can navigate, read, and understand a print or electronic communication well enough to achieve a particular purpose in a reasonable time frame.…

  8. Usability testing of Fiskars International Website

    Krylova, Lilya


    This Bachelor thesis relates to Fiskars Brand website. Fiskars Corporation is the leading supplier of branded consumer products for garden, home and outdoor tools as well as some other equipment throughout the world. The main objective of the thesis was to explore the usability and to evaluate user interface design of a new Fiskars International Website to identify potential weaknesses as well as to lay emphasis on strong sides of the website. The research may also point on possible usab...

  9. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole


    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed as a...... thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....... synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...

  10. Qualitative Marketing Research Through Usability Testing

    Orzan Mihai; Orzan Gheorghe; Stanculescu Anca-Maria


    Usability is an attribute of any good product, just as its functionality. It refers mainly to the utility of a product for its indented users, as well as to its ease of use. And whilst a correct functionality is critical for the commercial success of any product, its value comes through the human needs that it fulfills, which is determined through various marketing research techniques. In parallel, the IT&C community has developed in the last two decades its own type of research, called usabi...

  11. Building a Remote Usability Testing Body of Knowledge (RUTBOK)

    Lizano, Fulvio; Stage, Jan


    Remote Usability Testing (RUT) is an alternative method of usability evaluations. The main aim of RUT is the reduction of costs in the usability evaluation process. Since middle of the 90s RUT, has emerged as a technique which seems as is gaining maturity across the time. In general any discipline...... or professional field matures along the time using in this process among other, a Body of Knowledge (BOK) to represent all the elements or knowledge connected with it. It is possible to find different perspectives about the structure....

  12. Testing the Usability of Two Online Research Guides

    Luigina Vileno


    This article describes usability testing of two online research guides. One guide was in the area of applied human sciences and the other was geared toward the discipline of psychology. Six undergraduate students were given several tasks to complete by using the guides. The participants also completed two questionnaires. One described the participants’ demographics and how much time they spent on the Internet on a daily basis. On the other questionnaire, filled out after the usability te...

  13. Ethical Concerns in Usability Testing Involving Older Adults

    Møller, Margrethe Hansen

    Based on experience from the research project “User Manuals for Older Adults”, this paper discusses whether there are special ethical concerns with older adults as test persons in a usability test involving the think-aloud method. In this context, older adults are defined as individuals with norm...... cognitive and physical problems of ageing. The paper concludes that usability testing is necessary as a part of the design cycle, but that special care can be taken to ensure that test persons do not feel disempowered during the test....

  14. Designing Websites for ESL Learners: A Usability Testing Study

    Liu, Min; Traphagan, Tomoko; Huh, Jin; Koh, Young Ihn; Choi, Gilok; McGregor, Allison


    The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the…

  15. Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with School Children

    Andersen, Malene Hjortboe; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Brooks, Eva Irene


    these methods is that they are designed for adults and are not necessarily appropriate to investigations including children. The guiding questions for this systematic literature review are (1) the motivation for conducting usability tests with children, and (2) the kind of methodological, practical, and...... ethical considerations that should be considered when involving children in usability studies. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist and PRISMA flow diagram are applied in order to assure the quality of the process of this investigation. Nine articles are...... analyzed and then synthesized by applying the constant comparative method. The synthesis of the literature review is based on the identified thematic priorities, which are categorized as follows: 1) the motivation for involving children as test persons in design processes, 2) definitions of usability, 3...

  16. Design and test of asynchronous eSFQ circuits

    We designed and tested new energy-efficient single flux quantum (eSFQ) circuits. The eSFQ design approach is based on biasing logic gates via decision-making pairs (DMPs) which connect clock lines to synchronous gates. The eSFQ design of asynchronous gates is more challenging, since these gates are not clocked. We demonstrate eSFQ designs of asynchronous circuits and implemented two versions of eSFQ toggle flip-flops (eTFF) cells embedded in a synchronous shift register environment. The first design is based on the bias-free version of a TFF operating in the ballistic mode. In the second design, the TFFs dc bias is applied symmetrically, while the necessary half-quantum phase skew is achieved by magnetic flux bias, which can also be done with a pi-junction phase shifter. Surrounding shift registers are the eSFQ versions of the RSFQ shift register with two junctions per bit. In this work, we report the functional operation of these eSFQ circuits and their energy consumption. (paper)


    Bogatyrev N. I.


    Full Text Available The article contain the peculiarities of testing asynchronous generator with sixzone winding on the basis of the asynchronous motor series 4A100S4 and analysis of obtained characteristics. Circuit parameters of the stator winding can significantly affect the characteristics of the asynchronous generator. Asynchronous generator was tested with a stator winding connected star, autotransformer and sectional winding. Use chastising windings opens the possibility of applying various circuits of capacitors and the load to asynchronous generators, which in turn affect the efficiency and stabilizing properties of the electric machine. Asynchronous generators to test with sectional winding by confirmation of theoretical calculations for determine the most optimal scheme under connect capacitors and load, testing the stator winding. The volume of testing for asynchronous generators standard is not defined, so we proposed testing method, taking into account the design features of the stator winding. Asynchronous generators were tested with the help of special equipment with the use of analyzer of energy power quality. Article contains characteristics of idling, short circuit and others, considered the heat mode. On the basis of the results we have determined the parameters of the circuit, the efficiency and power factor of induction generator

  18. Comparison of Testing Environments with Children for Usability Problem Identification

    Mohammadi Akheela Khanum


    Full Text Available This paper report the results of an empirical study which was carried out to investigate the effect of testing environment on the results of usability evaluation process. The study involved 54 school children from India in the age range of 11-13 years. Children were asked to perform books searching tasks with International Children’s Digital Library (ICDL. Children’s activities with ICDL were captured by using CamStudio, an open source screen capturing software. The effect was quantified in terms of number of usability problems identified by the children when they were tested in various testingenvironments. The results are indicative that field testing with children can be a viable solution in terms of reduced time taken to complete the given tasks and reduced frustration levels reported by the children during the tests.

  19. Testing the Usability of Two Online Research Guides

    Luigina Vileno


    Full Text Available This article describes usability testing of two online research guides. One guide was in the area of applied human sciences and the other was geared toward the discipline of psychology. Six undergraduate students were given several tasks to complete by using the guides. The participants also completed two questionnaires. One described the participants’ demographics and how much time they spent on the Internet on a daily basis. On the other questionnaire, filled out after the usability test, the participants rated the online research guides. Overall, the online research guides were found to be difficult to use. By observing how the participants interacted with the online research guides, the author has identified several problem areas that need to be addressed.

  20. Usability Testing for Serious Games: Making Informed Design Decisions with User Data

    Pablo Moreno-Ger; Javier Torrente; Yichuan Grace Hsieh; Lester, William T.


    Usability testing is a key step in the successful design of new technologies and tools, ensuring that heterogeneous populations will be able to interact easily with innovative applications. While usability testing methods of productivity tools (e.g., text editors, spreadsheets, or management tools) are varied, widely available, and valuable, analyzing the usability of games, especially educational “serious” games, presents unique usability challenges. Because games are fundamentally different...

  1. Infomaki: An Open Source, Lightweight Usability Testing Tool

    Michael Lascarides


    Full Text Available Infomaki is an open source "lightweight" usability testing tool developed by the New York Public Library to evaluate new designs for the web site and uncover insights about our patrons. Designed from the ground up to be as respectful of the respondents' time as possible, it presents respondents with a single question at a time from a pool of active questions. In just over seven months of use, it has fielded over 100,000 responses from over 10,000 respondents.

  2. Research Study on Importance of Usability Testing/ User Experience (UX Testing

    Niranjanamurthy M


    Full Text Available This paper gives the information regarding Usability testing. How user interacts with the system testing? Usability means the software’s capability to be learned and understood easily and how attractive it looks to the consumer. Usability Testing is one of the black box testing technique. Usability testing tests features of the software like: How easy it is to use the software? How easy it is to learn the software? How convenient is the software to end user? Usability is the measure of a product's potential to fulfil the requirement user. In information technology, the term usability used in terms to software applications and Web sites, but it can be used in terms of any product that is employed to accomplish a task (Some of the examples are, a car dashboard, a toaster, or an alarm clock. Some outcomes used in determining product usability are user interface, visual consistency, and a clear, defined process for evolution. This paper we discussed Usability, Usability testing process, Usability Testing Components, evaluation methods, User experience importance, advantages and disadvantages of Usability testing.

  3. Linearity, Persistence and Testing Semantics in the Asynchronous Pi-Calculus

    Cacciagrano, Diletta; Flavio CORRADINI; Aranda, Jesus; Valencia, Frank,


    In [CSVV06] the authors studied the expressiveness of persistence in the asynchronous pi calculus (Api) wrt weak barbed congruence. The study is incomplete because it ignores the issue of divergence. In this paper we present an expressiveness study of persistence in the asynchronous pi-calculus (Api) wrt DeNicola and Hennesy's testing scenario which is sensitive to divergence. We consider Api and theree sub-languages of it, each capturing one source of persistence: the persistent-input calcul...

  4. Applying Website Usability Testing Techniques to Promote E-services

    Abdel Nasser H. Zaied; Hassan, Mohamed M.; Islam S. Mohamed


    In this competitive world, websites are considered to be a key aspect of any organization’s competitiveness. In addition to visual esthetics, usability of a website is a strong determinant for user’s satisfaction and pleasure. However, lack of appropriate techniques and attributes for measuring usability may constrain the usefulness of a website. To address this issue, we conduct a statistical study to evaluate the usability levels of e-learning and e-training websites based on human (user) p...

  5. Testing the usability of Microsoft Photosynth, an application with a complex and unfamiliar conceptual model

    Vesuvala, Chirag Xerxes


    How do we test the usability of software whose design features an unprecedented and complex conceptual model? Current usability practices ask users for objective and subjective responses, which do not explicitly test how well a conceptual model is understood. An example of software with a complex conceptual model is Microsoft Photosynth. This is a Web-based tool that stitches together multiple photographs of a particular object into a three dimensional view. I tested its usability in two phas...

  6. Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; Green, Courtney R; Hewitt, Amy J; Mushquash, Christopher J; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J; Reynolds, James N


    BackgroundIn order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD.  ObjectivesTo evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. Methods A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Synchronous online usability testing sessions were conducted, followed by asynchronous testing. A total of 18 participants were included, comprised of both health care professionals with expertise in FASD and caregivers of children with FASD. The data collected in each cycle was examined for commonalities and results were used to inform changes to the website and content after each cycle.   ResultsParticipants rated the website as appealing and relatively easy and fast to use. Nevertheless, several usability problems were identified such as difficulty navigating between sections of content on the website, displaying too much content per page, and the relevance and appropriateness of the content as it related to FASD.  ConclusionsThe identification of usability problems was an important step in refining the Strongest Families FASD program before its effectiveness is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27115205

  7. Asynchronous Transfer Mode Quality-of-Service Testing

    Ivancic, William D.


    In support of satellite-ATM interoperability, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center performed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality-of-service experiments using MPEG-2 (ATM application layer 5, AAL5) over ATM over an emulated satellite link. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the free-space link quality necessary to use the ATM protocol to transmit high-quality multimedia information. The experimental results have been submitted to various International Telecommunications Union (ITU) study groups in order to improve and modify current standards and recommendations for the telecommunications industry. Quality-of-service parameters for Class I, stringent class requirements for ITU-T I.356 are currently being debated. The experimental results presented will help to establish these quality-of-service thresholds. This material will also be useful in the development of the ITU-R WP-4B's Draft Preliminary New Recommendation on the Transmission of Asynchronous Transfer Mode Traffic via Satellite (Rec. S.atm).

  8. Usability Testing of a Website about Alcohol and Health: A Case Study

    Tognolli, Gabrio; Marcatto, Francesco; Plet, Sabrina; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Wallace, Paul; Ferrante, Donatella


    Many health online resources addressed to the general public lack usability and their content is frequently difficult to understand. This case study evaluates the usability and the effectiveness of information presentation of the “Alcol e Salute” website, using two methods: heuristic evaluation and user testing. The results of the usability testing analysis revealed several key weaknesses with respect both to navigation and information display. These results will be used ...

  9. Applying Website Usability Testing Techniques to Promote E-services

    Abdel Nasser H. Zaied


    Full Text Available In this competitive world, websites are considered to be a key aspect of any organization’s competitiveness. In addition to visual esthetics, usability of a website is a strong determinant for user’s satisfaction and pleasure. However, lack of appropriate techniques and attributes for measuring usability may constrain the usefulness of a website. To address this issue, we conduct a statistical study to evaluate the usability levels of e-learning and e-training websites based on human (user perception. The questionnaire is implemented as user based tool, visitors of a website can use it to evaluate the usability of the websites. The results showed that according to the students’ point view the personalization has the first important criterion for the use of the e-learning websites, while according to experts’ point view the accessibility has the first important criterion for the use of the e-learning websites. Also the result indicated that the experienced respondents have demonstrated satisfaction over the usability attributes of e-learning websites they accessed for their learning purposes; while inexperienced students have expressed their perception on the importance of the usability attributes for accessing e-learning websites. When combining and comparing both finings, based on the outcomes it is evident that, all the attributes yielded satisfaction and were felt important.

  10. Comparison of CTA and Textual Feedback in Usability Testing for Malaysian Users

    Sivaji, Ashok; Clemmensen, Torkil; Feodor Nielsen, Søren


    Usability moderators found that the concurrent think-aloud (CTA) method has some cultural limitation that impacts usability testing with Malaysian users. This gives rise to proposing a new method called textual feedback. The research question is to determine whether there are any differences in terms of usability defects found by employing the new method. Due to the high power distance, it is hypothesized that the CTA method may not be sufficient and hence a textual feedback method is recomme...

  11. Usability Testing for Developing Effective Interactive Multimedia Software: Concepts, Dimensions, and Procedures

    Sung Heum Lee


    Full Text Available Usability testing is a dynamic process that can be used throughout the process of developing interactive multimedia software. The purpose of usability testing is to find problems and make recommendations to improve the utility of a product during its design and development. For developing effective interactive multimedia software, dimensions of usability testing were classified into the general categories of: learnability; performance effectiveness; flexibility; error tolerance and system integrity; and user satisfaction. In the process of usability testing, evaluation experts consider the nature of users and tasks, tradeoffs supported by the iterative design paradigm, and real world constraints to effectively evaluate and improve interactive multimedia software. Different methods address different purposes and involve a combination of user and usability testing, however, usability practitioners follow the seven general procedures of usability testing for effective multimedia development. As the knowledge about usability testing grows, evaluation experts will be able to choose more effective and efficient methods and techniques that are appropriate to their goals.

  12. Comparison of CTA and Textual Feedback in Usability Testing for Malaysian Users

    Sivaji, Ashok; Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Søren Feodor

    Usability moderators found that the concurrent think-aloud (CTA) method has some cultural limitation that impacts usability testing with Malaysian users. This gives rise to proposing a new method called textual feedback. The research question is to determine whether there are any differences in...... terms of usability defects found by employing the new method. Due to the high power distance, it is hypothesized that the CTA method may not be sufficient and hence a textual feedback method is recommended instead. Hence, the objective of this study is to determine if there are any differences in...... usability defects from the concurrent think-aloud (CTA) method (Condition 2) and textual feedback method (Condition 1) within the same group of Malaysian users. A pair-wise t-test was used, whereby users were subjected to performing usability task using both methods. Results reveal that we can reject the...

