Wang, Fang
2016-06-01
In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.
Ramachandran, S.; Rajesh, T. A.
2008-08-01
Aerosol scattering coefficients (total βsca and backscatter βbacksca) are measured on board an aircraft using an integrating nephelometer at 450, 550, and 700 nm in the 0 to 3000-m region over four locations in India in an air campaign held during March-May 2006. βsca is a factor of two higher in the east (Bhubaneshwar, Chennai) than in the west (Trivandrum, Goa). βsca is about 5-10 × 10-5 m-1 over Bhubaneshwar and Chennai. βbacksca is about an order of magnitude lower than βsca. Seven-day air back trajectory analysis indicate that air masses originating from arid/semiraid regions, continents, and marine regions are found to influence the aerosol characteristics, in addition to local urban sources. No elevated aerosol layers are seen during the campaign. b, the aerosol backscatter fraction, is greater than 0.13 in the lower troposphere. The columnar mean Ångström exponent (α) is >1.75. Asymmetry parameter g profiles are derived for the first time over India in the lower troposphere, using the relation between b and g. 550-nm g corresponding to 30% RH is in the 0.3-0.6 range over India. Higher b, higher α, and lower g values over these locations suggest the dominance of submicron aerosols during the campaign. Scattering aerosols corrected to 30% RH in the 0 to 3000-m altitude region contribute about 20-35% to MODIS aerosol optical depths (AODs). The variation in the contribution of scattering aerosols to AODs highlights the spatial and vertical differences in aerosol properties.
W.Fenz; Mryglod, I. M.; Prytula, O.; Folk, R.
2009-01-01
Correlation functions and transport coefficients of self-diffusion and shear viscosity of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture with components differing only in their particle mass are studied up to high values of the mass ratio $\\mu$, including the limiting case $\\mu=\\infty$, for different mole fractions $x$. Within a large range of $x$ and $\\mu$ the product of the diffusion coefficient of the heavy species $D_{2}$ and the total shear viscosity of the mixture $\\eta_{m}$ is found to remain constant...
Fenz, W; Mryglod, I M; Prytula, O; Folk, R
2009-08-01
Correlation functions and transport coefficients of self-diffusion and shear viscosity of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture with components differing only in their particle mass are studied up to high values of the mass ratio mu, including the limiting case mu = infinity, for different mole fractions x. Within a large range of x and mu the product of the diffusion coefficient of the heavy species D(2) and the total shear viscosity of the mixture eta(m) is found to remain constant, obeying a generalized Stokes-Einstein relation. At high liquid density, large mass ratios lead to a pronounced cage effect that is observable in the mean square displacement, the velocity autocorrelation function, and the van Hove correlation function. PMID:19792112
Fenz, W.; Mryglod, I. M.; Prytula, O.; Folk, R.
2009-08-01
Correlation functions and transport coefficients of self-diffusion and shear viscosity of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture with components differing only in their particle mass are studied up to high values of the mass ratio μ , including the limiting case μ=∞ , for different mole fractions x . Within a large range of x and μ the product of the diffusion coefficient of the heavy species D2 and the total shear viscosity of the mixture ηm is found to remain constant, obeying a generalized Stokes-Einstein relation. At high liquid density, large mass ratios lead to a pronounced cage effect that is observable in the mean square displacement, the velocity autocorrelation function, and the van Hove correlation function.
Antonella Del Rosso
2012-01-01
In a recently published paper, the LHCb Collaboration has reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such unexpected result could have on the established theory. The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb Collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) is different from that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry&rdquo...
Perspectives on Periocular Asymmetry
Tower, Robert N.; Soparkar, Charles N.S.; Patrinely, James R.
2007-01-01
Eyelid, orbit, and eye position asymmetry may adversely affect overall facial aesthetics. Armed with the knowledge of important periocular measures and landmarks, asymmetries can be easily identified and consideration may be given to correction or camouflage.
The paper presents results of preliminarymeasurements of the left–right asymmetry in integral spectra of γ-quanta emitted in the interaction of polarized thermal neutrons with nuclei. These results indicate that for all cases of measured statistically significant P-odd asymmetry, the left–right asymmetry coefficient is much smaller than the P-odd asymmetry coefficient. This observation is not consistent with the predictions of theoretical calculations
A New Measure Of Bivariate Asymmetry And Its Evaluation
In this paper we propose a new measure of bivariate asymmetry, based on conditional correlation coefficients. A decomposition of the Pearson correlation coefficient in terms of its conditional versions is studied and an example of application of the proposed measure is given.
Dai, Liang; Jeong, Donghui; Kamionkowski, Marc; Chluba, Jens
2013-06-01
Physical models for the hemispherical power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) reported by the Planck Collaboration must satisfy CMB constraints to the homogeneity of the Universe and quasar constraints to power asymmetries. We survey a variety of models for the power asymmetry and show that consistent models include a modulated scale-dependent isocurvature contribution to the matter power spectrum or a modulation of the reionization optical depth, gravitational-wave amplitude, or scalar spectral index. We propose further tests to distinguish between the different scenarios.
Assessment of Information Asymmetry
Christozov, D.; Mateev, P.
2005-01-01
2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P20, 91B42 In the process of trading, the seller and buyer participate with different initial knowledge about the technical capabilities and about the expected use of the good. This two-side asymmetry affects the success of the negotiation in e -trading. This paper discusses one practical approach to assess information asymmetry and the role of warranty in seller-buyer communication relationship. The presented approach is illustrated with a survey...
Neighboring Galaxies' Influence on Rotation Curve Asymmetry
Hodge, John C.; Castelaz, Michael W.
2003-01-01
The rotation velocity asymmetry v observed in spiral galaxy HI rotation curves linearly correlates with the effective potential force from the 10 closest neighboring galaxies normalized for the test particle mass and the gravitational constant. The magnitude of the potential force from a close galaxy is proportional to the luminosity of the close galaxy and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the close galaxy to the target galaxy. The correlation coefficient is 0.99 and ...
Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks
Cruz, Cláudia P. T.; de Almeida, Adriana M.; Corso, Gilberto
2011-03-01
In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D1, and the plant network, D2. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D2 and D1 we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, ΔL, clustering coefficient difference, ΔC, and mean connectivity difference, Δ. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in ΔL, ΔC and Δ. Our results indicate that ΔL and Δ show a significative asymmetry.
Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks
In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D1, and the plant network, D2. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D2 and D1 we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, ΔL, clustering coefficient difference, ΔC, and mean connectivity difference, Δ. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in ΔL, ΔC and Δ. Our results indicate that ΔL and Δ show a significative asymmetry.
Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks
Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)
2011-03-01
In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}
Korolov, Ihor; Donko, Zoltan; Schulze, Julian
2013-01-01
In geometrically symmetric capacitive radio-frequency plasmas driven by two consecutive harmonics a dc self-bias can be generated as a function of the phase shift between the driving frequencies via the Electrical Asymmetry Effect (EAE). Recently the Secondary Electron Asymmetry Effect (SEAE) was discovered (T. Lafleur, P. Chabert and J.P. Booth, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 135201 (2013)): unequal secondary electron emission coefficients at both electrodes were found to induce an asymmetry in single frequency capacitive plasmas. Here, we investigate the simultaneous presence of both effects, i.e. a dual-frequency plasma driven by two consecutive harmonics with different electrode materials. We find, that the superposition of the EAE and the SEAE is non-linear, i.e. the asymmetries generated by each individual effect do not simply add up. The control ranges of the dc self-bias and the mean ion energy can be enlarged, if both effects are combined.
Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty
Abbe R. Kopra
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes. The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.
Adamo, Diane E.; Martin, Bernard J.
2008-01-01
Asymmetries in upper limb position sense have been explained in the context of a left limb advantage derived from differences in hemispheric specialization in the processing of kinesthetic information. However, it is not clearly understood how the comparison of perceptual information associated with passive limb displacement and the corresponding matching movement resulting from the execution of a motor command contributes to these differences. In the present study, upper limb position sense ...
Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen
2014-01-01
Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, can...
Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
2016-05-01
We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.
The Small Observed Baryon Asymmetry from a Large Lepton Asymmetry
March-Russell, John David; Riotto, Antonio
1999-01-01
Primordial Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) tightly constrains the existence of any additional relativistic degrees of freedom at that epoch. However a large asymmetry in electron neutrino number shifts the chemical equilibrium between the neutron and proton at neutron freeze-out and allows such additional particle species. Moreover, the BBN itself may also prefer such an asymmetry to reconcile predicted element abundances and observations. However, such a large asymmetry appears to be in conflict with the observed small baryon asymmetry if they are in sphaleron mediated equilibrium. In this paper we point out the surprising fact that in the Standard Model, if the asymmetries in the electron number and the muon number are equal (and opposite) and of the size required to reconcile BBN theory with observations, a baryon asymmetry of the Universe of the correct magnitude and sign is automatically generated within a factor of two. This small remaining discrepancy is naturally remedied in the supersymmetric Standard...
Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression
Pickin, Andrew
2011-01-01
This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.
Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists
Melsen, Birte
2007-01-01
Asymmetry is considered a challenge and often the reason for which the optimal result cannot be obtained. The explanations are many. Only rarely, the cause of the asymmetry is localized and camouflage is frequently resulting in the development a different type of asymmetry occurring in all three...... planes of space. A systematic approach to the identification of the cause of the asymmetry head precede the decision whether to correct or to camouflage. The definition of a specific treatment goal should be done only following an analysis of the likelihood that the force system necessary to perform the...
NONE
2002-07-01
The Conference is devoted to a multidisciplinary study of matter-antimatter asymmetry and, in particular, from the point of view of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A number of topics, such as the practical applications of antimatter in medical imaging, of particular interest to non-specialists, will also be briefly covered. More than thirty years after the discovery of CP violation in the kaon system, precision experiments with kaons at CERN and Fermilab have demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation, opening a window on a hitherto poorly explored part of particle physics. On the one hand, two experiments devoted mainly to CP violation in B mesons, BABAR and Belle, are beginning to test CP violation in the Standard Model in a decisive way. On the other hand, balloon experiments and the space-based AMS project are circumscribing precise limits on the cosmological abundance of antimatter. Finally, the fundamental problem of cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry at a Grand Unification scale or at the Electroweak phase transition has been the object of intense theoretical activity in recent years. This document gathers most of the slides that have been presented in the plenary and parallel sessions.
Facial asymmetry in ocular torticollis.
Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Khorrami Nejad, Masoud; Askarizadeh, Farshad; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh; Ranjbar Pazooki, Mahsa; Moeinitabar, Mohamad Reza
2015-01-01
Torticollis can arise from nonocular (usually musculoskeletal) and ocular conditions. Some facial asymmetries are correlated with a history of early onset ocular torticollis supported by the presence of torticollis on reviewing childhood photographs. When present in an adult, this type of facial asymmetry with an origin of ocular torticollis should help to confirm the chronicity of the defect and prevent unnecessary neurologic evaluation in patients with an uncertain history. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physical examination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging and facial morphometry are helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the facial asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. The facial asymmetry in congenital superior oblique palsy is typically manifested by midfacial hemihypoplasia on the side opposite the palsied muscle, with deviation of the nose and mouth toward the hypoplastic side. Correcting torticollis through strabismus surgery before a critical developmental age may prevent the development of irreversible facial asymmetry. Mild facial asymmetry associated with congenital torticollis has been reported to resolve with continued growth after early surgery, but if asymmetry is severe or is not treated in the appropriate time, it might remain even with continued growth after surgery. PMID:27239567
Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry
Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.
2015-10-06
We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.
Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.
Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L
2014-08-01
Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694
Baryon asymmetry in inflationary universe
The problem of the baryon asymmetry in inflationary universe is discussed. It is shown that the baryon asymmetry in inflationary universe under certain constrainsts on masses of superheavy bosons can be larger than that in the standard scenario. An important property of the model considered is that the final baryon asymmetry does not depend on initial conditions in the early universe in contrast to what occUrs in the standard scenario based on (B-L) conserving grand unified theories. The new scenario is realized in the framework of the SU(5) Coleman-Weinberg theory with the symmetry breaking
[Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].
Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L
2001-01-01
The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level. PMID:11811128
Hemispheric asymmetries: The comparative view
Sebastian eOcklenburg
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries play an important role in almost all cognitive functions. For more than a century, they were considered to be uniquely human but now an increasing number of findings in all vertebrate classes make it likely that we inherited our asymmetries from common ancestors. Thus, studying animal models could provide unique insights into the mechanisms of lateralization. We outline three such avenues of research by providing an overview of experiments on left-right differences in the connectivity of sensory systems, the embryonic determinants of brain asymmetries, and the genetics of lateralization. All these lines of studies could provide a wealth of insights into our own asymmetries that should and will be exploited by future analyses.
Fluctuating asymmetry and psychometric intelligence.
Furlow, F B; Armijo-Prewitt, T; Gangestad, S W; Thornhill, R.
1997-01-01
Little is known about the genetic nature of human psychometric intelligence (IQ), but it is widely assumed that IQ's heritability is at loci for intelligence per se. We present evidence consistent with a hypothesis that interindividual IQ differences are partly due to heritable vulnerabilities to environmental sources of developmental stress, an indirect genetic mechanism for the heritability of IQ. Using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the body (the asymmetry resulting from errors in the devel...
Information asymmetries and securitization design
Franke, Günter; Herrmann, Markus; Weber, Thomas
2007-01-01
The strong growth in collateralized debt obligation transactions raises the question how these transactions are designed. The originator designs the transaction so as to maximize her benefit subject to requirements imposed by investors and rating agencies. An important issue in these transactions is the information asymmetry between the originator and the investors. First Loss Positions are the most important instrument to mitigate conflicts due to information asymmetry. We analyse the optima...
Lepton asymmetries from neutrino oscillations
Volkas, R R
2000-01-01
Reasonably large relic neutrino asymmetries can be generated by active-sterile neutrino oscillations. After briefly discussing possible applications, I describe the Quantum Kinetic Equation formalism used to compute the asymmetry growth curves. I then show how the basic features of these curves can be understood on the basis of the adiabatic limit approximation in the collision dominated epoch, and the pure MSW effect at lower temperatures.
The problem of natural funnel asymmetries: a simulation analysis of meta-analysis in macroeconomics.
Callot, Laurent; Paldam, Martin
2011-06-01
Effect sizes in macroeconomic are estimated by regressions on data published by statistical agencies. Funnel plots are a representation of the distribution of the resulting regression coefficients. They are normally much wider than predicted by the t-ratio of the coefficients and often asymmetric. The standard method of meta-analysts in economics assumes that the asymmetries are because of publication bias causing censoring and adjusts the average accordingly. The paper shows that some funnel asymmetries may be 'natural' so that they occur without censoring. We investigate such asymmetries by simulating funnels by pairs of data generating processes (DGPs) and estimating models (EMs), in which the EM has the problem that it disregards a property of the DGP. The problems are data dependency, structural breaks, non-normal residuals, non-linearity, and omitted variables. We show that some of these problems generate funnel asymmetries. When they do, the standard method often fails. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26061677
Isospin and density dependencies of nuclear matter symmetry energy coefficients
Symmetry energy coefficients of explicitly isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at variable densities (from 0.5ρ0 up to 2ρ0) are studied as generalized screening functions. An extended stability condition for asymmetric nuclear matter is proposed. We find the possibility of obtaining stable asymmetric nuclear matter even in some cases for which the symmetric nuclear matter limit is unstable. Skyrme-type forces are extensively used in analytical expressions of the symmetry energy coefficients derived as generalized screening functions in the four channels of the particle hole interaction producing alternative behaviors at different ρ and b (respectively, the density and the asymmetry coefficient). The spin and spin-isospin coefficients, with corrections to the usual Landau Migdal parameters, indicate the possibility of occurring instabilities with common features depending on the nuclear density and n–p asymmetry. Possible relevance for high energy heavy ions collisions and astrophysical objects is discussed. (author)
Neighboring Galaxies' Influence on Rotation Curve Asymmetry
Hodge, J C; Castelaz, Michael W.; Hodge, John C.
