Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent modified Gogny (MDI) interaction, the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, and a phenomenological modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we have studied the incompressibility Ksat(?) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of Ksat(?) in powers of isospin asymmetry ?, i.e., Ksat(?) = K0 + Ksat,2?2 + Ksat,4?4 + O(?6), the magnitude of the 4th-order Ksat,4 parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order Ksat,2 parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the Ksat,2 can be expressed as Ksat,2 = Ksym – 6L – J0/K0 L in terms of the slope parameter L and the curvature parameter Ksym of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter J0 of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order J0 contribution to Ksat,2 generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between Ksym and L as well as between J0/K0 and K0. Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on K0 and L, the nuclear symmetry energy Esym(?0) at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of Ksat,2 = -370 ± 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. (author)
Isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
López, J A; González, R; Ravelo, R
2013-01-01
This study uses classical molecular dynamics to simulate infinite nuclear matter and study the effect of isospin asymmetry on bulk properties such as energy per nucleon, pressure, saturation density, compressibility and symmetry energy. The simulations are performed on systems embedded in periodic boundary conditions with densities and temperatures in the ranges $\\rho$=0.02 to 0.2 fm$^{-3}$ and T = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 MeV, and with isospin content of $x=Z/A$=0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. The results indicate that symmetric and asymmetric matter are self-bound at some temperatures and exhibit phase transitions from a liquid phase to a liquid-gas mixture. The main effect of isospin asymmetry is found to be a reduction of the equilibrium densities, a softening of the compressibility and a disappearance of the liquid-gas phase transition. A procedure leading to the evaluation of the symmetry energy and its variation with the temperature was devised, implemented and compared to mean field theory results.
Isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
LóPez, J. A.; Ramírez-Homs, E.; González, R.; Ravelo, R
2013-01-01
This study uses classical molecular dynamics to simulate infinite nuclear matter and study the effect of isospin asymmetry on bulk properties such as energy per nucleon, pressure, saturation density, compressibility and symmetry energy. The simulations are performed on systems embedded in periodic boundary conditions with densities and temperatures in the ranges $\\rho$=0.02 to 0.2 fm$^{-3}$ and T = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 MeV, and with isospin content of $x=Z/A$=0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. T...
Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)
Phase transitions in warm, asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction is studied at finite temperature. An analysis is performed of the liquid-gas phase transition in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws, and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. For a binary system with two phases, the coexistence surface (binodal) is two dimensional. The Maxwell construction through the phase-separation region is discussed, and it is shown that the stable configuration can be determined uniquely at every density. Moreover, because of the greater dimensionality of the binodal surface, the liquid-gas phase transition is continuous (second order by Ehrenfest's definition), rather than discontinuous (first order), as in familiar one-component systems. Using a mean-field equation of state calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, various phase-separation scenarios are considered. The model is then applied to the liquid-gas phase transition that may occur in the warm, dilute matter produced in energetic heavy-ion collisions. In asymmetric matter, instabilities that produce a liquid-gas phase separation arise from fluctuations in the proton concentration (chemical instability), rather than from fluctuations in the baryon density (mechanical instability)
Pseudo-Goldstone Modes in Isospin-Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Cohen, Thomas. D.; Broniowski, Wojciech
1994-01-01
We analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter.
Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter
Sum rules and correlations in asymmetric nuclear matter
Rios Huguet, Arnau; Polls Martí, Artur; Müther, Herbert
2006-01-01
The neutron and proton single-particle spectral functions in asymmetric nuclear matter fulfill energy-weighted sum rules. The validity of these sum rules within the self-consistent Green's function approach is investigated. The various contributions to these sum rules and their convergence as a function of energy provide information about correlations induced by the realistic interaction between the nucleons. The study of the sum rules in asymmetric nuclear matter exhibits the isospin depende...