  13. The Usability Test of Manufactured Rounded Extension in Proton Therapy

    Park, Ji Yeon; Jang, Yo Jong; Kang, Dong Yun; Yeom, Du Seok; Choi, Gye Suk [Dept. of Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Long Extension (LE) is used in proton therapy for lung and abdomen. However, it has limitations in surface area, produces collision in posterior oblique beam which creates limitations in various gantry angles in planning therapy and increases air gap (distance between patient and compensator). Therefore, this study investigates the usability of manufactured Rounded Extension (RE) in comparison to LE to use the most suitable extension in proton therapy. To compare structural features of LE and RE. This study investigated usable gantry angle for snout sizes 100, 180 and 250 and CT scanned Humanoid phantom. And it compared the air gap in posterior oblique direction. The structural features of two extensions are as follow. Because of the existence of supporting bar, the width of LE was 40 cm and RE was 50 cm. Result of the investigation of usable gantry angle for snout sizes 100, 180 and 250 are as follow. LE is {+-}36(average) at 180 degree and RE is {+-}70(average). And also, the air gap of RE is decreased by 11.3 cm in average at the same gantry angle. Manufactured RE for proton therapy has several benefits than LE. Its therapy surface area is wider and range of usable gantry angle is also wider. Also, the air gap at the posterior oblique beam has decreased. Therefore the usability of RE in proton therapy of lung and abdomen will be increased compared to LE. However, the air gap of proton therapy at the lateral direction may be increased, so there may be need for make up to decrease air gap at the lateral direction in the future.

  14. A systematic review of usability test metrics for mobile video streaming apps

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.


    This paper presents the results of a systematic review regarding the usability test metrics for mobile video streaming apps. In the study, 238 studies were found, but only 51 relevant papers were eventually selected for the review. The study reveals that time taken for video streaming and the video quality were the two most popular metrics used in the usability tests for mobile video streaming apps. Besides, most of the studies concentrated on the usability of mobile TV as users are switching from traditional TV to mobile TV.

  15. A Comparison of What Is Part of Usability Testing in Three Countries

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability evaluation. In this paper we report and compare three ethnographic interview studies of what is a part of a standard (typical) usability test in a company in Mumbai, Beijing and Copenhagen. At each of these three locations, we use structural and contrast questions do a taxonomic and paradigm analysis of a how a company performs a usability test. We find similar parts across the three locations. We also find different results for each location. In Mumbai, most parts of the usability test are not related to the interactive application that is tested, but to differences in user characteristics, test preparation, method, and location. In Copenhagen, considerations about the client's needs are part of a usability test. In Beijing, the only varying factor is the communication pattern and relation to the user. These results are then contrasted in a cross cultural matrix to identify cultural themes that can help interpret results from existing laboratory research in usability test methods.

  16. Fault simulation and test pattern generation for synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits

    Lee, Hyung Ki


    In this dissertation, we propose two fault simulators, called HOPE and HOPE2, and an autolllatic test pattern generator (ATPG), called ATHENA, for synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits. HOPE is a parallel fault simulator for synchronous sequential circuits. In HOPE, a packet of 32 faults is simulated in parallel. Several new heuristics are employed in HOPE to accelerate the parallel fault simulation. The heuristics are 1) a reduction of faults to be simulated ...

  17. What is the relationship between task-based and open-ended usability testing, in terms of measuring satisfaction?

    Boddu, Srinivas Reddy


    Usability is one of the most important aspects of Information Technology. Usability plays a vital role in this industry, where organizations thrive to ensure utmost satisfaction of their end-users in regard to the experience of using their product. The systems may be a website or a software application. To measure user satisfaction, the method of usability testing can be performed. Performing usability testing gives a clear picture of difficulties that would be faced by potential target users...

  18. Usability testing: a review of some methodological and technical aspects of the method

    Bastien, J M Christian


    The aim of this paper is to review some work conducted in the field of user testing that aims at specifying or clarifying the test procedures and at defining and developing tools to help conduct user tests. The topics that have been selected were considered relevant for evaluating applications in the field of medical and health care informatics. These topics are: the number of participants that should take part in a user test, the test procedure, remote usability evaluation, usability testing tools, and evaluating mobile applications.

  19. What Happened to Remote Usability Testing? An Empirical Study of Three Methods

    Stage, Jan; Andreasen, M. S.; Nielsen, H. V.; Schrøder, S. O.

    empirical comparison of three methods for remote usability testing and a conventional laboratorybased think-aloud method. The three remote methods are a remote synchronous condition, where testing is conducted in real time but the test monitor is separated spatially from the test subjects, and two remote...

  20. Comparison of Think-Aloud and Constructive Interaction in Usability Testing with Children

    Als, Benedikte Skibsted; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.


    Constructive interaction provides natural thinking-aloud as test subjects collaborate to solve tasks. Since children may face difficulties in following instructions for a standard think-aloud test, constructive interaction has been suggested as evaluation method when usability testing with children....... However, the relationship between think-aloud and constructive interaction is still poorly understood. We present an experiment that compares think-aloud and constructive interaction in usability testing. The experiment involves 60 children with three setups where children apply think-aloud, and...... acquainted pairs reported that they had to put less effort into the testing than the think-aloud and non-acquainted children....

  1. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test generation in asynchronous sequential circuits

    S Jayanthy; M C Bhuvaneswari


    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps. The fault simulator based on fuzzy delay detects unstable states, oscillations and non-confluence of settling states in asynchronous sequential circuits. The fuzzy delay model based fault simulator is used to validate the test patterns produced by Elitist Non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm (ENGA) based test generator, for detecting crosstalk delay faults in asynchronous sequential circuits. The multi-objective genetic algorithm, ENGA targets two objectives of maximizing fault coverage and minimizing number of transitions. Experimental results are tabulated for SIS benchmark circuits for three gate delay models, namely unit delay model, rise/fall delay model and fuzzy delay model. Experimental results indicate that test validation using fuzzy delay model is more accurate than unit delay model and rise/fall delay model.

  2. With how many users should you test a medical infusion pump? Sampling strategies for usability tests on high-risk systems

    Schmettow, M.; Vos, W.; Schraagen, J.M.


    Usability testing is recognized as an effective means to improve the usability of medical devices and prevent harm for patients and users. Effectiveness of problem discovery in usability testing strongly depends on size and representativeness of the sample. We introduce the late control strategy, wh

  3. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer


    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  4. Developing a Standardized List of Questions for the Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site

    Letnikova, Galina


    Modern academic libraries have a great number of information resources available online in the form of electronic catalogs, books, journals, and subject subscription databases. To determine whether users can easily retrieve the information they are seeking, academic librarians conduct usability testing of their libraries' Web sites. There has been…

  5. Card-Sorting Usability Tests of the WMU Libraries' Web Site

    Whang, Michael


    This article describes the card-sorting techniques used by several academic libraries, reports and discusses the results of card-sorting usability tests of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site, and reveals how the WMU libraries incorporated the findings into a new Web site redesign, setting the design direction early on. The article…

  6. Focus Groups and Usability Testing in Redesigning an Academic Library's Web Site

    Oldham, Bonnie W.


    As the World Wide Web has advanced since its inception, librarians have endeavored to keep pace with this progress in the design of their library Web pages. User recommendations collected from focus groups and usability testing have indicated that the University of Scranton's Weinberg Memorial Library's Web site was not working as intended, and…

  7. From Usability Testing to Clinical Simulations: Bringing Context into the Design and Evaluation of Usable and Safe Health Information Technologies

    Kushniruk, Andre; Nøhr, Christian; Jensen, Sanne;


    Objectives: The objective of this paper is to explore human factors approaches to understanding the use of health information technology (HIT) by extending usability engineering approaches to include analysis of the impact of clinical context through use of clinical simulations. Methods: Methods...

  8. Usability testing of an online self-management program for adolescents with cancer.

    Stinson, Jennifer; Gupta, Abha; Dupuis, France; Dick, Bruce; Laverdière, Caroline; LeMay, Sylvie; Sung, Lillian; Dettmer, Elizabeth; Gomer, Stephanie; Lober, Janie; Chan, Carol Y


    The objective of this study was to explore the usability of a bilingual (English and French) Internet-based self-management program for adolescents with cancer and their parents and refine the Internet program. A qualitative study design with semistructured, audio-taped interviews and observation was undertaken with 4 iterative cycles. A purposive sample of English-speaking and French-speaking adolescents with cancer and one of their parents/caregivers was recruited. Adolescents and parents provided similar feedback on how to improve the usability of the Internet program. Most changes to the website were completed after the initial cycles of English and French testing. Both groups also found information presented on the website to be appropriate, credible, and relevant to their experiences of going through cancer. Participants reported the program would have been extremely helpful when they were first diagnosed with cancer. Usability testing uncovered some issues that affected the usability of the website that led to refinements in the online program. PMID:25037173

  9. Usability testing of a monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity

    van der Weegen S


    Full Text Available Sanne van der Weegen,1 Renée Verwey,1,2 Huibert J Tange,3 Marieke D Spreeuwenberg,1 Luc P de Witte1,2 1Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands; 2Research Centre Technology in Care, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, the Netherlands; 3Department of General Practice, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands Introduction: A monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity, consisting of an activity sensor, smartphone application (app, and website for patients and their practice nurses, has been developed: the 'It's LiFe!' tool. In this study the usability of the tool was evaluated by technology experts and end users (people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type 2 diabetes, with ages from 40–70 years, to improve the user interfaces and content of the tool. Patients and methods: The study had four phases: 1 a heuristic evaluation with six technology experts; 2 a usability test in a laboratory by five patients; 3 a pilot in real life wherein 20 patients used the tool for 3 months; and 4 a final lab test by five patients. In both lab tests (phases 2 and 4 qualitative data were collected through a thinking-aloud procedure and video recordings, and quantitative data through questions about task complexity, text comprehensiveness, and readability. In addition, the post-study system usability questionnaire (PSSUQ was completed for the app and the website. In the pilot test (phase 3, all patients were interviewed three times and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI was completed. Results: After each phase, improvements were made, mainly to the layout and text. The main improvement was a refresh button for active data synchronization between activity sensor, app, and server

  10. Usability of Operational Performance Support Tools - Findings from Sea Test II

    Byrne, Vicky; Litaker, Harry; McGuire, Kerry


    Sea Test II, aka NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations 17(NEEMO 17) took place in the Florida Aquarius undersea habitat. This confined underwater environment provides a excellent analog for space habitation providing similarities to space habitation such as hostile environment, difficult logistics, autonomous operations, and remote communications. This study collected subjective feedback on the usability of two performance support tools during the Sea Test II mission, Sept 10-14, 2013; Google Glass and iPAD. The two main objectives: - Assess the overall functionality and usability of each performance support tool in a mission analog environment. - Assess the advantages and disadvantages of each tool when performing operational procedures and Just-In-Time-Training (JITT).

  11. Hierarchical Test Development and Design-For for (a)synchronous Semi-Custom Asics.

    Leenstra, Jentje

    The research, described in this thesis, deals in particular with several problems, which arise when trying to automate the process of testing low-volume semi-custom ASICs. For low-volume ASICs one of the major problems is the reduction of the test application costs. To reduce the costs of testing low-volume ASICs, the use of a semi -custom test method with associated design-for-testability techniques is proposed. To be able to start the detection and removal of testability problems during the design, a novel automated hierarchical test program development procedure is presented. It is shown how, by generating a test specification for each hierarchical module, the test program can be developed incrementally. As a result, the testability of each module becomes known and it circumvents the need to generate a complete new test program after changes. To reduce the ASIC test time, the hierarchical test development approach supports the synthesis of a reconfigurable scan path. Thereby, our novel scan path architecture circumvents the need to introduce explicit test controllers by simply loading the reconfiguration information through the scan path itself. Since the hierarchical ASIC test development method as well as the semi-custom test method requires that all test vectors can be applied through a synchronous (reconfigurable) scan path, it is also investigate how asynchronous control circuits can be designed in such a way that they are synchronously scan testable. An implementation model is presented, that uses an explicit stale register composed of SR flip-flops. It is shown that these controllers are synchronously testable and can be derived directly from a state diagram description. Finally, the possibility of using a dedicated test generation procedure is illustrated by showing how the test program for modules composed of a data path and a finite state machine controller can be derived by the use of a novel symbolic test assembly procedure. The automated

  12. Fine-tuning Central Banks Web Communications: Usability Tests & Content Management

    Christian A. Bolu


    Full Text Available Business processes especially in the Central Banks are more fully integrated and streamlined than ever before. Also, realistic system landscapes often consist of many systems. Disconnected silos of unstructured information continue to pile up for each organizational function and different interfaces are often implemented using the technology that is considered to be ideal for the respective interface. There appears to be lack of Enterprise Content Management strategy thus leading to significant business challenges such as untrustworthy business information due to inaccurate, outdated, conflicting information, longer financial cycles and generally inefficient processes, system performance degradations and poor data organization, inconsistent, confusing user interface as well as frequent context switching.There is therefore the need for an effective enterprise content management strategy. Web content management systems are often used for storing, controlling, versioning, and publishing industry-specific documentations. Usability testing of web sites is an essential element of quality assurance and a true test of how people actually use Central Banks’ web site. It is a test of whether outsiders can successfully use the Banks’ Web site. Although formal usability tests are expensive, time-consuming and often prohibitive, periodic user testing is an important element in developing and maintaining a reader-friendly Website. Usability should emphasise clarity of communication, accessibility, consistency, navigation design, maintenance and good visual presentation.A solution to corporate intranet/internet chaos are Enterprise Portals. An enterprise portal is the gateway to the end user. It offers a central point of access to information, applications and services in an enterprise. It is a one-stop shopping for knowledge workers; the portal is both a gateway to and a destination on the enterprise network that provides transparent, tailored access to

  13. Usability Testing as a Method to Refine a Health Sciences Library Website.

    Denton, Andrea H; Moody, David A; Bennett, Jason C


    User testing, a method of assessing website usability, can be a cost-effective and easily administered process to collect information about a website's effectiveness. A user experience (UX) team at an academic health sciences library has employed user testing for over three years to help refine the library's home page. Test methodology used in-person testers using the "think aloud" method to complete tasks on the home page. Review of test results revealed problem areas of the design and redesign; further testing was effective in refining the page. User testing has proved to be a valuable method to engage users and provide feedback to continually improve the library's home page. PMID:26794192

  14. Usability Testing of a Large, Multidisciplinary Library Database: Basic Search and Visual Search

    Fagan, Jody Condit


    Visual search interfaces have been shown by researchers to assist users with information search and retrieval. Recently, several major library vendors have added visual search interfaces or functions to their products. For public service librarians, perhaps the most critical area of interest is the extent to which visual search interfaces and text-based search interfaces support research. This study presents the results of eight full-scale usability tests of both the EBSCOhost Basic Search an...

  15. Let Your Users Do the Testing

    Bruun, Anders; Gull, Peter; Hofmeister, Lene;


    Remote asynchronous usability testing is characterized by both a spatial and temporal separation of users and evaluators. This has the potential both to reduce practical problems with securing user attendance and to allow direct involvement of users in usability testing. In this paper, we report ...

  16. Usability : research, testing and development of the website

    Dubinina, Alina


    This Bachelor’s thesis introduces the modern methods of improving web usability and user experience. The study examines the basic principles, the laws and rules of usability, the latest tendencies and research in usability and user experience. The most important elements are considered: colors, text, navigation, placement of the elements. The purpose of the thesis was to research and improve the existing website,, according to the latest tendencies of web usability and resea...

  17. Usability Testing of a Multimedia e-Learning Resource for Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Halperin, Mitchell L.


