The movement of African migrants from their countries of origin to other countries in search of a better future will continue to increase. However, such movement is accompanied by many challenges. Literature indicates that African migrants in South Africa face challenges such as cultural differences, exploitation and xenophobia. In the context of migration, migrants and citizens constantly interact with one another. The relational patterns between African migrants and citizens accordingly nee...
Kanyanan Kritsiriwuthinan; Warunee Ngrenngarmlert
Objective:To determine the prevalence of malaria infections among foreign migrant workers in Thailand. Methods:Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films were prepared from blood samples of294 foreign migrant workers recruited in the study. Microscopic examination of these blood films was performed for malaria detection.Results: Blood film examination revealed 1.36%malaria infections in these294 subjects. All positive cases were male Myanmar workers in which their blood films only ring stage ofPlasmodium spp. was found at low parasite density (mean=144parasites/μL of blood). The prevalence of malaria infections was not significantly different among foreign migrant workers classified by age, gender, and resident province (P>0.05). Thin blood films of these workers also showed78.91%hypochromic erythrocytes and 61.9%relative Eosinophilia.Conclusions:These findings indicate a high risk of malaria transmission. Therefore active malaria surveillance by using molecular methods with more sensitive and specific than microscopy should be considered for malaria control in foreign migrant workers.
Renzaho, Andre MN; Halliday, Jennifer A.; Mellor, David; Green, Julie
Background Although obesity among immigrants remains an important area of study given the increasing migrant population in Australia and other developed countries, research on factors amenable to intervention is sparse. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally-competent obesity prevention program for sub-Saharan African (SSA) families with children aged 12–17 years using a community-partnered participatory approach. Methods A community-partnered participatory approach that allowed the...
This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position. PMID:12293724
Waite, LJ; Cook, J; Aigner, P
Aims The report looks at how the migration and integration experiences of African migrants living in Yorkshire vary across family generations. The study was funded by the British Academy under its Research Development Scheme. Methodology Data was obtained over an 18 month period during 2008-09 through 40 biographical interviews with 20 families of African origin [Sudanese, Somali, Kenyan and Zimbabwean] living in Yorkshire. Interviews were also conducted with other key individuals including c...
Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Kleber, Rolf J.
In this article, the authors present essential aspects of the help-seeking behavior with regard to mental health problems of Ghanaian migrants in the Netherlands. Samples of citizens in the general population (n=97) and outpatients treated in mental health care facilities (n=36) were included. Data were acquired by administering a semi-structured…
Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth
Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910
Full Text Available Background: Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom have to their countries of origin. Design: Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66. A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results: Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions: The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.
Élise Marsicano; Nathalie Lydié; Nathalie Bajos; Krystyna Horko
This article analyses the recomposition of gender relations in a migratory context from a specific viewpoint: the sexual debut of individuals who migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to France. It is based on a 2005 survey of 1,874 sub-Saharan African migrants in the Île-de-France region. The aim is to determine the impact of men?s and women?s migratory trajectories on their first sexual experiences, as well as any possible changes in sexual power relations after migration. The construction of mi...
Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel
Issue addressed Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies. Methods A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms. Discussion There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts. Conclusions The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities. So what? This paper advances knowledge by providing a precise summary of Australian African migrant focused alcohol and other drug research to date. It also describes a three-step approach that aimed to incorporate a diversity of community views in the creation of a health promotion and community capacity-building resource. PMID:26726816
Gerbier-Aublanc, Marjorie; Gosselin, Anne
HIV in France particularly affects sub-Saharan migrants as they accounted for 31% of the new diagnoses in 2013. The objective of this study is to investigate the access to and the experience of employment among migrant women living with HIV in France. We use a mixed-method approach. The quantitative data come from the ANRS Parcours study, a life-event survey conducted in 2012-2013 in 70 health centres which collected year-by-year detailed information on living conditions about 755 sub-Saharan women migrants in the greater Paris region (470 with HIV and 285 without HIV). The qualitative data have been collected independently in the same region through socio-ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in 8 HIV-positive migrant organisations and among 35 women-members from 2011 to 2013. Two main results are noteworthy. First, being HIV-positive unexpectedly gives sub-Saharan migrant women a quicker access to employment thanks to the social support they find in migrant organisations: in the third year in France in median (versus 5th year among HIV-negative group). This effect of being HIV-positive on the access to employment remains all things being equal in a discrete-time logistic regression (aOR [95% CI] HIV+: 1.4[1.1;1.8]). Second, their employment situation remains strongly shaped by the racial division of work existing in France and they develop individual strategies to negotiate this constraint: for example, temporary jobs and working as health mediators. The type of jobs they find, mainly in the care sector, force them to carefully hide their HIV status because they fear discrimination at work. Not only migrant women endure structural discrimination in a segmented labour market, but they also anticipate HIV-related discrimination related to caring activities. Thus, the design and implementation of programmes that address stigma should consider structural discrimination to improve PLWHA's working experiences. PMID:27098378
In recent years there has been some critical intellectual reflections about who has rights to the city, and how such rights are realised. As the rights based discourse gains momentum, groups that have been previously excluded from participating in the social, economic and political life of the city, for example, migrants, are becoming more assertive and demanding inclusion. In the process of crossing borders and defining and claiming rights, there are social and political struggles over the a...
Following a field survey in neighbourhoods and schools in the poor area of Brussels among adolescents from an African migrant background (Morocco and sub-Saharan Africa), this article examines young people’s attempts to rationalise the discrimination and injustice they experience. As well as their direct effects in terms of social success in particular, institutional discrimination and violence have repercussions on representations of oneself and of the world. The accumulation of experiences ...
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna
ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938
Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.
Kurtzhals, J A; Addae, M M; Akanmori, B D;
A cohort of 250 Ghanaian schoolchildren aged 5-15 years was followed clinically and parasitologically for 4 months in 1997/98 in order to study the effect of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections on haematological indices and bone-marrow responses. Of the 250 children 65 met the predefine...
Shung-King, Maylene; Zühlke, Liesel; Engel, Mark E; Mayosi, Bongani M
When new evidence comes to light, it compels us to contemplate the implications of such evidence for health policy and practice. This article examines recent research evidence on the prevalence of asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in South Africa and considers the implications for the Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP). RHD is still a major burden of disease in developing countries, and elimination of this preventable condition ranks high among World Heart Federation goals. If left untreated, it becomes a chronic health condition that individuals have to cope with into their adult lives. The ISHP regards the health needs of children with chronic health conditions, which include conditions such as RHD, as a key service component. However, the chronic health component of the ISHP is still poorly developed and can benefit from good evidence to guide implementation. A recent study to ascertain the prevalence of RHD in asymptomatic schoolchildren through mass screening affords an opportunity to reflect on whether, and how, asymptomatic chronic health conditions in schoolchildren could be addressed, and what the implications would be if this were done through a school-based programme such as the ISHP. PMID:27499395
Johnston, Lisa; Oumzil, Hicham; El Rhilani, Houssine; Latifi, Amina; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal
Morocco has experienced a dramatic increase of migration from sub-Sahara Africa during the past decade. Recently included among the most vulnerable populations cited in the Morocco National Strategic Plans on HIV/TB for 2012-2016, sub-Saharan Africa migrants living in an irregular administrative situation participated in a survey to provide baseline data about their socio-demographic, sexual and HIV testing behaviors and HIV and syphilis prevalence. Two surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2013 among males and females, ≥18 years, originating from sub-Saharan African countries and living and/or working in an irregular administrative situation in Rabat and residing at least 3 months in Morocco. Analysis was conducted to evaluate differences between the two samples and between females and males within each sample using the successive sampling estimator in RDS Analyst. Roughly 3 % of francophone and anglophone migrants were infected with HIV, whereas a statistically significantly higher percentage of francophone (2.8 %), compared to anglophone (0.3 %), migrants were infected with syphilis. Females were found to have HIV infection rates three times higher and past year sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms more than two times higher than their male counterparts. Female migrants also had statistically significantly higher percentages of ever testing for HIV and HIV testing and receiving results in the past year compared to males. We found distinct and important differences between migrants depending on whether they come from francophone versus anglophone countries and whether they were male or female. Future research should continue to explore these differences, while policies and programs should note these differences to best allocate resources in providing social and health services to these populations. PMID:26122648
Full Text Available Shenghan Lai,1–4 Elliot K Fishman,2 Gary Gerstenblith,3 Jeffrey Brinker,3 Hong Tai,1 Shaoguang Chen,1 Ji Li,4 Wenjing Tong,1 Barbara Detrick,1 Hong Lai2 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Epidemiology, John Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Heath, Baltimore, MD, USA Objective: Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD, and growing evidence suggests a possible link between vitamin D deficiency and clinical/subclinical CAD. However, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and coronary artery calcification (CAC, a sensitive marker for subclinical CAD, in those with HIV infection is not well investigated. Methods: CAC was quantified using a Siemens Cardiac 64 scanner, and vitamin D levels and the presence of traditional and novel risk factors for CAD were obtained in 846 HIV-infected African American (AA participants aged 25 years or older in Baltimore, MD, USA without symptoms or clinical evidence of CAD. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D <10 ng/mL was 18.7%. CAC was present in 238 (28.1% of the 846 participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the following factors were independently associated with CAC: age (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.14; male sex (adjusted OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.18–2.49; family history of CAD (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05–2.23; total cholesterol (adjusted OR: 1.006; 95% CI: 1.002–1.010; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted OR: 0.989; 95% CI: 0.979–0.999; years of cocaine use (adjusted OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.001–1.04; duration of exposure to protease inhibitors (adjusted OR: 1.004; 95% CI: 1.001–1.007; and vitamin D deficiency (adjusted OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.31–3.00. Conclusion: Both vitamin D deficiency and CAC are prevalent in AAs with
Arrey, Agnes Ebotabe; Bilsen, Johan; Lacor, Patrick; Deschepper, Reginald
Spirituality/religion serves important roles in coping, survival and maintaining overall wellbeing within African cultures and communities, especially when diagnosed with a chronic disease like HIV/AIDS that can have a profound effect on physical and mental health. However, spirituality/religion can be problematic to some patients and cause caregiving difficulties. The objective of this paper was to examine the role of spirituality/religion as a source of strength, resilience and wellbeing among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant women with HIV/AIDS. A qualitative study of SSA migrant women was conducted between April 2013 and December 2014. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball techniques from AIDS Reference Centres and AIDS workshops in Belgium, if they were 18 years and older, French or English speaking, and diagnosed HIV positive more than 3 months beforehand. We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and did observations during consultations and support groups attendances. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. 44 women were interviewed, of whom 42 were Christians and 2 Muslims. None reported religious/spiritual alienation, though at some point in time many had felt the need to question their relationship with God by asking “why me?” A majority reported being more spiritual/religious since being diagnosed HIV positive. Participants believed that prayer, meditation, regular church services and religious activities were the main spiritual/religious resources for achieving connectedness with God. They strongly believed in the power of God in their HIV/AIDS treatment and wellbeing. Spiritual/religious resources including prayer, meditation, church services, religious activities and believing in the power of God helped them cope with HIV/AIDS. These findings highlight the importance of spirituality in physical and mental health and wellbeing among SSA women with HIV/AIDS that should be taken into consideration
Desgrees-du-Lou, Annabel; Pannetier, Julie; Ravalihasy, Andrainolo; Le Guen, Mireille; Gosselin, Anne; Panjo, Henri; Bajos, Nathalie; Lydie, Nathalie; Lert, France; Dray-Spira, Rosemary
Objectives: In Europe, sub-Saharan African migrants are a key population for HIV infection. We analyse how social hardships during settlement in France shape sexual partnerships and HIV risk. Design: PARCOURS is a life-event survey conducted in 2012–2013 in 74 health-care facilities in the Paris region, among three groups of sub-Saharan migrants: 926 receiving HIV care (296 acquired HIV in France), 779 with chronic hepatitis B, and 763 with neither HIV nor hepatitis B (reference group). Methods: Hardships (lack of residence permit, economic resources and housing) and sexual partnerships were documented for each year since arrival in France. For each sex, reported sexual partnerships were compared by group and their associations with hardships each year analysed with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Results: Hardships were frequent: more than 40% had lived a year or longer without a residence permit, and more than 20% without stable housing. Most of the migrants had nonstable and concurrent partnerships, more frequent among those who acquired HIV in France compared with reference group, as were casual partnerships among men (76.7 vs. 54.2%; P = 0.004) and women (52.4 vs. 30.5%; P = 0.02), concurrent partnerships among men (69.9 vs. 45.8%; P = 0.02), and transactional partnerships among women (8.6 vs. 2.3%; P = 0.006). Hardship increased risky behaviours: in women, lacking a residence permit increased casual and transactional partnerships [resp. odds ratio (OR) = 2.01(1.48–2.72) and OR = 6.27(2.25–17.44)]. Same trends were observed for lacking stable housing [OR = 3.71(2.75–5.00) and OR = 10.58 (4.68–23.93)]. Conclusion: Hardships faced by migrants increase HIV risks. Women, especially during the period without stable housing, appear especially vulnerable. PMID:26558722
This work aims to rethink the relationship between anthropology and cultural psychiatry from a historical perspective, through reflections on the dynamics of forgetting and remembering in the context of migration. While migrants' symptoms often bear cultural hallmarks of suffering, they also reveal images of a traumatic history, which resurface in moments of danger, uncertainty, and crisis. I claim these symptoms are allegories of a dispossessed past, and can be interpreted as counter-memories, as "palimpsests" of an eclipsed script. Trauma symptoms keep returning to a collective past, and thus can be considered a particular form of historical consciousness. Psychiatric diagnoses may obscure these counter-memories. In particular, the diagnostic category of posttraumatic stress disorder that is commonly attached to traumatic experiences in current clinical practice recognizes the truth of individual traumatic events, but at the same time contributes to concealing the political, racial, and historical roots of suffering. PMID:27154972
Morrone, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Florence (Italy); Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others
A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Dassah, M O
In South Africa, attacks mainly directed at black non-South Africans, is a rampant, longstanding phenomenon notwithstanding the spirit of Ubuntu which is thought to permeate the social fabric. Assumptions have been made in various labels describing the attacks, raising concerns about their appropriateness. Further, various explanations and hypotheses have been advanced about causes of or reasons for the attacks. The root causes of the attacks need to be properly understood for ...
Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983
Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)
Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove
Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...
Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.
This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very
Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria is a standard of obstetrical care and is included in most antenatal guidelines. There is good evidence that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria will decrease the incidence of pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and there are no new data that would indicate otherwise. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of preterm delivery or low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies means any conclusion about the strength of this association needs to be drawn cautiously. A better understanding of the mechanism by which treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria could prevent preterm delivery is needed. While several rapid screening tests have been evaluated, none perform adequately to replace urine culture for detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria. Until there are data from well-designed trials that establish the optimal duration of therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, standard treatment courses are recommended. PMID:17347050
Hlatshwayo, Mondli; Vally, Salim
This article examines the psychology of migrant learners' resilience, their right to education, and how migrant organizations and South African civil society are supporting and reinforcing the agency of migrant learners and their parents. It is based on a year-long study conducted by researchers at the University of Johannesburg's Centre…
Validation of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants: A sub-study to the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study
Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean UK migrants as previous diagnostic questionnaires have been found to be less accurate in this population. We also determined the diagnostic accuracy of translated versions of the ECQ in 1st generation South Asian UK migrants, as this has not been investigated before. Methods Subjects were recruited from the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study, a community based screening survey for heart failure in minority ethnic groups. Translated versions of the ECQ were prepared following a recognised protocol. All participants attending screening between October 2007 and February 2009 were asked to complete the ECQ in the language of their choice (English, Punjabi, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi or Gujarati. Subjects answering positively to experiencing leg pain or discomfort on walking were asked to return to have Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI measured. Results 154 out of 2831 subjects participating in E-ECHOES (5.4% were eligible to participate in this sub-study, for which 74.3% returned for ABPI assessment. Non-responders were younger than participants (59 vs. 65 years; p = 0.015. Punjabi, English and Bengali questionnaires identified participants with Intermittent Claudication, so these questionnaires were assessed. The sensitivities (SN, specificities (SP, positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values were calculated. English: SN: 50%; SP: 68%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 74%. Punjabi: SN: 50%; SP: 87%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 90%. Bengali: SN: 33%; SP: 50%; PPV: 13%; NPV: 73%. There were significant differences in diagnostic accuracy between the 3 versions (Punjabi: 83.8%; Bengali: 45%; English: 62.2%; p Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ECQ is not as sensitive or specific a diagnostic tool in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants than in the Edinburgh
Kuschminder, Katie; Andersson, Lisa; Siegel, Melissa
This paper provides an overview of the different characteristics of migrants from Ethiopia to three different migration destinations: (1) northern countries, (2) other African countries, and (3) the Middle East. The paper is based on a recent household survey of 1,286 migrant, non-migrant and return migrant households in Ethiopia. First, the results show that the characteristics of the migrants and their origin households differ depending on migration destination. Secondly, the increased migr...
Avato, Johanna; Koettl, Johannes; Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel
This paper analyzes the issue of social protection for migrants by looking at formal and informal social protection provisions. In particular, it presents the latest global data on the social protection status on migrants, including undocumented migrants. The paper gives special attention to lower-income countries drawing upon recent studies from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It finds that migrants in poorer countries have very limited access to formal social protection s...
de la Briere, Benedicte; De Janvry, Alain; Lambert, Sylvie; Sadoulet, Elisabeth
Two contrasting hypotheses about what motivates Dominican migrants to send remittances to their rural parents in the Sierra are tested: (1) an investment in potential bequests and (2) an insurance contract between parents and migrant children. Remittances from young migrants, males, and migrants who want to return to the Sierra follow a pattern consistent with investment. In contrast, female migrants with no intention of returning to the Sierra play the role of insurers. The gender compositio...
Vaidya, Ashima; Singhal, Suman; Dhall, Sonia; Manohar, Ashish; Mahajan, Harsh
Cysticercosis is a common problem world wide. However, disseminated cysticercosis is rare. Still rarer is asymptomatic disseminated cysticercosis. We are reporting here a rare case of asymptomatic disseminated cysticercosis which involved brain, face, orbit, lungs, heart, pancreas and spleen in a young Nigerian male, who sought medical attention for dysphagia which was diagnosed as achalasia cardia. Despite widespread dissemination of cysticercosis which involves multiple organs, the individu...
, despite this inconsistency, the memories of those migrants circulate, spread and diffuse rapidly, sometimes even under conditions that may prove unfavorable, but not insurmountable. In due course, those recollected memories turn into a “referential memory”, playing a pivotal role in the shaping of North African life styles rather than being a mere abiding memory of their origins. Fragmented and incomplete as these memories may be, they enable individuals to engage in a reflective analysis of their past, to gain a better understanding of the present and to learn from their mistakes. Quite recently, France saw a public debate on the memories of colonial times, during which the discourse of North African descendants demonstrated unequivocally that, even if the history of North African immigration has come up against some difficulty in its recreation and dissemination, it nevertheless exists and its unpalatable effects are not pervasive. The recipients of the memories of that migration are appealing to the French public to acknowledge those memories so that the neglect, exclusion and racism that their forebears endured should never return.
It is estimated that at least 50% of fibroids are asymptomatic, but this figure is likely to be an underestimate as it is based on women in whom fibroids are found incidentally during another procedure (e.g. cervical screening), and there is little, if any, data from population studies on the true incidence of fibroids. If a prevalence of 50% by 50 years of age is accepted, a large number of women have asymptomatic fibroids. Working on the cliché, 'if it ain't broken, don't fix it', it may seem surprising that there should be a chapter dedicated to the issue of asymptomatic fibroids, since the simplistic approach might be to leave the asymptomatic fibroids well alone. However, asymptomatic fibroids may become symptomatic in the future, so it may be wiser to treat fibroids before they grow to a size when they become symptomatic, or treatment becomes more challenging, especially in young women who may desire fertility at a later stage, and in view of the fact that many women are starting their families in their mid-thirties when they have a 30% chance of having a fibroid(s). Despite their common occurrence, fibroids are still poorly understood. It is not known why they form in the first place, what determines their number and ultimate size, the best treatment approaches, or the factors that determine which women develop symptoms. Even when women present with disorders such as infertility, pelvic pain and abnormal bleeding, it is not always possible to be certain that a given myoma is not simply an innocent bystander rather than the cause of the symptom. This chapter addresses the challenging issue of what to do when fibroids are diagnosed incidentally. Firstly, there is the need to ascertain that the pelvic mass palpated is indeed a fibroid, and not an early, more sinister tumour, especially if conservative management is adopted. In addition, there is the issue of size, position and potential for becoming symptomatic at a later date. With the availability of uterine
Livingstone, Verity H; Turner, Bradley
A retrospective chart review was performed in a family-practice office, which looked at the prevalence and significance of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH). Various methods were used to identify the relevant charts and to define the practice demographics, some of which hitherto had not been described. At least 2% of the men and 5% of the women over 44 years old in the practice were found to have AMH; in none of these patients, however, were any significant urological abnormalities det...
There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein
For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)
Major Recipients of Remittances (in Million USD, 2008) Principaux pays bénéficiaires des transferts des migrants (en millions USD, 2008) Migrants’ Remittances per Capita (in USD, 2008) Transferts des migrants par habitant (en USD, 2008) Source: World Bank, migration and remittances data.
PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…
Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David;
Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...... effects of physical activity and nutrition to improve health within communities while reducing intergenerational and gender role family conflicts.......Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...
Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845
Quiminal, Catherine; Blum Le Coat, Jean-Yves
This text is based on the researches on the migrants' representations of Europe and how their representations evolve during migrants' itineraries realised for the program Eurobroadmap. These researches have followed three major migratory 'routes' to the European Union: the Southern route that crosses the Mediterranean Sea (Mali, Senegal, Morocco, and Malta), the Eastern route through the former Soviet countries (Romania) and Central Asia (India), and finally Latin America (Argentina). Focusin...
Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....
Sarı O et al.
Most of the complications caused by asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in pregnancy can be avoided by early treatment. In our study, we aimed to determine the urinary infection prevalence and the pathogen agent identification in the pregnant women observing in our clinic. 240 asymptomatic pregnant women having no antibiotic treatment history during last 1 week and were enrolled to the study. Urine specimens were collected from 12th and 16th week pregnant women, and were examined by light microsco...
Paul Erhunmwunse Imade; Patience Emiolu Izekor; Nosakhare Odeh Eghafona; Onaiwu Idahosa Enabulele; Endurance Ophori
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjec...
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria in pregnant women referred to the medical centers of Tabriz, Iran, for prenatal care. Materials and Methods: A total of 1100 healthy pregnant women who were referred to 50 medical centers in Tabriz for a regular prenatal care were evaluated for bacteriuria. Results: The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.1%. Maternal age was lower in the women with a positive urine culture (P = .02). Asymptomatic bact...
Gerritsen, Debby; Maier, Robert
This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on "migrants" at present. The integration of young "migrants" have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands. At present, the…
Agergaard, Sine; Michelsen la Cour, Annette; Gregersen, Martin Treumer
and they must be engaged in organized sports; that is not only healthy but also civilizing and character forming leisure time activities. Techniques of monitoring the intervention are developed in a partnership between public institutions, regional umbrella organizations and local sports clubs leading...... case study of an intervention that provides sporting activities in holiday periods for migrant children and adolescents living in so-called socially disadvantaged areas (DGI Playground). The analysis highlights the rationality that the leisure time of migrant youth is a potentially dangerous time slot...... to a need for employment of welfare professionals. Furthermore, the article illustrates that in the discursive construction of subject positions for the target group, migrant youth tend to become clients and recipients of public services rather than potential members of civil sports clubs. These...
Strøm, Steinar; Venturini, Alessandra; Villosio, Claudia
The paper wants to understand the assimilation pattern of foreign migrants in Italy. Three novelties characterize this study. First, the research compares the wage assimilation of international migrants with both internal migrants and local natives in Italy, a country with substantial internal and international migration. This comparison, never exploited before, provides indirect evidence for the role played by language and knowledge of social capital in the assimilation of foreign migrants r...
Strom, Steinar; Venturini, Alessandra; Villosio, Claudia
The paper wants to understand the assimilation pattern of foreign migrants in Italy. Three novelties characterize this study. First, the research compares the wage assimilation of international migrants with both internal migrants and local natives in Italy, a country with substantial internal and international migration. This comparison, never exploited before, provides indirect evidence for the role played by language and knowledge of social capital in the assimilation of foreign migrants r...
Paul Erhunmwunse Imade
Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.
Nicolle, Lindsay E
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very common. In healthy women, asymptomatic bacteriuria increases with age, from asymptomatic bacteriuria, irrespective of age or gender. The prevalence is very high in residents of long-term-care facilities, from 25% to 50% of women and 15% to 40% of men. Escherichia coli is the most frequent organism isolated, but a wide variety of other organisms may occur. Bacteriuria may be transient or persist for a prolonged period. Pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria identified in early pregnancy and who are untreated have a risk of pyelonephritis later in pregnancy of 20% to 30%. Bacteremia is frequent in bacteriuric subjects following mucosal trauma with bleeding, with 5% to 10% of patients developing severe sepsis or septic shock. These two groups with clear evidence of negative outcomes should be screened for bacteriuria and appropriately treated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in other populations is benign and screening and treatment are not indicated. Antimicrobial treatment has no benefits but is associated with negative outcomes including reinfection with antimicrobial resistant organisms and a short-term increased frequency of symptomatic infection post-treatment. The observation of increased symptomatic infection post-treatment, however, has led to active investigation of bacterial interference as a strategy to prevent symptomatic episodes in selected high risk patients. PMID:26542046
Paul Erhunmwunse Imade
Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.
This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...
China has 130 million migrant workers in cities,according to official statistics. The term "farmer" carries quite different connotations in China than in the West, where farming is a profession taken up by well-educated people and involves large-scale mechanical production. In the West, farmers enjoy the same social status as urban dwellers.