Asymmetric nuclear matter based on chiral effective field theory interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the properties of asymmetric nuclear matter with small proton fractions (high asymmetries). Our calculations are based on two- and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. We compare our microscopic results, including theoretical uncertainties, to a quasi-parabolic approximation developed to interpolate between pure neutron and symmetric nuclear matter. Our investigations are important for neutron-rich matter in astrophysics and as constraints for energy density functionals.
Asymmetric nuclear matter : A variational approach with reid93 interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter have been performed in the frame work of the lowest order constrained variational method (LOCV) approach in a wide range of both density and asymmetry parameter. The new charge independent breaking Reid potential (Ried39) used for calculating the equation of state of this system. It is shown that the empirical parabolic law of the binding energy per nucleon is fulfilled in the whole asymmetric range up to high densities. The results compared with the others many body calculations
Angle-dependent Gap state in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Shang, Xinle; Zuo, Wei
2013-01-01
We propose an axisymmetric angle-dependent gap (ADG) state with the broken rotational symmetry in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. In this state, the deformed Fermi spheres of neutrons and protons increase the pairing probabilities along the axis of symmetry breaking near the average Fermi surface. We find that the state possesses lower free energy and larger gap value than the angle-averaged gap state at large isospin asymmetries. These properties are mainly caused by the...
Strange particles in asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The overbinding problem in ?5He is solved by a coherent ?-? coupling which is equivalent to the ?NN three-body force. This three-body force has a significant effect in the ground states of ?4H and ?4He. In ?6H a particle-stable bound state appears with a large ?-? coupling enhanced by excess neutrons. The coherent ?-? coupling becomes much more important in neutron matter at high densities: It causes large ?0 mixing of 5 - 25% at ?=?0 - 3?0. The coherent mixing drastically affects the hyperon composition of neutron-star matter. (author)
Pairing effects on spinodal decomposition of asymmetric nuclear matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burrello S.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis framed in the general context of two-component fermionic systems subjected to pairing correlations. The study is conducted for unstable asymmetric nuclear matter at low temperature, along the clusterization process driven by spinodal instabilities. It is shown that, especially around the transition temperature from the superfluid to the normal phase, pairing correlations may have non-negligible effects on the isotopic features of the clusterized low-density matter, which could be of interest also in the astrophysical context.
Pairing effects on spinodal decomposition of asymmetric nuclear matter
Burrello, Stefano; Matera, Francesco
2013-01-01
We investigate the impact of pairing correlations on the behavior of unstable asymmetric nuclear matter at low temperature. We focus on the relative role of the pairing interaction, coupling nucleons of the same type (neutrons or protons), with respect to the symmetry potential, which enhances the neutron-proton attraction, along the clusterization process driven by spinodal instabilities. It is found that, especially at the transition temperature from the normal to the superfluid phase, pairing effects may induce significant variations in the isotopic content of the clusterized matter. This analysis is potentially useful to gather information on the temperature dependence of nuclear pairing and, in general, on the properties of clusterized low-density matter, of interest also in the astrophysical context.
Differential isospin-fractionation in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The differential isospin-fractionation (IsoF) during the liquid-gas phase transition in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter is studied as a function of nucleon momentum. Within a self-consistent thermal model it is shown that the neutron/proton ratio of the gas phase becomes smaller than that of the liquid phase for energetic nucleons, although the gas phase is overall more neutron-rich. Clear indications of the differential IsoF consistent with the thermal model predictions are demonstrated within a transport model for heavy-ion reactions. Future comparisons with experimental data will allow us to extract critical information about the momentum dependence of the isovector strong interaction
Angle dependent Gap state in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Shang, Xinle
2013-01-01
We propose an axi-symmetric angle dependent gap (ADG) state with the broken rotational symmetry in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. In this state, the deformed Fermi spheres of neutron and proton increase the pairing probabilities along the axis of the symmetry breaking near the average Fermi surface. We find the state possesses of lower free energy and larger gap value than the angle-averaged gap state for large isospin asymmetry. These properties are mainly caused by the coupling of different m_{j} components of the gap. Furthermore, we find the transition from the ADG state to normal state is of second order and the state vanish at the critical isospin-asymmetry \\alpha_{c} where the angle-averaged gap vanishes.