    The usability of computer interfaces may have a major influence on learning. Design approaches that optimize usability are commonplace in the software development industry but are seldom used in the development of e-learning resources, especially in medical education. We conducted a usability evaluation of a multimedia resource for teaching…

  18. Testing of the sealing arrangements for the Nirex re-usable shielded transport containers

    As part of its responsibility for the development of a deep repository for intermediate and low level radioactive waste, UK Nirex Ltd is developing a range of Type B re-usable shielded transport containers (RSTCs). A testing programme has been carried out on two alternative concepts for the RSTC sealing arrangements over the temperature range -40oC to 200oC. For each sealing system, a test rig was developed to measure the performance under simulated normal and accident conditions of transport. The elastomer O-rings used for some of the tests had been irradiated to the maximum dose they might receive in normal transport. The performance of both sealing systems was good and it is concluded that either concept would meet the specified leakage criteria over the full temperature range under both normal and accident conditions of transport. However, further testing is required to confirm the performance of Concept N under accident conditions. (author)

  19. Usability testing of the human-machine interface for the Light Duty Utility Arm System

    This report describes the usability testing that has been done for the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. A program of usability testing has been established as a part of a process for making the LDUA as easy to use as possible. The LDUA System is being designed to deploy a family of tools, called End Effectors, into underground storage tanks by means of a robotic arm on the end of a telescoping mast, and to collect and manage the data that they generate. The LDUA System uses a vertical positioning mast, to lower the arm into a tank through an existing 30.5 cm access riser. A Mobile Deployment Subsystem is used to position the mast and arm over a tank riser for deployment, and to transport them from tank to tank. The LDUA System has many ancillary subsystems including the Operations Control Trailer, the Tank Riser Interface and Confinement Subsystem, the Decontamination Subsystem, and the End Effector Exchange Subsystem. This work resulted in the identification of several important improvements to the LDUA control and data acquisition system before the design was frozen. The most important of these were color coding of joints in motion, simultaneous operator control of multiple joints, and changes to the field-of-views of the camera lenses for the robot and other camera systems

  20. NASA Johnson Space Center Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) Overview

    Whitmore, M.


    The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) is part of the Space Human Factors Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The facility provides support to the Office of Biological and Physical Research, the Space Shuttle Program, the International Space Station Program, and other NASA organizations. In addition, there are ongoing collaborative research efforts with external businesses and universities. The UTAF provides human factors analysis, evaluation, and usability testing of crew interfaces for space applications. This includes computer displays and controls, workstation systems, and work environments. The UTAF has a unique mix of capabilities, with a staff experienced in both cognitive human factors and ergonomics. The current areas of focus are: human factors applications in emergency medical care and informatics; control and display technologies for electronic procedures and instructions; voice recognition in noisy environments; crew restraint design for unique microgravity workstations; and refinement of human factors processes. This presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities, and will address how the projects will evolve to meet new space initiatives.

  1. Getting a technology-based diabetes intervention ready for prime time: a review of usability testing studies.

    Lyles, Courtney R; Sarkar, Urmimala; Osborn, Chandra Y


    Consumer health technologies can educate patients about diabetes and support their self-management, yet usability evidence is rarely published even though it determines patient engagement, optimal benefit of any intervention, and an understanding of generalizability. Therefore, we conducted a narrative review of peer-reviewed articles published from 2009 to 2013 that tested the usability of a web- or mobile-delivered system/application designed to educate and support patients with diabetes. Overall, the 23 papers included in our review used mixed (n = 11), descriptive quantitative (n = 9), and qualitative methods (n = 3) to assess usability, such as documenting which features performed as intended and how patients rated their experiences. More sophisticated usability evaluations combined several complementary approaches to elucidate more aspects of functionality. Future work pertaining to the design and evaluation of technology-delivered diabetes education/support interventions should aim to standardize the usability testing processes and publish usability findings to inform interpretation of why an intervention succeeded or failed and for whom. PMID:25173689

  2. Mobile Usability

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil


    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones....... In both countries, the music player application was tested, wherein common patterns of accessing and sorting songs emerged. Whereas the Iranian users appeared to be more interested in social networking via use of an SMS service, the Turkish users tended to prefer to apply hierarchies to their own daily...... personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey...

  3. Augmented Reality Cubes for Cognitive Gaming: Preliminary Usability and Game Experience Testing

    Costas Boletsis


    Full Text Available Early detection is important in dementia care; however, cognitive impairment is still under-recognised and under-diagnosed. Cognitive screening and training are two important preventative treatments, which can lead to early detection of cognitive decline. In this work, the “Cognitive Augmented Reality Cubes” (CogARC system is presented, i.e. a serious game for cognitive training and screening, utilising an interaction technique based on Augmented Reality and the manipulation of tangible, physical objects (cubes. The game is a collection of cognitive mini-games of preventative nature and is, primarily, targeting elderly players (≥60 years old. A preliminary testing was conducted focusing on the game experience that CogARC offers (utilising the In-Game Experience Questionnaire, the usability of the system (using the System Usability Scale, and the specific user observations and remarks, as documented by open, semi-structured interviews.  Overall, CogARC demonstrated satisfying positive responses, however, the negative reactions indicated that there are specific problems with aspects of the interaction technique and a number of mini-games. The open interview shed more light on the specific issues of each mini-game and further interpretation of user interactions. The current study managed to provide interesting insights into the game design elements, integration of Augmented Reality, tangible interaction of the system, and on how elderly players perceive and use those interaction components. 

  4. Testing and Evaluation for Web Usability Based on Extended Markov Chain Model

    MAO Cheng-ying; LU Yan-sheng


    As the increasing popularity and complexity of Web applications and the emergence of their new characteristics, the testing and maintenance of large, complex Web applications are becoming more complex and difficult.Web applications generally contain lots of pages and are used by enormous users.Statistical testing is an effective way of ensuring their quality.Web usage can be accurately described by Markov chain which has been proved to be an ideal model for software statistical testing.The results of unit testing can be utilized in the latter stages, which is an important strategy for bottom-to-top integration testing, and the other improvement of extended Markov chain model (EMM) is to present the error type vector which is treated as a part of page node.This paper also proposes the algorithm for generating test cases of usage paths.Finally, optional usage reliability evaluation methods and an incremental usability regression testing model for testing and evaluation are presented.

  5. Usability testing of the Internet program: "Teens Taking Charge: Managing My Transplant Online".

    Korus, M; Cruchley, E; Stinson, J N; Gold, A; Anthony, S J


    Adolescents with SOT demonstrate high rates of medication non-adherence and higher rates of graft loss compared to all other age groups. Self-management interventions encompass information-based material designed to achieve disease-related learning and changes in the participant's knowledge and skill acquisition, while providing social support. These interventions have had some success in chronic disease populations by reducing symptoms and promoting self-efficacy and empowerment. Using findings from a needs assessment, an Internet-based self-management program, Teens Taking Charge: Managing My Transplant Online, for youth with SOT was developed. This program contains information on transplant, self-management and transition skills, and opportunities for peer support. The purpose of this study was to determine the usability and acceptability of the initial three modules (Medication and Vaccines; Diet after Transplant; and Living with a Transplant Organ) of the online program from the perspectives of youth with SOT. Participants were recruited from SOT clinics at a large pediatric tertiary care center in Canada. Three iterative cycles (seven patients per iteration) of usability testing took place to refine the Web site prototype. Study procedures involved participants finding items from a standardized list of features and talking aloud about issues they encountered, followed by a semi-structured interview to generate feedback about what they liked and disliked about the program. All 21 patients (mean age = 14.9 yr) found the Web site content to be trustworthy, they liked the picture content, and they found the videos of peer experiences to be particularly helpful. Participants had some difficulties finding information within submodules and suggested a more simplistic design with easier navigation. This web-based intervention is appealing to teenagers and may foster improved self-management with their SOT. Nine additional teen and two parent modules are being

  6. Usability Constructs

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren;


    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  7. Web Redemption and the Promise of Usability.

    Head, Alison J.


    Discusses usability as an interface design concept to improve information retrieval on the World Wide Web. Highlights include criteria for a usable Web site; usability testing; usability resources on the Web; and a sidebar that gives an example of usability testing by Hewlett-Packard. (LRW)

  8. Usability Testing of Web Based Educational Multimedia by Eye Tracking Method

    Servet BAYRAM; Sabiha YENİ


    Usability is one of the factors that can affect the success of students where learning processes are supported by internet and web technologies. In this study, usability factors for effective design and usage of web based multimedia packages created for educational purposes are evaluated. The research, experiments and analysis are done in the Human–Computer Interaction Laboratory that resides in Computer Education and Instructional Technologies Department of Marmara University. Data for the e...

  9. Usability testing of gaming and social media applications for stroke and cerebral palsy upper limb rehabilitation.

    Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel


    As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs. PMID:25570770

  10. Initial Usability Testing of a Hand-held Electronic Logbook Prototype for the Human Research Facility

    Berman, Andrea H.; Whitmore, Mihriban


    The Apple(R) Newton(TM) MessagePad 110 was flown aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft for microgravity usability testing. The Newton served as the initial hand-held electronic logbook prototype for the International Space Station (ISS) Human Research Facility (HRF). Subjects performed three different tasks with the Newton: (1) using the stylus to tap on different sections of the screen in order to launch an application and to select options within it; (2) using the stylus to write, and; (3) correcting handwriting recognition errors in a handwriting-intensive application. Subjects rated handwriting in microgravity 'Borderline' and had great difficulties finding a way in which to adequately restrain themselves at the lower body in order to have their hands free for the Newton. Handwriting recognition was rated 'Unacceptable,' but this issue is hardware-related and not unique to the microgravity environment. It is suggested that the restraint and handwriting issues are related and require further joint research with the current Handheld Electronic Logbook prototype: the Norand Pen*key Model #6300.

  11. Evaluating Web Usability

    Snider, Jean; Martin, Florence


    Web usability focuses on design elements and processes that make web pages easy to use. A website for college students was evaluated for underutilization. One-on-one testing, focus groups, web analytics, peer university review and marketing focus group and demographic data were utilized to conduct usability evaluation. The results indicated that…

  12. Genuair® Usability Test: Results of a National Public Survey of the Elderly.

    Blasi, Francesco; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Centanni, Stefano; Mereu, Carlo; Bernabei, Roberto; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsico, Angelo; Di Marco, Fabiano; Milanese, Manlio; Pagano, Francesco; Santus, Pierachille; Scichilone, Nicola; Sumberesi, Massimo; Braido, Fulvio; Baiardini, Ilaria


    Proper use of inhaler devices may be problematic in elderly patients due to age-related difficulties. A survey was administered to elderly patients to investigate the usability of the Genuair® device and patients' subjective viewpoint on the device. A representative sample of the Italian population aged ≥ 65 years was completed with a pre-defined sample of 89 patients with hand arthritis/arthrosis. Of 526 respondents, 88 were not self-sufficient. Only the replies of the 438 self-sufficient respondents were analyzed. A total of 107 participants (24%) reported having respiratory diseases, and 81 of these (76%) were users of inhaler devices. After the first test, the device was considered "practical/handy" by 90% of patients and "easy to use" by 89%. After the second test, in which patients received a demonstration of the correct inhalation maneuver, the percentage of patients scoring ≥ 7 increased to 93% for the first characteristic and was confirmed for the second, with no differences between the groups in terms of age, educational level, use of devices, and presence of arthritis/arthrosis. The mean time to explain the inhaler technique and to perform a correct inhalation was 1'38"± 1'37", and 70% of the respondents required less than 2 minutes, with no differences between the groups in terms of age, education level, use of devices, and presence of arthritis/arthrosis. In conclusion, Genuair® was well accepted and easy to use in a representative sample of the Italian population aged ≥ 65 years. These characteristics make it a valid choice in the elderly, thus enabling patients to better cope with the problems and difficulties that are common to this age group. PMID:26645660

  13. Global usability

    Douglas, Ian


    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  14. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E


    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  15. Ready, Set, Change! Development and usability testing of an online readiness for change decision support tool for healthcare organizations

    Timmings, Caitlyn; Khan, Sobia; Moore, Julia E; Marquez, Christine; Pyka, Kasha; Straus, Sharon E


    Background To address challenges related to selecting a valid, reliable, and appropriate readiness assessment measure in practice, we developed an online decision support tool to aid frontline implementers in healthcare settings in this process. The focus of this paper is to describe a multi-step, end-user driven approach to developing this tool for use during the planning stages of implementation. Methods A multi-phase, end-user driven approach was used to develop and test the usability of a...

  16. Low Cost vs. High-End Eye Tracking for Usability Testing

    Johansen, Sune Alstrup; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner;


    pixels against 59 pixels using the low cost system. This suggests that low cost eye tracking can become a viable alternative, when usability studies need not to distinguish between, for instance, particular words or menu items that participants are looking at, but only between larger areas...

  17. Improving a Counselor Education Web Site through Usability Testing: The Bibliotherapy Education Project

    McMillen, Paula S.; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth


    Technology proficiency expectations have proliferated in counselor education; however, limited information in the counseling literature details how to effectively evaluate or refine online resources from a design/utility standpoint. This description of a small-scale usability study demonstrates a cost-effective strategy for improving counselor…

  18. Development and usability testing of a web-based cancer symptom and quality-of-life support intervention.

    Wolpin, S E; Halpenny, B; Whitman, G; McReynolds, J; Stewart, M; Lober, W B; Berry, D L


    The feasibility and acceptability of computerized screening and patient-reported outcome measures have been demonstrated in the literature. However, patient-centered management of health information entails two challenges: gathering and presenting data using "patient-tailored" methods and supporting "patient-control" of health information. The design and development of many symptom and quality-of-life information systems have not included opportunities for systematically collecting and analyzing user input. As part of a larger clinical trial, the Electronic Self-Report Assessment for Cancer-II project, participatory design approaches were used to build and test new features and interfaces for patient/caregiver users. The research questions centered on patient/caregiver preferences with regard to the following: (a) content, (b) user interface needs, (c) patient-oriented summary, and (d) patient-controlled sharing of information with family, caregivers, and clinicians. Mixed methods were used with an emphasis on qualitative approaches; focus groups and individual usability tests were the primary research methods. Focus group data were content analyzed, while individual usability sessions were assessed with both qualitative and quantitative methods. We identified 12 key patient/caregiver preferences through focus groups with 6 participants. We implemented seven of these preferences during the iterative design process. We deferred development for some of the preferences due to resource constraints. During individual usability testing (n = 8), we were able to identify 65 usability issues ranging from minor user confusion to critical errors that blocked task completion. The participatory development model that we used led to features and design revisions that were patient centered. We are currently evaluating new approaches for the application interface and for future research pathways. We encourage other researchers to adopt user-centered design approaches when building

  19. Earthdata Search Usability Study Process

    Reese, Mark


    User experience (UX) design is the process of enhancing user satisfaction by improving various aspects of the user's interaction with an application or website. One aspect of UX design is usability, or the extent to which an application can be used to to accomplish tasks efficiently, effectively, and with satisfaction. NASA's Earthdata Search Client recently underwent a focused usability testing project to measure usability and gain valuable user feedback and insights to increase usability for its end-users. This presentation focuses on the process by which the usability tests were administered and the lessons learned throughout the process.

  20. Usability Testing of Web Based Educational Multimedia by Eye Tracking Method

    Servet BAYRAM


    Full Text Available Usability is one of the factors that can affect the success of students where learning processes are supported by internet and web technologies. In this study, usability factors for effective design and usage of web based multimedia packages created for educational purposes are evaluated. The research, experiments and analysis are done in the Human–Computer Interaction Laboratory that resides in Computer Education and Instructional Technologies Department of Marmara University. Data for the experiment are collected by using screen records which contain eye and mouse motions. For the analysis of data, fixation count, sequence and dwell time values in gridded area of interest; fixation count, heat map and scanpath values in whole are considered. The results obtained from this study can be used for design and validation of computer-based materials like virtual class applications, learning objects, educational applications, training applications and educational games.

  1. Hitting Families of Schedules for Asynchronous Programs

    Chistikov, Dmitry; Majumdar, Rupak; Niksic, Filip


    Asynchronous programming is a ubiquitous idiom for concurrent programming, where sequential units of code, called events, are scheduled and run atomically by a scheduler. While running, an event can post additional events for future execution by the scheduler. Asynchronous programs can have subtle bugs due to the non-deterministic scheduling of events, and a lot of recent research has focused on systematic testing of these programs. Empirically, many bugs in asynchronous programs have small b...

  2. Combining usability testing with eye-tracking technology: evaluation of a visualization support for antibiotic use in intensive care.