2003-01-01
The rotation velocity asymmetry v observed in spiral galaxy HI rotation curves linearly correlates with the effective potential force from the 10 closest neighboring galaxies normalized for the test particle mass and the gravitational constant. The magnitude of the potential force from a close galaxy is proportional to the luminosity of the close galaxy and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the close galaxy to the target galaxy. The correlation coefficient is 0.99 and F test is 0.99. Also, the slope of the rotation curve in the disk region of a galaxy from rising to flat to declining is qualitatively correlated with increasing asymmetry and, hence, to the net force from other galaxies. The result is based on a sample of nine spiral galaxies with published Cepheid distances and rotation curves and with a wide range of characteristics. These relationships are interesting not only for their predictive power but also because (1) they suggest a galaxy's dynamics and the shape of its rotatio...
Asymmetry and Leverage in Conditional Volatility Models
Michael McAleer
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The three most popular univariate conditional volatility models are the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH model of Engle (1982 and Bollerslev (1986, the GJR (or threshold GARCH model of Glosten, Jagannathan and Runkle (1992, and the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH model of Nelson (1990, 1991. The underlying stochastic specification to obtain GARCH was demonstrated by Tsay (1987, and that of EGARCH was shown recently in McAleer and Hafner (2014. These models are important in estimating and forecasting volatility, as well as in capturing asymmetry, which is the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, and purportedly in capturing leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. As there seems to be some confusion in the literature between asymmetry and leverage, as well as which asymmetric models are purported to be able to capture leverage, the purpose of the paper is three-fold, namely, (1 to derive the GJR model from a random coefficient autoregressive process, with appropriate regularity conditions; (2 to show that leverage is not possible in the GJR and EGARCH models; and (3 to present the interpretation of the parameters of the three popular univariate conditional volatility models in a unified manner.
CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry Axis: Alignment with Other Cosmic Asymmetries
Mariano, Antonio
2012-01-01
We use a global pixel based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4 degrees-15 degrees and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large scale Healpix resolutions (N_{side}=16 (3.7 degrees), N_{side}=8 (7.3 degrees) and N_{side}=4 (14.7 degrees)). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (\\alpha dipole, Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 10^4 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on LCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduces the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment wit...
Triantafyllopoulos Georgios
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore
Expected dipole asymmetry in CMB polarization
Namjoo, M H; Assadullahi, H; Baghram, S; Firouzjahi, H; Wands, D
2014-01-01
We explore the hemispherical asymmetry predicted in cosmic microwave background polarization when there is an asymmetry in temperature anisotropies due to primordial perturbations. We consider the cases of asymmetries due to adiabatic and isocurvature modes, and tensor perturbations. We show that the asymmetry in the TE, EE and/or BB correlations can be substantially larger than those in the TT power spectrum in certain cases. The relative asymmetry in the different cross-correlations, as well as the angular scale dependence, can in principle distinguish between different origins for the asymmetry.
Sivers Asymmetry with QCD Evolution
Echevarria, Miguel G; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan
2014-01-01
We analyze the Sivers asymmetry in both Drell-Yan (DY) production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS), while considering properly defined transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and their QCD evolution. After finding a universal non-perturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor that can describe reasonably well the world's data of SIDIS, DY lepton pair and $W/Z$ production in unpolarized scatterings, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. Then we make predictions for the asymmetry in DY lepton pair and $W$ boson production, which could be compared to the future experimental data in order to test the sign change of the Sivers function.
Sivers Asymmetry with QCD Evolution
Echevarria, Miguel G.; Idilbi, Ahmad; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan
2015-02-01
We analyze the Sivers asymmetry in both Drell-Yan (DY) production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS), while considering properly defined transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and their QCD evolution. After finding a universal non-perturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor that can describe reasonably well the world's data of SIDIS, DY lepton pair and W/Z production in unpolarized scatterings, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. Then we make predictions for the asymmetry in DY lepton pair and W boson production, which could be compared to the future experimental data in order to test the sign change of the Sivers function.
Autophoretic locomotion from geometric asymmetry
Michelin, Sebastien
2015-01-01
Among the few methods which have been proposed to create small-scale swimmers, those relying on self-phoretic mechanisms present an interesting design challenge in that chemical gradients are required to generate net propulsion. Building on recent work, we propose that asymmetries in geometry are sufficient to induce chemical gradients and swimming. We illustrate this idea using two different calculations. We first calculate exactly the self-propulsion speed of a system composed of two spheres of unequal sizes but identically chemically homogeneous. We then consider arbitrary, small-amplitude, shape deformations of a chemically-homogeneous sphere, and calculate asymptotically the self-propulsion velocity induced by the shape asymmetries. Our results demonstrate how geometric asymmetries can be tuned to induce large locomotion speeds without the need of chemical patterning.
Magnetic asymmetries of unmagnetized planets
This letter discusses the results produced by 3-D hybrid particle code simulations of the solar wind interaction with unmagnetized planets such as Venus and Mars. The solar wind velocity is perpendicular to the IMF in the cases studied. It is found that there are asymmetries in both the magnetic structure and shock location for spherical obstacles ranging in radius from 1,000 km to 6,000 km. The asymmetries found are due to differences in the electron and ion currents paths (diamagnetic behavior). Mass loading of 0+ was not included in these simulations
Coefficients for Interrater Agreement.
Zegers, Frits E.
1991-01-01
The degree of agreement between two raters rating several objects for a single characteristic can be expressed through an association coefficient, such as the Pearson product-moment correlation. How to select an appropriate association coefficient, and the desirable properties and uses of a class of such coefficients--the Euclidean…
Lepton asymmetry and the cosmic QCD transition
We study the influence of lepton asymmetries on the evolution of the early Universe. The lepton asymmetry l is poorly constrained by observations and might be orders of magnitudes larger than the observed baryon asymmetry b ≅ 10−10, |l|/b ≤ 2 × 108. We find that lepton asymmetries that are large compared to the tiny baryon asymmetry, can influence the dynamics of the QCD phase transition significantly. The cosmic trajectory in the μB−T phase diagram of strongly interacting matter becomes a function of lepton (flavour) asymmetry. For tiny or vanishing baryon and lepton asymmetries lattice QCD simulations show that the cosmic QCD transition is a rapid crossover. However, for large lepton asymmetry, the order of the cosmic transition remains unknown
Lambda production and its asymmetry
Differential cross section and asymmetry for Λ0, Λ-bar0 production have been measured in e+e- annihilation at 58 GeV in the scaled momentum Xp range from 0.0 to 0.25. Using 241 pb-1 of data collected after VENUS detector upgrade in 1991. (author)
A Global Gait Asymmetry Index.
Cabral, Silvia; Resende, Renan A; Clansey, Adam C; Deluzio, Kevin J; Selbie, W Scott; Veloso, António P
2016-04-01
High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P meaning that the GGA score is sensitive to different levels of asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment. PMID:26502455
Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI
Li, Xin
In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI and...
Antiquark Flavor Asymmetry with New Accelerator Facilities
Kumano, S.
1997-01-01
Flavor asymmetry in light antiquark distributions is discussed. In particular, recent progress on the u-bar/d-bar asymmetry is explained. Then, we discuss possible future experimental studies. 1. Introduction 2. Present situation 3. Future u-bar/d-bar asymmetry studies 3.1 Drell-Yan process 3.2 Charged-hadron production 3.3 W charge asymmetry 3.4 Deuteron acceleration at HERA
Dentofacial Asymmetries: Challenging Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
Agrawal, Manish; Agrawal, Jiwan Asha; Nanjannawar, Lalita; Fulari, Sangamesh; Kagi, Vishwal
2015-01-01
Dentofacial asymmetry is quite common and when sufficiently severe can require surgical orthodontic intervention. Asymmetries can be classified according to the structures involved into skeletal, dental and functional. In diagnosing asymmetries, a thorough clinical examination and radiographic survey are essential to determine the extent of soft tissue, skeletal, dental and functional involvement. Dental asymmetries, as well as a variety of functional deviations, can be managed orthodonticall...
Diffractive Contribution to A(perpendicular) Asymmetry
We consider double spin asymmetries for longitudinally polarized leptons and transversely polarized protons in diffractive Q (dash)Q production which is connected with A(perpendicular) asymmetry. The predicted asymmetry is large and can be used to obtain the information on the polarized skewed gluon distributions in the proton. (author)
The asymmetry of rainfall process
YU RuCong; YUAN WeiHua; LI Jian
2013-01-01
Using hourly station rain gauge data in the warm season (May-October) during 1961-2006,the climatological features of the evolution of the rainfall process are analyzed by compositing rainfall events centered on the maximum hourly rainfall amount of each event.The results reveal that the rainfall process is asymmetric,which means rainfall events usually reach the maximum in a short period and then experience a relatively longer retreat to the end of the event.The effects of rainfall intensity,duration and peak time,as well as topography,are also considered.It is found that the asymmetry is more obvious in rainfall events with strong intensity and over areas with complex terrain,such as the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau,the Hengduan Mountains,and the Yungui Plateau.The asymmetry in short-duration rainfall is more obvious than that in long-duration rainfall,but the regional differences are weaker.The rainfall events that reach the maximum during 14:00-02:00 LST exhibit the strongest asymmetry and those during 08:00-14:00 LST show the weakest asymmetry.The rainfall intensity at the peak time stands out,which means that the rainfall intensity increases and decreases quickly both before and after the peak.These results can improve understanding of the rainfall process and provide metrics for the evaluation of climate models.Moreover,the strong asymmetry of the rainfall process should be highly noted when taking measures to defending against geological hazards,such as collapses,landslides and debris flows throughout southwestern China.
Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries
Different description for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the pre-scission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A > 200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life-values and mass yield of 234 U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced. (author)
Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries
Duarte, S.B.; Rodriguez, O.; Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F.; Guzman, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1998-01-01
Different description for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the pre-scission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A > 200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life-values and mass yield of {sup 234} U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced. (author) 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: telo at ird.gov.br
Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles
Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon; Kreiborg, Sven
asymmetry, the statistics on asymmetry for normal and pathological anatomical structures can be compared. Symmetry is a well-known mathematical group theoretical concept. In this paper, we will mathematically define the concept of weak symmetry, including topological symmetry, which serves as a basis for......All biological objects exhibit some degree of asymmetry, but for some parts of the human body, excessive asymmetry is a sign of pathology. Hence, the problem is to draw the line between categorization of objects being too asymmetric and objects exhibiting normal asymmetry. With a measure of...
Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management
You-Wei Cheong; Lun-Jou Lo
2011-01-01
Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient histor...
Optimal Collusion under Cost Asymmetry
Miklos-Thal, Jeanine
2005-01-01
Cost asymmetry is generally thought to hinder collusion because a more efficient firm has both more to gain from a deviation and less to fear from retaliation than less efficient firms. Our paper reexamines this conventional wisdom and characterizes optimal collusion without any prior restriction on the class of strategies. We first stress that firms can credibly agree on retaliation schemes that maximally punish even the most efficient firm. This implies that whenever collusion is sustainabl...
Breast motion asymmetry during running
Mills, Chris; Risius, Debbie; Scurr, Joanna
2015-01-01
Breast asymmetry is common in females, despite a similar driving force; dynamic activity may result in asymmetrical breast motion. This preliminary study investigated how breast categorisation (left/right or dominant/non-dominant) may affect breast support recommendations and its relationship with breast pain. Ten females ran on a treadmill at 10 kph in three breast supports (no bra, everyday bra, sports bra). Five reflective markers on the thorax and nipples were tracked using infrared camer...
Lateral Asymmetries in Human Evolution
John L. Bradshaw; Nettleton, Norman C.
1989-01-01
Lateral asymmetries are not confined to humans. Palaeozoic trilobites and calcichordates are now known to have been asymmetrical; song control in passerines is vested in the left cerebral hemisphere; learning which is lateralized to the left forebrain of chicks includes imprinting, visual discrimination learning and auditory habituation, while responses to novelty, attack and copulation are activated by the right; in rats the right hemisphere is involved in emotional behavior and spatial disc...
Posterior asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis
Rousie, D L; Berthoz, A
2009-01-01
Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS and guided by embryology of the neural tube. Measurements concerned three directions of space referred to a specific intra cranial referential. Data acquisition was performed with T2 MRI (G.E. Excite 1.5T, mode Fiesta). We explored a scoliosis group of 76 women and 20 men with a mean age of 17, 2 and a control group of 26 women and 16 men, with a mean age of 27, 7. Results: IS revealed a significant asymmetry of PBA (Pr>|t|<.0001) in 3 directions of space compared to the control group. This asymmetry was more pronounced in antero-posterior...
Corporate governance and information asymmetry
Hamid Salehi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of some corporate governance mechanisms on information asymmetry. From among different mechanisms of corporate governance, the number of board members who were not responsible, ownership concentration and the percentage of institutional ownership are considered. Time scale of the study includes the years from 2005 to 2011. Sampling was performed among all the companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange using systematic removal method. This sample includes 504 companies-years. This is a post-event study. Experimentally, this study lies in accounting proving research areas and it is based on financial statements of the firms, and regarding purpose is application. Descriptive method has been used in this study. The findings show that there was a positive and significant relationship between the number of board members who are not responsible and the percentage of institutional ownership from the one side, and information asymmetry from the other. In addition, the findings show a negative significant relationship between ownership concentration and information asymmetry.
Wellenhofer, Corbinian; Kaiser, Norbert
2016-01-01
The isospin-asymmetry dependence of the nuclear matter equation of state obtained from microscopic chiral two- and three-body interactions in second-order many-body perturbation theory is examined in detail. The quadratic, quartic and sextic coefficients in the Maclaurin expansion of the free energy per particle of infinite homogeneous nuclear matter with respect to the isospin asymmetry are extracted numerically using finite differences, and the resulting polynomial isospin-asymmetry parametrizations are compared to the full isospin-asymmetry dependence of the free energy. It is found that in the low-temperature and high-density regime where the radius of convergence of the expansion is generically zero, the inclusion of higher-order terms beyond the leading quadratic approximation leads overall to a significantly poorer description of the isospin-asymmetry dependence. In contrast, at high temperatures and densities well below nuclear saturation density, the interaction contributions to the higher-order coef...
The hemispheric asymmetry of solar activity during the last century and the solar dynamo
Ashish Goel; Arnab Rai Choudhuri
2009-01-01
We believe the Babcock-Leighton process of poloidal field generation to be the main source of irregularity in the solar cycle. The random nature of this process may make the poloidal field in one hemisphere stronger than that in the other hemisphere at the end of a cycle. We expect this to induce an asymmetry in the next sunspot cycle. We look for evidence of this in the observational data and then model it theoretically with our dynamo code. Since actual polar field measurements exist only from the 1970s, we use the polar faculae number data recorded by Sheeley (1991, 2008) as a proxy of the polar field and estimate the hemispheric asymmetry of the polar field in different solar minima during the major part of the twentieth century. This asymmetry is found to have a reasonable correlation with the asymmetry of the next cycle. We then run our dynamo code by feeding information about this asymmetry at the successive minima and compare the results with observational data. We find that the theoretically computed asymmetries of different cycles compare favorably with the observational data, with the correlation co-efficient being 0.73. Due to the coupling between the two hemispheres, any hemispheric asymmetry tends to get attenuated with time. The hemispheric asymmetry of a cycle ei-ther from observational data or from theoretical calculations statistically tends to be less than the asymmetry in the polar field (as inferred from the faculae data) in the preceding minimum. This reduction factor turns out to be 0.43 and 0.51 respectively in observational data and theoretical simulations.
Transport Coefficients of Fluids
Eu, Byung Chan
2006-01-01
Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.
Dentofacial Asymmetries: Challenging Diagnosis and Treatment Planning.
Agrawal, Manish; Agrawal, Jiwan Asha; Nanjannawar, Lalita; Fulari, Sangamesh; Kagi, Vishwal
2015-07-01
Dentofacial asymmetry is quite common and when sufficiently severe can require surgical orthodontic intervention. Asymmetries can be classified according to the structures involved into skeletal, dental and functional. In diagnosing asymmetries, a thorough clinical examination and radiographic survey are essential to determine the extent of soft tissue, skeletal, dental and functional involvement. Dental asymmetries, as well as a variety of functional deviations, can be managed orthodontically, whereas significant structural facial asymmetries require a comprehensive orthodontic and orthognathic management. With less severe dental, skeletal and soft tissue deviations the advisability of treatment should be carefully considered. The following article also contains a case report highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis in treatment plan for management of dentofacial asymmetry. PMID:26229387
Measuring Asymmetry in Time-Stamped Phylogenies.