Full Text Available This article explores migrant young people’s engagement, participation and involvement in socially meaningful activities, events and experiences. This type of social participation is approached in the social inclusion literature using the notions of social capital and active citizenship (Bourdieu, 1986; Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 1993; Putnam, 2000. A key objective, therefore, is to explore the attitudes, values and perceptions associated with social participation for young people. They include the meanings that social engagement has for migrant young people, along with drivers and inhibitions to active participation. The article focuses on both the motives for being actively engaged as well as perceived barriers to social engagement. It is based on a large study conducted among migrant young people of African, Arabic-speaking and Pacific Islander backgrounds in Melbourne and Brisbane, and presents both quantitative and qualitative (discursive snapshots from the overall findings, based on interviews and focus groups. While many studies have centred on the management of migration and migrants, this article draws attention to the individuals’ active position in negotiating, interpreting and appropriating the conditions of social inclusion. Accounting for the multidimensional and multilayered nature of social inclusion, the paper highlights the heuristic role of social engagement in fostering the feelings of belonging and personal growth for migrant youth.
Sudha Biradar Kerure
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216
Tashjian, J H; Coulam, C B; Washington, J A
Four groups of 25 asymptomatic women--pregnant, premenopausal and taking oral contraceptives, premenopausal and not taking oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal--were studied for the presence in vaginal specimens of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, fungi, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, mycobacteria, and Trichomonas. No significant differences in microbial flora were found among the groups. PMID:957791
Sarı O et al.
Full Text Available Most of the complications caused by asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU in pregnancy can be avoided by early treatment. In our study, we aimed to determine the urinary infection prevalence and the pathogen agent identification in the pregnant women observing in our clinic. 240 asymptomatic pregnant women having no antibiotic treatment history during last 1 week and were enrolled to the study. Urine specimens were collected from 12th and 16th week pregnant women, and were examined by light microscope and cultured at the mediums. Demographic data belonging to the patients (age, birth number, abortion number were recorded. Mean age was assigned as 24, 49±2, 74 (20-31 years. 104 patients (43,3% were primipara, 94 patients (39.2% had previous pregnancy and 42 patients (17,5% were multipara. 19,2% of the patients (n=46 had an abortion history. Mean value of leucocyte levels among pregnant women was assigned as 10045 / mm3 (6750-15200. Although positive urine culture ratio was 12,5% (n=30 at first visit, it was 10% (n=30 in the 12th week. Urine culture in 16th week was determined as negative in all pregnant women. When agent pathogen was analyzed from urine culture, the most common isolated microorganism that causes asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU was Escherichia coli with ratio of 83%(n=200. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU is common in pregnancy and can cause serious maternal and fetal complications if it’s not treated on time and properly. Therefore; all pregnant women should be screened at first antenatal visit for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU as a routine program and medical treatment should be required at the positive cases.
The article addresses the social and economic conditions of migrant workers from the former Yugoslav states who form the vast majority of the migrant population in Slovenia. Based on the analysis of policies that regulate the work of "foreigners" and on the assessment of recent anti-crisis measures we argue that the current securitization approach, which aims to protect the national labour market, exacerbates the poor work and life conditions of migrants. We look into the current massive layo...
Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li
Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.
As global migration flows increase, so do the number of migrant students in host country schools. Yet migrants' achievement scores lag well behind those of their native-born schoolmates. Performance gaps are explained largely by differences in migrant parents' socio-economic background, cultural capital, and language skills. Education policy needs to focus on language teaching, parental involvement, diversity training, and beneficial social interaction between immigrant and native-born popula...
Shana Tabak; Rachel Levitan
As states increasingly use detention as a means of controllingmigration flows, sexual minority migrants find themselves in detentionfacilities where they may face multiple violations of their human rights.
Lavanya S; Jogalakshmi D
A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42) were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women). Primigravida had highest percent culture positivit...
Kiker, B. F.; Traynham, Earle C.
The study determined: if there were economic and/or demographic differences between them which existed prior to out-migration; what were the actual earnings differences between cohorts of return and nonreturn migrants following their migration; and if return migrants experienced an improvement or worsening in earnings relative to cohorts of…
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to atain knowledge on immigrant´s health related problems and to identify their dificulties when acesing health care services. The article describes immigrant´s dificulties when acesing health care services that are visiting the health ofice at a National Immigrant Support Centre.Design: : A qualitative study was conducted, analysing available documentation and observing the health isues dealt with at the National Immigrant Support Centre’s (CNAI Health Ofice. The 148 cases are mainly immigrants coming from Portuguese speaking African countries for health purposes. Immigrants from Brazil have more restricted aces, and feel discrimination on the part of the services. Immigrants from Eastern Europe come in search of information and have communication dificulties. Obstacles are related to the lack of knowledge of the law, but also to the failure of puting the law into practice. The ofice has had a great demand of users seeking information and in acesingthe health care system.Results: The cases analysed are mainly nationals from Portuguese Speaking African Countries (PSAC, Brazil and countries in Eastern Europe. The majority of the immigrants coming from PSAC are patients receiving treatment under international Cooperation Agreements requesting financial and social support. Immigrants from Brazil have more restricted aces and feel greater discrimination on the part of the services. New Labour Migrants from Eastern Europe, on the other hand, come in search of information and are known to have communication dificulties.Conclusions: Legislation in Portugal provides aces to health care to al citizens, regardles of their legal condition and origin. However, some immigrants have had significant dificulties with aces to Portugal’s National Health Service. The obstacles are not only related to the lack of legal knowledge, but also to the failure of puting the law into practice, which requires atention by
Carrasquillo, Angela; Carrasquillo, Ceferino
Among Puerto Ricans who have migrated to the United States, a significant number have returned to Puerto Rico, while others shuttle between Puerto Rico and the United States. These groups of people are identified as return migrants. Studies suggest that return migrant youth in Puerto Rico have had to make environmental and cultural adjustments…
Changlin; DUAN; Huawei; LUO
Through the survey of direct economic remuneration, indirect economic remuneration and non-economic remuneration of employees in flat panel furniture enterprises in Chengdu City, we conduct a comparative analysis of the problems and causes of remuneration difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers. The results show that the wage difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers is the biggest, and there is little difference in terms of interests safeguarding and non-economic factors. The reason for the above results lies in the difference of education level; gender, region, household registration and other issues have little impact on the above results. The following recommendations are put forward to improve the remuneration of migrant workers: increasing government’s policy advocacy efforts and eliminating subjective offense; establishing the administrative oversight bodies and effectively safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers; strengthening vocational training for migrant workers, so that workers have more choices on positions; improving the working environment and developing good working atmosphere.
Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast to...... uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...
Parey, Matthias; Ruhose, Jens; Waldinger, Fabian; Netz, Nicolai
We investigate international migration choices of high-skilled individuals and measure migrant selection using predicted earnings. High-skilled migrants select to destinations as predicted by Borjas' (1987) model of migration choices. Migrants to less equal countries are positively selected, while migrants to more equal countries are negatively selected, relative to non-migrants. For our analysis, we use a survey of university graduates, including detailed information on background characteri...
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
Certain activities among migrants take place in a social space spanning the sending and receiving societies. Migrants who e.g. take part in activities in hometown associations or in Islamic activism tend to do so in these social spaces, increasingly conceptualized as transnational. Our understand......Certain activities among migrants take place in a social space spanning the sending and receiving societies. Migrants who e.g. take part in activities in hometown associations or in Islamic activism tend to do so in these social spaces, increasingly conceptualized as transnational. Our...... understanding of transnational activities and why they often form part of migrants’ everyday lives even decades after the break up from the sending society, is however limited. In some cases, the off-spring of migrants is also involved in transnational activities, a fact which is even more complicated to...... continued attachment to the sending society manifested in concrete actions – represents some mystery and bewilderment which is approached and discussed here by examining migrants to Denmark, more specifically the formation of hometown associations by Kurdish and Alevi migrants from Turkey on the one hand...
Rundquist, F; Brown, L A
The effects of migration on fertility in Ecuador were analyzed by subdividing migrant categories into permanent-, return-, circular-, and non-migrants, and context factors into 6 socioeconomic and agrarian variables. The study is introduced with a conceptual framework that explains personal intermediate variables and their influence on fertility in terms of demographic transition theory, and then defines the influences of selection for fertility, disruption of marital unions, and socialization into fertility norms at the origin vs. assimilation of norms at the destination. Migrants are usually better educated, younger and upwardly mobile, all selecting for lower fertility. Migration disrupts formation of marital unions, and causes separation of spouses, lowering fertility. Data for this study were from the 1974 and 1982 Ecuadorian Population Censuses. The contextual variables analyzed were urban/rural; manufacturing/agricultural; mineral extraction/economic recession; long/recent agricultural settlement; domestic/export crop; and large/medium sized farm. The analysis of personal attributes showed that fertility increased over the range on non-migrants through circular-, return- to permanent-migrants, a finding explained by degrees of disruption of unions. Higher fertility was associated with less education, lower economic participation, higher prevalence of marriage, longer residence and older ages. Regression analysis also showed that personal attributes outweighed contextual factors: thus age, marriage rates, residence time, education and economic activity were significant. Contextual factors were important only for non-migrants, except for destination variables which affected return-migrants and origin variables which affected circular-migrants. Low fertility was associated with urbanization, industrialization, mineral extraction, large farms, recent farm settlement and export crops. The results indicate cear influences of modernity and place influences on
M.H. Shirazi; Sadeghifard, N; R Ranjbar; E. Daneshyar; A Ghasemi
Incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy among Iranian women was examined. Midstream urine was collected from 380 pregnant women and streaked on blood agar and incubated for 24 to 48 h. Growth was considered significant if 105 mL-1 bacteria were present. Among the pregnant women, 10.1% had asymptomatic bacteriuria. Age, past history of abortion, proteinuria, level of education, number of fertility had no significant association with asymptomatic bacteriuria occurrence. But lower...
access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2......) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of...... informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if...
Full Text Available As states increasingly use detention as a means of controllingmigration flows, sexual minority migrants find themselves in detentionfacilities where they may face multiple violations of their human rights.
Full Text Available In the post-communist period, migration of the Romanians became an emergent phenomenon which went through many structural transformations. Within the context of the recent economic crisis and of some unfavourable collective attitudes regarding the immigration in some countries of destination, evidences of the reverse movement, of return of some migrants in Romania have appeared. This paper aims to examine the profile of Romanian returned migrants, with a special view on the returning motivations. Results show that the family related factors have the highest influence in the returning decision among Romanian migrants. Finally, future intentions of the returned migrants confirm the model of the circulatory migration as a strategy of life of the Romanians.
Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast to...... uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...... against the UPEC strain CFT073 was also studied. The different ABU strains displayed a wide variety of the measured characteristics. Half of the ABU strains displayed functional type 1 fimbriae while only one expressed functional P fimbriae. A good correlation between the growth rate of a particular...
This article on the literary creativity of Slovene migrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished authors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those that are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentray, historical, or e...
Burns, F. M.
In the UK substantial numbers of new HIV diagnoses are within migrant African communities. A continuing feature of HIV in this population is the late presentation to HIV services. This dissertation sets out to explore HIV testing among Africans in the UK, the factors associated with late presentation to HIV services, and the extent of HIV acquisition within the UK in African communities. The main focus of the thesis is the ‘study of newly diagnosed HIV among Africans in London’...
Full Text Available Depuis la fin de la guerre (1990 l’importation d‘une main-d’œuvre peu qualifiée majoritairement féminine est devenue massive au Liban. Qu’ils soient en situation régulière ou non, des migrants non arabes dits « temporaires » ou « en transit », mais dont certains sont là depuis une dizaine d’années, ont fait leur entrée sur le marché du travail et tentent de s’inscrire, pour nombre d’entre eux, dans un « milieu » aux identités multiples et conflictuelles dans des quartiers périphériques où il est plus facile de trouver à se loger. En s’appuyant sur des enquêtes de terrain menées dans la banlieue de Bourj-Hammoud à l’est de Beyrouth et dans les quartiers sud de Jnah et de Ouzaï, les auteures décrivent des situations migratoires qui sans être généralisables n’en sont pas moins exemplaires de la place de cette main-d’œuvre immigrée.Since the end of the war, in 1990, unqualified, mostly feminine, workers have been massively entering Lebanon. Whether they have regular registration or not, non-Arab, so-called ‘temporary’, or ‘transit’ migrants have entered the labour market, but some of them have been there for about ten years. Many try to join the mixed, full of conflicts environment of peripheral districts, in which it is easier to find housing. Using fieldwork they have been conducting in the Borj-Hamoud suburb, in the east of Beirut, and Jnah and Ouzaï, in the south, the authors describe migratory situations which, although they cannot be applied generally, are nevertheless a good example of the place held by these immigrant
Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.
1. Introduction. 2. Integration Policy Context: Education and employment. 3. Experiences of Migrants in Education and Employment. 4. Education and Migrant Workers. 5. Education in Employment. 6. Recommendations and Conclusions. Higher Education Authority (SIF - Cycle 1)
Orrenius, Pia M.; Madeline Zavodny
Limited access to migrant networks and strong geographic preferences may underlie border migrants' willingness to settle for lower wages on the border rather than seek higher wages by venturing into the U.S. interior.