    Eghdam, Aboozar; Forsman, Johanna; Falkenhav, Magnus; Lind, Mats; Koch, Sabine


    This research work is an explorative study to measure efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction of a prototype called Infobiotika aiming to support antibiotic use in intensive care. The evaluation was performed by combining traditional usability testing with eye-tracking technology. The test was conducted with eight intensive care physicians whereof four specialists and four residents. During three test phases participants were asked to perform three types of tasks, namely navigational, clinical and tasks to measure the learning effect after 3-5 minutes free exploring time. A post-test questionnaire was used to explore user satisfaction. Based on the results and overall observations, Infobiotika seems to be effective and efficient in terms of supporting navigation and also a learnable product for intensive care physicians fulfilling their need to get an accurate overview of a patient status quickly. Applying eye-tracking technology during usability testing has shown to be a valuable complement to traditional methods that revealed many unexpected issues in terms of navigation and contributed a supplementary understanding about design problems and user performance. PMID:21893885

  3. Experimental Platform for Usability Testing of Secure Medical Sensor Network Protocols

    Andersen, Jacob; Lo, Benny P.; Yang, Guang-Zhong


    designed security mechanisms are essential. Several experimental sensor network platforms have emerged in recent years targeted for clinical use. However, few of them consider the importance of security issues such as privacy and access control, and how these can impact the usability of the platform, while...... encryption of sensor and configuration data with suitable user interfaces. The pluggable module provides the protocol for authentication and key generation such that modules with different security properties and respective user interface consequences can be easily compared and evaluated....

  4. ActiveOptions: leveraging existing knowledge and usability testing to develop a physical activity program website for older adults.

    Ostergren, Marilyn J; Karras, Bryant T


    ActiveOptions ( is a multi-agency effort to help people remain healthy as they age by providing Web access to information about senior-friendly exercise programs. This resource is currently available and in use in many location across the United States. This paper focuses on the user interface to the site. It synthesizes existing knowledge related to creating an effective interface for this population, and describes the process we used which included a heuristic evaluation and usability testing. PMID:18693902


    Ya-Fei Yang


    Full Text Available A major learning difficulty of Japanese foreign language (JFL learners is the complex composition of two syllabaries, hiragana and katakana, and kanji characters adopted from logographic Chinese ones. As the number of Japanese language learners increases, computer-assisted Japanese language education gradually gains more attention. This study aimed to adopt a Japanese word segmentation system to help JFL learners overcome literacy problems. This study adopted MeCab, a Japanese morphological analyzer and part-of-speech (POS tagger, to segment Japanese texts into separate morphemes by adding spaces and to attach POS tags to each morpheme for beginners. The participants were asked to participate in three experimental activities involvingwatching two Japanese videos with general or segmented Japanese captions and complete the Nielsen’s Attributes of Usability (NAU survey and the After Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ to evaluate the usability of the learning activities. The results of the system evaluation showed that the videos with the segmented captions could increase the participants’ learning motivation and willingness to adopt the word segmentation system to learn Japanese.

  6. Cultural Usability

    Shi, Qingxin


    relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way to......Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...... structure our TA UEM methodology to capture or be sensitive towards the mental models and ways of thinking in different cultural groups....

  7. Self-calibration algorithm in an asynchronous P300-based brain-computer interface

    Schettini, F.; Aloise, F.; Aricò, P.; Salinari, S.; Mattia, D.; Cincotti, F.


    Objective. Reliability is a desirable characteristic of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems when they are intended to be used under non-experimental operating conditions. In addition, their overall usability is influenced by the complex and frequent procedures that are required for configuration and calibration. Earlier studies examined the issue of asynchronous control in P300-based BCIs, introducing dynamic stopping and automatic control suspension features. This report proposes and evaluates an algorithm for the automatic recalibration of the classifier's parameters using unsupervised data. Approach. Ten healthy subjects participated in five P300-based BCI sessions throughout a single day. First, we examined whether continuous adaptation of control parameters improved the accuracy of the asynchronous system over time. Then, we assessed the performance of the self-calibration algorithm with respect to the no-recalibration and supervised calibration conditions with regard to system accuracy and communication efficiency. Main results. Offline tests demonstrated that continuous adaptation of the control parameters significantly increased the communication efficiency of asynchronous P300-based BCIs. The self-calibration algorithm correctly assigned labels to unsupervised data with 95% accuracy, effecting communication efficiency that was comparable with that of supervised repeated calibration. Significance. Although additional online tests that involve end-users under non-experimental conditions are needed, these preliminary results are encouraging, from which we conclude that the self-calibration algorithm is a promising solution to improve P300-based BCI usability and reliability.

  8. Evaluating Usability

    Nørgaard, Mie; Høegh, Rune T.


    basic concepts from argumentation theory can help us understand how to create persuasive feedback. We revisit two field studies on usability feedback to study if concepts from Toulmin's model for argumentation and Aristotle's modes of persuasion can explain why some feedback formats outperform others...

  9. Testing an Academic Library Website for Usability with Faculty and Graduate Students

    Monica Claassen‐Wilson


    Full Text Available Objectives – This usability study was developed to observe faculty and graduate students’ reactions to a recent redesign of the University of Kansas (KU Libraries’ website. The redesign included new navigational features, introduction of a federated search tool, a quick search box on the front page, and research subject pages. The study also provided the opportunity to observe the practices of faculty and graduate students in locating and retrieving information on the Libraries’ website.Methods – Ten participants (five faculty and five graduate students representing diverse disciplines were solicited for the study. Participants were required to access the Libraries’ website to answer a series of questions regarding new and updated features of the website. Observational analysis using Morae™ software was conducted and interviews with each participant provided details of their opinions on how these new features would influence their research and teaching activities.Results – Most of the participants either did not notice or ignored the major website changes. Links to and locations of commonly used resources (e.g. catalogue; databases; e‐journals had been changed minimally, and the faculty and graduate student participants gravitated to those familiar features to complete tasks. Prior to the study, participants had not accessed the new discovery tools; however, once previewed, responses to the tools’ utility were generally favourable. After using the federated search tool on a familiar topic, several participants noted that, when directed to databases they had not previously considered, they were able to locate citations they had missed in the past. Observers noted pitfalls in navigating the site such as inconsistent underscoring of links, ambiguous terminology, and unclear icons meant to expand subject heading lists. Unexpected searching behaviours were observed, including inconsistent and lack of conceptual understanding in

  10. How do usability professionals construe usability?

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil


    their thinking about usability, whereas they have less elaborate sets of experiential constructs. The usability professionals mostly construe usability at an individual level, rather than at organizational and environmental levels. The few exceptions include effectiveness constructs, which are evenly...

  11. Usable Pasts

    Tuleja, Tad


    In Usable Pasts, fourteen authors examine the manipulation of traditional expressions among a variety of groups from the United States and Canada: the development of a pictorial style by Navajo weavers in response to traders, Mexican American responses to the appropriation of traditional foods by Anglos, the expressive forms of communication that engender and sustain a sense of community in an African American women's social club and among elderly Yiddish folksingers in Miami Beach, the incor...

  12. Usability of Public Administration Electronic Forms

    Miloslav Hub; Michal Chudoba


    This paper is focused on the testing and evaluating of public administration electronic forms from the usability point of view. Its objective is to design a suitable methodology for usability testing of electronic forms and their description and distribution to public administration information systems professionals. Firstly, methods of usability engineering are summarized and a suitable method for usability testing and evaluation of electronic forms is selected. Farther, the methodology of e...

  13. Asynchronous Parallelization of a CFD Solver

    Daniel S. Abdi


    Full Text Available A Navier-Stokes equations solver is parallelized to run on a cluster of computers using the domain decomposition method. Two approaches of communication and computation are investigated, namely, synchronous and asynchronous methods. Asynchronous communication between subdomains is not commonly used in CFD codes; however, it has a potential to alleviate scaling bottlenecks incurred due to processors having to wait for each other at designated synchronization points. A common way to avoid this idle time is to overlap asynchronous communication with computation. For this to work, however, there must be something useful and independent a processor can do while waiting for messages to arrive. We investigate an alternative approach of computation, namely, conducting asynchronous iterations to improve local subdomain solution while communication is in progress. An in-house CFD code is parallelized using message passing interface (MPI, and scalability tests are conducted that suggest asynchronous iterations are a viable way of parallelizing CFD code.

  14. Test of a mobile purifying plant for drinking water for its usability in the case of radioacive contaminated water

    A mobile purifying plant for drinking water was tested for its usability in the case of radioactive contaminated water. As radioactive pollution the isotopes 89Sr, 131I, 134Cs and 140Ba/140La were chosen. The tests were made in a 1 : 1000 scaled-down version in a laboratory. Subsequqent a large-scale test was made with the purifying plant to control the results of the laboratory tests. The investigations have ensured the following purifying factors RF (in paranthesis the values of the large-scale test): 89Sr: RF = 7.8-11.4 (3.4), 131I: RF = 6.5-7.1 (1.74-2.05), 134Cs: RF = 184-260, 140Ba: RF 92-97, 140La: RF>= 103. An estimation of the radioactive contamination of the water by an accident of a medium nuclear power plant gives a purifying factor RF>=100 for all radiosiotopes to supply the population with drinking water. Because the RF of 89Sr and 131I are far beyond this limit the tested mobile purifying plant for drinking water cannot be used in the case of radioactive contaminated water. (author)


    Grigorash O. V.; Bogatyrev N. I.; Hitskova A. O.


    A promising is currently the use of asynchronous generators with capacitive excitation as a source of electricity in stand-alone power systems. Drive asynchronous generators may exercise as a thermal engine and wind wheel wind power plant or turbines of small hydropower plants. The article discusses the structural and schematics of voltage stabilizers and frequency of asynchronous generators with improved operational and technical specifications. Technical novelty of design solutions of the m...

  16. Testing the Usability of the HSPA Wireless Broadband in the Middle East: Jordan and Saudi Arabia as Case Studies

    Suleiman Almasri


    Full Text Available The number of Wireless Internet Broadband users in the Middle East was emerged due to the advances of Mobile technologies. For example, 3.5G (beyond third generation provides very advanced services such as high wireless internet speed and good quality video/voice telephone calls. In developing countries, this service is still at the initial phase. There are still some obstacles facing people of these countries to use this new service. This paper provides an overview about 3.5G in these countries: Jordan and Saudi Arabia as case studies. It also discusses peoples expectations about this service via conducting a questionnaire targeted Internet users. The paper also presents a network assessment experimental test carried out to evaluate the network usability and QoS at selected places of the area where this service is provided. The test was performed on three main network performance metrics: throughput, delay and packet loss. The results showed that the QoS of the network is irregular i.e. it is acceptable at some locations, whereas it is poor at other locations.

  17. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    Velez, Olivia


    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  18. The Development of MSFC Usability Lab

    Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally


    This conference poster reviews the development of the usability lab at Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of the lab was to integrate a fully functioning usability laboratory to provide a resource for future human factor assessments. and to implement preliminary usability testing on a MSFC website to validate the functionality of the lab.

  19. Compositional asynchronous membrane systems

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu


    This paper presents an algorithmic way of building complex membrane systems by coupling elementary membranes. Its application seems particularly valuable in the case of asynchronous membrane systems, since the resulting membrane system remains asynchronous. The composition method is based on a handshake mechanism implemented by using antiport rules and promoters.

  20. Usability Testing for e-Resource Discovery: How Students Find and Choose e-Resources Using Library Web Sites

    Fry, Amy; Rich, Linda


    In early 2010, library staff at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio designed and conducted a usability study of key parts of the library web site, focusing on the web pages generated by the library's electronic resources management system (ERM) that list and describe the library's databases. The goal was to discover how users find and…

  1. The value of usability testing for Internet-based adolescent self-management interventions: “Managing Hemophilia Online”

    Breakey, Vicky R; Warias, Ashley V; Ignas, Danial M; White, Meghan; Blanchette, Victor S; Stinson, Jennifer N


    Background As adolescents with hemophilia approach adulthood, they are expected to assume responsibility for their disease management. A bilingual (English and French) Internet-based self-management program, “Teens Taking Charge: Managing Hemophilia Online,” was developed to support adolescents with hemophilia in this transition. This study explored the usability of the website and resulted in refinement of the prototype. Methods A purposive sample (n=18; age 13–18; mean age 15.5 years) was r...


    Grigorash O. V.


    Full Text Available A promising is currently the use of asynchronous generators with capacitive excitation as a source of electricity in stand-alone power systems. Drive asynchronous generators may exercise as a thermal engine and wind wheel wind power plant or turbines of small hydropower plants. The article discusses the structural and schematics of voltage stabilizers and frequency of asynchronous generators with improved operational and technical specifications. Technical novelty of design solutions of the magnetic system and stabilizers asynchronous generator of electricity parameters confirmed by the patents for the invention of the Russian Federation. The proposed technical solution voltage stabilizer asynchronous generators, can reduce the weight of the block capacitors excitation and reactive power compensation, as well as to simplify the control system power circuit which has less power electronic devices. For wind power plants it is an important issue not only to stabilize the voltage of the generator, but also the frequency of the current. Recommend functionality stabilizer schemes parameters of electric power made for direct frequency converters with artificial and natural switching power electronic devices. It is also proposed as part of stabilization systems use single-phase voltage, three-phase transformers with rotating magnetic field, reduce the level of electromagnetic interference generated by power electronic devices for switching, enhance the efficiency and reliability of the stabilizer.

  3. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    Botvinnik, M M


    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  4. Asynchronous Variational Contact Mechanics

    Vouga, Etienne; Tamstorf, Rasmus; Grinspun, Eitan


    An asynchronous, variational method for simulating elastica in complex contact and impact scenarios is developed. Asynchronous Variational Integrators (AVIs) are extended to handle contact forces by associating different time steps to forces instead of to spatial elements. By discretizing a barrier potential by an infinite sum of nested quadratic potentials, these extended AVIs are used to resolve contact while obeying momentum- and energy-conservation laws. A series of two- and three-dimensional examples illustrate the robustness and good energy behavior of the method.

  5. Marketing through Usability.

    Morgan, Eric Lease


    Suggests that one of the best ways to get word-of-mouth marketing of library technology is to provide "usable" products and services. Provides an international standards definition on usability and notes that understanding usability combines an understanding of user needs/wants with an understanding of goals, functions, and limitations of…

  6. Designing for Website Usability

    Chris Procter


    Full Text Available This paper explores the customer perspective of World Wide Web (WWW site design in the light of current WWW usability research. A usability study undertaken by Spool et al. (1999 is replicated where testers search for specific information on a WWW site and answer a usability questionnaire. The search was carried out on New Zealand winery WWW sites. The results are compared to the findings of Spool in the areas of navigation, graphics and page layout. All three areas are found to be significant influences on WWW usability. Additional recommendations concerning guidelines for usability are made.

  7. Redundant Asynchronous Microprocessor System

    Meyer, G.; Johnston, J. O.; Dunn, W. R.


    Fault-tolerant computer structure called RAMPS (for redundant asynchronous microprocessor system) has simplicity of static redundancy but offers intermittent-fault handling ability of complex, dynamically redundant systems. New structure useful wherever several microprocessors are employed for control - in aircraft, industrial processes, robotics, and automatic machining, for example.

  8. Asynchronous P300 BCI

    Panicker, Rajesh; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying


    An asynchronous hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) paradigms is introduced. A P300 base system is used for information transfer, and is augmented to include SSVEP for control state detection. The proposed system has...

  9. Images of Usability

    Hertzum, Morten


    The term usability is ubiquitous in human-computer interaction, so much so that it is commonly used without definition. Rather than one established meaning of usability, there are, however, multiple images of usability. While each image provides a partial view, the partiality remains implicit...... manifold aspects of the use of a system and thereby acquiring a genuine understanding of its usability. The six images differ, for example, in the extent to which they include aspects of the outcome of the process of using a system or merely the process of use, whether they involve collaborative use or...... assume different images of usability and a need for supplementary methods addressing the collaborative and long-term aspects of usability. Moreover, the images call for extending the scope of practical usability work to include the effects achieved by users during their use of systems for real work....

  10. Evidence-based development and first usability testing of a social serious game based multi-modal system for early screening for atypical socio-cognitive development.