Dearlove, Bethany L.; Simon D W Frost
2015-01-01
Previous work has shown that asymmetry in viral phylogenies may be indicative of heterogeneity in transmission, for example due to acute HIV infection or the presence of ‘core groups’ with higher contact rates. Hence, evidence of asymmetry may provide clues to underlying population structure, even when direct information on, for example, stage of infection or contact rates, are missing. However, current tests of phylogenetic asymmetry (a) suffer from false positives when the tips of the phylo...
Quantum speed limits, coherence and asymmetry
Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo
2015-01-01
The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturall...
Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor
Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov
2014-01-01
This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this iss...
Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures
Da Rold, Leandro; Delaunay, Cédric; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad
2012-01-01
We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations ar...
Measuring Asymmetry in Time-Stamped Phylogenies
Dearlove, Bethany L; Frost, Simon D. W.
2015-01-01
Previous work has shown that asymmetry in viral phylogenies may be indicative of heterogeneity in transmission, for example due to acute HIV infection or the presence of ‘core groups’ with higher contact rates. Hence, evidence of asymmetry may provide clues to underlying population structure, even when direct information on, for example, stage of infection or contact rates, are missing. However, current tests of phylogenetic asymmetry (a) suffer from false positives when the tips of the phylo...
Aggression and Brain Asymmetries: A Theoretical Review
Rohlfs , Paloma; Ramirez, J. Martin
2006-01-01
The relationship between aggression and brain asymmetries has not been studied enough. The association between both concepts can be approached from two different perspectives. One perspective points to brain asymmetries underlying the emotion of anger and consequently aggression in normal people. Another one is concerned with the existence of brain asymmetries in aggressive people (e.g., in the case of suicides or psychopathies). Research on emotional processing points out the confusion betw...
Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry
Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza
2015-11-01
Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.
The Randomized Dependence Coefficient
Lopez-Paz, David; Hennig, Philipp; Schölkopf, Bernhard
2013-01-01
We introduce the Randomized Dependence Coefficient (RDC), a measure of non-linear dependence between random variables of arbitrary dimension based on the Hirschfeld-Gebelein-R\\'enyi Maximum Correlation Coefficient. RDC is defined in terms of correlation of random non-linear copula projections; it is invariant with respect to marginal distribution transformations, has low computational cost and is easy to implement: just five lines of R code, included at the end of the paper.
Quantum speed limits, coherence, and asymmetry
Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-05-01
The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturally arises in the context of quantum speed limits. Indeed, the very concept of speed of evolution, i.e., the inverse of the minimum time it takes the system to evolve to another (partially) distinguishable state, is a measure of asymmetry relative to the time translations generated by the system Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the celebrated Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin speed limits can be interpreted as upper bounds on this measure of asymmetry by functions which are themselves measures of asymmetry in the special case of pure states. Using measures of asymmetry that are not restricted to pure states, such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information, we obtain extensions of the Mandelstam-Tamm bound which are significantly tighter in the case of mixed states. We also clarify some confusions in the literature about coherence and asymmetry, and show that measures of coherence are a proper subset of measures of asymmetry.
Dimensional and discrete dental trait asymmetry relationships.
Mayhall, J T; Saunders, S R
1986-03-01
Inuit (Eskimos) from the Foxe Basin region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, were studied to ascertain the amount of dimensional and morphological asymmetry in their dentitions. The results indicate that dimensional asymmetry does not appear to be greater on either the maxillary or mandibular teeth. Both types of asymmetry show partial conformity to the model of tooth fields with an increasing amount of asymmetry as one goes distally in each tooth group. The morphological asymmetry exception, the mandibular incisors, follows Dahlberg's "Field Concept." Rank-order correlations between the amount of dimensional asymmetry and morphological asymmetry reveal no detectable patterns. There appear to be no associations between the presence or absence of morphological asymmetry and the size of the tooth. This lack of association might be explained by differences in developmental timing of tooth dimensions and morphological traits; however, such a hypothesis requires experimental testing. In this population and those for which published results are available, it is practically impossible to overcome the "noise" level and test recent hypotheses regarding random dental asymmetry. PMID:3706516
Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons
Dominguez Zacarias, G. [PIMAyC, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Apdo. Postal 14-805, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera, G.; Mercado, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, D.F. (Mexico)
2007-08-15
We study single spin asymmetries of D{sup 0} and D{sup -} mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)
Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons
We study single spin asymmetries of D0 and D- mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)
Whistled Turkish alters language asymmetries.
Güntürkün, Onur; Güntürkün, Monika; Hahn, Constanze
2015-08-17
Whistled languages represent an experiment of nature to test the widely accepted view that language comprehension is to some extent governed by the left hemisphere in a rather input-invariant manner. Indeed, left-hemisphere superiority has been reported for atonal and tonal languages, click consonants, writing and sign languages. The right hemisphere is specialized to encode acoustic properties like spectral cues, pitch, and melodic lines and plays a role for prosodic communicative cues. Would left hemisphere language superiority change when subjects had to encode a language that is constituted by acoustic properties for which the right hemisphere is specialized? Whistled Turkish uses the full lexical and syntactic information of vocal Turkish, and transforms this into whistles to transport complex conversations with constrained whistled articulations over long distances. We tested the comprehension of vocally vs. whistled identical lexical information in native whistle-speaking people of mountainous Northeast Turkey. We discovered that whistled language comprehension relies on symmetric hemispheric contributions, associated with a decrease of left and a relative increase of right hemispheric encoding mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that a language that places high demands on right-hemisphere typical acoustical encoding creates a radical change in language asymmetries. Thus, language asymmetry patterns are in an important way shaped by the physical properties of the lexical input. PMID:26294179
Chargino contributions to the CP asymmetry in B -> Phi K(S) decay
Chakraverty, D; Huitu, K; Khalil, S
2003-01-01
We perform a model independent analysis of the chargino contributions to the CP asymmetry in B -> Phi K(S) process. We use the mass insertion approximation method generalized by including the possibility of a light right-stop. We find that the dominant effect is given by the contributions of the mass insertions deltaU_LL(32) and deltaU_RL(32) to the Wilson coefficient of the chromomagnetic operator. By considering both these contributions simultaneously, the CP asymmetry in B -> Phi K(S) process is significantly reduced and negative values, which are within the 1-sigma experimental range and satisfy the b -> s gamma constraints, can be obtained.
Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union
Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.
This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries for...
Target asymmetry in inclusive photoproduction of pions
We study the target asymmetry in inclusive pion photoproduction in the photon fragmentation region using a helicity dependent Mueller-Regge model, in which the Regge cut contributions are also included. We obtained predictions for the t-dependence and the magnitude of the target asymmetry. (orig.)
Visual Search Asymmetry with Uncertain Targets
Saiki, Jun; Koike, Takahiko; Takahashi, Kohske; Inoue, Tomoko
2005-01-01
The underlying mechanism of search asymmetry is still unknown. Many computational models postulate top-down selection of target-defining features as a crucial factor. This feature selection account implies, and other theories implicitly assume, that predefined target identity is necessary for search asymmetry. The authors tested the validity of…
Gravitational deflection of light and helicity asymmetry
Guadagnini, Enore
2002-01-01
The helicity modification of light polarization which is induced by the gravitational deflection from a classical heavy rotating body, like a star or a planet, is considered. The expression of the helicity asymmetry is derived; this asymmetry signals the gravitationally induced spin transfer from the rotating body to the scattered photons.
Determining Asymmetry Of A Weld Puddle
Gutow, David A.
1992-01-01
Sensing-and-data-processing subsystem provides information of asymmetry of weld puddle with respect to original midplane of joint. Shape of puddle inferred from surface-temperature distribution. Part of welding-control system which enables system to correct for asymmetry.
Neutrino transport: no asymmetry in equilibrium
Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino; Vilenkin, Alexander
1998-01-01
A small asymmetry in the flux of neutrinos emitted by a hot newly-born neutron star could explain the observed motions of pulsars. However, even in the presence of parity-violating processes with anisotropic scattering amplitudes, no asymmetry is generated in thermal equilibrium. We explain why this no-go theorem stymies some of the proposed explanations for the pulsar ``kick'' velocities.
East-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings
Measurements made in 1974-1975 at the Aarne Karjalainen Observatory do not show any east-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings. Combining the photometric data available for 1913-1975, one finds that the asymmetry varies in an irregular manner without correlating with Saturn's orbital period. (Auth.)
Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.
Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas
2016-03-01
During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010
Asymmetry measures for QSOs and companions
Hutchings, J B
2008-01-01
An asymmetry index is derived from ellipse-fitting to galaxy images, that gives weight to faint outer features and is not strongly redshift-dependent. These measures are made on a sample of 13 2MASS QSOs and their neighbour galaxies, and a control sample of field galaxies from the same wide-field imaging data. The QSO host galaxy asymmetries correlate well with visual tidal interaction indices previously published. The companion galaxies have somewhat higher asymmetry than the control galaxy sample, and their asymmetry is inversely correlated with distance from the QSO. The distribution of QSO-companion asymmetry indices is different from that for matched control field galaxies at the $\\sim95%$ significance level. We present the data and discuss this evidence for tidal and other disturbances in the vicinity of QSOs.
Bs semileptonic asymmetry at LHCb
Dufour, Laurent
2016-01-01
When neutral $B^{0}_{s,d}$ mesons evolve in time they can change into their own antiparticles. In this mixing process CP symmetry is not necessarily conserved, as the probability for a $B^{0}$ meson to change into a $\\bar{B}^{0}$ meson can be different from the probability for the reverse process. The CP violation in the $B^{0}_{s}$ system as measured using semileptonic decays, defined as $a^{s}_{sl}$, is very small according to the Standard Model. However, earlier measurements of the semileptonic mixing asymmetry in both the $B_s^{0}$ and $B_d^{0}$ systems have shown a $3 \\sigma$ deviation with respect to the Standard Model value. A measurement of $a^{s}_{sl}$ performed using $1 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected at the LHCb detector is presented, together with an outlook to the updated $3 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ result.
Knowledge asymmetries about product "goodness"
Kampf, Constance
of institutionalization of CSR as a company-focused model (Schultz & Wehmeier 2010) to a focus on inter-institutional and institution-consumer knowledge asymmetries affecting consumer sensemaking practices in purchasing. Data from the Good GuideTM Ipod application, YouTube Videos about a legal controversy involving......Product "goodness" is an emerging issue for consumers, as the effects of purchasing decisions are shifting to a more global perspective in the media. In the 1980s, concern about the conditions of people producing goods was a question brought up by activists-and when mainstream media joined...... the conversation, revelations such as children making Nike shoes in Southeast Asia, dye workers from India getting sick from the chemicals used for linens and rugs exported to Denmark by Jysk, or Hollywood movies about the working conditions in South African diamond mines have become part of mainstream culture...
Do Fresnel coefficients exist?
Felbacq, D; Guizal, B.; F Zolla
2001-01-01
The starting point of the article is the puzzling fact that one cannot recover the Fresnel coefficients by letting tend the width of a slab to infinity. Without using the so-called limiting absorption principle, we show by a convenient limit analysis that it is possible to define rigorously the field diffracted by a semi-infinite periodic medium.
Fish otolith asymmetry: morphometry and modeling.
Lychakov, D V; Rebane, Y T; Lombarte, A; Fuiman, L A; Takabayashi, A
2006-09-01
Mathematical modeling suggests that relatively large values of otolith mass asymmetry in fishes can alter acoustic functionality and may be responsible for abnormal fish behavior when subjected to weightlessness during parabolic or space flight [D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Otolith mass asymmetry in 18 species of fish and pigeon, J. Grav. Physiol. 11 (3) (2004) 17-34; D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Fish otolith mass asymmetry: morphometry and influence on acoustic functionality, Hear. Res. 201 (2005) 55-69]. The results of morphometric studies of otolith mass asymmetry suppose that the absolute value and the sign of the otolith mass asymmetry can change many times during the growth of individual fish within the range +/-20% [D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Otolith mass asymmetry in 18 species of fish and pigeon, J. Grav. Physiol. 11 (3) (2004) 17-34; D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Fish otolith mass asymmetry: morphometry and influence on acoustic functionality, Hear. Res. 201 (2005) 55-69]. This implies that the adverse effects of otolith asymmetry on acoustic and vestibular functionality could change during the lifetime of an individual fish. The aims of the present article were to examine the nature of otolith mass asymmetry fluctuation and to quantify otolith mass asymmetry in a large number of teleost fishes to verify our previous measurements. A dimensionless measure of otolith mass asymmetry, chi, was calculated as the difference between the masses of the right and left paired otoliths divided by average otolith mass. Saccular otolith mass asymmetry was studied in 59 Mediterranean teleost species (395 otolith pairs), 14 Black Sea teleost species (42 otolith pairs), red drum (196 otolith pairs) and guppy (30 otolith pairs). Utricular otolith mass asymmetry was studied in carp (103 otolith pairs) and goldfish (45 otolith pairs). In accordance with our previous results the value of chi did not depend on fish size (length or mass), systematic or ecological position of the
Three-dimensional perception of facial asymmetry.
Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Bareis, Ute; Hartmann, Jutta; Kochel, Janka
2011-12-01
In orthodontic diagnosis, facial symmetry is important. The aim of the present study was to analyse the perception of various degrees of facial asymmetry exhibited by carefully designed virtual three-dimensional (3D) material. Three groups of raters (30 orthodontists, 30 maxillofacial surgeons, and 30 laymen) rated, using a six-point scale, the degree of asymmetry of eight randomly presented 3D faces exhibiting incremental soft tissue alterations. The faces were created by gradually transforming the nose or chin in increments of 2 mm away from the computed symmetry plane. Differences between the groups in analysis of facial asymmetry, the rating of facial stimulus, and right and left facial asymmetry were determined using a t-test. The results demonstrated that raters' profession did not influence the point at which they identified asymmetry. Even laymen were able to detect asymmetries when located near the midline of 3D faces. All raters identified asymmetries of the nose as more negative than those of the same degree of the chin. A left-sided deviation of the nose along the facial symmetry plane lead to a more negative rating of facial appearance, whereas a right-sided deviation of the chin was rated as less attractive. Nasal architecture plays a crucial role in the perception of symmetry. These findings provide clinicians with a greater understanding of how faces are perceived, a process which is of particular interest in treating orthognathic patients, and those with congenital anomalies. PMID:21355063
Seafloor Asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean
S.S.Gao; K.H.Liu
2004-01-01
Measurements of seafloor asymmetry at about 360000 pairs of conjugate points along 1250 profiles across the mid-Atlantic Ridge(MAR)provide new constraints on models for the upwelling of the buoyant asthenosphere. The sign and amplitude of the asymmetry vary systematically and are functions of the distance between the spreading center and the location of the inferred location of maximum regional buoyancy(LMRB)in the asthenosphere. The LMRB is a smooth line derived from the observed asymmetry and is more centered at the regional topographic high than the spreading center. These observations are best explained by active upwelling of the underlying buoyant asthenosphere rather than by pressure-release melting.
Electric quadrupole perturbation coefficients for I = 2 spin-level in angular correlations
Perturbation coefficients are calculated for quadrupole interaction between a randomly oriented axially asymmetric electric field gradient of polycrystalline solid and an I = 2 excited spin-level. Graphical representations of numerically calculated results for the perturbation coefficients and interaction frequencies are given as a function of the asymmetry parameter η. This report can therefore be used as a laboratory guide for identification and interpretation of TDPAC spectroscopy data. (author)
The COMPASS Collaboration; Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A. A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A. N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G. I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L. G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N. V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.
2012-10-01
The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV μ+ beam and a transversely polarised NH3 target. The Sivers asymmetry of the proton has been extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.0030.03. The asymmetry is different from zero and positive also in the low x region, where sea-quarks dominate. The kinematic dependence of the asymmetry has also been investigated and results are given for various intervals of hadron and virtual photon fractional energy. In contrast to the case of the Collins asymmetry, the results on the Sivers asymmetry suggest a strong dependence on the four-momentum transfer to the nucleon, in agreement with the most recent calculations.
Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Antonov, A A; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Hoppner, Ch; d'Hose, N; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Morreale, A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Negrini, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schluter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Schroder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Wang, L; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A
2012-01-01
The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Sivers asymmetry of the proton has been extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003 0.03. The asymmetry is different from zero and positive also in the low x region, where sea-quarks dominate. The kinematic dependence of the asymmetry has also been investigated and results are given for various intervals of hadron and virtual photon fractional energy. In contrast to the case of the Collins asymmetry, the results on the Sivers asymmetry suggest a strong dependence on the four-momentum transfer to the nucleon, in agreement with the most recent calculations.