Extended Skyrme Equation of State in asymmetric nuclear matter
Davesne, D; Navarro, J
2015-01-01
We present a new equation of state for infinite systems (symmetric, asymmetric and neutron matter) based on an extended Skyrme functional constrained by microscopic Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone results. The resulting equation of state reproduces with very good accuracy the main features of microscopic calculations and it is compatible with recent measurements of two times Solar-mass neutron stars. We provide all necessary analytical expressions to facilitate a quick numerical implementation of quantities of astrophysical interest.
Effect of Three-body Interaction on Phase Transition of Hot Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Zuo, W; Lombardo, U
2004-01-01
The properties and the isospin dependence of the liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter have been investigated within the framework of the finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach extended to include the contribution of a microscopic three-body force. A typical Van der Waals structure has been observed in the calculated isotherms (of pressure) for symmetric nuclear matter implying the presence of the liquid-gas phase transition. The critical temperature of the phase transition is calculated and its dependence on the proton-to-neutron ratio is discussed. It is shown that the three-body force gives a repulsive contribution to the nuclear equation of state and reduces appreciably the critical temperature and the mechanical instable region. At fixed temperature and density the pressure of asymmetric nuclear matter increases monotonically as a function of isospin asymmetry. In addition, it turns out that the domain of mechanical instability for hot asymmetric nuclear matter graduall...
Effective Nucleon Masses in Symmetric and Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Van Dalen, E N E; Faessler, A; Faessler, Amand
2005-01-01
The momentum and isospin dependence of the in-medium nucleon mass are studied. Two definitions of the effective mass, i.e. the Dirac mass $m^*_D$ and the nonrelativistic mass $m^*_{NR}$ which parameterizes the energy spectrum, are compared. Both masses are determined from relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations. The nonrelativistic mass shows a distinct peak around the Fermi momentum. The proton-neutron mass splitting in isospin asymmetric matter is $m^*_{D,n} m^*_{NR,p}$, which is consistent with nonrelativistic approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, we derive general expressions for the quadratic and quartic symmetry energies in terms of the isoscalar and isovector parts of single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. These expressions are useful for gaining deeper insights into the microscopic origins of the uncertainties in our knowledge on nuclear symmetry energies especially at supra-saturation densities. As examples, the formalism is applied to two model single-nucleon potentials that are widely used in transport model simulations of heavy-ion reactions.
Equation of State for Isospin Asymmetric Nuclear Matter Using Lane Potential
Basu, D. N.; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Samanta, C.
2006-10-01
A mean field calculation for obtaining the equation of state (EOS) for symmetric nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction supplemented by a zero-range potential is described. The energy per nucleon is minimized to obtain the ground state of symmetric nuclear matter. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe--Weizsäcker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi--Wapstra--Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The EOS of symmetric nuclear matter, thus obtained, provide reasonably good estimate of nuclear incompressibility. Once the constants of density dependence are determined, EOS for asymmetric nuclear matter is calculated by adding to the isoscalar part, the isovector component of the M3Y interaction that do not contribute to the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter. These EOS are then used to calculate the pressure, the energy density and the velocity of sound in symmetric as well as isospin asymmetric nuclear matter.
Equation of state for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using Lane potential
Basu, D N; Samanta, C
2006-01-01
A variational method of obtaining equation of state (EOS) for symmetric nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction supplemented by a zero-range potential is described. The energy per nucleon is minimized to obtain the ground state of symmetric nuclear matter. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The EOS of symmetric nuclear matter, thus obtained, provide reasonably good estimate of nuclear incompressibility. Once the consants of density dependence are determined, EOS for asymmetric nuclear mat...
A Time Dependent Local Isospin Density Approximation Study of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Lipparini, Enrico; Pederiva, Francesco
2013-01-01
The dynamic response of asymmetric nuclear matter is studied by using a Time-Dependent Local Isospin Density (TDLIDA) approximation approach. Calculations are based on a local density energy functional derived by an Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculation of bulk nuclear matter. Three types of excited states emerge: collective states, a continuum of quasi-particle-quasi-hole excitations and unstable solutions. These states are analyzed and discussed for dif...
Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter in the Thomas-Fermi model at finite temperatures
Strobel, K; Weigel, M K; Strobel, Klaus; Weber, Fridolin; Weigel, Manfred K.
1999-01-01
The properties of warm symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the frame of the Thomas-Fermi approximation using a recent modern parametrization of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of Myers and Swiatecki. Special attention is paid to the liquid-gas phase transition, which is of special interest in modern nuclear physics. We have determined the critical temperature, critical density and the so-called flash temperature. Furthermore the equation of state for cold neutron star matter was calculated.
Magnetic properties and EoS of spin polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulk and single-particle properties of spin polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are studied within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The single-particle potentials of neutrons and protons with spin up and down are determined for several values of the neutron and proton spin polarizations and the asymmetry parameter. An analytic parametrization of the total energy per particle as a function of these parameters is constructed, and employed to compute the magnetic susceptibility of nuclear matter. The results show no indication of a ferromagnetic transition at any density for any asymmetry of nuclear matter
Isospin dependence of nucleon 3PF2 superfluidity in asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have investigated the isospin dependence of the neutron and proton 3PF2 superfluidity in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach and the BCS theory. We show that the 3PF2 neutron and proton pairing gaps depend sensitively on isospin asymmetry of asymmetric nuclear matter. As the isospin asymmetry increases, the neutron 3PF2 superfluidity becomes stronger and the peak value of the neutron 3PF2 pairing gap increases rapidly. The isospin dependence of the proton 3PF2 superfluidity is shown to be opposite to the neutron one. The proton 3PF2 superfluidity becomes weaker at a higher asymmetry and it even vanishes at high enough asymmetries. At high asymmetries, the neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turns out to be much stronger than the proton one, implying that the neutron 3PF2 superfluidity is dominated in the highly asymmetric dense interior of neutron stars. (authors)
Phase Transition Of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter Beyond The 4-Nucleon Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contribution of the delta meson to asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) in the four-nucleon model is considered within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach. In the double-bubble approximation the theory provides the nuclear symmetry energy (NSE) consistent with the recent analysis of experimental data and, at the same time, leads to a softer incompressibility, K0 = 240 MeV, without invoking any additional term similar to the Boguta-Bodmer potential. (author)
Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter in the Thomas-Fermi model at finite temperatures
Strobel, Klaus; Weber, Fridolin; Weigel, Manfred K.
1998-01-01
The properties of warm symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the frame of the Thomas-Fermi approximation using a recent modern parametrization of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of Myers and Swiatecki. Special attention is paid to the liquid-gas phase transition, which is of special interest in modern nuclear physics. We have determined the critical temperature, critical density and the so-called flash temperature. Furthermore the equation of ...
The FFLO state with angle dependent Gap in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Shang, Xinle
2013-01-01
We consider the FFLO and ADG state together within the same model for the asymmetric nuclear matter. The arbitrary angles between the Cooper pair momentum and the symmetry axis are studied. We find the favored angle is either 0 or pi/2 which correspond to FFLO-ADG-Orthogonal and FFLO-ADG-Parallel state respectively. Furthermore, the FFLO-ADG-Orthogonal settles at weakly asymmetric case, while the FFLO-ADG-Orthogonal are favored for large asymmetry. The critical isospin-asymmetry alpha_{c}, where superfluid vanishes, increases largely by considering the Cooper pair momentum.