    Gyori, Miklos; Borsos, Zsófia; Stefanik, Krisztina


    At current, screening for, and diagnosis of, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are based on purely behavioral data; established screening tools rely on human observation and ratings of relevant behaviors. The research and development project in the focus of this paper is aimed at designing, creating and evaluating a social serious game based multi-modal, interactive software system for screening for high functioning cases of ASD at kindergarten age. The aims of this paper are (1) to summarize the evidence-based design process and (2) to present results from the first usability test of the system. Game topic, candidate responses, and candidate game contents were identified via an iterative literature review. On this basis, the 1st partial prototype of the fully playable game has been created, with complete data recording functionality but without the decision making component. A first usability test was carried out on this prototype (n=13). Overall results were unambiguously promising. Although sporadic difficulties in, and slightly negative attitudes towards, using the game occasionally arose, these were confined to non-target-group children only. The next steps of development include (1) completing the game design; (2) carrying out first large-n field test; (3) creating the first prototype of the decision making component. PMID:26294452

  11. Increasing Student Engagement Using Asynchronous Learning

    Northey, Gavin; Bucic, Tania; Chylinski, Mathew; Govind, Rahul


    Student engagement is an ongoing concern for educators because of its positive association with deep learning and educational outcomes. This article tests the use of a social networking site (Facebook) as a tool to facilitate asynchronous learning opportunities that complement face-to-face interactions and thereby enable a stronger learning…

  12. Website-Usability : Landtag NRW

    Roßmann, Nicola


    Die Studie untersucht die Usability der Homepage des Landtags Nordrhein-Westfalen. Es wird analysiert, wie benutzerfreundlich die Website ist, ob sie effektiv genutzt werden kann und ob die Inhalte der Site den Erwartungen der Benutzer entsprechen. Drei Evaluationsmethoden finden Einsatz: Ein Thinking-Aloud-Test, eine heuristische Evaluation und eine Availability-Untersuchung.


    Jayaletchumi T. Sambantha Moorthy; Suhaimi bin Ibrahim; Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin


    Usability is an important factor in ensuring development of quality and usable software product. Ignorance and unawareness about the concept of usability and failure to address usability during software development process has led to usability problems in software product. Many efforts has been suggested in literature to overcome usability problem in software products but current practices faces challenges in reducing these usability problems. Alternatively, the concept of risk management can...

  14. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.;


    through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the...... design considerations of the MuxBCT app and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation. METHODS: The MuxBCT tablet app was developed and set up for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory. A near-live simulation study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory to evaluate the...

  15. Usability and accessibility curricula

    Luján Mora, Sergio; Cachero Castro, Cristina


    Presentation of existing curricula connected with usability and accessibility at the University of Alicante for the Leonardo da Vinci project "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, France, 27 November 2012). Presentación del currículo actual relacionado con la usabilidad y la accesibilidad en la Universidad de Alicante para el proyecto Leonardo da Vinci "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, Francia, 27...

  16. Text Mining: (Asynchronous Sequences

    Sheema Khan


    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.

  17. Asynchronous Multiparty Computation

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Geisler, Martin; Krøigaard, Mikkel;


    We propose an asynchronous protocol for general multiparty computation. The protocol has perfect security and communication complexity  where n is the number of parties, |C| is the size of the arithmetic circuit being computed, and k is the size of elements in the underlying field. The protocol...... multithreading. Benchmarking of a VIFF implementation of our protocol confirms that it is applicable to practical non-trivial secure computations....

  18. Asynchronous Variational Integrators

    Lew, A.; Marsden, J. E.; Ortiz, M.; West, M


    We describe a new class of asynchronous variational integrators (AVI) for nonlinear elastodynamics. The AVIs are distinguished by the following attributes: (i) The algorithms permit the selection of independent time steps in each element, and the local time steps need not bear an integral relation to each other; (ii) the algorithms derive from a spacetime form of a discrete version of Hamilton’s variational principle. As a consequence of this variational structure, the algorith...

  19. Development and usability testing of a web-based self-management intervention for oral cancer survivors and their family caregivers.

    Badr, H; Lipnick, D; Diefenbach, M A; Posner, M; Kotz, T; Miles, B; Genden, E


    Oral cancer (OC) survivors experience debilitating side effects that affect their quality of life (QOL) and that of their caregivers. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a dyadic, web-based intervention to improve survivor self-management and survivor/caregiver QOL. A qualitative needs assessment (semi-structured interviews) with 13 OC survivors and 12 caregivers was conducted to discern information and support needs as well as preferences regarding website features and tools. Results using Grounded Theory analysis showed that OC survivors and caregivers: (1) want and need practical advice about managing side effects; (2) want to reach out to other survivors/caregivers for information and support; and (3) have both overlapping and unique needs and preferences regarding website features. Usability testing (N = 6 survivors; 5 caregivers) uncovered problems with the intuitiveness, navigation and design of the website that were subsequently addressed. Users rated the website favourably on the dimensions of attractiveness, controllability, efficiency, intuitiveness and learnability, and gave it a total usability score of 80/100. Overall, this study demonstrates that OC survivors and caregivers are interested in using an online programme to improve QOL, and that providing tailored website content and features based on the person's role as survivor or caregiver is important in this population. PMID:26507369

  20. Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks

    Bakhshi, Rena; Endrullis, Jörg; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun


    The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In ...

  1. Exploring Multiple Usability Perspectives

    Uldall-Espersen, Tobias


    Industrial usability work often fails to produce the expected impact on software products even though significant resources have been used on uncovering problems and suggesting improvements. So, it seems that feedback from industrial usability work lacks persuasiveness, i.e. it fails to convince ...

  2. Personal Usability Constructs

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper;


    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...

  3. Assessing Library Instruction through Web Usability and Vocabulary Studies

    Castonguay, Remi


    Can we use the methods of Web usability testing to learn about library instruction? This article is among the first in the field trying to establish a link between usability and instruction. The author discusses useful insights that Web usability can bring to our pedagogy as well as to the efficiency of library instruction. The result of a Web…

  4. Usability guide for manufacturers of radiation monitoring devices. Document Version: 1.0

    This Usability Guide for Manufacturers of Radiation Monitoring Devices consists of an (1) introduction followed by chapters on (2) managing the usability process, (3) usability principles, (4) hardware usability guide, (5) software usability guide, (6) reading tips and (7) checklists. Examples of information provided are a definition of usability, user centred design principles, user requirement monitoring, benefits, costs user control, navigation feedback, error message feedback, use of icons, language support, control feedback, error handling, checklists of planning, testing and others

  5. InTouch Usability Evaluation

    McCreary, Faith


    The main purpose of this test was to asses the performance of an actual customer with little or no previous InTouch experience. The usability test measured the total time needed to accomplish information entry and output, and record user critical incidents. Tasks included routine operations, print operations, and import/export of data. Each test session consisted of a performance test where the user performed a series of tasks, and a post-test interview where the user filled out a brief u...

  6. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Ana-Maria Suduc


    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  7. Designing for Website Usability

    Chris Procter; Judith Symonds


    This paper explores the customer perspective of World Wide Web (WWW) site design in the light of current WWW usability research. A usability study undertaken by Spool et al. (1999) is replicated where testers search for specific information on a WWW site and answer a usability questionnaire. The search was carried out on New Zealand winery WWW sites. The results are compared to the findings of Spool in the areas of navigation, graphics and page layout. All three areas are found to be signific...

  8. Analysis in usability evaluations

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Lai-Chong Law, Effie; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    While the planning and implementation of usability evaluations are well described in the literature, the analysis of the evaluation data is not. We present interviews with 11 usability professionals on how they conduct analysis, describing the resources, collaboration, creation of recommendations......, and prioritization involved. The interviews indicate a lack of structure in the analysis process and suggest activities, such as generating recommendations, that are unsupported by existing methods. We discuss how to better support analysis, and propose four themes for future research on analysis in...... usability evaluations....

  9. The evaluation model for usability of internet shops in foreign language

    Kodžoman, Jure


    Purpose of thesis was to conclude if there is an obvious gain in testing the usability of ecommerce website in foreign language. Hypothesis was, that usability testing in foreign language might show usability issues on the website, which wouldn't be found otherwise. We started with presenting usability testing methods and choosing which methods to use in this thesis. We have decided to perform laboratory usability testing in combination with surveys. In the next chapter we presented the...

  10. Usability testing and piloting of the Mums Step It Up program--a team-based social networking physical activity intervention for women with young children.

    Jocelyn Kernot

    Full Text Available Women's physical activity levels decline during their transition to parenthood. Facebook is widely used by Australian mothers and provides the opportunity to target social networks in order to maintain and increase physical activity.This mixed method study aimed to pilot and assess the usability of the Mums Step It Up Facebook app, a new team-based physical activity intervention for mothers with young children. A purposive sample of five "Captain" women with young children, were recruited through personal contacts. These women used the app to recruit 3-7 Facebook friends (with children under 5 to join their respective teams (total n = 25. The app encourages women to take 10,000 steps a day measured by a pedometer. Women used the app for 28 days to log steps, interact with team mates and monitor progress. Physical activity was assessed at two time points (baseline and final week using the Active Australia Survey. Usability testing with the five "Captain" women took place over two one hour face-to-face sessions. A questionnaire seeking feedback on the app was completed at time point two.Participants' total physical activity increased by an average of 177 minutes per week (p = 0.01. The complexity of the team forming process and issues using the Facebook environment, where a variety of devices and software platforms are used, was highlighted.A team-based Facebook app shows considerable promise for the recruitment and retention of participants to a social network-based physical activity intervention. A randomised controlled trial to further evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention is warranted.

  11. Stand-Alone and Hybrid Positioning Using Asynchronous Pseudolites

    Ciro Gioia


    Full Text Available global navigation satellite system (GNSS receivers are usually unable to achieve satisfactory performance in difficult environments, such as open-pit mines, urban canyons and indoors. Pseudolites have the potential to extend GNSS usage and significantly improve receiver performance in such environments by providing additional navigation signals. This also applies to asynchronous pseudolite systems, where different pseudolites operate in an independent way. Asynchronous pseudolite systems require, however, dedicated strategies in order to properly integrate GNSS and pseudolite measurements. In this paper, several asynchronous pseudolite/GNSS integration strategies are considered: loosely- and tightly-coupled approaches are developed and combined with pseudolite proximity and receiver signal strength (RSS-based positioning. The performance of the approaches proposed has been tested in different scenarios, including static and kinematic conditions. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for integrating heterogeneous measurements from different sources, such as asynchronous pseudolites and GNSS.

  12. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  13. Work-domain knowledge in usability evaluation

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    Usability evaluation helps to determine whether interactive systems support users in their work tasks. However, knowledge about those tasks and, more generally, about the work-domain is difficult to bring to bear on the processes and outcome of usability evaluation. One way to include such work-d...... impact on the software development process. The benefits of the interpretation phases may be explained by the access these provide both to the test participants’ work-domain knowledge and to their experiences as users. .......-domain knowledge might be Cooperative Usability Testing, an evaluation method that consists of (a) interaction phases, similar to classic usability testing, and (b) interpretation phases, where the test participant and the moderator discuss incidents and experiences from the interaction phases. We have studied...... whether such interpretation phases improve the relevance of usability evaluations in the development of work-domain specific systems. The study included two development cases. We conclude that the interpretation phases generate additional insight and redesign suggestions related to observed usability...

  14. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi


    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  15. Asynchronous Power Flow Controller

    Rahul Juneja


    Full Text Available In the present system demand of electrical power increases so fast and transfer of electrical power is need of today‟s scenario. . The electrical power is transfer at same frequency through AC transmission line. However, power generation may be at different frequencies such as wind generation, sources at islanding or power generation in different countries. The proposed Asynchronous Power Flow Controller (APFC system essentially consists of two back-to-back voltage source converters as “Shunt Converter” and “Series Converter” which is coupled via a common dc link provided by a dc storage capacitor This paper suggests the power transfer and control between the sources operating at different or same frequencies.

  16. The Usability Expert’s Fear of Agility

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine


    This paper contributes to the HCI literature on usability practice with insights about the empirical challenges and global emerging practices caused by the advent of agile software development (ASD). In the paper we report from a worldwide study involving 12 usability professionals from 12...... different countries. The findings show that the usability professionals share a forced development and innovation in their practice that stem from their clients’ adoption and use of ASD methods. The ASD methods challenge the way usability testing is performed, the abilities of the usability expert, the...

  17. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge


    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  18. Introducing usability activities into open source software development:impacts of contributed usability evaluations to the community and existence of HCI and OSS philosophies:case Concrete5

    Balac, J.-M. (Juho-Mikko)


    Usability is one of the software quality attributes and plays an important role in information systems success, technology acceptance and adoption models. Usability is a product of user interaction design and can be evaluated using usability testing and inspection methods. The usability of open source software (OSS) systems has had a poor reputation. The reasons for poor usability are cultural and software engineers have designed software for their own needs and for tech-savvy users, and thus...

  19. Working Together to Improve Usability

    Nørgaard, Mie; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    In theory, usability work is an important and well-integrated activity in developing software. In practice, collaboration on improving usability is ridden with challenges relating to conflicting professional goals, tight project schedules, and unclear usability findings. The authors study those...... challenges through 16 interviews with software developers, usability experts, and project managers. Four themes that are key challenges to successful interaction between stakeholders are identified: poor timing when delivering usability results, results lacking relevance, little respect for other disciplines...

  20. Testing usability and trainability of indirect touch interaction: perspective for the next generation of air traffic control systems.

    Causse, Mickaël; Alonso, Roland; Vachon, François; Parise, Robert; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Sébastien; Terrier, Patrice


    This study aims to determine whether indirect touch device can be used to interact with graphical objects displayed on another screen in an air traffic control (ATC) context. The introduction of such a device likely requires an adaptation of the sensory-motor system. The operator has to simultaneously perform movements on the horizontal plane while assessing them on the vertical plane. Thirty-six right-handed participants performed movement training with either constant or variable practice and with or without visual feedback of the displacement of their actions. Participants then performed a test phase without visual feedback. Performance improved in both practice conditions, but accuracy was higher with visual feedback. During the test phase, movement time was longer for those who had practiced with feedback, suggesting an element of dependency. However, this 'cost' of feedback did not extend to movement accuracy. Finally, participants who had received variable training performed better in the test phase, but accuracy was still unsatisfactory. We conclude that continuous visual feedback on the stylus position is necessary if tablets are to be introduced in ATC. PMID:25050968

  1. Evaluation of expert system application based on usability aspects

    Munaiseche, C. P. C.; Liando, O. E. S.


    Usability usually defined as a point of human acceptance to a product or a system based on understands and right reaction to an interface. The performance of web application has been influence by the quality of the interface of that web to supporting information transfer process. Preferably, before the applications of expert systems were installed in the operational environment, these applications must be evaluated first by usability testing. This research aimed to measure the usability of the expert system application using tasks as interaction media. This study uses an expert system application to diagnose skin disease in human using questionnaire method which utilize the tasks as interaction media in measuring the usability. Certain tasks were executed by the participants in observing usability value of the application. The usability aspects observed were learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. Each questionnaire question represent aspects of usability. The results present the usability value for each aspect and the total average merit for all the five-usability aspect was 4.28, this indicated that the tested expert system application is in the range excellent for the usability level, so the application can be implemented as the operated system by user. The main contribution of the study is the research became the first step in using task model in the usability evaluation for the expert system application software.

  2. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits

    Rivas Barragan, Daniel


    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  3. Explorations on Web Usability

    K K. Teoh


    Full Text Available The area of web usability has long intrigued researchers. It has been widely accepted that for a website to be successful, the level of usability has to be high. The reason is because of poorly designed website. While many web designers largely fall on their prior experience to tell if a web site design is good or bad, there is a need to be able to provide clear methodology to do so[2,3]. An article by Goldsborough which quoted Nielson, reported that while many web designers think their websites are important, generally it is users who will determine the relevance of these websites. In this paper, we discuss the methodology of usability and the survey conducted for the webpage that we have done.

  4. Development and usability testing of an evidence-based HIV prevention website for female African-American adolescents.