The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients
Courtney, Michael
2007-01-01
The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.
Introduction "Workplace (a)symmetries: multimodal perspectives"
Asmuss, Birte
Following the seminal work on talk at work (Drew and Heritage, 1992) and later studies on interaction in institutional interaction (Arminen, 2005; Asmuß & Svennevig, 2009; Svennevig 2012a), the panel seeks to pursue the role of interactional micro-practices for the emergence of workplace symmetries...... and asymmetries. Workplaces are settings where different kinds of (a)symmetries are constructed through interaction ((Svennevig, 2012b, Asmuß, 2008). In comparison to interactions between professionals and laypeople, identities in workplace interactions where colleagues interact with each other may be...... more complex due to multiple roles and team alliances (Pomerantz & Denvir, 2007; Djordjilovic, 2012). Thus, participants of workplace interaction have to negotiate their position in a dynamically fluctuating network of symmetries and asymmetries. The emergence of symmetries and asymmetries in talk has...
Leptogenesis and gravity: baryon asymmetry without decays
McDonald, J I
2016-01-01
A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.
Electron-hole doping asymmetry of Fermi surface reconstructed in a simple Mott insulator.
Kawasugi, Yoshitaka; Seki, Kazuhiro; Edagawa, Yusuke; Sato, Yoshiaki; Pu, Jiang; Takenobu, Taishi; Yunoki, Seiji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi M; Kato, Reizo
2016-01-01
It is widely recognized that the effect of doping into a Mott insulator is complicated and unpredictable, as can be seen by examining the Hall coefficient in high Tc cuprates. The doping effect, including the electron-hole doping asymmetry, may be more straightforward in doped organic Mott insulators owing to their simple electronic structures. Here we investigate the doping asymmetry of an organic Mott insulator by carrying out electric-double-layer transistor measurements and using cluster perturbation theory. The calculations predict that strongly anisotropic suppression of the spectral weight results in the Fermi arc state under hole doping, while a relatively uniform spectral weight results in the emergence of a non-interacting-like Fermi surface (FS) in the electron-doped state. In accordance with the calculations, the experimentally observed Hall coefficients and resistivity anisotropy correspond to the pocket formed by the Fermi arcs under hole doping and to the non-interacting FS under electron doping. PMID:27492864
Amplification and Asymmetry in Crashes and Frenzies
Han N. Ozsoylev
2005-01-01
We often observe disproportionate reactions to tangible information in large stock price movements. Moreover these movements feature an asymmetry: the number of crashes is more than that of frenzies in the S&P 500 index. This paper offers an explanation for these two characteristics of large movements in which hedging (portfolio insurance) causes amplified price reactions to news and liquidity shocks as well as an asymmetry biased towards crashes. Risk aversion of traders is shown to be essen...
Selective Hedging, Information Asymmetry, and Futures Prices
April Knill; Kristina Minnick; Ali Nejadmalayeri
2006-01-01
Evidence from hedging practices suggests that firms will hedge only if they expect that unfavorable events will arise. In markets with a significant degree of information asymmetry in which hedgers are oligopolists with superior knowledge concerning supply and demand, such as oil and gas futures, we contend that these companies will selectively hedge price movements, causing sharp price adjustments upon resolution of information asymmetry. Using aggregate analysts' surprise as a proxy for the...
Do Board Characteristics Affect Information Asymmetry?
Sougné, Danielle; Laouti, Mhamed; Ajina, Aymen
2013-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry across a range of French firms. Based on a cross-sectional analysis, our study of the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry involved 160 companies over the years 2008-2010. Mechanisms of corporate governance include the characteristics of the board of directors. Our results seem to indicate a significant relationship between certain mechani...
The strange asymmetry of the proton sea
We present a phenomenologically motivated parameterization of the s and s-bar parton distribution functions in the proton, calculated in the framework of the Meson Cloud Model. Parameters of the model have been fixed by comparing to a recent parameterization of the strange asymmetry of the proton sea, which has emerged from a global fit to Deep Inelastic Scattering data. The model reproduces quite well the the asymmetry of the strange sea of the proton.
On asymmetry in all-pay auctions
Kiho Yoon
2012-01-01
This paper examines the role of asymmetry in all-pay auctions. In particular, this paper decomposes a change in players' valuations into the absolute change and the relative change, and analyzes how these changes a¢çect total expenditures. An increase in the sum of players' valuations increases total expenditures but an increase in asymmetry among players' valuations tends to decrease total expenditures both under complete and incomplete information.
Hemispheric asymmetries in thermospheric structure and dynamics
Rees,David/Fuller-Rowell,Timothy J.
1987-01-01
Hemispheric differences in the structure and dynamics of the polar regions of the thermosphere and ionosphere are caused by seasonal/latitudinal asymmetries of solar insolation acting in addition to the effects of the distinctive asymmetries of the main geomagnetic field. Viewing the earth from a satellite, the longitudinal and universal time variations of the thermosphere and ionosphere are far more spectacular in the southern polar thermosphere and ionosphere than in the northern polar regi...
Macroscopic Parity Violation and Supernova Asymmetries
Horowitz, C J
1998-01-01
Core collapse supernovae are dominated by weakly interacting neutrinos. This provides a unique opportunity for macroscopic parity violation. We speculate that parity violation in a strong magnetic field can lead to an asymmetry in the explosion and a recoil of the newly formed neutron star. We estimate the asymmetry from neutrino-polarized-neutron elastic scattering, polarized electron capture and neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering in a (partially) polarized electron gas.
Baryon Asymmetry, Inflation and Squeezed States
Bambah, Bindu A.; Chaitanya, K. V. S. Shiv; Mukku, C.
2006-01-01
We use the general formalism of squeezed rotated states to calculate baryon asymmetry in the wake of inflation through parametric amplification. We base our analysis on a B and CP violating Lagrangian in an isotropically expanding universe. The B and CP violating terms originate from the coupling of complex fields with non-zero baryon number to a complex background inflaton field. We show that a differential amplification of particle and anti-particle modes gives rise to baryon asymmetry.
Particle dynamics in asymmetry-induced transport
The particle dynamics of asymmetry-induced transport are studied using a single-particle computer simulation. For the case of a helical asymmetry with axial and azimuthal wavenumbers (k,l) and with periodic boundary conditions, behaviors consistent with analytical theory are observed. For the typical experimental case of a standing wave asymmetry, the code reveals dynamical behaviors not included in the analytical theory of this transport. The resonances associated with the two constituent helical waves typically overlap and produce a region of stochastic motion. In addition, particles near the radius where the asymmetry frequency ω matches l times the ExB rotation frequency ωR can be trapped in the potential of the applied asymmetry and confined to one end of the device. Both behaviors are associated with large radial excursions and mainly affect particles with low velocities, i.e., vzT/k, where ωT is the trapping frequency. For the case of a helical asymmetry with specularly reflecting boundaries, large radial excursions are observed for all velocities near the radius, where ω=lωR. Minor modifications to these results are observed when the code is run with realistic end potentials
Approach-avoidance activation without anterior asymmetry
AnderoUusberg
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Occasionally, the expected effects of approach-avoidance motivation on anterior EEG alpha asymmetry fail to emerge, particularly in studies using affective picture stimuli. These null findings have been explained by insufficient motivational intensity of, and/or overshadowing interindividual variability within the responses to emotional pictures. These explanations were systematically tested using data from 70 students watching 5 types of affective pictures ranging from very pleasant to unpleasant. The stimulus categories reliably modulated self-reports as well as the amplitude of late positive potential, an ERP component reflecting orienting towards motivationally significant stimuli. The stimuli did not, however, induce expected asymmetry effects either for the sample or individual participants. Even while systematic stimulus-dependent individual differences emerged in self-reports as well as LPP amplitudes, the asymmetry variability was dominated by stimulus-independent interindividual variability. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest that under some circumstances anterior asymmetry may not be an inevitable consequence of core affect. Instead, state asymmetry shifts may be overpowered by stable trait asymmetry differences and/or stimulus-independent yet situation-dependent interindividual variability, possibly caused by processes such as emotion regulation or anxious apprehension.
Cryptic asymmetry: unreliable signals mask asymmetric performance of crayfish weapons.
Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S
2012-08-23
Animals commonly use their limbs as signals and weapons during territorial aggression. Asymmetries of limb performance that do not relate to asymmetries of limb size (cryptic asymmetry) could substantially affect disputes, but this phenomenon has not been considered beyond primates. We investigated cryptic asymmetry in male crayfish (Cherax dispar), which commonly use unreliable signals of strength during aggression. Although the strength of a chela can vary by an order of magnitude for a given size, we found repeatable asymmetries of strength that were only weakly related to asymmetries of size. Size-adjusted strength of chelae and the asymmetry of strength between chelae were highly repeatable between environmental conditions, suggesting that asymmetries of strength stemmed from variation in capacity rather than motivation. Cryptic asymmetry adds another dimension of uncertainty during conflict between animals, which could influence the evolution of unreliable signals and morphological asymmetry. PMID:22417793
Reliability of CBCT in the diagnosis of dental asymmetry
Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to validate a method used to assess dental asymmetry, in relation to the skeletal midline, by means of CBCT. Methods: Ten patients who had CBCT scans taken were randomly selected for this study. Five different observers repeated 10 landmarks (x, y and z variables for each and 12 linear measurements within 10 days. Measurements were taken in both arches to evaluate symmetry of first molars, canines and dental midline in relation to the skeletal midline. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was carried out to assess intra- and interobserver reliability for landmarks and distances. Average mean difference was also assessed to check measurement errors between observers. Results: ICC landmarks was ≥ 0.9 for 27 (90% and 25 (83% variables for intra- and interobserver, respectively. ICC for distances was ≥ 0.9 for 7 (58% and 5 (42%, respectively. All ICC landmarks for distances were >0.75 for both intra- and interobserver. The mean difference between observers was ≤ 0.6 mm for all the distances. Conclusion: The method used to assess dental asymmetry by means of CBCT is valid. Measurements of molars, canines and dental midline symmetry with the skeletal midline are reproducible and reliable when taken by means of CBCT and by different operators.
Effect of polarized gluon distribution on $\\pi^0$ spin asymmetry
Hirai, Masanori; Hirai, Masanori; Sudoh, Kazutaka
2004-01-01
A longitudinal double spin asymmetry for $\\pi^0$ production has been measured by the PHENIX collaboration. The preliminary data indicate the negative asymmetry at transverse momentum $p_T =1\\sim5$ GeV, whereas theoretical predictions using perturbative QCD are positive asymmetry. We study effects of polarized gluon distribution on the spin asymmetry and suggest the possibility to obtain a sizable negative asymmetry in larger $p_T$ region.
3D modelling of edge parallel flow asymmetries
The issue of parallel flows asymmetries in the edge plasma is tackled with a new first principle transport and turbulence code. TOKAM-3D is a 3D full-torus fluid code that can be used both in diffusive and turbulent regimes and covers either exclusively closed flux surfaces or both open and closed field lines in limiter geometry. Two independent mechanisms susceptible to lead to large amplitude asymmetric parallel flows are evidenced. Global ExB drifts coupled with the presence of the limiter break the poloidal symmetry and can generate large amplitude parallel flows even with poloidally uniform transport coefficients. On the other hand, turbulent transport in the edge exhibits a strong ballooning of the radial particle flux generating an up-down m = 1, n = 0 structure on the parallel velocity. The combination of both mechanisms in complete simulations leads to a poloidal and radial distribution of the parallel velocity comparable to experimental results.
LIU Gui-Hua; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; FANG De-Qing; SHEN Wen-Qing; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Kun
2009-01-01
Hard photon emitted from energetic heavy ion collisions is of very interesting since it does not experience the late-stage nuclear interaction, therefore it is useful to explore the early-stage information of matter phase. In this work, we have calculated the impact parameter and beam energy dependence for azimuthal asymmetry, characterized by directed transverse flow parameter F and elliptic asymmetry coefficient v2, of direct photons and the corresponding free protons in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. It is further shown the anti-correlated azimuthal asymmetry between direct photons and free protons.
We present an update on total and partial branching fractions and on CP asymmetries in the semi-inclusive decay B → Xsℓ+ℓ-. Further, we summarize our results on branching fractions and CP asymmetries for semi-inclusive and fully-inclusive B → Xsγ decays. We present the first result on the CP asymmetry difference of charged and neutral B → Xsγ decays yielding the first constraint on the ratio of Wilson coefficients Im(C8eff/C7eff).
Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency
Eggleston, D. L. [Occidental College, Physics Department, Los Angeles, California 90041 (United States)
2014-07-15
A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ{sub 1}(r) cos(kz) cos(ωt−lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ω{sub R}, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ v{sub r}/ω{sub T}, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.
Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2013-01-01
Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...
On the Kendall Correlation Coefficient
Stepanov, Alexei
2015-01-01
In the present paper, we first discuss the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. In continuous case, we define the Kendall rank correlation coefficient in terms of the concomitants of order statistics, find the expected value of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient and show that the later is free of n. We also prove that in continuous case the Kendall correlation coefficient converges in probability to its expected value. We then propose to consider the expected value of the Kendall rank ...
Amplitude scaling of asymmetry-induced transport
Our initial experiments on asymmetry-induced transport in non-neutral plasmas found the radial particle flux at small radii to be proportional to φa2, where φa is the applied asymmetry amplitude. Other researchers, however, using the global expansion rate as a measure of the transport, have observed a φa1 scaling when the rigidity (the ratio of the axial bounce frequency to the azimuthal rotation frequency) is in the range one to ten. In an effort to resolve this discrepancy, we have extended our measurements to different radii and asymmetry frequencies. Although the results to date are generally in agreement with those previously reported (φa2 scaling at low asymmetry amplitudes falling off to a weaker scaling at higher amplitudes), we have observed some cases where the low amplitude scaling is closer to φa1. Both the φa2 and φa1 cases, however, have rigidities less than ten. Instead, we find that the φa1 cases are characterized by an induced flux that is comparable in magnitude but opposite in sign to the background flux. This suggests that the mixing of applied and background asymmetries plays an important role in determining the amplitude scaling of this transport
Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures
Da Rold, Leandro; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad
2013-01-01
We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations are not elementary fields but rather composite objects. We show that this class of models is consistent with current data on flavor and CP violating physics, electroweak precision observables, dijet and top pair resonance searches at hadron colliders. These models have several predictions which will be tested in forthcoming experiments. The CP asymmetry in D decays is induced through an effective operator of the form (\\bar u c)_{V+A}(\\bar s s)_{V+A} at the charm scale, which implies a larger CP asymmetry in the D^0\\to K^+K^...
Measurement of Z0 lepton coupling asymmetries
Polarized Z0's from e+e- collisions at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) have been used to determine the asymmetry parameters Ae, Aμ and Aτ from the leptonic decay channels. This is the first direct measurement of Aμ. The data have been gathered by the SLC Large Detector (SLD) with the electron polarization averaging 63% during the 1993 data taking period and 77% in 1994-95. A maximum likelihood procedure as well as cross section asymmetries was used to measure the asymmetry parameters from the differential cross sections for equal luminosities of left- and right-handed electron beams. The polarization-dependent muon-pair distributions give Aμ = 0.102 ±0.034 and the tau-pairs give Aτ = 0.195 ±0.034. The initial state electronic couplings in all three leptonic channels as well as the final state angular distribution in the e+e- final state measure Ae to be Ae = 0.152±0.012. Assuming lepton universality and defining a global leptonic asymmetry parameter Ae-μ-τ = 0.151±0.011. This global leptonic asymmetry value translates directly into sin2θWeff=0.2310±0.0014 at the Z0 pole
Oil demand asymmetry in the OECD
Oil demand asymmetry exists, is significant, and can be captured with a simple demand equation using a Pmax term. The unstable parameters of the original symmetric equations suggest misspecification. Addition of a Pmax term to represent asymmetry yields stable parameters from 1982 through 1989 and so suggests proper specification. Asymmetry is significant because the short-run (and long-run) price elasticity is less than half as large when oil price falls as when price rises beyond the past peak. The lower elasticity applies both to price decreases and also to price increases for which price remains below the past peak. As long as the real oil price remains well below the 1981 peak, asymmetry implies that OECD oil demand should be less sensitive to oil price variations than in 1981. More specifically, the results shown suggest that today's oil demand elasticity should be less than half as large as the elasticity for a price increase in 1981. Forecasts from the asymmetric equations are significantly higher than the DOE base-case forecast. DOE's lower forecast is due to greater price asymmetry through 1995 and to higher long-run price elasticity beyond 1995. One reason for the higher long-run price elasticity might be greater assumed improvements in energy-efficiency than implied by the historical data
WEIR COEFFICIENT FOR CYLINDRICAL WEIRS
Senayi DÖNMEZ
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the weir coefficient for cylindrical weirs was experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted for both free and submerged overflow conditions. Experimental results have indicated that the weir coefficient is about 3.50-3.80 for the free overflow condition. The weir coefficient for the submerged overflow condition varies with the amount of submergence.
Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls
Jazayeri, Sadra; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R; Wang, Yi
2014-01-01
We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fi...
Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchains
Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB
Drag Coefficient of Hexadecane Particles
Nakao, Yoshinobu; Hishida, Makoto; Kajimoto, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Gaku
This paper deals with the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles and their free rising velocity in liquid. The drag coefficient was experimentally investigated in Reynolds number range of about 40-300. The present experimental results are summarized in the following; (1) the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles formed in liquid coolant by direct contact cooling is higher than that of a smooth surface sphere, this high drag coefficient seems to be attributed to the non-smooth surface of the solidified hexadecane particles, (2) experimental correlation for the drag coefficient of the solidified hexadecane particles was proposed, (3 ) the measured rising velocity of the solidified hexadecane particle agrees well with the calculated one, (4) the drag coefficients of hexadecane particles that were made by pouring hexadecane liquid into a solid hollow sphere agreed well with the drag coefficient of smooth surface sphere.
Asymmetry of Information within Family Networks
De Weerdt, Joachim; Genicot, Garance; Mesnard, Alice
2014-01-01
This paper studies asymmetry of information and transfers within a unique data set of 712 extended family networks from Tanzania. Using cross-reports on asset holdings, we construct measures of misperception of income among all pairs of households belonging to the same network. We show that there is significant asymmetry of information and no evidence of major systematic over-evaluation or under-evaluation of income in our data, although there is a slight over-evaluation on the part of migran...
Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations
Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R
2014-01-01
An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. Here we instead examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2 2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1 2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.
Dynamics, Thermodynamics, and Time-Asymmetry
Castagnino, Mario A.; Gunzig, Edgerd
2000-01-01
064There are two schools, or lines of thought, that try to unify the apparently divergent laws of dynamics and thermodynamics and to explain the observed time-asymmetry of the universe, and most of its sub-systems, in spite of the fact that these systems are driven by time-symmetric evolution equations. They will be called the coarse-graining and the fine-graining schools (even if these names describe only a part of their philosophy). Coarse-graining school obtains time-asymmetry via a projec...
Top Quark Asymmetry Results at the LHC
In 2011, an integrated luminosity of more than 5 fb−1 at 7 TeV has been delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The measurements of the top-antitop quark charge asymmetry in top quark pair production have been performed at the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The measured charge asymmetry values from both experiments are within the uncertainties in agreement with the SM theory predictions. An overview of the latest results of these measurements by the time of TOP2012 conference will be presented
Top quark forward-backward asymmetry
The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than 2σ deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a W' boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented previously in the literature that can produce such effects are also briefly discussed.
Top quark forward-backward asymmetry
Cheung Kingman [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Keung, W.-Y. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Yuan, T.-C., E-mail: tcyuan@phys.sinica.edu.t [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)
2009-12-07
The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than 2sigma deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a W{sup '} boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented previously in the literature that can produce such effects are also briefly discussed.
Top Quark Forward-Backward Asymmetry
Cheung, Kingman; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2009-01-01
The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than $2\\sigma$ deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a $W'$ boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented erstwhile in the literature that can produce such effects are also discussed.
Measurement of neutrino and proton asymmetry in the decay of polarized neutrons
Schumann, M.
2007-05-09
The Standard Model of Particle Physics is in excellent agreement with all experimental results. However, it is not believed to be the most fundamental theory. It requires, for example, too many free parameters and is not able to explain the existence of effects such as parity-violation or CP-violation. Thus measurements have to be performed to probe the Standard Model and to search for ''new physics''. An ideal laboratory for this is the decay of the free polarized neutron. In this thesis, we present measurements of the neutrino asymmetry B and the proton asymmetry C in neutron decay. These coefficients describe the correlation between neutron spin and momentum of the respective particle, and provide detailed information on the structure of the underlying theory. The experiment was performed using the electron spectrometer PERKEO II installed at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). It was equipped with a combined electron-proton detector to reconstruct the neutrino in a coincidence measurement. The uncertainty of our neutrino asymmetry result, B=0.9802(50), is comparable to the present best measurement, and, for the first time ever, we obtained a precise value for the proton asymmetry, C=-0.2377(36). Both results are used to analyze neutron decay for hints on ''Physics beyond the Standard Model'' by studying possible admixtures of right-handed currents and of scalar and tensor couplings to the interaction. (orig.)
Measurement of neutrino and proton asymmetry in the decay of polarized neutrons
The Standard Model of Particle Physics is in excellent agreement with all experimental results. However, it is not believed to be the most fundamental theory. It requires, for example, too many free parameters and is not able to explain the existence of effects such as parity-violation or CP-violation. Thus measurements have to be performed to probe the Standard Model and to search for ''new physics''. An ideal laboratory for this is the decay of the free polarized neutron. In this thesis, we present measurements of the neutrino asymmetry B and the proton asymmetry C in neutron decay. These coefficients describe the correlation between neutron spin and momentum of the respective particle, and provide detailed information on the structure of the underlying theory. The experiment was performed using the electron spectrometer PERKEO II installed at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). It was equipped with a combined electron-proton detector to reconstruct the neutrino in a coincidence measurement. The uncertainty of our neutrino asymmetry result, B=0.9802(50), is comparable to the present best measurement, and, for the first time ever, we obtained a precise value for the proton asymmetry, C=-0.2377(36). Both results are used to analyze neutron decay for hints on ''Physics beyond the Standard Model'' by studying possible admixtures of right-handed currents and of scalar and tensor couplings to the interaction. (orig.)
Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2014-01-01
Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients into...... random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...
Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states
Piani, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-01-01
Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered as a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming, and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific rele...
Automated quantification and analysis of mandibular asymmetry
Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.; Larsen, P.; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Hansen, I. V.; Hove, H. D.; Christensen, L.; Rueckert, D.; Kreiborg, S.
We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation...
CP and charge asymmetries at CDF
Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa
2007-11-01
We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.
Testing for Coupling Asymmetry using Surrogate Data
Paluš, Milan; Mussiza, B.; Stefanovska, A.
2007-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 2-3 (2007), s. 327-344. ISSN 1556-3995 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 517133 - BRACCIA Grant ostatní: Czech and Slovenian MES(XX) KONTAKT 1/2005-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : coupling asymmetry * causality * hypothesis testing * surrogate data Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Parallel Processing in Visual Search Asymmetry
Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin
2004-01-01
The difficulty of visual search may depend on assignment of the same visual elements as targets and distractors-search asymmetry. Easy C-in-O searches and difficult O-in-C searches are often associated with parallel and serial search, respectively. Here, the time course of visual search was measured for both tasks with speed-accuracy methods. The…
Human cerebral asymmetries evaluated by computed tomography
The handedness of seventy-five persons without evidence of neurological disease, was assessed with a standardised test. An analysis of the CT scans of the same persons was performed to determine (1) presence and lateralisation of frontal and occipital 'petalia', (2) width of frontal and occipital lobes of each hemisphere, (3) direction of straight sinus deviation. Results suggest that handedness and cerebral asymmetries are independent variables. There were no significant differences between right-handers and non-right handers. Also there was no significant differences between strongly left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, nor were there differences between right-handers with or without family history of left-handedness. Irrespective of handedness, left occipital 'petalia' was more common than right (p<0.01), right frontal petalia was more common than left (p<0.01), and straight sinus deviation was more commonly toward the right. The study does not support the concept that cerebral 'symmetry' or 'reverse asymmetry' are associated with left-handedness or ambidexterity. The noted asymmetries are more likely to be direct correlates of cerebral language dominance, than of handedness. Outside forces acting on the bone may also contribute to the asymmetries. CT scan may be of value as a direct predictor of cerebral dominance. (author)
Asymmetry in price transmission in agricultural markets
2013-01-01
This paper explores the asymmetries in price transmission from international to local markets. We expect the presence of large intermediaries in agricultural markets to lead to a stronger price transmission when international prices decline than when they rise. The empirical evidence confirms the presence of asymmetric price transmission consistent with the presence of large intermediaries with monopsony power.
The Cost of Action Miscues: Hemispheric Asymmetries
Shenal, Brian V.; Hinze, Stephan; Heilman, Kenneth M.
2012-01-01
Adaptive behaviors require preparation and when necessary inhibition or alteration of actions. The right hemisphere has been posited to be dominant for preparatory motor activation. This experiment was designed to learn if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the control of altered plans of actions. Cues, both valid and invalid, which indicate the…
CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays
N G Deshpande
2003-02-01
We brieﬂy discuss measurements of angles and of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using (3) relationships in the standard model (SM). Some methods to measure angle using (3) are then discussed. We note that rate for → can be used to set limits on extra dimensions in which standard model particles propagate.
TMD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry
Boer, Daniel
2013-01-01
The energy scale dependence of the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is studied numerically within the framework of TMD factorization that was put forward in 2011. The comparison to previous results in the literature shows that the treatment of next-to-leading logarithmic
Analytical formulation of lunar cratering asymmetries
Wang, Nan
2016-01-01
We formulate the lunar cratering distribution and verify the cratering asymmetries generated by the main-belt asteroids (MBAs) as well as the near-Earth objects (NEOs). Based on a planar model that excludes the terrestrial and lunar gravitations on the impactors and assuming the impactor encounter speed with Earth $v_{\\rm{enc}}$ is higher than the lunar orbital speed $v_{\\rm{M}}$, we rigorously integrated the lunar cratering distribution, and derived its approximation to the first order of $v_{\\rm{M}}/v_{\\rm{enc}}$. Numerical simulations of lunar bombardment by the MBAs during the late heavy bombardment were performed with an Earth-Moon distance $a_{\\rm{M}}$ = 20--60 Earth radii in five cases. The analytical model directly proves the existence of a leading/trailing asymmetry and the absence of near/far asymmetry. The approximate form of the leading/trailing asymmetry is $(1 + A_1 \\cos\\beta)$, which decreases as the apex distance $\\beta$ increases. The numerical simulations show evidence of a pole/equator asym...
When Does Information Asymmetry Affect the Cost of Capital?
Armstrong, Christopher S.; Core, John E.; Taylor, Daniel J.; Robert E. Verrecchia
2009-01-01
This paper examines when information asymmetry among investors affects the cost of capital in excess of standard risk factors. When equity markets are perfectly competitive, information asymmetry has no separate effect on the cost of capital. When markets are imperfect, information asymmetry can have a separate effect on firms’ cost of capital. Consistent with our prediction, we find that information asymmetry has a positive relation with firms’ cost of capital in excess of standard risk fact...
Visual signalling by asymmetry: a review of perceptual processes.
Swaddle, J P
1999-01-01
Individual levels of asymmetry in traits that display fluctuating asymmetry could be used as visual signals of phenotypic (and perhaps genotypic) quality, as asymmetry can often be negatively related to fitness parameters. There are some data to support this hypothesis but the experimental protocols employed have commonly resulted in asymmetries far larger than those observed in nature. To date, there has been little consideration of the ability of animals to accurately discriminate small asy...
MOTOR ASYMMETRY IN MARSUPIAL MAMMALS OF MACROPODIDAE FAMILY
A.N. Giljov
2014-01-01
Asymmetry in forelimb use is known for many species of vertebrates. Marsupial mammals are one of few groups of vertebrates, which is almost unstudied in terms of motor asymmetry. Variety of postural and locomotor characteristics in marsupials makes them a suitable object for studying the evolution of motor asymmetry in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore motor asymmetry, in particular preferences in the use of the left/right forelimb in different types of actions, in two species of ...
Asymmetry of fetal cerebral hemispheres: in utero ultrasound study
Hering-Hanit, R; Achiron, R.; Lipitz, S; Achiron, A
2001-01-01
BACKGROUND—Slight morphological asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres has been observed in fetal and newborn brains. In adults, sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry have also been reported. OBJECTIVE—To establish whether cerebral hemisphere asymmetry correlates with sex in fetuses. METHODS—Left-right cerebral hemisphere asymmetry, and the correlation with sex, were studied in 51 male and 51 female fetuses of 20-22 weeks gestation, using diagnostic ultrasound scanning....
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
Bojanov, Borislav
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Asymmetry of parametric X rays from polarized electrons (quantum approach)
The asymmetry ratio of parametric X rays from polarized electrons is considered using the quantum approach. The asymmetry ratio was investigated for photons emitted both along Bragg direction and for angles around γ-1 relative to the Bragg direction. Calculation of asymmetry for longitudinal and transverse electron polarization has been carried out
How reproducible are the measurements of leaf fluctuating asymmetry?
Mikhail V. Kozlov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents small, non-directional deviations from perfect symmetry in morphological characters. FA is generally assumed to increase in response to stress; therefore, FA is frequently used in ecological studies as an index of environmental or genetic stress experienced by an organism. The values of FA are usually small, and therefore the reliable detection of FA requires precise measurements. The reproducibility of fluctuating asymmetry (FA was explored by comparing the results of measurements of scanned images of 100 leaves of downy birch (Betula pubescens conducted by 31 volunteer scientists experienced in studying plant FA. The median values of FA varied significantly among the participants, from 0.000 to 0.074, and the coefficients of variation in FA for individual leaves ranged from 25% to 179%. The overall reproducibility of the results among the participants was rather low (0.074. Variation in instruments and methods used by the participants had little effect on the reported FA values, but the reproducibility of the measurements increased by 30% following exclusion of data provided by seven participants who had modified the suggested protocol for leaf measurements. The scientists working with plant FA are advised to pay utmost attention to adequate and detailed description of their data acquisition protocols in their forthcoming publications, because all characteristics of instruments and methods need to be controlled to increase the quality and reproducibility of the data. Whenever possible, the images of all measured objects and the results of primary measurements should be published as electronic appendices to scientific papers.
Interpreting the time-dependent CP asymmetry in $B^0 \\to \\pi^0 K_S$
Gronau, Michael; Grossman, Yuval; Rosner, Jonathan L.
2003-01-01
Flavor SU(3) is used for studying the time-dependent CP asymmetry in $B^0 \\to \\pi^0 K_S$ by relating this process to $B^0\\to \\pi^0\\pi^0$ and $B^0 \\to K^+K^-$. We calculate correlated bounds on $S_{\\pi K} - \\sin 2\\beta$ and $C_{\\pi K}$, with maximal magnitudes of 0.2 and 0.3, where $S_{\\pi K}$ and $C_{\\pi K}$ are coefficients of $\\sin\\Delta mt$ and $\\cos\\Delta mt$ in the asymmetry. Stronger upper limits on $B^0 \\to K^+K^-$ are expected to reduce these bounds and to imply nonzero lower limits o...
Study on branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries of D → PV decays
We study the non-leptonic two-body decays of D mesons decaying into one pseudoscalar meson (P) and one vector meson (V) in the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach. In this approach, the decay amplitudes are factorized into two parts, the short-distance contribution (Wilson coefficients) and the long-distance contribution (hadronic matrix elements). We predict the branching ratios of D → PV decays using a global fit with the non-perturbative parameters. Our results agree well with the experimental data. We also predict the direct CP asymmetries by combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and long-distance hadronic matrix elements determined by branching ratios. The large asymmetries in D+ → π+ρ0 and Ds+ → K+φ may be measurable in the LHCb and future Belle II experiments. (author)
Asymmetry of the articular eminence in dentate and partially edentulous populations.