Ewa Majos, MD; Rafal Dabrowski MD, PhD
Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common and refractory arrhythmia. Prevalence of AF increases with age. Asymptomatic AF is a state of asymptomatic episodes of arrhythmia and its exact prevalence remains unknown. Ablation and therapy with antiarrhythmic agents may predispose to asymptomatic AF. Detection of silent AF is crucial for prevention of ischaemic stroke. Progress in continuous ECG monitoring by Holter ECG, telemetry methods or implantable devices can provide a useful tools for identifying silent AF. Simple screening procedures like pulse examination and ambulatory ECG may be helpful in arrhythmia detection and logically – ischemic stroke prevention.
P. Nijkamp; Sahin, M.; Baycan, T.
Nowadays, migrants form a significant share of the urban population, and their business is critical for urban economic growth. This paper addresses the key factors determining the position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands. In order to develop a solid assessment of CSFs for migrant entrepreneurs, and to understand business performance in a competitive urban environment, this study will investigate the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in Dutch cities from a ...
FUJITA, Koichi; Endo, Tamaki; Okamoto, Ikuko; Nakanishi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Miwa; 藤田, 幸一; 遠藤, 環; 岡本, 郁子; 中西, 嘉宏; 山田, 美和
Thailand is the major destination for migrants in mainland Southeast Asia, and Myanmar (Burmese) migrants account for the dominant share. This paper sheds light on the actual working conditions and the life of Myanmar migrants in Thailand, based on our intensive survey in Ranong in southern Thailand in 2009. We found a wide range of serious problems that Myanmar migrants face in everyday life: very harsh working conditions, low income, heavy indebtedness, risk of being human-trafficking victi...
Migration patterns in Texas, Florida, California, the Southeastern States, and elsewhere are examined through official reports, statistical data, migrant statistics at rest camps, migrant children's registrations in New Mexico, conversations, and informal observations. It is concluded that the plight of the migrant worker will grow more dismal…
This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count or…
MacKinnon, Aran S
The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid. PMID:17939024
Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola
-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration of...... still unknown. The fourth paper and one manuscript investigate the behavior of garden warblers Sylvia borin, during the non-breeding season in Nigeria. The first paper shows that the species also utilizes habitats south of the savannah region, presumably on its way to the final goal area. Individuals...... also molt their flight feathers at this location and intraspecific interactions are non-aggressive. The second manuscript investigates whether variations in the timing of migration of wader species at a stopover site in southeast Sweden is influence by local or regional climatic variables. The...
Chirwa, W C
"This article is about the process of socioeconomic transformation in rural Malawi. It examines the survival strategies and enterprising spirit of Malawian migrant workers and their households. It argues that the strategies of these people often went beyond survival in the provision of basic necessities.... In March 1988, the South African Chamber of Mines stopped a century-old tradition of recruiting migrant workers from Malawi. This has arrested and put to a halt a process of accumulation taking place in the households of the returned migrant workers in the rural economy. Thus, the effects of the retrenchment of the workers will spread from the migrant and his family through the economic and social wellspring of all sectors of rural communities and their commercial lives." PMID:12292956
M Rahimkhani; H Khavari-Daneshvar; Sharifian, R.
"nPregnant women are at increased risk for urinary tract infection (UTI) but in many cases infection is asymptomatic. This study was performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria in pregnant women. A total of 86 pregnant women during first trimester and 56 nonpregnant women were evaluated. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected for both groups. Urine samples were examin...
Anjana Verma; Anamika Vyas; Lalit Shrimali; Medhavi Sharma
Background: Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men and still more in pregnant women because of anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy. Incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is 2-10% globally and it is still more in developing countries. Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to many prenatal and maternal complications; hence early detection and treatment is of considerable importance. Methods: Total 220 pregnant women at their first visit were scr...
This article is based on empirical research with West African migrant women working in prostitution in Paris. Given current migration regulations in Western Europe, as well as state policies on prostitution, the traffickers and people considered to be trafficking victims de facto form part of the sa
Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.
Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece;
, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants....... These findings can be generalized to migrant and indigenous entrepreneurs worldwide to enhance knowledge about the entrepreneurial benefits of migration, albeit contingent on gender and education....
POTTS, ALFRED M.
THE EDUCATIVE PROCESS SHOULD AID THE MIGRANT CHILDREN TO LIVE A FULLER LIFE IN RELATION TO THEIR POTENTIAL AND SHOULD CONTAIN BROADER AND LESS RESTRICTIVE PATTERNS OF CULTURAL EXPECTANCIES. ALTHOUGH ACADEMIC KNOWLEDGE IS ESSENTIAL, A MORE PROMINENT PLACE MUST BE ASSIGNED TO AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE RELATED TO COMPREHENSION OF CULTURALLY INSPIRED…
Singla, Rashmi; Akora, Lydia; Panesar, Jasbir;
Artiklen handler om prakisforskning baseret på et transnationalt EU-projekt, der sigter på at forbedre "adult migrant learners" kompetencer for aktiv deltagelse i samfundet. Projektets formål var forbedring af de voksnes forståelse af socialt ansvar på forskellige niveauer ved at gøre dem bevidst...
Portes, Alejandro; Rivas, Alejandro
Alejandro Portes and Alejandro Rivas examine how young immigrants are adapting to life in the United States. They begin by noting the existence of two distinct pan-ethnic populations: Asian Americans, who tend to be the offspring of high-human-capital migrants, and Hispanics, many of whose parents are manual workers. Vast differences in each, both…
Alp, E; Erdem, H; Rello, J
During the past decade, global human movement created a virtually "borderless world". Consequently, the developed world is facing "forgotten" and now imported infectious diseases. Many infections are observed upon travel and migration, and the clinical spectrum is diverse, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe septic shock. The severity of infection depends on the etiology and timeliness of diagnosis. While assessing the etiology of severe infection in travelers and migrants, it is important to acquire a detailed clinical history; geography, dates of travel, places visited, type of transportation, lay-overs and intermediate stops, potential exposure to exotic diseases, and activities that were undertaken during travelling and prophylaxis and vaccines either taken or not before travel are all important parameters. Tuberculosis, malaria, pneumonia, visceral leishmaniasis, enteric fever and hemorrhagic fever are the most common etiologies in severely infected travelers and migrants. The management of severe sepsis and septic shock in migrants and returning travelers requires a systematic approach in the evaluation of these patients based on travel history. Early and broad-spectrum therapy is recommended for the management of septic shock comprising broad spectrum antibiotics, source control, fluid therapy and hemodynamic support, corticosteroids, tight glycemic control, and organ support and monitoring. We here review the diagnostic and therapeutic routing of severely ill travelers and migrants, stratified by the nature of the infectious agents most often encountered among them. PMID:26825315
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
When villages are marked by extensive out-migration and become transnationally extended, the dividing line between migrants and non-migrants becomes salient. But how deep do divisions run? In a cluster of Kurdish villages in central Turkey, notwithstanding continued social bonds, divisions between...... migrants and non-migrants are not least in existence when it comes to the cultural style of consumption practices, behaviour and manners. The mutual stereotyping of migrants and non-migrants seems to confirm that at least one version of the meaning made locally of migration is that it has deepened the...
In the last two decades, transnational social fields have been transformed by advances in information and communication technologies (ICT). Many scholars have noted the empowering effects of these technological advances for migrants. Drawing on the concept of return preparedness, it follows that ICT use should also empower prospective returnees, enabling them to be better informed and prepared for return. However, multi-sited ethnographic research with older North and West African men living ...
In part due to its location on the North African coast, in conjunction with its history of being a former French protectorate, Tunisia has become an important country of emigration to the European Union. In particular, maritime arrivals have become a concern for European states, for both humanitarian and security reasons. The experiences of Tunisian irregular migrants arriving to the EU by sea, who are then detained and returned, highlights the multitude of human rights issues that arise acro...
Ferrah Raza; Dawn Richardson; Amani Nuru-Jeter; Esme Fuller Thomson; Meredith Minkler
The “Hispanic Paradox” suggests that despite rates of poverty similar to African Americans, Hispanics have far better health and mortality outcomes, more comparable to non-Hispanic White Americans. Three prominent possible explanations for the Hispanic Paradox have emerged. The “Healthy Migrant Effect” suggests a health selection effect due to the demands of migration. The Hispanic lifestyle hypothesis focuses on Hispanics’ strong social ties and better health behaviors. The reverse migration...
Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author)
Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)
Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author).
Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.
This paper examines whether family and community migration experience affect the probability of high school graduation in Mexico once unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. Bivariate random effects dynamic probit models for cluster data are estimated to control for the endogeneity of education and migrant network variables. Correlation of unobservables across migration and education decisions as well as within groups of individuals such as the family are explicitly controlled for. Results...
Full Text Available "nPregnant women are at increased risk for urinary tract infection (UTI but in many cases infection is asymptomatic. This study was performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria in pregnant women. A total of 86 pregnant women during first trimester and 56 nonpregnant women were evaluated. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected for both groups. Urine samples were examined microscopically and were cultured. Bacteriological examination revealed asymptomatic bacteriuria in 25 (29.1% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. Microscopic analysis of urine revealed pyuria in 18 (20.9% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. In study group, Escherichia coli were found in 20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 36%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus in 12%, streptococcus group D in 12%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 12% and Proteus mirabilis in 8%. In control group, E. coli were found in 33.3% and S. epidermidis in 66.7%. Our results show that the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is significantly higher in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The main finding in the present study was that 29.1% of the pregnant women who were in first trimester had asymptomatic bacteriuria which is much higher than figures reported from other countries. The use of microscopic urinanalysis was not an effective method of detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria and urine culture is necessary for screening these pregnant women.
This thesis discusses about the challenge of education for migrant children in the rapidly urbanized Chinese society. An ethnographic research was conducted in one of the unregistered migrant schools in Beijing. Through a triangulation of research methods of participatory observation, semi-structured and life history interview, as well as photography, the research, from emic perspectives, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the migrant schools in education provision to migrant childr...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Study AGENCY... observing migrant and seasonal farmworkers. These included the Enumeration Studies of Migrant...
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece; Wang, Yi
Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...
Raquel Rocha; Helma Pinchemel Cotrim; Almir Galv(a)o Vieira Bitencourt; Daniel Batista Valente Barbosa; Adméia Souza Santos; Alessandro de Moura Almeida; Bruno Cunha; Isabel Guimar(a)es
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents.METHODS: Transversal observational study included asymptomatic adolescents with central obesity from private and public schools in Salvador-Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The children answered a questionnaire that included age, gender, race, and medical history, and were submitted to a complete physical exam and abdominal ultrasound. Biochemical exams included: ALT, AST, GGT,C reactive protein (CRP), fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Criteria for NAFLD included: the presence of steatosis in ultrasound and/or high level of ALT, negative or occasional historic of intake of alcohol (≤ 140 g/wk), negative investigation for hepatitis A, B, C,auto-immune hepatitis, Wilson disease and hemochromatosis.RESULTS: From October, 2005 to October, 2006, the study included 1801 subjects between 11 and 18 years of age and a mean age of 13.7±2.0 years.One hundred ninety-nine had central obesity. The prevalence of NAFLD was 2.3%, most of whom were male and white. Insulin resistance (IR) was observed in 22.9% of them and had positive correlations with ALT and GGT ( P < 0.05). Elevated CRP was observed in 6.9% of the cases; however, it was not associated with WC,IR or liver enzymes.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NAFLD in Brazilian adolescents was low. The ethnicity may have influence this frequency in the population studied, which had a large proportion of African descendents.
The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group. PMID:27142435
Eduardo Fernández Guzmán; Perla Shiomara del Carpio Ovando; Eloy Mosqueda Tapia
You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this...
Tomas, Patricia Sto
Reviews policies and programmes the Philippines has adopted as an origin country to protect its migrant workers at different stages of migration - pre-deployment, at the worksite, and upon return. Looks in detail at features of regulatory frameworks for overseas employment, the varied mechanisms for disseminating clear and vital information to migrants and their families, and what institutional structures need to be present to ensure fair application of rules to migrants.
Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojša; Greiner, Nina
Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the count...
Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Seilhamer, Emily Stella
Reviews research literature on Puerto Rican youth and summarizes findings on factors influencing return migration and the cultural and physical adjustment of return migrants. Presents findings of a survey of Puerto Rican students, non-migrants and return migrants, which attempted to determine whether there was a relationship between reading…
Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.
Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.
Sahin, M.; P. Nijkamp; Baycan, T.
The phenomenon of migrant entrepreneurship refers to business activities undertaken by migrants with a specific socio-cultural and ethnic background or migrant origin. The studies on migrant entrepreneurship in both the US and Europe have recognized the significant share of immigrants in SME activities. In the context of migrant entrepreneurship several scholars have highlighted the impact of different migrant group cultures on entrepreneurship. They emphasize the importance of values like so...
Nørredam, Marie Louise; Højbjerg Hansen, Olof; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;
study. Consequently, we studied whether migrants with severe disease were more likely to emigrate compared with migrants without severe disease. METHODS: A historic prospective cohort study was conducted based on all adult refugees and family reunification immigrants (n = 114,331) who obtained residence...... calculated for emigration among migrants with different levels of disease severity, adjusting for sex, age and income. RESULTS: Results showed progressively fewer emigrations with increasing disease severity. Migrants with low (HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.80-1.06), moderate (HR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.67-1.06) and high...
Eduardo Fernández Guzmán
Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.
Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch;
average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING: The......INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL AND...
Glovinski, Peter V; Lauritsen, Morten L; Bay-Nielsen, Morten;
Body packing takes advantage of the human storage capacity within the alimentary tract. Body packing is used for the smuggling of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, hashish and ecstasy. Most body packers are asymptomatic. However, packets may rupture or obstruct the alimentary tract...
Full Text Available A one-year-old child being investigated for urinary tract infection was diagnosed with a multiseptate gallbladder. The patient remains asymptomatic, and investigations demonstrate no associated anomalies. Forty-three cases, including 13 cases in children were identified in the literature. Their presentation and management were reviewed.
Thompson, C J; Baylis, P. H.
Lithium salts are widely recognized to cause biochemical hypothyroidism and have been used to treat thyrotoxicosis. We present a case of Graves' disease which developed during lithium therapy. The patient was asymptomatic until the lithium was discontinued; she subsequently developed florid symptoms of thyrotoxicosis.
Kamel, Shereen R.; Omar, Gihan M.; Darwish, Ayman F.; Asklany, Hany T.; Abdou S. Ellabban
Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious and often fatal complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because the diagnosis of PAH often is made years after symptom onset, early diagnostic strategies are essential. Doppler echocardiography currently is considered the noninvasive screening test of choice for evaluating pulmonary hypertension. Aim: Screening for asymptomatic pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus patients using Doppler echocardiogr...
African Pentecostal churches are becoming increasingly important in Britain where they are growing at a time when mainstream Christianity is in decline. Originally functioning as social and religious support networks for African migrants, their growth has been stimulated by a conscious missionary agenda. Recently, there has been a shift towards a…
Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
surveys among adult Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark (n = 1542). General Linear Models adjusted for age, smoking, diet (seal, fish, and fruit), and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Blood pressure was significantly higher among Inuit migrants of either sex than among the Inuit in Greenland....... Among women, HDL-cholesterol concentrations were 1.59 mmol/l in Greenland and 1.83 among migrants (p<0.001), while obesity and HbA(1c) were significantly lower among the migrants. Blood lipids, HbA(1c), and obesity did not differ between men in Greenland and migrants. Smoking, diet, and alcohol...
The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium
Besides huge differences in attitudes towards the European Union (EU), it seems to be common sense in nearly all strata of EU member states" societies that the EU created a common and seemingly borderless space of mobility for its inhabitants. Sometimes this characteristic is not only the first positive thing that comes to people"s mind when asked about the Union but also the only one. This paper investigates to which extend Turkish migrants as third-country citizens residing in EU member sta...
Amos C Peters; Asha Sundaram
We study the relationship between country of origin and employment prospects for immigrants to South Africa, an emerging host country characterized by high levels of unemployment, labour market imperfections and a scarcity of skills. Using the 2001 South African census, we estimate the probability of being employed for working-age immigrant men and South African internal migrants. We find that, conditional on individual characteristics and education levels, the probability of being employed v...
Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Rich-Edwards, Janet
To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population. Resu...
Three Mexican migrant workers attending classes at Geneseo (New York) Migrant Center used leftover art materials to represent their home village in miniature. A spontaneous artistic expression, the objects allowed the men an opportunity to reminisce and reinforce cultural and interpersonal ties, and gave insight about their background and culture…
Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.
This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…
ILO pub. Working paper commenting on migration policy trends and 1974 legislation (Decree 087-74) comprising an amnesty for irregular migrants in Argentina - discusses migrant workers' legal status and impact on the labour market, and considers their geographic distribution, demographic aspects, nationality, illiteracy, labour force participation, occupational structure, etc. Bibliography and statistical tables.
Ligia Moreira Almeida
Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.
Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis
The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869
Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants and...... revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalization of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms in...... across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...
Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina;
The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is...... more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all...... mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations...
Adediran Daniel Ikuomola
Full Text Available In recent times many Nigerians have been singled out when it comes to criminal activities and xenophobic attacks in South Africa, which leads to disruption of the hitherto cordial relationship between South African host communities and Nigerian migrants. Nevertheless, the rate of Nigerians migrating to South Africa keeps soaring. Studies of migration between Nigeria and South Africa, have been scanty, often limited to the study of traditional economic disparity between the two countries with less emphasis on the social-cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in the host communities. This paper thus examined the socio-economic and cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in selected communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data for the study were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with Nigerian migrants in Hillbrow, Braamfontein and Alexandra suburbs in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Même s’il n’aborde pas explicitement le domaine océanien (sinon en évoquant incidemment, p. 173, le didjeridoo dans une liste d’instruments « emblématiques »), l’ouvrage coordonné par Laurent Aubert sur les Musiques migrantes pose la question de la mondialisation des pratiques musicales dans des termes auxquels ne saurait évidemment échapper le cinquième continent. Se fondant sur les communications reçues à un colloque de 2003 célébrant le vingtième anniversaire des Ateliers d’ethnomusicologi...
Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien;
health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health. Then...... we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can to...
Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa
This paper explores the existence of network effects in migrants' remittance behavior. In this study, networks are defined as groups of immigrants from the same country that live in the same locality. Using the National Immigrant Survey, a unique database for Spain, immigrants are found to be more likely to remit and to remit more money if they belong to high remitting country groups. This finding sheds new light on the determinants of the decision to remit, as well as on the scope of immigra...
Sarkozy, Clémentine; Salles, Gilles
Follicular lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease in which some patients present an indolent evolution for decades and others, a rather aggressive form of the disease requiring immediate therapy. While immunochemotherapy has emerged as a standard of care for symptomatic patients, treatment of the asymptomatic population remains controversial. Since the disease is still considered incurable, delayed initiation of therapy is an acceptable option. However, four single injections of rituximab can result in an acceptable clinical response and can improve the duration of the interval without cytotoxic therapy. With recent therapeutic approaches that enable substantial improvements in life expectancy for follicular lymphoma patients, limiting short- or long-term treatment toxicities appears as a new concern in the asymptomatic population. Based on these options, the challenge is to preserve patient quality of life and prolong survival: from the patient's perspective, his/her opinion is therefore of significant importance. PMID:24219551
We studied the relationship between cortical grey matter flow (CBF) and age, cerebrovascular risk factors and the severity of subcortical hypersignals (HS, hyperintensity score in MRI) in 47 asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HS was most strongly related to CBF, and that hematocrit, age and evidence of ischemic change detected in the electrocardiogram also appeared to be independent determinants of CBF. Both the severity and location of hypersignals were correlated with CBF. The most significant negative correlation observed was that between CBF and HS in the basal ganglia-thalamic region, where the degree of signal abnormality was modest. Decreased CBF in asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors may be related to microcirculatory disturbance associated with elevated hematocrit and an increase in the number of risk factors, and functional suppression of cerebral cortex due to the neuronal disconnection associated with subcortical lesions. In addition, impaired cerebral circulation may be related to MRI signal abnormalities. (author)
Stansby, G.; MacDonald, S.; Allison, R; de Belder, M; Brown, MM; Dark, J; Featherstone, R; Flather, M; Ford, GA; Halliday, A.; Malik, I; R. Naylor; Pepper, J.; Rothwell, PM
The Carotid Disease and Cardiac Surgery Consensus Meeting was convened as a multidisciplinary gathering to consider the management of patients undergoing cardiac surgery who are found to have asymptomatic carotid artery disease. There are no randomized trials concerning whether carotid interventions are of value in this situation and the natural history is unclear. Bilateral carotid artery disease (≥70% stenosis) should be regarded clinically relevant when considering hemodynamic and short-te...
M. Amin El-Gohary
We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion, of eight years old boy who presented with asymptomatic left impalpable testis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a twisted small intra-abdominal testis in which the spermatic cord twisted 3 times over a band attached to the internal ring. The cord was long enough to bring the small testis into the scrotal sac. This case highlights the pole of laparoscopy in the management of impalpable testes.
Green, Paul E.
Partly because of mobility, but mostly because of poverty, migrant children are systematically denied their right to equal educational opportunity. This review covers migrant families' immigration and illegal immigration, migration patterns, poor living conditions, impact of migrant workers on the U.S. economy, children as migrant workers, impact…
Martinez, Yolanda G.; Cranston-Gingras, Ann; Velazquez, Jose A.
Investigated the perceptions of school personnel regarding migrant students' educational experiences. Interviews with principals, teachers, and migrant advocates from high-migrant areas indicated that factors affecting migrant students' school performance included social prejudice, lack of communication between students and schools, mobility, lack…
Karidakis, Maria; Arunachalam, Dharma
In this paper, we first explore the trends in the maintenance of migrant community languages among the first generation migrants and then the socio-economic variation in the shift in use of community languages. Our analysis showed that language shift to English among first generation migrants has not been uniform, with some migrant groups adopting…
Awolude, Olutosin A; Adesina, Olubukola A; Oladokun, Adesina; Mutiu, W B; Adewole, Isaac F
The prognostic significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria resides in the observation that the prevalence is, relatively, high in persons with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and pregnancy. This prevalence might, even, be higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Hence, this study set out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among symptom free and newly enrolled HIV infected pregnant women attending PMTCT unit of Antiretroviral Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between 1st May and 30th September 2007.Information was obtained on the socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects, CD4 count and viral load. Microbial culture was carried out on aseptically collected urines from the patients. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 12 package. There were 161 analyzable samples from the participants. The mean age and gestational age at presentation of participants was 30.49 ± 4.3 years and 27.3 ± 3.2 weeks, respectively with modal parity of 2. Twenty-five (15.5%) of the urine samples significantly grew bacteria. The CD4 cells were significantly lower and the viral loads significantly higher(250.52 vs. 355.57 cells/mm3; 88,731 vs. 55,384 copies/ml; p = asymptomatic bacteriuria among PLWHAs is high. The microbial isolate from the urine samples were not different from those of HIV-negative patients. PMID:21178431
Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU
New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.
Full Text Available We compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for this study came from a survey among migrant laborers in the construction and cleaning business (N=125 and was compared to a native sample (N=654 we used in an earlier study. The present study showed that the migrant workers perceived more over-commitment and higher job stress than native workers. This finding was similar to the first study in relation to these two factors. In this study, however, the construction workers and cleaners did not have significant higher levels of mental health problems than native workers. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the patterns we found. In this new study, the construction workers and cleaners showed significantly lower commitment than the natives, but still a path from over-commitment to commitment was found and may function as a barrier from developing even more stress and mental health reactions over time.
Nicolle, Lindsay E
Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients. PMID:27104571
Lindsay E. Nicolle
Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients.
Mexicans are the largest immigrant group in the United States. There is a lack of consensus about whether migrants from Mexico are positively or negatively selected. Data from the Mexican census suggest migrants are negatively selected while data from the U.S. census suggest intermediate selection. Both data sources undercount migrants, with Mexican sources systematically undercounting more educated migrants and U.S. sources undercounting less educated migrants. Net migration techniques are u...
Analyses the actual and potential impact of the global crisis on international migrant workers through a focus on four issue areas. These are the employment and migration opportunities available to migrant workers, including changes in the demand for migrant labour and possible return to countries of origin; the volume of financial remittances sent by migrant workers to their families; situations of discrimination and xenophobia that may confront migrant workers along with their conditions of...
Eduardo Fernández Guzmán; Eloy Mosqueda Tapia; Perla Shiomara del Carpio Ovando
Se podría pensar que por definición el migrante se desempeña en los nichos laborales menos redituables y de exigua movilidad social. Sin embargo, un grupo nutrido de migrantes en diferentes países económicamente desarrollados han emprendido con éxito negocios de diversa naturaleza y volumen. Es por esto que el espíritu empresarial de los migrantes es un tema que ha merecido una creciente atención en los últimos años. Comparados con otros grupos de inmigrantes en Estados Unidos, los mexicanos ...
Hu, Peifeng; Mason , William M.; Song, Shige; Treiman, Donald J.; Wang, Wei
Study Objectives: Insomnia is influenced by psychosocial and environment factors. This study aims to examine the differential of insomnia symptoms between rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrants in China. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Ten townships throughout China. Patients or Participants: One hundred and ninety-seven Chinese adults aged 18 to 64 years, with an oversample of migrants. Measurements and Results: Professional interviewers and community doctors used a questio...
Sze, Ming; Butow, Phyllis; Bell, Melanie; Vaccaro, Lisa; Dong, Skye; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Jefford, Michael; Girgis, Afaf; King, Madeleine; McGrane, Joshua; Ng, Weng; Asghari, Ray; Parente, Phillip; Liauw, Winston; Goldstein, David
This study compared health-related quality of life and psychological morbidity in a hospital-based sample of first-generation migrants and Australian-born Anglo cancer patients and explored the relative contribution of ethnicity versus migrant-related variables. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, marital status, socioeconomic status, time since diagnosis, and type of cancer, migrants who develop cancer have worse psychological and health-related quality of ...
In post-apartheid South Africa, there has been a significant rise in women's out-migration from rural areas and across its territorial borders for economic purposes resulting in gender reconfiguration of migration streams. Alongside, there has been a simultaneous increase in the participation of women in the labor force. However, this has mostly grown in the informal sector,1 which is often associated with low earnings and insecure working conditions. One consequence has been the increasing reliance of migrant women on survivalist activities such as informal sexual exchanges that increase their risk of contracting HIV infection. Insecure working environments also expose migrant women to sexual abuses. This article is based on the author's work in South Africa's major urban centers and examines the nature of the relationship between the increased migration of black African women in South Africa, the nature of their work, and their resultant vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. PMID:17434860
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.