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M; Barr, Simone C; Borkman, April L; Bryant, Brittany G; Ruggiero, Kenneth J


    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format, and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13-18 years). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for Internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  5. Development and Usability Testing of an Evidence-Based HIV/STI Prevention Website for Female African-American Adolescents

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M.; Barr, Simone C.; Borkman, April L.; Bryant, Brittany G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.


    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article: (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally-informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format; and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13–18). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  6. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    Wang, C.


    Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The

  7. Asynchronous Distributed Searchlight Scheduling

    Obermeyer, Karl J; Bullo, Francesco


    This paper develops and compares two simple asynchronous distributed searchlight scheduling algorithms for multiple robotic agents in nonconvex polygonal environments. A searchlight is a ray emitted by an agent which cannot penetrate the boundary of the environment. A point is detected by a searchlight if and only if the point is on the ray at some instant. Targets are points which can move continuously with unbounded speed. The objective of the proposed algorithms is for the agents to coordinate the slewing (rotation about a point) of their searchlights in a distributed manner, i.e., using only local sensing and limited communication, such that any target will necessarily be detected in finite time. The first algorithm we develop, called the DOWSS (Distributed One Way Sweep Strategy), is a distributed version of a known algorithm described originally in 1990 by Sugihara et al \\cite{KS-IS-MY:90}, but it can be very slow in clearing the entire environment because only one searchlight may slew at a time. In an ...

  8. Asynchronous interactive control systems

    Vuskovic, M. I.; Heer, E.


    A class of interactive control systems is derived by generalizing interactive manipulator control systems. The general structural properties of such systems are discussed and an appropriate general software implementation is proposed. This is based on the fact that tasks of interactive control systems can be represented as a network of a finite set of actions which have specific operational characteristics and specific resource requirements, and which are of limited duration. This has enabled the decomposition of the overall control algorithm into a set of subalgorithms, called subcontrollers, which can operate simultaneously and asynchronously. Coordinate transformations of sensor feedback data and actuator set-points have enabled the further simplification of the subcontrollers and have reduced their conflicting resource requirements. The modules of the decomposed control system are implemented as parallel processes with disjoint memory space communicating only by I/O. The synchronization mechanisms for dynamic resource allocation among subcontrollers and other synchronization mechanisms are also discussed in this paper. Such a software organization is suitable for the general form of multiprocessing using computer networks with distributed storage.

  9. Distributed usability evaluation

    Christensen, Lars; Frøkjær, Erik


    , providing access to an evaluator (usability expert) and to product developers or managers who want to review the incidents and analyse them. DUE supports evaluation in the development stages from running prototypes and onwards. A case study of the use of DUE in a corporate environment is presented. The...

  10. Fusing website usability and search engine optimisation

    Eugene B. Visser


    Full Text Available Background: Most websites, especially those with a commercial orientation, need a high ranking on a search engine for one or more keywords or phrases. The search engine optimisation process attempts to achieve this. Furthermore, website users expect easy navigation, interaction and transactional ability. The application of website usability principles attempts to achieve this. Ideally, designers should achieve both goals when they design websites.Objectives: This research intended to establish a relationship between search engine optimisation and website usability in order to guide the industry. The authors found a discrepancy between the perceived roles of search engines and website usability.Method: The authors designed three test websites. Each had different combinations of usability, visibility and other attributes. They recorded and analysed the conversions and financial spending on these experimental websites. Finally, they designed a model that fuses search engine optimisation and website usability.Results: Initially, it seemed that website usability and search engine optimisation complemented each other. However, some contradictions between the two, based on content, keywords and their presentation, emerged. Industry experts do not acknowledge these contradictions, although they agree on the existence of the individual elements. The new model highlights the complementary and contradictory aspects.Conclusion: The authors found no evidence of any previous empirical experimental results that could confirm or refute the role of the model. In the fast-paced world of competition between commercial websites, this adds value and originality to the websites of organisations whose websites play important roles.

  11. A rural community's involvement in the design and usability testing of a computer-based informed consent process for the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

    Mahnke, Andrea N; Plasek, Joseph M; Hoffman, David G; Partridge, Nathan S; Foth, Wendy S; Waudby, Carol J; Rasmussen, Luke V; McManus, Valerie D; McCarty, Catherine A


    Many informed consent studies demonstrate that research subjects poorly retain and understand information in written consent documents. Previous research in multimedia consent is mixed in terms of success for improving participants' understanding, satisfaction, and retention. This failure may be due to a lack of a community-centered design approach to building the interventions. The goal of this study was to gather information from the community to determine the best way to undertake the consent process. Community perceptions regarding different computer-based consenting approaches were evaluated, and a computer-based consent was developed and tested. A second goal was to evaluate whether participants make truly informed decisions to participate in research. Simulations of an informed consent process were videotaped to document the process. Focus groups were conducted to determine community attitudes towards a computer-based informed consent process. Hybrid focus groups were conducted to determine the most acceptable hardware device. Usability testing was conducted on a computer-based consent prototype using a touch-screen kiosk. Based on feedback, a computer-based consent was developed. Representative study participants were able to easily complete the consent, and all were able to correctly answer the comprehension check questions. Community involvement in developing a computer-based consent proved valuable for a population-based genetic study. These findings may translate to other types of informed consents, including those for trials involving treatment of genetic disorders. A computer-based consent may serve to better communicate consistent, clear, accurate, and complete information regarding the risks and benefits of study participation. Additional analysis is necessary to measure the level of comprehension of the check-question answers by larger numbers of participants. The next step will involve contacting participants to measure whether understanding of


    Tina Lim Swee KIM


    Full Text Available This paper examines the practice of online discussion in a course specially tailored for in-service teachers who are pursuing their basic degree qualification at a teacher training institute. Analyses of postings to the asynchronous electronic discussion group were made according to the type of postings as proposed by Poole (2000. Four focus areas were looked into, that is, content, technical, procedural, or non-academic. Analyses were done for each quarter of the 12 weeks of interaction. At the end of the learners’ participation in the EDG and before their end-of-course examination, the participants were then given a paper-based questionnaire asking their perceptions on the use of EDG as part of their coursework on the whole. Six aspects of EDG were examined, these are;Ø technical aspects, Ø motivation to use the EDG, Ø quality of interaction, Ø tutor’s response, Ø perceived learning, and Ø attitude towards EDG. Analyses on postings for the EDG showed that the bulk of the postings were made in the last quarter of the online discussions. Further, 97.8% of the postings were on content and the types of content posting registered were predominantly questions (41.19% and those that sought clarification/elaboration (37.48%. Findings from this study suggest that overall the participants were satisfied with the six aspects of EDG examined. The aspect that recorded the highest mean was ‘motivation to read tutor’s responses’ whilst the lowest mean (and the only one with negative perception was for ‘worthiness of time spent on online discussions’.

  13. Software architecture analysis of usability

    Folmer, Eelke


    One of the qualities that has received increased attention in recent decades is usability. A software product with poor usability is likely to fail in a highly competitive market; therefore software developing organizations are paying more and more attention to ensuring the usability of their software. However, practice shows that product quality (which includes usability among others) is not that high as it could be. Organizations spend a relative large amount of money and effort on fixing u...

  14. Usability of ERP Error Messages

    Sadiq, Mazhar; Pirhonen, Antti


    Usability of complex information system like enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is still a challenging area. This is why many usability problems have been found in the ERP system. In this article, we tried to highlight the 21 usability problems in ERP error messages by using Nielsen’s heuristics and inquiry questionnaire methods. Nielsen’s heuristics is a better for finding a large number of unique usability problems in different areas. The inquiry questionnaire me...

  15. Software architecture analysis of usability

    Folmer, Eelke


    One of the qualities that has received increased attention in recent decades is usability. A software product with poor usability is likely to fail in a highly competitive market; therefore software developing organizations are paying more and more attention to ensuring the usability of their softwa

  16. Appropriate Web Usability Evaluation Method during Product Development

    Umar, Azeem; Tatari, Kamran Khan


    Web development is different from traditional software development. Like in all software applications, usability is one of the core components of web applications. Usability engineering and web engineering are rapidly growing fields. Companies can improve their market position by making their products and services more accessible through usability engineering. User testing is often skipped when approaching deadline. This is very much true in case of web application development. Achieving good...

  17. The Influence of Culture on Systems Usability

    Perihan Elbaz


    Full Text Available Usable interfaces are a result of focus on understanding users and their goals, tasks, characteristics, individual differences and environment. These differences between individuals result partly from differences between culture and subcultures. The goal of this paper is to set the scene for research into the influence of culture on the design of information systems for usability. This paper proposes a framework that includes extracting local usability guidelines for Arab culture and subcultures based on the issues gleaned from user acceptance test (UAT reports. The proposed framework adapts a number of UCD methods and phases to suit projects? circumstances. This adaptation is supported by a proposed UCD team structure. After applying the proposed framework on Web application projects that serve different sectors. The application of the proposed framework led to a decrease of UAT bugs by 95.25%, a decrease of development costs by 30-60%, a decrease in development time by 20-30%, and an increase of customer confidence and satisfaction. Systems? usability also increased as evidenced by the results obtained from usability tests using an evaluation checklist, and user interface analyses.

  18. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.


    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  19. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard


    domain by introducing a computation model, which resembles the synchronous datapath and control architecture, but which is completely asynchronous. The model contains the possibility for isolating some or all of the functional units by locking their respective inputs and outputs while the functional unit...

  20. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len


    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  1. Grain Refining of Flange Plate for Welded H Section Steel Made under Asynchronous Rolling Condition

    DAI Hui; SUN Jiquan; TANG Di


    Asynchronous rolling technology was adopted for the accumulated ten passes cold rolling,flange plate steel,and for welded H section steel,respectively.The metallographic microstructure analysis,tensile test and annealing test were carried out for cold rolled pieces; thus the ratio of length to width of grain,tensile strength,relationship between the grain size and asynchronous rolling process parameters after annealing can be obtained.The experimental results show that the relationship between the asynchronous rolling and the shearing deformation of rolled pieces can make a reasonable interpretation of the mechanism that asynchronous rolling may improve the strain accumulated energy of rolled pieces and the strength of flange plate steel.This paper provides a theoretical basis for the application of asynchronous rolling in improving the strength of flange plate steel.

  2. Asynchronous sequential machine design and analysis

    Tinder, Richard


    Asynchronous Sequential Machine Design and Analysis provides a lucid, in-depth treatment of asynchronous state machine design and analysis presented in two parts: Part I on the background fundamentals related to asynchronous sequential logic circuits generally, and Part II on self-timed systems, high-performance asynchronous programmable sequencers, and arbiters.Part I provides a detailed review of the background fundamentals for the design and analysis of asynchronous finite state machines (FSMs). Included are the basic models, use of fully documented state diagrams, and the design and charac

  3. Usability as a Method for Assessing Discovery

    Ipri, Tom; Yunkin, Michael; Brown, Jeanne M.


    The University of Nevada Las Vegas Libraries engaged in three projects that helped identify areas of its website that had inhibited discovery of services and resources. These projects also helped generate staff interest in the Usability Working Group, which led these endeavors. The first project studied student responses to the site. The second focused on a usability test with the Libraries’ peer research coaches and resulted in a presentation of those findings to the Libraries staff. The fin...

  4. Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries

    Comeaux, David J.


    Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

  5. Integrating Usability Evaluations into the Software Development Process

    Lizano, Fulvio

    relevant and strategic human–computer interaction (HCI) activities in the software development process, there are obstacles that limit the complete, effective and efficient integration of this kind of testing into the software development process. Two main obstacles are the cost of usability evaluations...... testing. Some strategies recommend the use of alternative usability evaluation methods, or an improvement of the usability evaluation process, in order to overcome this obstacle. The ‘resistance obstacle’ refers to the behavior of software developers who do not accept users’ opinions regarding their...... that the remote synchronous testing method can contribute to resolving both cost and resistance obstacles. In the case of the cost obstacle, the developers can use the method to conduct complete usability evaluations in less time. In terms of usability problems detected, the method has similar results...

  6. Usability Problem Identification in Culturally Diverse Settings

    Clemmensen, Torkil


    definition of culture that should be useful for studies of multiple-country usability testing. This includes a discussion of cultural fit and the consequences of cultural (in)consistencies between stakeholders in system development and use. As an illustrative example of the kind of academic research that...

  7. Usability evaluation of an NHS library website

    Ebenezer, Catherine


    Abstract Objectives: To carry out a usability evaluation of the recently launched South London and Maudsley NHS Trust library website. Methods: A variety of standard methodologies were employed: content and design evaluation of selected comparable sites, focus groups, a questionnaire survey of library and Web development staff, heuristic evaluation, observation testing, card sorting/cluster analysis, and label intuitiveness/category membership testing. All test participants we...

  8. The Usability-Error Ontology

    Elkin, Peter L.; Beuscart-zephir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia;


    ability to do systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In an effort to support improved and more interoperable data capture regarding Usability Errors, we have created the Usability Error Ontology (UEO) as a classification method for representing knowledge regarding Usability Errors. We expect the UEO...... will grow over time to support an increasing number of HIT system types. In this manuscript, we present this Ontology of Usability Error Types and specifically address Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Revenue Cycle HIT systems....

  9. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián


    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  10. Asynchronous Anytime Sequential Monte Carlo

    Paige, Brooks; Wood, Frank; Doucet, Arnaud; Teh, Yee Whye


    We introduce a new sequential Monte Carlo algorithm we call the particle cascade. The particle cascade is an asynchronous, anytime alternative to traditional particle filtering algorithms. It uses no barrier synchronizations which leads to improved particle throughput and memory efficiency. It is an anytime algorithm in the sense that it can be run forever to emit an unbounded number of particles while keeping within a fixed memory budget. We prove that the particle cascade is an unbiased mar...

  11. Asynchronous MPI for the Masses

    Wittmann, Markus; Hager, Georg; Zeiser, Thomas; Wellein, Gerhard


    We present a simple library which equips MPI implementations with truly asynchronous non-blocking point-to-point operations, and which is independent of the underlying communication infrastructure. It utilizes the MPI profiling interface (PMPI) and the MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE thread compatibility level, and works with current versions of Intel MPI, Open MPI, MPICH2, MVAPICH2, Cray MPI, and IBM MPI. We show performance comparisons on a commodity InfiniBand cluster and two tier-1 systems in Germany...


    B. P. Dyakonov


    Full Text Available The author of the paper discourses on the prospects of education in the context of the global tendency towards informatization and virtualization of the modern world, influence of these processes on personalized senses of education and educational values and related problems of methodological and technological education in relation to the personalized meanings and educational values. Educational individualization is defined by the author as the most expected way of educational evolution. Distance learning is studied as the main example of the modern transformative educational model. Asynchronous education is explored and characterized as one of the distance learning examples. While defining what asynchronous distance learning is, the author explores its role in the specifics of forming a subject to subject educational approach, while forecasting difficulties in creating holistic asynchronous educational environment. Gamification techniques in the educational process are studied with their respective opportunities and threats, examples in grad and post grad professional studies are provided, including but not limited to foreign language studies. Addictiveness as the goal and means of a build in gamification process is explored as the way to bridge the gap between students and the educators. The author studies gamification in the context of minimizing negative connotations from the educational process, while controversies between pain and game approaches of getting knowledge are brought into light.

  13. A method for designing asynchronous probabilistic processes

    Abbes, Samy


    We present a method for constructing asynchronous probabilistic processes. The asynchronous probabilistic processes thus obtained are called invariant. They generalize the familiar independent and identically distributed sequences of random variables to an asynchronous framework. Invariant processes are shown to be characterised by a finite family of real numbers, their characteristic numbers. Our method provides first a way to obtaining necessary and sufficient normalization conditions for a...

  14. Asynchronous Methods for Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Badia, Adrià Puigdomènech; Mirza, Mehdi; Graves, Alex; Lillicrap, Timothy P.; Harley, Tim; Silver, David; Kavukcuoglu, Koray


    We propose a conceptually simple and lightweight framework for deep reinforcement learning that uses asynchronous gradient descent for optimization of deep neural network controllers. We present asynchronous variants of four standard reinforcement learning algorithms and show that parallel actor-learners have a stabilizing effect on training allowing all four methods to successfully train neural network controllers. The best performing method, an asynchronous variant of actor-critic, surpasse...