Jasinevicius, T R; Pyle, M A; Lalumandier, J A; Nelson, S; Kohrs, K J; Türp, J C; Sawyer, D R
2006-04-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of right-left asymmetry of the glenoid fossa. The specific aims were (1) to determine whether there were relationships between age, number of teeth, slope of the articular eminence, fossa depth, and the degree of right-left asymmetry, and (2) to compare the right-left asymmetry of two populations, one characterized by an acceptable occlusion (A-Occ), the other by an unacceptable occlusion (partially edentulous; Un-Occ). A-Occ was defined as possessing a minimum of 28 teeth that would allow for hand articulation of the mandibular teeth to the maxillary teeth. Un-Occ had fewer than 17 teeth, which would make it impossible to articulate the mandible with the maxilla. The sample included 20th century dry skulls: 70 African-American (44 male, 26 female) and 64 European-American (49 male, 15 female), ranging in age from 21-105 (mean 47.1 +/- 19.9). The medial (M), central (C), and lateral (Lat) aspects of the right (R) and left (L) slopes of the articular eminence were measured in a sagittal plane. The R and L fossa depth also were measured. The raw absolute differences IR-LI and relative differences [IR-LI/IR+Llx100] of the articular slope angles (M, C, and Lat) and fossa depths were computed. Statistical analysis included paired t-tests, independent t-tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficients, significance at p groups in the raw absolute differences or relative differences of the M, C, and Lat slopes or fossa depths. No significant relationships were found between right-left asymmetry, age, or number of teeth. With only 10% of the subjects exhibiting symmetry of the glenoid fossa depths or articular slope angles, clinicians should consider bilateral asymmetry the norm and not an anomaly. PMID:16711269
Measuring of heat transfer coefficient
Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria
Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure the h...
Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.
Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.
1993-01-01
Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…
Computational Seebeck Coefficient Measurement Simulations
Martin, Joshua
2012-01-01
We have employed finite element analysis to develop computational Seebeck coefficient metrology simulations. This approach enables a unique exploration of multiple probe arrangements and measurement techniques within the same temporal domain. To demonstrate the usefulness of this approach, we have performed these Seebeck coefficient measurement simulations to quantitatively explore perturbations to voltage and temperature correspondence, by comparing simultaneous and staggered data acquisitio...
Determination Permeability Coefficient from Piezocone
Qiang Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The permeability coefficient of soil profile is one of the problems concerned by engineers, and the determination of permeability coefficient method mainly relies on the laboratory permeability test and field pumping test, but these tests are time-consuming and inefficient, and especially the permeability coefficient of soil under the condition of partial drainage was difficult to determine; in this paper, the modern digital CPTU technology was used. Dimensional permeability KT was defined by using the dimensionless normalized cone tip resistance Qt, friction factor Fr, and pore pressure ratio Bq, these parameters enable plots of Bq-Qt, Fr-Qt, Bq-Fr to be contoured KT and hence for permeability coefficient. The relationship has been applied to Nanjing 4th Yangtze river bridge, and compared with laboratory penetration test. The results indicate that the method can accurately determine the permeability coefficient of soil under partial drainage condition and provide the theoretical basis for engineering application.
Observing the Top Energy Asymmetry at the LHC
Berge, Stefan
2016-01-01
The top-antitop energy asymmetry is a promising observable of the charge asymmetry in jet-associated top-quark pair production at the LHC. We present new predictions of the energy asymmetry in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV, including QCD corrections at the next-to-leading perturbative order and from the parton shower. The effect of QCD corrections on the observable is moderate. Scale uncertainties and parton-shower effects partially cancel in the normalized asymmetry. With suitable phase-space cuts, the asymmetry can be enhanced at the cost of reducing the cross section. For instance, for a cross section of $1\\,\\text{pb}$ after cuts, we predict an energy asymmetry of $-6.5^{\\,+0.1}_{\\,-0.2}\\%$ at the next-to-leading order in QCD. Our results provide a sound basis for a measurement of the energy asymmetry at the LHC during run II.
Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction
Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2016-01-01
In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...
GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries
Yelena Prok
2004-05-01
Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized {sup 15}NH{sub 3} target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A{sub 1} (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g{sub 1} (x, Q{sup 2}), and the first moment, {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p}, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 {ge} Q{sup 2} {ge} 4.5 GeV{sup 2}. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q{sup 2} regions. The results are important in the study of Q{sup 2} evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.
Dark Matter Assimilation into the Baryon Asymmetry
D'Eramo, Francesco; Thaler, Jesse
2011-01-01
Pure singlets are typically disfavored as dark matter candidates, since they generically have a thermal relic abundance larger than the observed value. In this paper, we propose a new dark matter mechanism called "assimilation", which takes advantage of the baryon asymmetry of the universe to generate the correct relic abundance of singlet dark matter. Through assimilation, dark matter itself is efficiently destroyed, but dark matter number is stored in new quasi-stable heavy states which carry the baryon asymmetry. The subsequent annihilation and late-time decay of these heavy states yields (symmetric) dark matter as well as (asymmetric) standard model baryons. We study in detail the case of pure bino dark matter by augmenting the minimal supersymmetric standard model with vector-like chiral multiplets. In the parameter range where this mechanism is effective, the LHC can discover long-lived charged particles which were responsible for assimilating dark matter.
QCD Evolution of the Sivers Asymmetry
Echevarria, Miguel G; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan
2014-01-01
We study the QCD evolution of the Sivers effect in both semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan production (DY). We pay close attention to the non-perturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor in the evolution formalism and find a universal form which can describe reasonably well the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions in SIDIS, DY lepton pair and $W/Z$ production. With this Sudakov factor at hand, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. We then make predictions for the Sivers asymmetry in DY lepton pair and $W$ production that can be compared to the future experimental measurements to test the sign change of the Sivers functions between SIDIS and DY processes and constrain the sea quark Sivers functions.
QCD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry
Echevarria, Miguel G.; Idilbi, Ahmad; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan
2014-04-01
We study the QCD evolution of the Sivers effect in both semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan production (DY). We pay close attention to the nonperturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor in the evolution formalism and find a universal form which can describe reasonably well the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions in SIDIS, DY lepton pair and W/Z production. With this Sudakov factor at hand, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. We then make predictions for the Sivers asymmetry in DY lepton pair and W production that can be compared to the future experimental measurements to test the sign change of the Sivers functions between SIDIS and DY processes and constrain the sea quark Sivers functions.
Final Results on Electroweak Asymmetries from SLD
I present the final measurements of the Z boson-lepton coupling asymmetry parameters Ae, Aμ, and Aτ, obtained from the complete sample of polarized Z bosons collected by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider. The measurements use leptonic Z decays and the results are Ae = 0.1544 ± 0.0060, Aμ = 0.142 ± 0.015, and Aτ = 0.136 ± 0.015. The Ae result is combined with the left-right asymmetry using Z decays to hadrons, ALR0 (''' Ae), and is found to be Ae = 0.1516 ± 0.0021. Assuming lepton universality, a combined effective weak mixing angle of sin2 θWeff = 0.23098 ± 0.00026 is obtained. Using additional Standard-Model parameters an upper limit on the Higgs mass is given
Asymmetries in Powerful Extragalactic Radio Sources
Wiita, P J
2004-01-01
We review the background and current perspective of some of the striking asymmetries exhibited by extragalactic double-lobed radio sources, paying special attention to the reported interrelationships among some of them. We particularly aim to highlight some less discussed aspects pertaining to the radio lobes and hot-spots for which any relativistic beaming effects are milder than those imposed on the jets. Various attributes of these features, such as their geometry, intensity, spectrum, and polarization provide important underpinnings to models of radio galaxies and quasars, as well as to theories that attempt to unify them. These contraints are sharpened by exploiting the asymmetry properties of the extended optical emission-line regions associated with powerful radio sources, including the giant halos of Lyman-alpha emission associated with them. We suggest that highly extended disks of dusty gaseous material, which could also be parts of cosmic filaments, around the host galaxies of radio sources may hol...
The bank capital requirement and information asymmetry
Sangkyun Park
1994-01-01
This paper recognizes two main factors that cause the capital requirement to affect the weighted average cost of capital and hence the investment behavior of banks: underpriced debt resulting from the deposit insurance and information asymmetry between managers and the stock market. For a bank enjoying a low cost of debt (deposits), an increased proportion of equity financing raises the weighted average cost ofcapital. When the stock market underestimates the value of a bank due to informatio...
Power asymmetry and escalation in bargaining
Vollstädt, Ulrike
2011-01-01
Bargaining is prevalent in economic interactions. Under complete information, game theory predicts efficient bargaining outcomes (immediate acceptance of first offer) (see Rubinstein, 1982). However, continuous rejections of offers leading to inefficient delays (escalation) have regularly been found in previous bargaining experiments even under complete information (see Roth, 1995). I test experimentally (1) whether power asymmetry leads to more escalation in bargaining and (2) whether perspe...
ASYMMETRY OF HUMAN INFORMATION SPACE AND DYSLEXIA
O.V. Levashov
2009-01-01
There is an increase of dyslexics in many countries up to 15-20% in recent years. In this report I discuss possible reasons for the situation. There are: 1. A bias of contemporary “information space” in visual component vs verbal and sign component. 2. Visual sensory overload in early sensitive period (up to 7-8) which results to specific functional brain asymmetry. 3. Low physical activity of children, especially a deficit of ball games.
Asymmetry Effects in Polarized Hadron Scattering
Chen, Y H; Wu, C Y; Chen, Yaw-Hwang; Nyeo, Su-Long; Wu, Chung-Yi
1996-01-01
We calculate the single-spin and double-spin asymmetry differential cross sections for the polarized hadron scattering $PP\\rightarrow l^+ l^- + jet$ up to $O(\\alpha_s)$ by the helicity amplitude method. Numerical results of the differential cross sections, which can be used to probe the spin contents of the proton, are obtained with several sets of polarized parton distribution functions.
ASYMMETRY OF HUMAN INFORMATION SPACE AND DYSLEXIA
O.V. Levashov
2009-09-01
Full Text Available There is an increase of dyslexics in many countries up to 15-20% in recent years. In this report I discuss possible reasons for the situation. There are: 1. A bias of contemporary “information space” in visual component vs verbal and sign component. 2. Visual sensory overload in early sensitive period (up to 7-8 which results to specific functional brain asymmetry. 3. Low physical activity of children, especially a deficit of ball games.
Asymmetries of quark sea in nucleon
Dahiya Harleen
2014-01-01
The effects of “quark sea” in determining the flavor structure of the octet baryons have been investigated in the chiral constituent quark model. The chiral constituent quark model is able to qualitatively generate the requisite amount of quark sea and is also known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin and related issues in the nonperturbative regime. The phenomenological implications of the quark sea asymmetries in the nucleon have been investigated to understand the impo...
Corporate Tax Asymmetries under Investment Irreversibility
Panteghini, Paolo
2001-01-01
This article studies the effects of corporate tax asymmetries on irreversible investment. We discuss an asymmetric tax scheme where the tax base is given by the firm's return, net of an imputation rate. When the firm's return is less than this rate, however, no tax refunds are allowed. Contrary to common winsdom, this asymmetric scheme may be neutral even when assuming a long-lasting income uncertainty. Neutrality holds even if we add both capital and political uncertainty.
Cerebral Asymmetries: The View from the Inside
Onur Güntürkün
2008-01-01
The two brain hemispheres of humans and other animals differ in function. Although cerebral asymmetries are widespread within the animal kingdom and affect more or less all sensory and motor systems, their neuroscientific fundaments could only recently be studied in greater detail. Birds are probably the best model to study lateralization since the ontogenetic beginning, the neuroanatomical details and the asymmetrically organized cognitive architecture can easily be studied. Genetic mechani...
Deformation Energy Minima at Finite Mass Asymmetry
Poenaru, D N
2003-01-01
A very general saddle point nuclear shape may be found as a solution of an integro-differential equation without giving apriori any shape parametrization. By introducing phenomenological shell corrections one obtains minima of deformation energy for binary fission of parent nuclei at a finite (non-zero) mass asymmetry. Results are presented for reflection asymmetric saddle point shapes of thorium and uranium even-mass isotopes with A=226-238 and A=230-238 respectively.
Institutional Investors, Stock Repurchases and Information Asymmetry
Ricky W. Scott
2014-01-01
This paper seeks to determine if institutional investors influence stock repurchases. Specifically, this study tests whether institutional investors encourage stock repurchases in firms with high information asymmetry. Firm and year fixed effect regressions examining the effect of changes in institutional investor levels to subsequent changes in stock repurchase levels are used. For robustness, regressions are run using difference-GMM regressions and regressions for different time periods on ...
Reverse Schottky-Asymmetry Spin Current Detectors
Lu, Yuan; Appelbaum, Ian
2010-01-01
By reversing the Schottky barrier-height asymmetry in hot-electron semiconductor-metal-semiconductor ballistic spin filtering spin detectors, we have achieved: 1. Demonstration of >50% spin polarization in silicon, resulting from elimination of the ferromagnet/silicon interface on the transport channel detector contact, and 2. Evidence of spin transport at temperatures as high as 260K, enabled by an increase of detector Schottky barrier height.
Asymmetry Effects in Viscoresistive Magnetic Reconnection
Tebaldi, C.; Grasso, D.; Hastie, R. J.
2010-04-01
Magnetic reconnection from an asymmetric unreconnected equilibrium is investigated in a viscoresistive plasma via numerical simulations. The instability threshold of the standard stability parameter, Δ', increases with the asymmetry parameter, in a way similar to the effect of increasing viscosity. Also the topology of the velocity field changes significantly, the four-vortex structure typical of the tearing instability evolves into two-vortex structure, with strong increase of the velocity shear across the high magnetic shear rational surface.
Predicting Abraham model solvent coefficients
Bradley, Jean-Claude; Abraham, Michael H; Acree, William E; Lang, Andrew SID
2015-01-01
Background The Abraham general solvation model can be used in a broad set of scenarios involving partitioning and solubility, yet is limited to a set of solvents with measured Abraham coefficients. Here we extend the range of applicability of Abraham’s model by creating open models that can be used to predict the solvent coefficients for all organic solvents. Results We created open random forest models for the solvent coefficients e, s, a, b, and v that had out-of-bag R2 values of 0.31, 0.77...
Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function
Jordan, M J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, W
2015-01-01
Due to a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury in alpine ski racers, this study aims to assess functional asymmetry in the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and leg muscle mass in elite ski racers with and without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL......-R). Elite alpine skiers with ACL-R (n = 9; 26.2 ± 11.8 months post-op) and uninjured skiers (n = 9) participated in neuromuscular screening. Vertical ground reaction force during the CMJ and SJ was assessed using dual force plate methodology to obtain phase-specific bilateral asymmetry indices (AIs) for...... kinetic impulse (CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI). Dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning was used to assess asymmetry in lower body muscle mass. Compared with controls, ACL-R skiers had increased AI in muscle mass (P < 0.001), kinetic impulse AI in the CMJ concentric phase (P < 0.05), and the...
An idea of L-R asymmetry is proposed for the grand unification schemes. The idea provides an intrinsic mechanism to obtain standard model charges of fermions in the case of more than one weak gauge boson. It is elaborated within a scheme based on the partial symmetry SU(4)sub(C)xSU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R) where the coupling constants gsub(L) and gsub(R) corresponding to the chiral SU(2) factors are assumed to be different from each other. Then, the embedding of this structure within the simple symmetry SO(10) is shown. In both cases, a consistent description of vector particle masses is given. These two schemes are considered as primary models to realize the L-R asymmetry idea due to the lack of family unification. However, in a subsequent work, we will show that the SO(14) unification of the three families can be obtained within the framework of L-R asymmetry. All formulations are carried out with the aid of a mathematical method that we recently proposed for the Lie algebra representations of classical groups. (author)
Hemispheric and longitudinal asymmetries in CME occurrence
Complete text of publication follows. A considerable amount of evidence has accumulated in support of the existence of persistent, systematic north-south (hemispherical) and longitudinal (active longitudes) asymmetries in the Sun. These features have been observed, e.g., in sunspots, solar flares, solar wind and the heliospheric magnetic field. In this work we analyze the occurrence of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by the SOHO LASCO instrument during the solar cycle 23. We use the manually compiled LASCO CME catalog maintained at the CDAW Data Center and for comparison the CACTus CME catalog based on automatic detection of CMEs by the CACTus software developed at SIDC in the Royal Observatory of Belgium. We discuss the temporal evolution of the occurrence rate of CMEs and study the north-south and east-west asymmetries and their temporal change. We also present a preliminary analysis of CME occurrence in a rotating coordinate system. We discuss the observations in view of the earlier evidence for hemispherical asymmetries and active longitudes.
Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls
We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space
The COMPASS Collaboration; Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A. A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A. N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G. I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L. G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N. V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.
2012-10-01
The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV μ+ beam and a transversely polarised NH3 target. The Collins asymmetry of the proton was extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003
Measurements of forward-backward asymmetry in B --> K* l+ l- and evidence of B- --> tau- anti-nu
Ikado, K
2006-01-01
We report the first measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry and the ratios of Wilson coefficients in B --> K* l+ l- using 386 million BBbar pairs that were collected on the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. We also present the first evidence of the decay B- --> tau- nu_tau-bar using 414 fb^-1 of data.
Baryon-antibaryon asymmetry in a model with domain structure and soft CP violation
We consider a model with an abelian gauge symmetry, a Higgs potential involving two scalar fields, and two spinor fields coupled to the scalars through Yukawa couplings. The model accomodates soft violation of charge conjugation, and a domain structure of the universe with two different types of domains, which have identical energy but are governed by different effective lagrangians. The effective lagrangian has complex c-number coefficients that become parts of effective coupling constants, and these are different in the two kinds of domains. In spite of that fact the model neither predicts any domain-dependent effects, nor any particle-antiparticle asymmetries within domains. (orig.)
Correlated bounds on CP asymmetries in $B^0 \\to \\eta' K_S$
Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Zupan, Jure
2004-01-01
Flavor SU(3) is used to constrain the coefficients of $\\sin\\Delta mt$ and $\\cos\\Delta mt$ in the time-dependent CP asymmetry of $B^0 \\to \\eta' K_S$. Correlated bounds in the $(S_{\\eta' K}, C_{\\eta' K})$ plane are derived, by using recent rate measurements of $B^0$ decays into $K^+ K^-, \\pi^0\\pi^0, \\pi^0\\eta, \\pi^0\\eta', \\eta\\eta, \\eta\\eta', \\eta'\\eta'$. Stringent bounds are obtained when assuming a single SU(3) singlet amplitude and when neglecting annihilation-type amplitudes.
Asymmetry Assessment Using Surface Topography in Healthy Adolescents
Connie Ho
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The ability to assess geometric asymmetry in the torsos of individuals is important for detecting Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS. A markerless technique using Surface Topography (ST has been introduced as a non-invasive alternative to standard diagnostic radiographs. The technique has been used to identify asymmetry patterns associated with AIS. However, the presence and nature of asymmetries in the healthy population has not been properly studied. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify asymmetries and potential relationships to development factors such as age, gender, hand dominance and unilateral physical activity in healthy adolescents. Full torso scans of 83 participants were analyzed. Using Geomagic, deviation contour maps (DCMs were created by reflecting the torso along the best plane of sagittal symmetry with each spectrum normalized. Two classes of asymmetry were observed: twist and thickness each with subgroupings. Averaged interobserver and intraobserver Kappas for twist subgroupings were 0.84 and 0.84, respectively, and for thickness subgroupings were 0.53 and 0.63 respectively. Further significant relationships were observed between specific types of asymmetry and gender such as females displaying predominately twist asymmetry, and males with thickness asymmetry. However, no relationships were found between type of asymmetry and age, hand dominance or unilateral physical activity. Understanding asymmetries in healthy subjects will continue to enhance assessment ability of the markerless ST technique.
Reactivity coefficients by perturbation theory
The development of the formulae of perturbation theory provides a good opportunity to use one of the principal devices of mathematical heuristics, i.e. proceeding by analogy from something that is simple to something that is more complicated. This paper: (a) Reviews the formulation of perturbation theory as a method of calculating reactivity coefficients; this consists mainly of developing the differential equation for the adjoint flux, as a continuous function of position and lethargy, by proceeding by analogy from the one-group differential equation for adjoint flux. (b) Presents an application of the two-group form of perturbation theory to a boiling-mercury-cooled fast-breeder reactor (MCBR). It is seen that the net Hg density coefficient of reactivity for the first-design-try for the MCBR is negative for some regions and positive for others. However, it is negative for regions of highest statistical weight and where the density change for a power change would be the greatest. The overall Hg density coefficient is thus negative, i.e. the void coefficient is positive-an unsafe condition. It can be easily seen from the two-group formulation what design changes had to be made to obtain a design which would have a negative void coefficient. It developed in subsequent investigations that there were such design changes that could be made and a design of the MCBR with a negative void coefficient was eventually achieved. (author)
Eigen, G. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics
2015-04-29
We present an update on total and partial branching fractions and on CP asymmetries in the semi-inclusive decay B → X_{s}ℓ⁺ℓ^{-}. Further, we summarize our results on branching fractions and CP asymmetries for semi-inclusive and fully-inclusive B → X_{s}γ decays. We present the first result on the CP asymmetry difference of charged and neutral B → X_{s}γ decays yielding the first constraint on the ratio of Wilson coefficients Im(C_{8}^{eff}/C_{7}^{eff}).
Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries in B0-->(rhopi)0 Using a Time-Dependent Dalitz Plot Analysis
Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Garra Tico, J; Palano, A; López, L; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Abachi, S; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Lae, C K; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F R; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Wright, D M; Lange, D J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis,C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; LoSecco, J M; Jessop, C P; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; De La Vaissière, C; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; 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O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H; al, et
2007-01-01
We report a measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->(rhopi)0-->pi+pi-pi0 decays using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis. The results are obtained from a data sample of 375 million Y(4S) --> BBbar decays, collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We measure 26 coefficients of the bilinear form-factor terms occurring in the time-dependent decay rate of the B0 meson. We derive the physically relevant quantities from these coefficients. In particular, we measure a constraint on the angle alpha of the Unitarity Triangle.
Sharing but not caring: dark matter and the baryon asymmetry of the universe
Bernal, Nicolás; Fong, Chee Sheng; Fonseca, Nayara
2016-09-01
We consider scenarios where Dark Matter (DM) particles carry baryon and/or lepton numbers, which can be defined if there exist operators connecting the dark to the visible sector. As a result, the DM fields become intimately linked to the Standard Model (SM) ones and can be maximally asymmetric just like the ordinary matter. In particular, we discuss minimal scenarios where the DM is a complex scalar or a Dirac fermion coupled to operators with nonzero baryon and/or lepton numbers, and that consist of only SM fields. We consider an initial asymmetry stored in either the SM or the DM sector; the main role of these operators is to properly share the asymmetry between the two sectors, in accordance with observations. After the chemical decoupling, the DM and SM sectors do not care about each other as there is only an ineffective communication between them. Once the DM mass is specified, the Wilson coefficients of these operators are fixed by the requirement of the correct transfer of the asymmetry. We study the phenomenology of this framework at colliders, direct detection and indirect detection experiments. In particular, the LHC phenomenology is very rich and can be tested in different channels such as the two same-sign leptons with two jets, monojet and monojet with a monolepton.
Moerman, Kevin M; Nagel, Thomas
2015-01-01
This paper discusses tension-compression asymmetry properties of Ogden hyperelastic formulations. It is shown that if all negative or all positive Ogden coefficients are used, tension-compression asymmetry occurs the degree of which cannot be separately controlled from the degree of non-linearity. A simple hybrid form is therefore proposed providing separate control over the tension-compression asymmetry. It is demonstrated how this form relates to a newly introduced generalised strain tensor class which encompasses both the tension-compression asymmetric Seth-Hill strain class and the tension-compression symmetric Ba\\v{z}ant strain class. If the control parameter is set to q=0.5 a tension-compression symmetric form involving Ba\\v{z}ant strains is obtained with the property {\\Psi}({\\lambda}_1,{\\lambda}_2,{\\lambda}_3 )={\\Psi}(1/{\\lambda}_1 ,1/{\\lambda}_2 ,1/{\\lambda}_3 ). The symmetric form may be desirable for the definition of ground matrix contributions in soft tissue modelling allowing all deviation from t...
Sharing but not Caring: Dark Matter and the Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe
Bernal, Nicolás; Fonseca, Nayara
2016-01-01
We consider scenarios where Dark Matter (DM) particles carry baryon and/or lepton numbers, which can be defined if there exist operators connecting the dark to the visible sector. As a result, the DM fields become intimately linked to the Standard Model (SM) ones and can be maximally asymmetric just like the ordinary matter. In particular, we discuss minimal scenarios where the DM is a complex scalar or a Dirac fermion coupled to operators with nonzero baryon and/or lepton numbers, and that consist of only SM fields. We consider an initial asymmetry stored in either the SM or the DM sector; the main role of these operators is to properly $share$ the asymmetry between the two sectors, in accordance with observations. After the chemical decoupling, the DM and SM sectors do $not$ $care$ about each other as there is only an ineffective communication between them. Once the DM mass is specified, the Wilson coefficients of these operators are fixed by the requirement of the correct transfer of the asymmetry. We stud...
Relationship between information asymmetry and cost of capital
Fateme Rahmani
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Shareholders expected return is normally impacted by informational risk and informational asymmetry, on the other hand, creates informational risk. Thus, investors demand greater risk premium in the case of informational asymmetry and in turn corporate expenditures increase. In this study, we determine the relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. The study uses information of 109 companies listed in Tehran Securities Exchange over the period of 2005-2010 and the results suggest a positive and significant relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. In addition, the results from present research indicate that when capital markets are competitive, there is not a significant relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. But when markets are partially competitive there is a significant relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost.
Transport coefficients of heavy baryons
Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.
2016-08-01
We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.
Dividend Policy and Information Asymmetry from the Signaling Perspective
Reza Zare; Javad Moradi (Ph.D); Hashem Valipour
2013-01-01
This study attempts to examine the relevance of dividend policy and information asymmetry From the Signaling Perspective and Compare the relative information content of them. Based on sampling, 88 firms from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) were selected and examined during 2003 to 2010. The findings show that the profit division policy(Divisible profit proportion) has positive and significant relation with market data asymmetry namely when the profit division policy increases the data asymmetry i...
Proactive Communicating Process with Asymmetry in Multiagent Systems
Jiafang Wang; Zhiyong Feng; Chao Xu
2013-01-01
This paper presents a formalized communicating process for dealing with information asymmetry between agents. A proactive process can improve the efficiency of dealing with asymmetry by allowing agents to take the initiative of communication in a goal-oriented way. In the process, by reasoning on belief and intention about the world and figuring out the information needed, the agent proactively requests information from another agent when asymmetry exists between them. Considering that agents...
Relationship between information asymmetry and cost of capital
Fateme Rahmani; Hosein Kazemi
2013-01-01
Shareholders expected return is normally impacted by informational risk and informational asymmetry, on the other hand, creates informational risk. Thus, investors demand greater risk premium in the case of informational asymmetry and in turn corporate expenditures increase. In this study, we determine the relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. The study uses information of 109 companies listed in Tehran Securities Exchange over the period of 2005-2010 and the results ...
Relationship between facial asymmetry and masseter reflex activity
Machida, Naoki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Takata, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Yoshiaki; 山田, 一尋
2003-01-01
Purpose: This study evaluated the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) of the masseter muscles in patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects and Methods: The experiment was performed on 10 volunteers without facial asymmetry and 12 orthognathic patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects were seated in a chair, and held a stimulator composed of an electric motor and an acrylic bite block between the upper and lower dentitions at facial midline, in order to elicit TVR. EMG activity was recorded using a pai...
CP asymmetry in Neutrino Oscillations and New Physics1
The CP asymmetry in neutrino oscillations, assuming new physics at production and/or detection processes, is analyzed. We compute this CP asymmetry using the standard quantum field theory within a general new physics scenario that may generate new sources of CP and flavor violation. Well known results for the CP asymmetry are reproduced in the case of V-A operators, and additional contributions from new physics operators are derived.
Directional and fluctuating asymmetries in domestic sheep skulls
Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Bravi, R.
2014-01-01
Morphological symmetry and asymmetry of three different sheep geographical populations (n=39), managed under semi-extensive conditions, were decomposed using geometric morphometric methods, on dorsal aspect of skulls. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was used as an indicator of environmental stress, and directional asymmetry (DA) as biomechanical constraints. The two-dimensional coordinates of 21 landmarks were digitized and analyzed using geometric morphometrics. Multivariate analyses show ed the ...
Directional and fluctuating asymmetries in domestic pig skulls
Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Esteve-Puig, C.
2014-01-01
Morphological symmetry and asymmetry of skulls of domestic pig (n=29) were studied using geometric morphometric (GM) methods on the ventral aspect. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was used as an indicator of environmental stress, and directional asymmetry as a biomechanical constraint. The two-dimensional coordinates of 27 landmarks were digitized and analysed using GM. Multivariate analyses showed the presence of subtle but significant FA in the entire sample, and distinctive differences were det...
Symmetry and Asymmetry in Bouncing Gaits
Giovanni A. Cavagna
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In running, hopping and trotting gaits, the center of mass of the body oscillates each step below and above an equilibrium position where the vertical force on the ground equals body weight. In trotting and low speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation equals that of the upper part, the duration of the lower part equals that of the upper part and the step frequency equals the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-offground symmetric rebound. In hopping and high speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation exceeds that of the upper part, the duration of the upper part exceeds that of the lower part and the step frequency is lower than the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-off-ground asymmetric rebound. Here we examine the physical and physiological constraints resulting in this on-off-ground symmetry and asymmetry of the rebound. Furthermore, the average force exerted during the brake when the body decelerates downwards and forwards is greater than that exerted during the push when the body is reaccelerated upwards and forwards. This landing-takeoff asymmetry, which would be nil in the elastic rebound of the symmetric spring-mass model for running and hopping, suggests a less efficient elastic energy storage and recovery during the bouncing step. During hopping, running and trotting the landing-takeoff asymmetry and the mass-specific vertical stiffness are smaller in larger animals than in the smaller animals suggesting a more efficient rebound in larger animals.
Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry
Scalera, Giancarlo
2015-01-01
The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis o...
Entanglement asymmetry for boosted black branes
Mishra, Rohit
2016-01-01
We study the effects of asymmetry in entanglement thermodynamics of the CFT subsystems. It is found that `boosted' $p$-branes backgrounds give rise to the first law of the entanglement thermodynamics where the CFT pressure plays decisive role in the entanglement. Two different strip like subsystems, one parallel to the boost and the other perpendicular, are studied in the perturbative regime, where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$. We also discuss the AdS-wave backgrounds where some universal bounds can be obtained.
The CMB Derivatives of Planck's Beam Asymmetry
Rathaus, Ben
2014-01-01
We investigate the anisotropy in cosmic microwave background Planck maps due to the coupling between its beam asymmetry and uneven scanning strategy. Introducing a pixel space estimator based on the temperature gradients, we find a highly significant (~20 \\sigma) preference for these to point along ecliptic latitudes. We examine the scale dependence, morphology and foreground sensitivity of this anisotropy, as well as the capability of detailed Planck simulations to reproduce the effect, which is crucial for its removal, as we demonstrate in a search for the weak lensing signature of cosmic defects.
General Equilibrium Pricing with Information Asymmetry
Yuzhong eZhang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We propose a general equilibrium model for asset pricing that incorporates asymmetric information as the key element determining security prices. In our setting, the concepts of completeness, arbitrage, state price and equivalent martingale measure are extended to the case of asymmetric information. Our model shows that in a so-called quasi-complete market, the agents with differential information can reach an agreement on an universal equilibrium price. The corresponding state price and martingale measure are determined. The key intuition is that agents evaluate consumption choices conditioned on their private information and the public information generated by price. As a consequence, information asymmetry can lead to mispricing as well.
Pros and cons of phospholipid asymmetry in erythrocytes
Aiswarya Sathi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Phospholipids of erythrocyte are found as bilayer with choline containing phospholipid like phosphatidyl choline and sphingomylein in the outer layer and amine containing phospholipid like phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine in the inner layer. This arrangement is known as phospholipid asymmetry. Lipid asymmetry is maintained throughout the entire life span of red blood cell and is disturbed when cells enter into the stage of apoptosis. We here discuss some of the conditions in which phospholipid asymmetry of erythrocyte is maintained and disturbed and the various detection methods to check the distortion phospholipid asymmetry of it.