Hunter, Alistair Pursell
Unlike many of their North African and West African compatriots who reunified with family and settled in France in the 1970s and 80s, the decision of migrant worker hostel residents not to return definitively to places of origin at retirement is puzzling. Firstly, it calls into question the assumptions of the ‘myth of return’ literature, which explains non-return on the basis of family localisation. In the case of ‘geographically-single’ hostel residents, however, the grounds f...
Bolton, R P; Tait, S K; Dear, P R; Losowsky, M. S.
In a prospective survey of infants born in a single maternity unit, asymptomatic faecal colonisation by Clostridium difficile occurred in 31 (47%) of 66 babies who provided a faecal sample during week one of life and at age 14 and 28 days, and in 46 (30.7%) of the total of 150 babies for whom at least one faecal sample was obtained during the month of study. There was no evidence for acquisition of the organism from the mother during delivery and colonisation was unrelated to the means of del...
Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo;
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. The reduction of antibiotic overuse for ABU is consequently an important issue for antimicrobial stewardship and to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. There are two...... risk factor, and screening and treatment are not considered necessary. On the other hand, in the case of all procedures entering the urinary tract, ABU should be treated in line with the results of a urine culture obtained before the procedure. In patients affected by rUTIs, ABU can even have a...
Full Text Available A Total of 11 patients of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG; 5 males and 6 females were observed over 8 years. The ages ranged between 35-72 years. Nine patients were associated with ulcerative colitis, one with chronic renal failure, and one was labelled idiopathic. Three of the 9 patients of PG, who had ulcerative colitis presented first with skin lesions and had clinically silent, but acute, ulcerative colitis, diagnosed only after colonoscopy and rectal biopsy. This highlights the need for investigation including colonoscopy and biopsy even in asymptomatic patients of PG. Most of the cases benefitted from medical treatment (Corticosteroids + Salazopyrin.
Parker, Sarah E.; Pula, John H.
Introduction. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is known as “the great imitator” due to its wide variety of clinical presentations, including ocular disorders. There has been an increase in the rate of syphilis in the United States, especially in persons with HIV. We report a case of optic perineuritis in an asymptomatic male secondary to central nervous system (CNS) syphilis. Case Report. A 41-year-old man was found to have bilateral disc edema on a routine exam. Brain MRI was ...
Kvindelige migranter, der prostituerer sig, er en potentielt udsat gruppe, der ofte kommer i klemme mellem to politikområder - myndighedernes menneskehandelsindsats og ægteskabssammenføringslovgivningen....
Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan;
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants and...... transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...... non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from the...
Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.
Full Text Available In part due to its location on the North African coast, in conjunction with its history of being a former French protectorate, Tunisia has become an important country of emigration to the European Union. In particular, maritime arrivals have become a concern for European states, for both humanitarian and security reasons. The experiences of Tunisian irregular migrants arriving to the EU by sea, who are then detained and returned, highlights the multitude of human rights issues that arise across their journey as they interact with the various stakeholders involved—Tunisian and Libyan smugglers, EU and Tunisian authorities and NGOs, amongst others. The situation for these migrants at sea and during rescue and interception operations can most directly involve such issues as the right to life, access to food and water, access to emergency healthcare and access to information. The next stages of detention and return (either immediately or when later identified on EU territory can most directly involve human rights issues related to the identification and referral mechanisms for groups at risk, access to information and legal remedy, the right of “non-refoulement” and prohibition of torture, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment. By examining Tunisian migrant experiences along the entirety of their trajectory, one can see the specific human rights issues that arise at each stage for maritime arrivals—from departure to return. The article will examine these human rights concerns in the context of the Tunisian migrant journey, focusing on the four identified stages of the situation at sea, rescue or interception, detention and return. The article will present results from qualitative in-depth interviews conducted for the EU Fundamental Rights Agency in 2011 with 15 Tunisian migrants who had arrived by sea to Italy between 2005 and 2011 and were returned to Tunisia between 2008 and 2011, complemented by interviews with two Tunisian
Elsner, Benjamin; NARCISO, GAIA; Jacco J.J. Thijssen
Diaspora networks provide information to future migrants and influence both their decision to migrate and their success in the host country. While the existing literature explains the effect of networks on migration decisions through the size of the migrant community, we show that the quality of the network is an equally important determinant. We argue that networks that are more integrated in the society of the host country can give more accurate information about job prospects to future mig...
Tasneem Siddiqui; M. Rahed Alam Bhuyian
Few studies have done on the vulnerabilities faced by migrants during events such as civil war regime change or global financial crisis. The study examines the case of Bangladeshi migrant workers who were forced to return to Bangladesh because of the turmoil in Libya in 2011. [NTS working paper No. 9]. URL:[http://www.rsis.edu.sg/NTS/resources/research_papers/NTS_Working_Paper9.pdf].
The present work is an ethnographical approach to the daily life of Colombian migrants in Berlin. It describes how general social processes of integration, difference and exclusion take place on individual persons lives. Migration is an experience of discontinuity that requires the rebuilding of social positions and acknowledgement within local and translocal social worlds. These requirements address basically to the necessity of reconstruction and development of ways of life. Migrants ...
Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hallas, Peter
Health-care workers may experience uncertainty regarding legal matters when attending to medical needs of undocumented migrants. This paper applies a pragmatic focus when addressing the legal aspects involved in providing health-care services to undocumented migrants with examples from the Danish...... Health Act and international conventions. The delivery of medical care to vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and children is described....
WITH the deepening of economic reform, an increasingly large surplus labor force is transforming urban areas. They are flocking to areas such as Guangdong Province, which has attracted the highest number of rural migrant workers in the country. In the first six months of 1996, its registered migrant labor force from other provinces reached 5.4 million; in Zhongshan City alone, it numbers more than 400,000, among whom 240,000 are women.
Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism.......The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....
Πετρόπουλος, Νικόλας Π.; Μπαλούρδας, Διονύσιος
The present article, using data from the 1988 "return migration" sampling survey, analyses the fertility patterns of return migrant women, who had been born in Greece and compares them with those of non-migrant Greek women using linear regression analysis. Separate regression equations were also estimated for women returnees by country of immigration (Germany, USA, Canada, Australia). As it was observed the average fertility rates were differentiated with respect to country of ...
Borowitz, S M; Cox, D J; Sutphen, J L
No studies have compared toileting-specific behaviors of encopretic children with those of asymptomatic children and have controlled for environmental factors such as parental attitudes, parenting styles, and bathroom facilities. This study prospectively examined the toileting habits of 86 chronically encopretic children compared with those of 27 asymptomatic siblings and 35 asymptomatic nonsiblings. Although encopretic children experienced significantly more soiling than did controls, the total number of daily bowel movements passed in the toilet (+/-SD) was comparable in the three groups (.92 +/- .76 in encopretic children compared with 1.14 +/- .43 and 1.08 +/- .47 in siblings and nonsiblings, respectively). Encopretic children experienced pain with defecation more often than did controls. During the 14-day study period, encopretic children complained of pain on 2.75 +/- 4.03 days compared with .58 +/- 1.84 days among sibling controls and 2.31 +/- 3.21 days among nonsibling controls. The mean pain score in encopretic children was .76 +/- 1.00 compared with .05 +/- .15 and .26 +/- .38 among siblings and nonsiblings, respectively. All three groups of children sat on the toilet without parental prompting the same number of times each day. In summary, children with chronic encopresis do not seem to avoid toileting, and they exhibit toileting behaviors that are very similar to those of asymptomatic siblings as well as to those of nonsibling controls. PMID:10393070
Sarah E. Parker
Full Text Available Introduction. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is known as “the great imitator” due to its wide variety of clinical presentations, including ocular disorders. There has been an increase in the rate of syphilis in the United States, especially in persons with HIV. We report a case of optic perineuritis in an asymptomatic male secondary to central nervous system (CNS syphilis. Case Report. A 41-year-old man was found to have bilateral disc edema on a routine exam. Brain MRI was unremarkable, and lumbar puncture revealed a normal opening pressure, with an elevated cerebrospinal fluid white cell count. Orbit MRI showed optic nerve sheath expansion and enhancement, consistent with optic perineuritis. He tested positive for syphilis based on serum RPR and FTA-ABS. Conclusion. Ophthalmologic findings, including disc edema, may be the presenting features of CNS syphilis. Even in asymptomatic persons, perineuritis should be considered early, as diagnosis and treatment are imperative given the progressive nature of the disease.
This article aims to approach the construction of gender in transnational spacesby focusing on the ritual practice of African Pentecostal migrants in Europeand in Africa. One dimension of African Pentecostalism is its insistence on thepractice of exorcism called ‘deliverance’ where malevolent spirits are expelledfrom one’s body. Within the Pentecostal demonology, several categories ofspirits carry implications for how gender is constructed. This article will analyseeffects of the appearance o...
Taking evaluation of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence as the research content,this paper first defines the migrant workers’ entrepreneurial characteristics and the connotation of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence;on the basis of this,from entrepreneurial thinking competence,behaviour competence,and language competence of migrant workers,this paper establishes evaluation index system of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence.We use Analytic Hierarchy Process,establish hierarchical structure,and construct multiple comparison matrix,to get the weight of relative importance.The method of applying this index system to evaluation of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence is offered.
Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Most data available on migrants are based on African migrants in the UK, while barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Methods: Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. We compared the prevalence of no previous testing, adjusting for potential confounders by two multivariate logistic models, and described differences in perceived barriers to testing in Latin-American migrants living in Spain versus Spaniards. Participants included men who have sex with men (MSM, men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW, and women. Results: Of the 5920 individuals who got tested and answered a self-administered questionnaire, 36.5% were MSM (20.4% previously untested, 28.9% were MSW (49% previously untested and 34.6% were women (53% previously untested. Almost one quarter were Latin-American, of whom 30% had never been tested versus 45% of untested Spaniards. After adjusting for potential confounders, Spaniards were more likely to report no previous testing than Latin-Americans among women and MSW all together (Odds Ratio (OR=2.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7–2.4 and among MSM (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0. Among the 2455 who had never undergone an HIV test before, main barriers to testing were low perceived risk (54% Spaniards vs. 47% Latin-American and concerns arising from the loss of anonymity (19.5% vs. 16.9%. Fear of rejection or discrimination and fear of legal problems were a barrier for <2%. Conclusions: Latin-American migrants living in Spain were more
Álvarez-del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M
Background Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. Objective We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. Methods We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires
Jian-fang ZHOU; Joanna E Mantell; Xiao-mei RU
Objective To investigate the reproductive and sexual health situation,including knowledge,attitudes,and behaviors,among a population-based sample of internal migrant workers in China.Methods A cross-sectional survey of 4 900 rural-to-urban migrants in 6 provinces of China was conducted.Participants completed a 30-min semi-structured questionnaire about contraceptive practices,sexual behavior,and HIV-related knowledge.Results Migrants lacked knowledge of reproductive and sexual health issues.Among those who had heard any sexually transmitted infections(STIs),only 79.1%,46.2%,86.1%,14.5% and 82.2%,respectively,knew that gonorrhea,condyloma,syphilis,chancroid,and AIDS were STIs.About three-quarters of participants had not used any contraceptive method at sexual debut.Among current users of contraceptive methods,85.5% indicated that they were satisfied with the method.Before adoption of a contraceptive method,46.6% of the migrant workers were unaware of the advantages/disadvantages of the method and 75.3% had no knowledge of emergency contraception.Nearly one-quarter(23.4%)reported that they had premarital sex.Among migrants who were sexually active one month prior to the survey,only 14.0% reported that they had used condoms.Conclusion The limited sexual and reproductive health knowledge and unmet reproductive health services of migrant workers in China underscore the need for a comprehensive package of sexual and reproductive health interventions that combine cognitive and behavioral skills training and target both migrants and health care providers.
... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...
S. Chauvin; B. Garcés-Mascareñas
Over the last two decades, research on unauthorized migration has departed from the equation of migrant illegality with absolute exclusion, emphasizing that formal exclusion typically results in subordinate inclusion. Irregular migrants integrate through informal support networks, the underground ec
Full Text Available In this article we address the question of migrant women's experiences in accessing the labour market in Slovenia and examine how welfare policies, or the lack thereof, affect migrant workers' lives. By focusing the study on migrant women and their position in the labour market, we problematise these women's perpetual de-skilling and socio-economic exclusion. Drawing on migrant women’s narratives we also point to their activity in counteracting experiences of discrimination and downward social mobility.
Giannoni, Margherita; Franzini, Luisa; Masiero, Giuliano
Background Research on socio-economic determinants of migrant health inequalities has produced a large body of evidence. There is lack of evidence on the influence of structural factors on lives of fragile groups, frequently exposed to health inequalities. The role of poor socio-economic status and country level structural factors, such as migrant integration policies, in explaining migrant health inequalities is unclear. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of migrant socio-eco...