  15. Asynchronous Sensor fuSion for Improved Safety of air Traffic (ASSIST) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop, implement and test a collision detection system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), referred to as the Asynchronous Sensor fuSion for...

  16. A Usability Study of Users’ Perceptions Toward a Multimedia Computer-Assisted Learning Tool for Neuroanatomy

    Gould, Douglas J.; Terrell, Mark A.; Fleming, JO


    This usability study evaluated users’ perceptions of a multimedia prototype for a new e-learning tool: Anatomy of the Central Nervous System: A Multimedia Course. Usability testing is a collection of formative evaluation methods that inform the developmental design of e-learning tools to maximize user acceptance, satisfaction, and adoption. Sixty-two study participants piloted the prototype and completed a usability questionnaire designed to measure two usability properties: program need and ...

  17. Abstracting Asynchronous Multi-Valued Networks: An Initial Investigation

    Steggles, L Jason


    Multi-valued networks provide a simple yet expressive qualitative state based modelling approach for biological systems. In this paper we develop an abstraction theory for asynchronous multi-valued network models that allows the state space of a model to be reduced while preserving key properties of the model. The abstraction theory therefore provides a mechanism for coping with the state space explosion problem and supports the analysis and comparison of multi-valued networks. We take as our starting point the abstraction theory for synchronous multi-valued networks which is based on the finite set of traces that represent the behaviour of such a model. The problem with extending this approach to the asynchronous case is that we can now have an infinite set of traces associated with a model making a simple trace inclusion test infeasible. To address this we develop a decision procedure for checking asynchronous abstractions based on using the finite state graph of an asynchronous multi-valued network to reas...

  18. Asynchronous Torque Characteristics of VR Type Vernier Motor

    Suda, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoshitaro; Xu, Li; Anazawa, Yoshihisa

    Recently, various types of vernier motor are developed. The VR type vernier motor is a kind of three-phase reluctance motor, and its stator has slots and distributed three-phase windings. The rotor is slotted iron core without windings. Relationship between S, R and P is S = R±2, where S and R are the numbers of stator and rotor slots per pair of poles, and the number of poles P is two. The rotor of the vernier motor moves at a sub-multiple of the angular velocity of the stator mmf. The multiplying factor is P/R. Authors had reported that the VR type vernier motors are analyzed as a three-phase reluctance motor, and have obtained the voltage equations on the γ-δ axis and expression of the torque.However, the asynchronous characteristics of the vernier motor are not clear yet. In this paper, the asynchronous characteristics of the vernier motors are analyzed with the symmetric components transformation and the commutator transformation. The voltage equations on the symmetrical co-ordinates and asynchronous and synchronous torque expression at steady state condition are obtained. The tests were performed on the trial motor. The calculated asynchronous torque has agreed well with the measured values.

  19. New usable technical specifications

    After 2 yr of preparation, 1988 finally saw the nuclear industry writing operator-oriented technical specifications. This effort is a continuation of previous efforts to develop improved and usable standard technical specifications (STSs), and is being conducted by the four nuclear steam supply system vendor owners' groups under the auspices of the Nuclear Management Resources Council. Each participant is currently preparing a set of improved STSs based on a writer's guide that was developed through a combined industry effort. In May of 1987, a Human Factors Improvements to Technical Specifications (HFITS) task group was formed to prepare a writer's guide for improved, industrywide STSs. This task group was composed of two representatives from each owners' group, one with a human factors background and one with some operations background. Two documents were prepared in 6 months, a human factors report laying the groundwork for the considerations to go into technical specifications and a writer's guide for their preparation. This paper reports on the application of this writer's guide to the writing of improved STS

  20. Usability Briefing for hospital design

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    building project. In practice the process, led by experts, involves the users as data sources, and results in the program of requirements for the building.This PhD thesis synthesizes the research findings and proposes a Usability Briefing process model, where briefing is a dynamic and continuous process....../usability or form/beauty. Furthermore appropriate methods are selected specifically for hospital projects.The results are published in five scientific articles and are summarised in this PhD thesis. It provides tools that contribute to satisfying the needs of future building users and maximising the usability...

  1. Psychological Usability of Layered Application Software Platforms

    Uhiarik, John


    This grant provided Graduate Research Fellowship Program support to James Michael Herold to obtain a graduate degree from the Department of Psychology at Kansas State University and conduct usability testing of graphical user interfaces the Kennedy Space Center. The student independently took an additional internship at Boll Laboratories without informing his graduate advisor or the Department of Psychology. Because he was NOT making progress toward his degree, he elected not to pursue his graduate studies at Kansas State University and self-terminated from the program (spin without informing his advisor or the Department of Psychology]. What he accomplished for NASA in terms of usability testing at the Kennedy Space Center is unclear. NASA terminated support for the project: 07/30/99, including a $4,000 commitment to provide infrastructure support to the Department of Psychology.

  2. Asynchronous Discussions and Assessment in Online Learning

    Vonderwell, Selma; Liang, Xin; Alderman, Kay


    This case study explored asynchronous online discussions, assessment processes, and the meaning students derived from their experiences in five online graduate courses at the Colleges of Education of two Midwestern higher education institutions. The findings suggest that asynchronous online discussions facilitate a multidimensional process of…

  3. Problem Prioritization in Usability Evaluation:

    Hertzum, Morten


    Severity assessments enable prioritization of problems encountered during usability evaluations and thereby provide a device for guiding the utilization of design resources. However, designers' response to usability evaluations is also influenced by other factors, which may overshadow severity....... With the purpose of enhancing the impact of severity assessments, this study combines a field study of factors that influence the impact of evaluations with an experimental study of severity assessments made during usability inspections. The results show that even in a project receptive to input from...... evaluations their impact was highly dependent on conducting evaluations early. This accorded with an informal method that blended elements of usability evaluation and participatory design and could be extended with user-made severity assessments. The major cost associated with the evaluations was not finding...

  4. Usability Study and Improvement of The Äly Excel

    Tolonen, Heli


    This Master’s thesis concentrates on a particular tool, called Äly Excel, which is used in health care centres in Finland. The Äly Excel is a Microsoft Excel based tool that helps to plan a health care personnel rota. The main goal of this work was to enhance usability of the Äly Excel. The development work was part of the Hyvä Potku project that is managed by Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District. To find out the most important usability problems of the Äly Excel, usability tests were...

  5. Website Usability for Internet Banking

    Zollet, Roman; Back, Andrea


    Internet users can fail at several hurdles, e.g. issues related to trouble-free and selfexplanatory interaction. Not only users but also organizations are affected adversely by these difficulties. The purpose of this study is to enhance the limited repertoire of methods for quantifying web applications usability, which have remained unchanged for years. It first develops a model explaining the relationship between usability dimensions and success variables. Consecutively, the model's hypothes...

  6. Usability testing of multimodal feedback interface and simulated collision-avoidance power wheelchair for long-term-care home residents with cognitive impairments

    Rosalie H. Wang, PhD, BSc (OT


    Full Text Available Many older adults in long-term-care homes have complex physical and cognitive impairments and have difficulty propelling manual wheelchairs. Power wheelchair use is restricted owing to safety concerns. Power wheelchairs with collision-avoidance features are being developed to enable safe and independent mobility; however, a paucity of information exists on interface features to help users navigate away from obstacles. We developed a system combining an interface with auditory, visual, and haptic feedback and a simulated collision-avoidance power wheelchair. This device allowed the investigator to stop movement of the power wheelchair when users approached obstacles and to deliver feedback to help them navigate. Five long-term-care home residents with mild or moderate cognitive impairments evaluated device usability, which included effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction. Each resident used the device for six 1 h sessions. Observations, feedback interviews, and outcome questionnaires were completed during and after the sessions. We found the device effective in enabling residents to achieve basic driving tasks and self-identified indoor mobility goals. Furthermore, residents perceived workload to be low and were satisfied with the device. Residents also felt that the feedback was useful to help them navigate away from obstacles.

  7. Simulation of the Double-closed Loop Three-phase Asynchronous Variable Voltage Control System

    Shuhua Jiang


    When controlling the voltage and speed of the asynchronous motor, to expand the speed control range and reduce the speed fluctuation, the speed control system adopts two feedback control loops, i.e. the speed feedback control loop and the current feedback control loop. The principle and components of the double-closed loop three-phase asynchronous variable voltage control system are studied, and the simulation model and the test result based on MATLAB/Simulink are provided in this article thr...

  8. Adding SPICE to a Library Internet Site: A Recipe to Enhance Usability

    Ingrid Tonnison


    Full Text Available Objective - To produce a highly- usable intranet site, use the project to explore the practical application of evidence-based librarianship (EBL, and refine the library's project management methodology. Methods - Evidence was gathered via a literature review, an online survey, scenario-based usability testing, and the completion of a usability checlist. Usability issues were then addressed, guided by the Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines. Results - After a preliminary revision, the site achieved a usability index of 79% after application of the "Raward Library Usability Analysis Tool". Finding the information and supporting user tasks were identified as areas of weakness. Usability testing and cleint feedback supported these findings. After these issues were addressed by a major site redeveloment, the usability index increased to 98%. Conclusions - Raward's checklist is an easy and effective tool for measuring and identifying usability issues. Its value was enhanced by scenario-based usability testing, which yielded rich, client specific information. The application of EBL and project management princples ehnanced the outcomes of the project, and the professional development of the project team.

  9. Early-Stage Software Design for Usability

    Golden, Elspeth


    In spite of the goodwill and best efforts of software engineers and usability professionals, systems continue to be built and released with glaring usability flaws that are costly and difficult to fix after the system has been built. Although user interface (UI) designers, be they usability or design experts, communicate usability requirements to…

  10. Hello World! - Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise

    Eriksson, Elina; Cajander, Åsa; Gulliksen, Jan

    How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer’s understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users’ problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.


    Zhang, S.; Moore, A.B.


    Virtual reality (VR) technology is starting to become widely and freely available (for example the online OpenSimulator tool), with potential for use in 3D urban planning and design tasks but still needing rigorous assessment to establish this. A previous study consulted with a small group of urban professionals, who concluded in a satisfaction usability test that online VR had potential value as a usable 3D communication and remote marketing tool but acknowledged that visual quality...

  12. Abstracting Asynchronous Multi-Valued Networks

    J. Steggles


    Full Text Available Multi-valued networks (MVNs provide a simple yet expressive qualitative state based modelling approach for biological systems. In this paper we develop an abstraction theory for asynchronous MVNs that allows the state space of a model to be reduced while preserving key properties. The abstraction theory therefore provides a mechanism for coping with the state space explosion problem and supports the analysis and comparison of MVNs. We take as our starting point the abstraction theory for synchronous MVNs which uses the under- approximation approach of trace set inclusion. We show this definition of asynchronous abstraction allows the sound inference of analysis properties and preserves other interesting model properties. One problem that arises in the asynchronous case is that the trace set of an MVN can be infinite making a simple trace set inclusion check infeasible. To address this we develop a decision procedure for checking asynchronous abstractions based on using the finite state graph of an asynchronous MVN to reason about its trace semantics and formally show that this decision procedure is correct. We illustrate the abstraction techniques developed by considering two detailed case studies in which asynchronous abstractions are identified and validated for existing asynchronous MVN models taken from the literature.

  13. Low-power Implementation of an Encryption/Decryption System with Asynchronous Techniques

    Nikos Sklavos


    Full Text Available An asynchronous VLSI implementation of the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA is presented in this paper. In order to evaluate the asynchronous design a synchronous version of the algorithm was also designed. VHDL hardware description language was used in order to describe the algorithm. By using Synopsys commercial available tools the VHDL code was synthesized. After placing and routing both designs were fabricated with 0.6 μm CMOS technology. With a system clock of up to 8 MHz and a power supply of 5 V the two chips were tested and evaluated comparing with the software implementation of the IDEA algorithm. This new approach proves efficiently the lowest power consumption of the asynchronous implementation compared to the existing synchronous. Therefore, the asynchronous chip performs efficiently in Wireless Encryption Protocols and high speed networks.

  14. Burst-Mode Asynchronous Controllers on FPGA

    Duarte L. Oliveira


    Full Text Available FPGAs have been mainly used to design synchronous circuits. Asynchronous design on FPGAs is difficult because the resulting circuit may suffer from hazard problems. We propose a method that implements a popular class of asynchronous circuits, known as burst mode, on FPGAs based on look-up table architectures. We present two conditions that, if satisfied, guarantee essential hazard-free implementation on any LUT-based FPGA. By doing that, besides all the intrinsic advantages of asynchronous over synchronous circuits, they also take advantage of the shorter design time and lower cost associated with FPGA designs.

  15. Carrying Synchronous Voice Data On Asynchronous Networks

    Bergman, Larry A.


    Buffers restore synchronism for internal use and permit asynchronism in external transmission. Proposed asynchronous local-area digital communication network (LAN) carries synchronous voice, data, or video signals, or non-real-time asynchronous data signals. Network uses double buffering scheme that reestablishes phase and frequency references at each node in network. Concept demonstrated in token-ring network operating at 80 Mb/s, pending development of equipment operating at planned data rate of 200 Mb/s. Technique generic and used with any LAN as long as protocol offers deterministic (or bonded) access delays and sufficient capacity.

  16. Direct Integration: Training Software Developers to Conduct Usability Evaluations

    Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan


    is based on an empirical study where 36 teams with a total of 234 first-year university students on software development and design educations were trained in a simple approach for user-based website usability testing that was taught in a 40 hour course. This approach supported them in planning......Many improvements of the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both approaches involve a...... complete division of work between developers and evaluators, which is an undesirable complexity for many software development projects. This paper takes a different approach by exploring to what extent software developers and designers can be trained to carry out their own usability evaluations. The paper...

  17. User-Interface Usability Evaluation

    Ali Mohamed


    Full Text Available Nowadays, computers and internet are playing the major role in the development of business and different aspects of human lives; hence, the quality of user-computer interface became an important issue. User interface (UI can become an Achilles heel in a well-functioning system; due to the fact that most users judge the quality of a product by its usability. The UI layout design improves the usability of a product and accordingly may determine its success; so, due to this and more, the need of an objective way of evaluation of UI has arisen. This paper discusses various UI usability evaluation techniques and shows the recent developments in this field.

  18. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren;


    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins) and...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and......, finally, the complexity of the overall relationship between a user and an evaluator with different cultural backgrounds...

  19. Implementing LOTOS as asynchronously Communicating Processes

    Sjödin, Peter


    A technique is presented for translating LOTOS specifications into implementations executing as asynchronously communicating processes. This generation of implementations is described as transformations of LOTOS expressions. A protocol for implementing LOTOS synchronisation is described.

  20. Asynchronous Data Fusion With Parallel Filtering Frame

    Na Li; Junhui Liu


    This paper studies the design of data fusion algorithm for asynchronous system with integer times sampling. Firstly, the multisensor asynchronous samplings is mapped to the basic axis, accordingly a sampling sequence of single sensor can be taken. Secondly, aiming at the sensor with the densest sampling points, the modified parallel filtering is given. Afterwards, the sequential filtering fusion method is introduced to deal with the case that there are multiple mapped measurements at some sam...


    V.S. Malyar


    Full Text Available A problem of calculating capacity of cosine capacitors for individual compensation of reactive power in asynchronous electric drives in stationary and transient operation modes is considered. The algorithm introduced employs a high-adequacy mathematical model of asynchronous motor developed on the theory of representing vectors which takes into account both the magnetic core saturation and the current displacement in the rotor bars.

  2. Asynchronous communication in real space process algebra

    Baeten, JCM Jos; Bergstra, JA Jan


    A version of classical real space process algebra is given in which messages travel with constant speed through a three-dimensional medium. It follows that communication is asynchronous and has a broadcasting character. A state operator is used to describe asynchronous message transfer and a priority mechanism allows to express the broadcasting mechanism. As an application, a protocol is specified in which the receiver moves with respect to the sender.