Cell asymmetry correction for temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry
Ishikiriyama, K.; Wunderlich, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1996-12-31
The quality of measurement of heat capacity by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is based on strict symmetry of the twin calorimeter, which is important for temperature-modulated DSC. Heat capacities for sapphire-filled and empty aluminium calorimeters (pans) under designed cell imbalance caused by different pan-masses were measured. In addition, positive and negative signs of asymmetry were explored by analyzing the phase-shift between temperature and heat flow for sapphire and empty runs. The phase shifts change by more than 18{degree} depending on asymmetry sign. Once the asymmetry sign is determined, the asymmetry correction for modulated DSC can be made.
Small non-Gaussianity and dipole asymmetry in the CMB
Wang, Lingfei
2013-01-01
In this paper we provide a prescription for obtaining a small non-Gaussianity and the observed dipole asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The observations inevitably lead to multi-field inflationary dynamics, where each field can create positive or negative large non-Gaussianity, resulting a fine cancellation but with an observable imprint on the hemispherical asymmetry. We discuss this possibility within a simple slow-roll scenario and find that it is hard to explain the observed dipole asymmetry. We briefly discuss some speculative scenarios where one can explain dipole asymmetry.
Analysis of internal conversion coefficients
An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations
Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Antonov, A A; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Hoppner, Ch; d'Hose, N; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Morreale, A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Negrini, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schluter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Schroder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Wang, L; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A
2012-01-01
The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Collins asymmetry of the proton was extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003
Viscosity coefficient with pairing interaction
In the study of dynamic process (for example, deep-inelastic scattering of heavy ion, nuclear fission), viscosity, which describes the coupling between the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the collective one, is a basic quantity. In this paper, under BCS approximation, we derive a microscopic expression of viscosity coefficient with pairing interaction by means of a linear response theory. Taking the fission process of 236U as an example, we discuss the effect of pairing interaction on the viscosity coefficient. The results show that pairing interaction must be taken into account at lower temperature and can be neglected at a high-temperature region
Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry
Scalera, Giancarlo
2015-01-01
The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...
Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?
DanieleMarzoli
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.
On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions
Dale Umbach
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.
Dynamics, Thermodynamics, and Time-Asymmetry
Castagnino, M A; Castagnino, Mario A.; Gunzig, Edgerd
2000-01-01
064There are two schools, or lines of thought, that try to unify the apparently divergent laws of dynamics and thermodynamics and to explain the observed time-asymmetry of the universe, and most of its sub-systems, in spite of the fact that these systems are driven by time-symmetric evolution equations. They will be called the coarse-graining and the fine-graining schools (even if these names describe only a part of their philosophy). Coarse-graining school obtains time-asymmetry via a projection of the state space on a space of ''relevant'' states. The corresponding projection of the primitive reversible evolution laws yields effective irreversible evolution laws for the relevant states. Fine-graining always use the same primitive reversible evolution laws. But these laws (in adequate extensions of the usual spaces where these laws are formulated) have a set of solutions $S$ that can be decompose in two subsets $S_{+\\text{}}$ and $S_{-}$ of time asymmetric solutions. Choosing one of these two sets, as the ar...
Estimating the Polyserial Correlation Coefficient.
Bedrick, Edward J.; Breslin, Frederick C.
1996-01-01
Simple noniterative estimators of the polyserial correlation coefficient are developed by exploiting a general relationship between the polyserial correlation and the point polyserial correlation to give extensions of the biserial estimators of K. Pearson (1909), H. E. Brogden (1949), and F. M. Lord (1963) to the multicategory setting. (SLD)
Fresnel coefficients as hyperbolic rotations
Monzon, J. J.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.
2001-01-01
We describe the action of a plane interface between two semi-infinite media in terms of a transfer matrix. We find a remarkably simple factorization of this matrix, which enables us to express the Fresnel coefficients as a hyperbolic rotation.
Fish otolith mass asymmetry: morphometry and influence on acoustic functionality.
Lychakov, D V; Rebane, Y T
2005-03-01
The role of the fish otolith mass asymmetry in acoustic functionality is studied. The saccular, lagenar and utricular otoliths are weighted in two species of the Black Sea rays, 15 species of the Black Sea teleost fish and guppy fish. The dimensionless otolith mass asymmetry chi is calculated as ratio of the difference between masses of the right and left paired otoliths to average otolith mass. In the most fish studied the otolith mass asymmetry is within the range of -0.2 < chi < +0.2 (< 20%). We do not find specific fish species with extremely large or extremely small otolith asymmetry. The large otoliths do not belong solely to any particular side, left or right. The heavier otoliths of different otolithic organs can be located in different labyrinths. No relationship has been found between the magnitude of the otolith mass asymmetry and the length (mass, age) of the animal. The suggested fluctuation model of the otolith growth can interpret these results. The model supposes that the otolith growth rate varies slightly hither and thither during lifetime of the individual fish. Therefore, the sign of the relative otolith mass asymmetry can change several times in the process of the individual fish growth but within the range outlined above. Mathematical modeling shows that acoustic functionality (sensitivity, temporal processing, sound localization) of the fish can be disturbed by the otolith mass asymmetry. But this is valid only for the fish with largest otolith masses, characteristic of the bottom and littoral fish, and with highest otolith asymmetry. For most fish the values of otolith mass asymmetry is well below critical values. Thus, the most fish get around the troubles related to the otolith mass asymmetry. We suggest that a specific physicochemical mechanism of the paired otolith growth that maintains the otolith mass asymmetry at the lowest possible level should exist. However, the principle and details of this mechanism are still far from being
Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states
Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-04-01
Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific relevance in phase discrimination and quantum metrology, an analytical calculation of its value for a relevant class of quantum states, and tight bounds that relate it to another previously defined coherence monotone.
Information Asymmetry and Financing Decisions: Evidence from Iran Stock Exchange
Mehdi Elhaei Sahar; Seyed Ali Vaez
2013-01-01
This study aims to investigate the relations of information asymmetry and financing decisions in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during 2009 to 2011. Our statistical simple consist 170 firms and stepwise regression method has been used. We found that the relationship between information asymmetry and stock issuing is negative. Other results refer to positive relation between financing deficit and stock issuing.
Asymmetries for the Visual Expression and Perception of Speech
Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Searle, Dara A.
2006-01-01
This study explored asymmetries for movement, expression and perception of visual speech. Sixteen dextral models were videoed as they articulated: "bat," "cat," "fat," and "sat." Measurements revealed that the right side of the mouth was opened wider and for a longer period than the left. The asymmetry was accentuated at the beginning and ends of…
Hemispheric Asymmetry in the Efficiency of Attentional Networks
Asanowicz, Dariusz; Marzecova, Anna; Jaskowski, Piotr; Wolski, Piotr
2012-01-01
Despite the fact that hemispheric asymmetry of attention has been widely studied, a clear picture of this complex phenomenon is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to provide an efficient and reliable measurement of potential hemispheric asymmetries of three attentional networks, i.e. alerting, orienting and executive attention.…
Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce
Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem
2009-01-01
Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…
On reducing information asymmetry in U.S. health care.
Mascarenhas, Oswald A J; Kesavan, Ram; Bernacchi, Michael D
2013-01-01
Information asymmetry is a significant issue facing the U.S. health care system. In this article, we investigate some methods of reducing this asymmetry. We trace the information asymmetry using the "wicked problem" of the health care distribution system. An information asymmetry reduction method requiring joint responsibilities among health care stakeholders is developed. It is argued that information asymmetry is a contributor to enormous health care inflation. Hence, any reduction in such asymmetry will reduce health care costs. Concepts from both signaling and corrective justice theories are integrated in this article to help reduce the information asymmetry that exists in the U.S. health care system. Getting health care costs in line with other "advanced" nations, is the long-term solution to the wicked problem that currently exists in the U.S. health care system. There is an immediate need for a centralized health care database with adequate provisions for individual privacy. Both processes as well as an outcome-based control system are essential for reducing information asymmetries in the U.S. health care system. PMID:24308415
Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction
Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa
2014-01-01
While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…
Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe
Sidorenko, Maxim; Shtanov, Yuri
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending...
A Point-Wise Quantification of Asymmetry Using Deformation Fields
Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Lanche, Stephanie; Darvann, Tron Andre;
2007-01-01
resulting displacement vectors on the left and right side of the symmetry plane, gives a point-wise measure of asymmetry. The asymmetry measure was applied to the study of Crouzon syndrome using Micro CT scans of genetically modified mice. Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial......This paper introduces a novel approach to quantify asymmetry in each point of a surface. The measure is based on analysing displacement vectors resulting from nonrigid image registration. A symmetric atlas, generated from control subjects is registered to a given subject image. A comparison of the...... sutures, which gives rise to a highly asymmetric growth. Quantification and localisation of this asymmetry is of high value with respect to surgery planning and treatment evaluation. Using the proposed method, asymmetry was calculated in each point of the surface of Crouzon mice and wild-type mice...
MUON DECAY ASYMMETRIES FROM KOL YIELDS POM+M-DECAYS.
DIWAN, M.V.; MA, H.; TRUEMAN, T.L.
2001-06-12
We have examined the decay K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} in which the branching ratio, the muon energy asymmetry and the muon decay asymmetry could be measured. In particular, we find that within the Standard Model the longitudinal polarization (PL) of the muon is proportional to the direct CP violating amplitude. On the other hand the energy asymmetry and the out-of-plane polarization (P{sub N}) depend on both indirect and direct CP violating amplitudes. Although the branching ratio is small and difficult to measure because of background, the asymmetries could be large {Omicron}(1) in the Standard Model. A combined analysis of the energy asymmetry, P{sub L} and P{sub N} could be used to separate indirect, CPV, direct CPV, and CP conserving contributions to the decay.
Orthodontic and orthognathic management of a complex mandibular asymmetry.
George, Ashwin Matthew; Ganesan, Jayakumar; Devi, Shobbana; Varghese, Biju Tom; Krishnaswamy, Nathamuni Rengarajan
2013-01-01
The application of a combined surgical-orthodontic procedure for the treatment of major facial deformities (eg, asymmetries) and associated malocclusions has become an increasingly prevalent treatment modality over the past few decades. Development of sound conjoint treatment principles made possible the correction of skeletal and dental dysplasias that were unyielding to either surgical or orthodontic treatment alone. The presence and severity of dentofacial asymmetries has been the subject of many commentaries and investigations. Treatment of facial asymmetry has always been a challenge with respect to the cause and the rationale behind the corrective procedures adopted. This case report describes a 23-year-old male patient whose chief complaint was attributed solely to the clinically discernible facial asymmetry. A combined orthodontic and surgical approach was done to correct both the dental and skeletal asymmetry. The reasons for selecting this treatment protocol and the 5-year postretention stability of the final results obtained are highlighted in this report. PMID:23646323
Neocortical synaptophysin asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
Sherwood, Chet C; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D;
2010-01-01
Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin-immunoreacti......Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin...... relationship between hand preference on a coordinated bimanual task and the interhemispheric distribution of synaptophysin as measured by both stereologic counts of immunoreactive puncta and by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta density is not asymmetric at the...... density. In contrast, puncta densities were symmetrical in right-handed chimpanzees. These findings support the conclusion that synapse asymmetry is modulated by lateralization of skilled motor behavior in chimpanzees....
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho
2015-01-01
Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...
Clustering Coefficients in Multiplex Networks
Cozzo, Emanuele; De Domenico, Manlio; Solé, Albert; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Porter, Mason A; Moreno, Yamir
2013-01-01
Recent advances in the study of complex networked systems has highlighted that our interconnected world is made of networks that are coupled together through different layers that each stand for one type of interaction or system. Despite this situation, it is traditional to aggregate multiplex data into a single weighted network in order take advantage of existing tools. This is admittedly convenient, but it is also extremely problematic. In this paper, we generalize the concept of clustering coefficients for multiplex networks. We show how the layered structure of multiplex networks introduces a new degree of freedom that has a fundamental effect on transitivity. We compute our new multiplex clustering coefficients for several real multiplex networks and illustrate why generalizing monoplex concepts to multiplex networks must be done with great care.
Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter
Ho, Clifford K.
2007-06-12
An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.
SPATIAL DEPENDENCE OF REACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS
Salah, Sideeg
2011-01-01
The objective of this thesis is to study and understand the behavior of the reactivity coefficients (RCs) in a boiling water reactor (BWR) partially within 25 different segments with different void fractions, with enriched oxide fuel (UOX) core, as well as to evaluate the methodologies exposed in [10]. These two normalization methods (described in chapter 3) are used to analyse the contribution of each segment of the core having different regions (fuel, clad, coolant, moderator and channel b...
Dark Matter and the Baryon Asymmetry
Farrar, G R; Farrar, Glennys R.; Zaharijas, Gabrijela
2006-01-01
We present a mechanism to generate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe which preserves the net baryon number created in the Big Bang. If dark matter particles carry baryon number $B_X$, and $\\sigma^{\\rm annih}_{\\bar{X}} < \\sigma^{\\rm annih}_{X} $, the $\\bar{X}$'s freeze out at a higher temperature and have a larger relic density than $X$'s. If $m_X \\lsi 4.5 B_X $GeV and the annihilation cross sections differ by $\\mathcal{O}$(10%) or more, this type of scenario naturally explains the observed $\\Omega_{DM} \\approx 5 \\Omega_b$. Two concrete examples are given, one of which can be excluded on observational grounds.
Time-reversal asymmetry in financial systems
Jiang, X. F.; Chen, T. T.; Zheng, B.
2013-11-01
We investigate the large-fluctuation dynamics in financial markets, based on the minute-to-minute and daily data of the Chinese Indices and the German DAX. The dynamic relaxation both before and after the large fluctuations is characterized by a power law, and the exponents p± usually vary with the strength of the large fluctuations. The large-fluctuation dynamics is time-reversal symmetric at the time scale in minutes, while asymmetric at the daily time scale. Careful analysis reveals that the time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by external forces. It is also the external forces which drive the financial system to a non-stationary state. Different characteristics of the Chinese and German stock markets are uncovered.
Heritability of Directional Asymmetry in Drosophila melanogaster
David Houle
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Directional asymmetry (DA, the consistent difference between a pair of morphological structures in which the same side is always larger than the other, presents an evolutionary mystery. Although many paired traits show DA, genetic variation for DA has not been unambiguously demonstrated. Artificial selection is a powerful technique for uncovering selectable genetic variation; we review and critique the limited number of previous studies that have been performed to select on DA and present the results of a novel artificial selection experiment on the DA of posterior crossvein location in Drosophila wings. Fifteen generations of selection in two genetically distinct lines were performed and none of the lines showed a significant response to selection. Our results therefore support and reconfirm previous findings; despite apparent natural variation and evolution of DA in nature, DA remains a paradoxical trait that does not respond to artificial selection.
On the matter-antimatter asymmetry
Perkins, W. A.
2015-08-01
Although the big bang should have produced equal amounts of matter and antimatter, there is evidence that the universe does not contain significant amounts of antimatter. The usual explanations for this matter-antimatter asymmetry involve finding causes for Sakharov’s three conditions to be satisfied. However, if the composite photon theory is correct, antimatter galaxies should appear to us as dark matter, neither emitting light (that we can detect) or reflecting ordinary light. Thus the presence of antimatter galaxies may be harder to detect than previously thought. The large clumps of dark matter that have been observed by weak gravitation lensing could be clusters of antimatter galaxies. “Dark photons,” that are hypothesized to cause self-interactions between dark matter particles, are identified as antiphotons in the composite photon theory. The possibility of a patchwork universe, that had been previously excluded, is also re-examined.
Asymmetries in the Io plasma torus
Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.
1994-01-01
Using Ulysses radio wave data taken during the 1992 Jupiter encounter, we conclude that there are significant large and small spatial scale azimuthal asymmetries at high latitudes in the Io plasma torus. During a period of time near perijove when the spacecraft motion was predominantly in the azimuthal direction and was relatively fixed in both latitude and radial distance, inferred electron densities depart significantly from the common assumption of longitudinal symmetry. Specifically, electron plasma concentrations near 0 deg system III longitude (and 0400 LT) are greater than those near 180 deg (and 0000 LT). Superposed on this large-scale variation are regularly spaced density depletions, 30-50% in magnitude, and having a spatial periodicity of about 17 deg. Some of these depletions may drive various known radio and plasma wave sources by means of large B parallel electric potentials. The observations are compared with recent models and with the in-situ Voyager observations.
Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment
Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded
2007-01-01
the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that...... German expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...