This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation of migrant youngsters in education, in which an analysis of the experiences and perspectives on education and future labour market participation of migrant youngsters themselves are the central obj...
Baycan, T.; Nijkamp, P.
The present paper investigates migrant female entrepreneurship on the basis of driving forces, motivation and performance of migrant women entrepreneurs. We review the factors that push migrant females towards entrepreneurship and that determine their entrepreneurial performance. In order to understand and test the determinant factors behind the motivation towards entrepreneurship as well as the economic and survival performance of migrant women entrepreneurs, this paper addresses in the empi...
In order to clarify the relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic cerebral lesions, total of 235 subjects (130 males and 105 females), who had neither neurologic deficits nor organic lesions on cerebral computed tomography, were studied. The subjects' ages ranged from 40 to 86 years (mean 66). They were divided into two groups: 90 controls without hypertension or diabetes mellitus (Group C), and 145 patients with essential hypertension (Group H). Brain atrophy was diagnosed using the caudate head index (CHI). Asymptomatic cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were defined as asymptomatic lacunae and white matter lesions. Caudate head index was higher in Group H than it was in Group C, and CHI in both groups was significantly correlated with the number of asymptomatic lacunae and the severity of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. These results indicate that brain atrophy may progress along with asymptomatic cerebral lesions. (author)
Livia Elisa Ortensi
Full Text Available Background: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C is an emerging topic in immigrant countries as a consequence of the increasing proportion of African women in overseas communities. Objective: While the prevalence of FGM/C is routinely measured in practicing countries, the prevalence of the phenomenon in western countries is substantially unknown, as no standardized methods exist yet for immigrant countries. The aim of this paper is to present an improved method of indirect estimation of the prevalence of FGM/C among first generation migrants based on a migrant selection hypothesis. A criterion to assess reliability of indirect estimates is also provided. Methods: The method is based on data from Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Migrants' Selection Hypothesis is used to correct national prevalence estimates and obtain an improved estimation of prevalence among overseas communities. Results: The application of the selection hypothesis modifies national estimates, usually predicting a lower occurrence of FGM/C among immigrants than in their respective practicing countries. A comparison of direct and indirect estimations confirms that the method correctly predicts the direction of the variation in the expected prevalence and satisfactorily approximates direct estimates. Conclusions: Given its wide applicability, this method would be a useful instrument to estimate FGM/C occurrence among first generation immigrants and provide corresponding support for policies in countries where information from ad hoc surveys is unavailable.
Capital School District, Dover, DE.
Written to help migrant parents with day-to-day concerns about their children and their children's schooling, this handbook provides a variety of reference information. A definition of migrant education services is followed by a directory of individuals responsible for migrant education in Delaware at state and local levels. Telephone numbers are…
Gilbert, Michael B.
The report describes the objectives and accomplishments of a summer enrichment program, Migrantes Envueltos en Nuevos Temas de Educacion/Migrants Engaged in New Themes in Education (MENTE), for promising and talented migrant high schoolers. The program is a cooperative one with a university. Students selected by a review committee are tested for…
Whitener, Leslie A.
Investigates extent of diversity and segmentation within United States migrant farm labor force by examining differences in migrants' attachment to farmwork. Finds three groups of migrants with differing levels of dependence on agriculture differentiated by demographic (age, minority status, region) and employment (earnings) variables. (NEC)
A MIGRANT EDUCATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WAS UNDERTAKEN TO MARSHAL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RESOURCES OF THE STATE TO PROVIDE MORE DAYS OF SCHOOLING IN NEW JERSEY FOR MIGRANTS. AIMS INCLUDED ESTABLISHING PUBLIC SUPPORT THROUGH STATE AND LOCAL CITIZENS' COMMITTEES, CONDUCTING SURVEYS TO CHECK POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL ENROLLMENT OF MIGRANT CHILDREN IN LOCAL…
Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha
Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia de desnutrición entre prescolares migrantes y no migrantes. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron al azar 160 infantes de 1-6 años de edad, de parvularios de muy alta marginación. Se excluyeron aquellos con malformaciones congénitas o bajo alguna intervención nutricional. La migración se definió como el desplazamiento geográfico Objective. To compare malnutrition rates between migrant and non-migrant children. Material and methods. One-hundred and sixty children 1-6 years old were selected at random from schools located in highly marginated areas. Excluded were infants with congenital malformations or under nutritional intervention. Migration was defined as any geographical movement during the last 6 years. Malnutrition was assessed through the weight/height and height/age indicators, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Results. Fifty-nine percent of the infants belonged to families whose father had a non-qualified occupation, 27.5% of them did not finish elementary school. Fifty-three referred migration; malnutrition rate was 51.3% among migrant infants and 28.8%, among non-migrant infants (OR= 2.6, CI95%= 1.2, 5.2, p= 0.006. Migrant children registered a mean Z score of -2.4±.40 and non-migrant children, -2.3±.33, based on the indicator height for age. Conclusions. Chronic malnutrition among migrant infants justifies a nutritional intervention, they constitute a specific group at risk. Migration should be considered for health planning.
Full Text Available One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the average skill level of domestic employed labor differs from the average skill level of migrant labor, but the two kinds of labor grow at the same constant rate. We prove that the immigration process could have both positive and negative effects on consumption, human capital and physical capital, depending on the skill level of the migrant labor. The numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.
Reyes, David; Locke, James
Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain
Lambert, M I
Migrant and seasonal farm worker women are part of a population whose health care needs are underserved. This article provides some definition of this population and reviews some of the health needs specific to them. The significant need for outreach to and assessment of this population is addressed. The significance of the nurse's role is addressed. The need for health care services being delivered in a culturally sensitive manner is discussed. Resources to assist health care providers in providing more effective interventions and referrals for care of migrant and seasonal farm worker women are identified. PMID:7782960
Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn
Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations. PMID:27187423
The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.
In public debates support for migrants' rights has generally taken two approaches: the migrant as “Good Worker” or the migrant as “Poor Slave”. This paper will constructively critique these approaches by considering the case of a U.K. campaign demanding a specific visa for migrant domestic workers and how they drew on the Good Worker/Poor Slave. It describes the campaign's initial focus on domestic workers as workers and how this required demanding special rights as migrant workers on the bas...
In a period of 6 years 144 asymptomatic boys with cryptorchidism, of mean age 7 ± SD 3.5 years, underwent orchiopexy. None of these boys referred to a history of a known urological anomaly, urinary tract infection haematuria, palpable mass in the renal region, bladder extrophy, epispadias, hypospadias or anorectal malformation. On the third day after orchiopexy an intravenous pyelography was done in every boy following testicular protection against irradiation. Ultrasonic investigation was not available at that time. There were minor urological abnormalities in 36 (25%) boys and major ones in 8 (5.5%) boys. A major anomaly is defined as one resulting in significant loss of renal substance (one case of single kidney and three cases of unilateral renal hypoplasia), or requiring surgical correction for conservation of the renal substance (one case of ureterocele, two cases of pelviureteric stenosis and one case of vesicoureteric stenosis with ipsilateral hydronephrosis). The unsuspected major urological abnormalities are usually ipsilateral to the more undescended testis. They may be associated with a hernia and are more frequent in bilateral cryptorchidism. In conclusion we encourage the routine use of IVP, or ultrasonic investigation or dynamic renal scanning (99mTc-DTPA), if it is possible, in all patients undergoing orchiopexy for the detection of an unsuspected major renal anomaly. (orig.)
To find the real incidence and risk factors in asymptomatic cerebral infarction, a retrospective review was made on magnetic resonance (MR) images, which were obtained from 713 outpatients seen at the Geriatrics Research Institute Hospital between March and November of 1990. The criteria for asymptomatic cerebral infarction are: high signal intensity areas larger than 3 mm in diameter on T2-weighted image; no history of stroke; no neurological and psychological signs or symptoms with or without subjective symptoms. Symptomatic cerebral stroke was defined as stroke episodes associated with neurological signs and infarction lesions on CT or MR imaging. Of a total of 713 patients, 215 (30.2%) had symtomatic cerebral infarction and 384 (53.9%) had no cerebral lesions. The incidence of asymptomatic cerebral infarction increased with aging. Cerebral risk factors, i.e. hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes mellitus, were more significantly common in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups than the normal control group. In the group of asymptomatic patients, T2-weighted images showed hyperintensity in the corona radiata in 60.9%, in the frontal lobe in 32.1%, in the semioval center in 28.8%, and in the basal ganglia in 23.7%. Periventricular hyperintensity was present in 124 of all 713 patients (17.4%). Common complaints in asymptomatic patients were headache (40.0%), dizziness (14.4%), and neck muscle contraction (9.8%). In conclusion, MR imaging may contribute to manage asymptomatic patients. (N.K.)
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson
Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288
We present research finding son problem drinking among transnational Mexican migrants employed in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our research explored the relationship between situational factors—living arrangements, social isolation, and peer pressure to drink—and problem drinking. Individual characteristics of the migrants, such as age, education level, migration history, and work experience in the mushroom industry are also considered. The premise of our study is that ...
Raphael Nawrotzki; Hunter, Lori M.; Dickinson, Thomas W.
BACKGROUND Although natural resources play a central role in rural livelihoods across the globe, little research has explored the relationship between migration and natural capital use, particularly in combination with other livelihood capitals (i.e., human, social, financial and physical). OBJECTIVE Grounded in the rural livelihood framework, this paper explores the association between the livelihood capital availability, especially natural capital, for migrants and non-migrants in rural Mad...
Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie
This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer's education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking. PMID:24966446
Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul
This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries. PMID:25107993
Darvin, Ron; Norton, Bonny
A necessary component of the neoliberal mechanisms of globalization, migration addresses the economic and labor needs of postindustrial countries while producing new modes of social fragmentation and inequality (Crompton, 2008). As migrant students insert themselves into segmented spaces, their countries of origin are themselves implicated in a…
Núñez, Anne-Marie; Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely
Migrant students face many educational, economic, social, and cultural challenges to college access. Anti-bilingual, anti-affirmative action, and anti-immigrant policies also constrain their postsecondary pathways. With these issues in mind, this article draws on quantitative and qualitative research to examine the influence of a residential…
Zarb Adami, Kris; Duca, Edward
Malta should set up a coastal over-the-horizon radar (developed at ISSA-Institute of Space Science and Astronomy) with the capability of detecting small fast-moving vessels within a 1000km radius. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/gateway-for-migrant-rescue-in-the-mediterranean/
Despite 1983 Elementary and Secondary Education ACT (ESEA) Title I federal funding of over $255 million for more than 3,000 projects for some 600,000 migrant children and youth, there is still need for alternate funding sources to overcome spiraling inflation and increasing program costs and numbers of eligible children. Other federal, state,…
Based on a literature survey and on an analysis of current Chinese law on trafficking. Examines the development of Chinese businesses in Europe and shows how harsh immigration policies have led to an increase in human trafficking. Investigates forced labour among Chinese migrants and examines Chinese legislation to combat trafficking.
This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…
Velazquez, Loida C.
Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are the most educationally disadvantaged group in society, with over 70% high school dropouts and 15% functionally illiterate. Mobility, language barriers, and cultural differences combined with health and nutrition problems have a negative effect on school achievement. The constant interruption of the educational…
Bhugra, D; Gupta, S; Schouler-Ocak, M;
Migration is an increasingly commonplace phenomenon for a number of reasons. People migrate from rural to urban areas or across borders for reasons including economic, educational or political. There is increasing recent research evidence from many countries in Europe that indicates that migrants...
New York State Interdepartmental Committee on Farm and Food Processing Labor, Albany.
SEVEN NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENTS WORK TOGETHER TO SEE THAT THE MIGRANT IS TREATED FAIRLY AND HUMANELY IN THE AREAS OF HEALTH, HOUSING, CHILD CARE, EDUCATION, LABOR CONDITIONS, SAFETY, AND EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONS. AN INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE GUIDES THE EFFORTS OF THE DEPARTMENTS. THE AGENCIES WORK WITH A BODY OF STATE LAW WHICH IS UPDATED…
Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan Klausholt; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch;
on average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING...
Iman, Mohammad T.
The acculturation process of Iranian immigrants to Australian society was examined. The subjects were 250 Iranian migrants who were living in Sydney during the study. Each completed a questionnaire with fourfold acculturation scales: assimilation, separation, integration and marginalization. Education appeared to be positively correlated with integration, assimilation and marginalization, suggesting that educated individuals may not only develop high integration and assimilation tendencies...