  3. Performance Analysis of Asynchronous Multicarrier Wireless Networks

    Lin, Xingqin; Jiang, Libin; Andrews, Jeffrey G.


    This paper develops a novel analytical framework for asynchronous wireless networks deploying multicarrier transmission. Nodes in the network have different notions of timing, so from the viewpoint of a typical receiver, the received signals from different transmitters are asynchronous, leading to a loss of orthogonality between subcarriers. We first develop a detailed link-level analysis based on OFDM, based on which we propose a tractable system-level signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio...

  4. Usability in a cultural context

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Ørngreen, Rikke;


    This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant for the Danish Research Councils...

  5. Evaluation Methods on Usability of M-Learning Environments

    Teresa Magal-Royo


    Full Text Available Nowadays there are different evaluation methods focused in the assessment of the usability of telematic methods. The assessment of 3rd generation web environments evaluates the effectiveness and usability of application with regard to the user needs. Wireless usability and, specifically in mobile phones, is concentrated in the validation of the features and tools management using conventional interactive environments. There is not a specific and suitable criterion to evaluate created environments and m-learning platforms, where the restricted and sequential representation is a fundamental aspect to be considered.The present paper exposes the importance of the conventional usability methods to verify both: the employed contents in wireless formats, and the possible interfaces from the conception phases, to the validations of the platform with such characteristics.The development of usability adapted inspection could be complemented with the Remote’s techniques of usability testing, which are being carried out these days in the mobile devices field and which pointed out the need to apply common criteria in the validation of non-located learning scenarios.


    Layla Hasan


    Full Text Available This research investigated whether a university ranking system called Eduroute could provide useful information regarding the usability of universities’ websites. A comparison was conducted between the results obtained by Eduroute regarding the ranking of the top three universities in Jordan, and the results obtained by the heuristic evaluation method regarding the usability of the top three universities’ websites. Before employing the heuristic evaluation method, two steps were taken: Investigating the most frequently visited pages on a university’s website from the viewpoint of 237 students, and developing a set of comprehensive heuristics specific to educational websites. Then, five heuristic evaluators were selected and asked to visit all the pages determined by the 237 students using the developed heuristics while evaluating each website. The results proved that the ranking of the three universities at Eduroute was an indicator regarding the overall usability of the sites; the first ranked university at Eduroute had the lowest number of usability problems identified by the evaluators, while the least ranked university had the largest number of usability problems. The heuristic evaluators also identified fourteen common usability problems on the three tested websites related to navigation, design, content, and ease of use and communication.

  7. Determining the Number of Participants Needed for the Usability Evaluation of E-Learning Resources: A Monte Carlo Simulation

    Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Harvey, Justin; Halperin, Mitchell L.; Chikte, Usuf M. E.


    The usability of computer interfaces has a major influence on learning. Optimising the usability of e-learning resources is therefore essential. However, this may be neglected because of time and monetary constraints. User testing is a common approach to usability evaluation and involves studying typical end-users interacting with the application…

  8. Lessons from an Educational Game Usability Evaluation

    Gabriela Trindade Perry


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a usability evaluation for Xenubi, a cell phone game about the periodic table. We describe and discuss the issues that we faced during the evaluation, which took place in a state high school. These issues are related to conflicts between the data that were gathered through video recordings and through a questionnaire. We also point to the poor performance of the game mechanics during the evaluation. This result was unexpected because the game had an excellent performance in the pilot test. Possible causes for these differences are discussed.

  9. You're a What? Usability Engineer.

    Crosby, Olivia


    Describes the work of usability engineers, who improve computer hardware, software, and websites by focusing on how users perceive and manipulate those tools. Discusses education, training, salaries, and talents needed by usability engineers. (Author/JOW)

  10. Usability-Oriented Software Development Process

    Carvajal García, Laura Elena


    Usability is the capability of the software product to be understood, learned, used and attractive to the user, when used under specified conditions. Many studies demonstrate the benefits of usability, yet to this day software products continue to exhibit consistently low levels of this quality attribute. Furthermore, poor usability in software systems contributes largely to software failing in actual use. One of the main disciplines involved in usability is that of Human-Computer Interaction...

  11. Asynchronous Complex Pipeline Design Based on ARM Instruction Set

    WANG Bing; WANG Qin; PENG Rui-hua; FU Yu-zhuo


    This paper proposes an asynchronous complex pipeline based on ARM-V3 instruction set. Muller pipeline structure is used as prototype, and the factors which may affect pipeline performance are analyzed. To balance the difficulty of asynchronous design and performance analysis, both complete asynchronous and partial asynchronous structures aere designed and compared. Results of comparison with the well-Rnown industrial product ARM922T verify that about 30% and 40% performance improvement of the partial and complete asynchronous complex pipelines can be obtained respectively. The design methodologies can also be used in the design of other asynchronous pipelines.

  12. Usability in open source software development

    Andreasen, M. S.; Nielsen, H. V.; Schrøder, S. O.;


    included a questionnaire survey and a series of interviews, where we interviewed OSS contributors with both technical and usability backgrounds. Overall we found that OSS developers are interested in usability, but in practice it is not top priority, and OSS projects rarely employs systematic usability...

  13. Tracing Impact in a Usability Improvement Process

    Uldall-Espersen, Tobias; Frøkjær, Erik; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    Analyzing usability improvement processes as they take place in real-life organizations is necessary to understand the practice of usability work. This paper describes a case study where the usability of an information system is improved and a relationship between the improvements and the...


    Terézia Kvasnicová; Iveta Kremeňová


    Websites, nowadays, are used not only as a sales method and information tool, but also as a communication tool. Almost every company has a website. Universities and colleges understand their strength, too. In this article, we describe theory of usability of university website and one of the usability testing methods—eye tracking. We use eye tracking to assess the usability of University of Žilina website. We present and use different analysis: Scan Path and Focus map. We identify many usabili...

  15. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Ebert, Hans

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  16. Development of a Weight Loss Mobile App Linked With an Accelerometer for Use in the Clinic: Usability, Acceptability, and Early Testing of its Impact on the Patient-Doctor Relationship

    Choo, Seryung; Jung, Se Young; Kim, Sarah; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Sohye; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jeehye; Kim, Yongseok; Kim, Dongouk; Steinhubl, Steve


    Background Although complications of obesity are well acknowledged and managed by clinicians, management of obesity itself is often difficult, which leads to its underdiagnosis and undertreatment in hospital settings. However, tools that could improve the management of obesity, including self-monitoring, engagement with a social network, and open channels of communication between the patient and doctor, are limited in a clinic-based setting. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the usability and acceptability of a newly developed mobile app linked with an accelerometer and its early effects on patient-doctor relationships. Methods From September 2013 to February 2014, we developed a mobile app linked with an accelerometer as a supportive tool for a clinic-based weight loss program. The app used information from electronic health records and delivered tailored educational material. Personal goal setting, as well as monitoring of weight changes and physical activity combined with feedback, are key features of the app. We also incorporated an interactive message board for patients and doctors. During the period of March 2014 to May 2014, we tested our mobile app for 1 month in participants in a hospital clinic setting. We assessed the app’s usability and acceptability, as well as the patient-doctor relationship, via questionnaires and analysis of app usage data. Results We recruited 30 individuals (18 male and 12 female) for the study. The median number of log-ins per day was 1.21, with the most frequently requested item being setting goals, followed by track physical activities and view personal health status. Scales of the depth of the patient-doctor relationship decreased from 27.6 (SD 4.8) to 25.1 (SD 4.5) by a Wilcoxon signed rank test (P=.02). Conclusions A mobile phone app linked with an accelerometer for a clinic-based weight loss program is useful and acceptable for weight management but exhibited less favorable early effects on patient

  17. A Usability Evaluation Model for Academic Library Websites: Efficiency, Effectiveness and Learnability

    Soohyung Joo


    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aimed to develop a usability evaluation model and associated survey tool in the context of academic libraries. This study not only proposed a usability evaluation model but also a practical survey tool tailored to academic library websites. Design/methodology – A usability evaluation model has been developed for academic library websites based on literature review and expert consultation. Then, the authors verified the reliability and validity of the usability evaluation model empirically using the survey data from actual users. Statistical analysis, such as descriptive statistics, internal consistency test, and a factor analysis, were applied to ensure both the reliability and validity of the usability evaluation tool. Findings – From the document analysis and expert consultation, this study identified eighteen measurement items to survey the three constructs of the usability, effectiveness, efficiency, and learnability, in academic library websites. The evaluation tool was then validated with regard to data distribution, reliability, and validity. The empirical examination based on 147 actual user responses proved the survey evaluation tool suggested herein is acceptable in assessing academic library website usability. Originality/Value – This research is one of the few studies to engender a practical survey tool in evaluating library website usability. The usability model and corresponding survey tool would be useful for librarians and library administrators in academic libraries who plan to conduct a usability evaluation involving large sample.

  18. Defining Usability of PN Services

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre;

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on...... the present status of the pilot services. The evaluation will be conducted on two pilot services, that are being implemented - the Lifestyle companion and the Icebreaker. The plan of the evaluation is to carry out combinations of different types of user evaluation methods. These are user panel...

  19. Telerehabilitation Technologies: Accessibility and Usability

    Michael Pramuka


    Full Text Available In the fields of telehealth and telemedicine, phone and/or video technologies are key to the successful provision of services such as remote monitoring and visits. How do these technologies affect service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness when applied to rehabilitation services in the field of telerehabilitation? To answer this question, we provide a overview of the complex network of available technologies and discuss how they link to rehabilitation applications, services, and practices as well as to the telerehabilitation end-user. This white paper will first present the numerous professional considerations that shape the use of technology in telerehabilitation service and set it somewhat apart from telemedicine. It will then provide an overview of concepts essential to usability analysis; present a summary of various telerehabilitation technologies and their strengths and limitations, and consider how the technologies interface with end users’ clinical needs for service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness. The paper will highlight a conceptual framework (including task analyses and usability issues that underlies a functional match between telerehabilitation technologies, clinical applications, and end-user capabilities for telerehabilitation purposes. Finally, we will discuss pragmatic issues related to user integration of telerehabilitation technology versus traditional face-to-face approaches. Key Words: Remote, Technology, Usability, Accessibility, Decision Factors, Decision Support

  20. Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco


    Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.

  1. Asynchronous decentralized method for interconnected electricity markets

    This paper presents an asynchronous decentralized method to solve the optimization problem of interconnected electricity markets. The proposed method decomposes the optimization problem of combined electricity markets into individual optimization problems. The impact of neighboring markets' information is included in the objective function of the individual market optimization problem by the standard Lagrangian relaxation method. Most decentralized optimization methods use synchronous models of communication to exchange updated market information among markets during the iterative process. In this paper, however, the solutions of the individual optimization problems are coordinated through an asynchronous communication model until they converge to the global optimal solution of combined markets. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed asynchronous method over the existing synchronous methods. (author)

  2. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    Nørgaard, Mie

    Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding...... systems struggle with making methods meet practical realities and demands, and that the concept of usability in games is not satisfactorily covered by for example the ISO 9241-11. With this in mind we call for future work that broadens the concept of usability to include concepts more relevant to games...... of usability work to include a human perspective, is crucial to downstream utility—how usability work impacts the on-going development process. Our work shows that cross-professional collaboration is subject to challenges that arise from stakeholders having conflicting priorities, procedures and personalities...

  3. Software Development and Feedback from Usability Evaluations

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup


    This paper presents a study of the strengths and weaknesses of written, multimedia and oral feedback from usability evaluations to developers. The strengths and weaknesses are related to how well the feedback supports the developers in addressing usability problems in a software system. The study...... concludes that using the traditional written usability report, as the only form of feedback from usability evaluations is associated with problems related to the report not supporting the process of addressing the usability problems. The report is criticized for representing an overwhelming amount of...... information, while still not offering the required information to address usability problems. Other forms of feedback, such as oral or multimedia feedback helps the developer in understanding the usability problems better, but are on the other hand less cost-effective than a written description....


    Terézia Kvasnicová


    Full Text Available Websites, nowadays, are used not only as a sales method and information tool, but also as a communication tool. Almost every company has a website. Universities and colleges understand their strength, too. In this article, we describe theory of usability of university website and one of the usability testing methods—eye tracking. We use eye tracking to assess the usability of University of Žilina website. We present and use different analysis: Scan Path and Focus map. We identify many usability problems whose removal will help to create new pages and, thus, increasing their effectiveness.

  5. Handbook of asynchronous machines with variable speed

    Razik, Hubert


    This handbook deals with the asynchronous machine in its close environment. It was born from a reflection on this electromagnetic converter whose integration in industrial environments takes a wide part. Previously this type of motor operated at fixed speed, from now on it has been integrated more and more in processes at variable speed. For this reason it seemed useful, or necessary, to write a handbook on the various aspects from the motor in itself, via the control and while finishing by the diagnosis aspect. Indeed, an asynchronous motor is used nowadays in industry where variation speed a

  6. Dual stator winding variable speed asynchronous generator: magnetic equivalent circuit with saturation, FEM analysis and experiments

    Tutelea, L. N.; Muntean, N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Cunţan, C. D.


    The authors carried out a theoretical and experimental study of dual stator winding squirrel cage asynchronous generator (DSWA) behaviour in the presence of saturation regime (non-sinusoidal) due to the variable speed operation. The main aims are the determination of the relations of calculating the equivalent parameters of the machine windings, FEM validation of parameters and characteristics with free FEMM 4.2 computing software and the practice experimental tests for verifying them. Issue is limited to three phase range of double stator winding cage-asynchronous generator of small sized powers, the most currently used in the small adjustable speed wind or hydro power plants. The tests were carried out using three-phase asynchronous generator having rated power of 6 [kVA].

  7. Acceptability of an Asynchronous Learning Forum on Mobile Devices

    Chang, Chih-Kai


    Mobile learning has recently become noteworthy because mobile devices have become popular. To construct an asynchronous learning forum on mobile devices is important because an asynchronous learning forum is always an essential part of networked asynchronous distance learning. However, the input interface in handheld learning devices, which is…

  8. The non-anticipation of the asynchronous systems

    Vlad, Serban E.


    The asynchronous systems are the models of the asynchronous circuits from the digital electrical engineering and non-anticipation is one of the most important properties in systems theory. Our present purpose is to introduce several concepts of non-anticipation of the asynchronous systems.

  9. The Mechanical Transient Process at Asynchronous Motor Oscillating Mode

    Antonovičs, Uldis; Bražis, Viesturs; Greivulis, Jānis


    The research object is squirrel-cage asynchronous motor connected to single-phase sinusoidal. There are shown, that by connecting to the stator windings a certain sequence of half-period positive and negative voltage, a motor rotor is rotated, but three times slower than in the three-phase mode. Changing the connecting sequence of positive and negative half-period voltage to stator windings, motor can work in various oscillating modes. It is tested experimentally. The mechanical transient processes had been researched in rotation and oscillating modes.

  10. The Usability Analysis of An E-Learning Environment

    Fulya TORUN


    Full Text Available In this research, an E-learning environment is developed for the teacher candidates taking the course on Scientific Research Methods. The course contents were adapted to one of the constructivist approach models referred to as 5E, and an expert opinion was received for the compliance of this model. An usability analysis was also performed to determine the usability of the e-learning environment. The participants of the research comprised 42 teacher candidates. The mixed method was used in the research. 3 different data collection tools were used in order to measure the three basic concepts of usability analyses, which are the dimensions of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Two of the data collection tools were the scales developed by different researchers and were applied with the approval received from the researchers involved. On the other hand, the usability test as another data tool was prepared by the researchers who conducted this study for the purpose of determining the participants’ success in handling the twelve tasks assigned to them with respect to the use of elearning environment, the seconds they spent on that environment and the number of clicks they performed. Considering the results of the analyses performed within the data obtained, the usability of the developed e-learning environment proved to be at a higher rate.