Cold is thought to provoke angina in patients with coronary disease either by an increase in myocardial demand or an increase in coronary vascular resistance. We investigated and compared the effects of cold pressor stimulation and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise on regional myocardial perfusion in 35 patients with stable angina and coronary disease and in 10 normal subjects. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed with positron emission tomography and rubidium-82. Following cold pressor stimulation 24 of 35 patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of regional myocardial perfusion with reduced cation uptake in affected regions of myocardium: 52 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 9 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Among these 24 patients only nine developed ST depression and only seven had angina. In contrast, 29 of 35 patients underwent supine exercise, and abnormal regional myocardial perfusion occurred in all 29, with a reduction in cation intake from 48 +/- 10 to 43 +/- 14 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Angina was present in 27 of 29 and ST depression in 25 of 29. Although the absolute decrease in cation uptake was somewhat greater following cold as opposed to exercise, the peak heart rate after cold was significantly lower than that after exercise (82 +/- 12 vs 108 +/- 16 bpm, p less than 0.05). Peak systolic blood pressures after cold and exercise were similar (159 +/- 24 vs 158 +/- 28). Thus, cold produces much more frequent asymptomatic disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in patients with stable angina and coronary disease than is suggested by pain or ECG changes
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Almost all patients presenting with chronic hyperamylasemia undergo an expensive, long, difficult and often repeated diagnostic workup even if this occurrence is not associated with symptoms or with known pancreatotoxic factors. This is in relationship with the poor knowledge that, beside hyperenzymemia secondary to pancreatic diseases and systemic illnesses, various non-pathological forms of chronic hyperamylasemia can occur in clinical practice. AIM OF THE STUDY This study was addressed to assess the clinical characteristics of patients presenting with chronic hyperamylasemia unrelated to pancreatic diseases (CHUPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data of all patients with CHUPD were retrospectively reviewed (June 1997-March 2007. Forty patients were included in the study; median follow- up was 33 months (range 3-84 months. CHUPD was secondary to: a chronic benign pancreatic hyperamylasemia, 16 patients (40%; b macroamylasemia, 15 patients (37.5%; c salivary hyperamylasemia, 9 patients (22.5%. Gilbert’s syndrome was present in 13 patients (32.5%; 8 with macroamylasemia and hyperdyslipidemia in 8 patients (20%; 5 with chronic benign pancreatic hyperamylasemia. Diagnostic exams (all in the normal range performed before our observation were: Ca19-9 serum level in 37/40 (92.5%, ultrasonography and computed tomography-scan in all patients, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 21/40 (52.5%, abdominal magnetic resonance in 14/40 (35%. Previous diagnosis in these asymptomatic subjects were: chronic pancreatitis in 26 cases (65%; recurrent pancreatitis in 10 cases (25%; the remaining 4 patients (10% were addressed without a specific diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS In clinical practice, the occurrence of an unexplained chronic hyperamylasemia very often allows to an unappropriate diagnostic workup due to the poor familiarity with CHUPD conditions.
Maria Beatriz Sobral-Oliveira
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Alcoholism may interfere with nutritional status, but reports are often troubled by uncertainties about ingested diet and organ function, as well as by ongoing abuse and associated conditions. OBJECTIVE: To identify nutritional and body compartment changes in stable alcoholics without confounding clinical and dietetic variables, a prospective observational pilot study was designed. Three well-matched populations were considered: subjects with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, alcoholics without visceral disease, and healthy never-drinking adults (controls. METHODS: Subjects (n = 60 were asymptomatic males with adequate diet, no superimposed disease or complication, and alcohol-free for at least 6 months. After exclusions, 48 patients were compared. Variables encompassed dietary recall, bioimpedance analysis, biochemical profile and inflammatory markers. Main outcome measures were body fat, lean body mass, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and selected minerals and vitamins. RESULTS: Both alcoholic populations suffered from reduced lean body mass (P = 0.001, with well-maintained body fat.Magnesium was depleted, and values of vitamin D and B12 correlated with alcohol abuse. LDL and total cholesterol was increased in alcoholics without pancreatitis (P = 0.04, but not in those with visceral damage. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A correlated with duration of excessive drinking (P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition (diminished lean body mass, risk of magnesium and vitamin deficiencies contrasted with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. This second danger was masked during chronic pancreatitis but not in alcoholics without visceral disease. Further studies should focus special requirements of this population.
International migration has increased greatly in the 1990s. In the mid-1990s there were about 125 million migrants (about 2% of the world's population) not living in their country of birth or citizenship. There are 2-4 million new migrants each year. The global migrant population is concentrated in only a few countries. In many Middle Eastern countries, foreign workers make up most of the labor force (60-90%). Africa and western Asia have more than 50% of all 27 million refugees and displaced persons. Germany, France, the UK, the US, Italy, Japan, and Canada have about 33% of the migrant population. Newly arriving immigrants make up a large percentage of annual population growth in industrialized countries with low birth rates (100% in Germany and about 33% in the US). Major migration flows are from Mexico, Central America, and Asia to the US; from North Africa and eastern Europe to western Europe; and from the Philippines and India to the Middle East. Two US legalization programs contributed to a resurgence in immigration in the early 1990s. Many of the world's top economic powers are very concerned about immigration. Economic growth can cut down on economic migration. Many specialists think that freer trade, more foreign investment, and, in some cases, aid can spark economic growth. Many residents of countries receiving migrants want immigration curtailed. Many industrial democracies handle difficult migration issues by making trade-offs, particularly combine stricter immigration controls with more assistance to integrate new immigrants and liberalize trade so countries can export goods instead of people. PMID:12291192
Babital; Sanjeev,; Shankar
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is infection in pregnancy which requires medical treatment. If left untreated, may lead to prematurity, intrauteri ne death and pyelonephrit i s. The diagnosis is done by culture and its antibiotic sensitivity helped the women in treatment.
Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos;
The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....
Jones, Richard C.; Murray, William Breen
Compares U.S. job and spatial mobility for recent returnee migrants from two Mexican areas: Rio Grande; Zacatecas, in the interior; and Nueva Rosita-Muzquiz, Coahuila, near the U.S. border. Interior migrants fit a hierarchical migrant model while border migrants fit a shuttle migrant model. (Author/LHW)
Ghafarnezhad M; Shams
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data...
Ghafarnezhad M; Shams
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data...
Aderemi O. Kehinde; Adedapo, Kayode S.; Aimaikhu, Christopher O.; Odukogbe, Akin-tunde A.; Olayemi, Oladapo; Salako, Babatunde
Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy with devastating maternal and neonatal effects such as prematurity and low birth weight, higher fetal mortality rates and significant maternal morbidity. We carried out a two year (April 2007 to March 2009) cross-sectional epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria among asymptomatic antenatal clinic attendees at two antenatal clinics (ANCs) in University College Hospita...
Chafetz, N; Baumrind, S; Murray, W R; Genant, H K
A radiographic stereophotogrammetric technique (SPG) was used to evaluate quantitatively the presence of early femoral prosthesis subsidence after total hip arthroplasty (THA). This paper focuses on the measurement of subsidence in 12 patients who remained asymptomatic during the first two years after surgery. Only one of these had SPG estimated subsidence in excess of one millimeter at any timepoint. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that early postoperative subsidence is not a common finding among asymptomatic THA patients. PMID:6469528
Meyer, Christopher T.; McBride, William; Goldblatt, Robert S.; Borak, Jonathan; Marignani, Pierluigi; Black, Henry R.; McCallum, Richard W.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of flexible sigmoidoscopy when performed as a routine procedure in asymptomatic patients over the age of 40 being referred for a complete physical examination. The preliminary results of this ongoing program are presented together with the diagnostic yield in 408 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of colorectal disease who were of similar age (56.6 vs. 56.5 years) and sex distribution (79 percent male) to the asymptomatic...
Loja, Melissa N; Pevec, William C
True aneurysms of the external carotid artery (ECA) are extremely rare with an unknown incidence and natural history. We present the successful operative management of an asymptomatic 65-year-old man found to have bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis and bilateral ECA aneurysms. His bilateral carotid arteries were reconstructed with bifurcated interposition grafts in a staged fashion. The patient recovered without sequelae and continues to be asymptomatic 1 year after reconstruction. We present the operative management of this rare case. PMID:26802292
Chauhan, V S; Suprakash Chaudhury; Sudarsanan, S.; Kalpana Srivastava
Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consec...
Nunn, M.E.; Fish, M.D.; Garcia, R.I.; Kaye, E.K.; R. Figueroa; Gohel, A.; Ito, M; Lee, H J.; Williams, D E; Miyamoto, T
Prophylactic extraction of unerupted asymptomatic third molars is the most common oral surgery procedure in the United States. However, limited evidence exists to justify its costs and associated morbidity. We analyzed data collected over 25 years from 416 adult men enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study to evaluate the association of retained asymptomatic third molars with risk of adjacent second molar pathology (caries and/or periodontitis), based on third molar status (...
Phillips, Gemma; Lopman, Ben; Rodrigues, Laura C; Tam, Clarence C
Rotavirus is a major cause of infectious intestinal disease in young children; a substantial prevalence of asymptomatic infection has been reported across all age groups. In this study, the authors determined characteristics of asymptomatic rotavirus infection and potential risk factors for infection. Healthy persons were recruited at random from the general population of England during the Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in England (1993-1996). Rotavirus infection was identified using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare exposures reported by participants with rotavirus infection with those of participants who tested negative. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing responses in the data set. The age-adjusted prevalence of asymptomatic rotavirus infection was 11%; prevalence was highest in children under age 18 years. Attendance at day care was a risk factor for asymptomatic rotavirus infection in children under age 5 years; living in a household with a baby that was still in diapers was a risk factor in older adults. The results suggest that asymptomatic rotavirus infection is transmitted through the same route as rotavirus infectious intestinal disease: person-to-person contact. More work is needed to understand the role of asymptomatic infections in transmission leading to rotavirus disease. PMID:20392863
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
We present research finding son problem drinking among transnational Mexican migrants employed in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our research explored the relationship between situational factors-living arrangements, social isolation, and peer pressure to drink-and problem drinking. Individual characteristics of the migrants, such as age, education level, migration history, and work experience in the mushroom industry are also considered. The premise of our study is that the migrants' judicial status in the country-as foreign solo men and, at times, undocumented or illegal migrants-places them at a high risk to binge drink. The men mainly live without their families in relatively isolated, grower-provided housing or overcrowded apartment units for months, if not years, away from traditional community and kin deterrents to heavy drinking. We employed the ethnographic method in two complementary field studies: a community ethnography, designed to identify the community context of problem drinking, and a series of case studies of migrant drinkers, designed to identify the relationships between situational factors and problem drinking. Focus groups were used to explore and verify the findings being generated in the two studies. Our findings reveal that there is an alcohol abuse problem among the migrants as a consequence of situational and other factors, such as festive occasions, bad news from home, and a long workweek. Their binge drinking does not always result in negative behavior because the migrants follow drinking norms, and violators of these norms are dealt with accordingly. Nonetheless, binge drinking does place them at a high risk for negative behavior, which results in problems in their housing units and in local communities. PMID:21990944
Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils
In this paper, we analyse the gender differences between the educational performance of 15-year-old children of migrants from specific regions of origin countries living in different destination countries with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 wave. We study whether this gender difference of migrant pupils deviates…
Referencing statistical yearbooks and census data,we first estimate the total number of rural migrant workers in China at about 238 million in 2008,including 71.4 million working across provinces.We also estimate how many migrant workers will be affected by the financial crisis and may lose their jobs.The coastal areas are the hardest hit.We predict that China in the first half of 2009 will face the most serious employment situation since the dawn of the new century, and that structural unemployment of rural migrant workers is the main problem.We estimate that around 34.18 million rural migrant workers would be facing the risk of structural unemployment.In order to cope with the shocks to rural migrant workers’ employment,the government should put a policy emphasis on adjusting rural migrant workers to new jobs.
Newman, K L; Moe, C L; Kirby, A E; Flanders, W D; Parkos, C A; Leon, J S
Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis world-wide. NoV infections are often asymptomatic, although individuals still shed large amounts of NoV in their stool. Understanding the differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals would help in elucidating mechanisms of NoV pathogenesis. Our goal was to compare the serum cytokine responses and faecal viral RNA titres of asymptomatic and symptomatic NoV-infected individuals. We tested serum samples from infected subjects (n = 26; 19 symptomatic, seven asymptomatic) from two human challenge studies of GI.1 NoV for 16 cytokines. Samples from prechallenge and days 1-4 post-challenge were tested for these cytokines. Cytokine levels were compared to stool NoV RNA titres quantified previously by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). While both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups had similar patterns of cytokine responses, the symptomatic group generally exhibited a greater elevation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines and IL-8 post-challenge compared to the asymptomatic group (all P viral RNA titre was associated positively with daily IL-6 concentration and negatively with daily IL-12p40 concentration (all P viral RNA titre, duration of viral shedding or cumulative shedding. Symptomatic individuals, compared to asymptomatic, have greater immune system activation, as measured by serum cytokines, but they do not have greater viral burden, as measured by titre and shedding, suggesting that symptoms may be immune-mediated in NoV infection. PMID:26822517
Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Seilhamer, Emily Stella
Almost 300 non-migrant, migrant, return migrant, and circulatory migrant high school students participated in a study of the relationship of the level of adjustment to mainstream Puerto Rican society and the frequency of migration. No direct relationship between reading achievement and physical adjustment was found. However, as the level of…
Full Text Available This essay is about the issue of migrant offender minors. These children are caught in the double problematic of being immigrants and being law offenders. This is a problem because of the social treatment they suffer those who have been through these kinds of situations (such as the whole migration process and the mentoring in the juvenile centers. We want to shed light on these situations explaining them briefly to know: the reality that these children face (the treatment they receive from the Minor Responsibility Law, the Law on Foreigners and the social services of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, the day-to-day problems they face and their possible consequences. The aim of this essay is to reflect on the criminality of these migrant minors and to try to prevent it