Equation of state and magnetic susceptibility of spin polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Properties of spin-polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are studied within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock formalism. The single-particle potentials of neutrons and protons with spin up and down are determined for several values of the neutron and proton spin polarizations and the asymmetry parameter. It is found that the single-particle potentials exhibit an almost linear and symmetric variation as a function of these parameters. An analytic parametrization of the total energy per particle as a function of the asymmetry and spin polarizations is constructed. This parametrization is employed to compute the magnetic susceptibility of nuclear matter for several values of the asymmetry from neutron to symmetric matter. The results show no indication of a ferromagnetic transition at any density for any asymmetry of nuclear matter
Equation of state and magnetic susceptibility of spin polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
Vidaña, I
2002-01-01
Properties of spin polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are studied within the framework of the Brueckner--Hartree--Fock formalism. The single-particle potentials of neutrons and protons with spin up and down are determined for several values of the neutron and proton spin polarizations and the asymmetry parameter. It is found an almost linear and symmetric variation of the single-particle potentials as increasing these parameters. An analytic parametrization of the total energy per particle as a function of the asymmetry and spin polarizations is constructed. This parametrization is employed to compute the magnetic susceptibility of nuclear matter for several values of the asymmetry from neutron to symmetric matter. The results show no indication of a ferromagnetic transition at any density for any asymmetry of nuclear matter.
What can we learn from the instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on a general approach to binary systems we show that in low density region asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is unstable only against isoscalarlike fluctuations. The physical meaning of the thermodynamical chemical and mechanical instabilities is related to the inequality relations verified by the strength of interaction among different components. Relevance of these results for bulk and neck fragmentation in the reaction 124 Sn + 124 Sn at 50 MeV/n is discussed. (authors)
Spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner--Hartree--Fock approach
Vidana, Isaac; Polls, Artur
2008-01-01
We study the spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature within the microscopic Brueckner--Hartree--Fock (BHF) approximation using the realistic Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon potential plus a three-body force of Urbana type. Our results are compared with those obtained with the Skyrme force SLy230a and the relativistic mean field models NL3 and TW. We find that BHF predicts a larger spinodal region. This result is a direct consequence of the fact ...
Rabhi, A.; Pérez-García, M.A.; Providência, C.; Vidaña, I
2014-01-01
We study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields $B \\sim 10^{16} - 10^{17}$ G have already noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same...
Equation of state and magnetic susceptibility of spin polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
Vidana, I.; Bombaci, I.
2002-01-01
Properties of spin polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are studied within the framework of the Brueckner--Hartree--Fock formalism. The single-particle potentials of neutrons and protons with spin up and down are determined for several values of the neutron and proton spin polarizations and the asymmetry parameter. It is found an almost linear and symmetric variation of the single-particle potentials as increasing these parameters. An analytic parametrization of the t...
Coexistence of phases in asymmetric nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields
Aguirre, R
2014-01-01
The equation of state of nuclear matter is strongly affected by the presence of a magnetic field. Here we study the equilibrium configuration of asymmetric nuclear matter for a wide range of densities, isospin composition, temperatures and magnetic fields. Special attention is paid to the low density and low temperature domain, where a thermodynamical instability exists. Neglecting fluctuations of the Coulomb force, a coexistence of phases is found under such conditions, even for extreme magnetic intensities. We describe the nuclear interaction by using the non--relativistic Skyrme potential model within a Hartree--Fock approach. We found that the coexistence of phases modifies the equilibrium configuration, masking most of the manifestations of the spin polarized matter. However, the compressibility and the magnetic susceptibility show clear signals of this fact. Thermal effects are significative for both quantities, mainly out of the coexistence region.
Single particle potentials of asymmetric nuclear matter in different spin-isospin channels
Zuo, Wei; Lombardo, Umberto
2013-01-01
We investigate the neutron and proton single particle (s.p.) potentials of asymmetric nuclear matter and their isospin dependence in various spin-isospin $ST$ channels within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. It is shown that in symmetric nuclear matter, the s.p. potentials in both the isospin-singlet T=0 channel and isospin-triplet T=1 channel are essentially attractive, and the magnitudes in the two different channels are roughly the same. In neutron-rich nuclear matter, the isospin-splitting of the proton and neutron s.p. potentials turns out to be mainly determined by the isospin-singlet T=0 channel contribution which becomes more attractive for proton and more repulsive for neutron at higher asymmetries.
Graesser, Michael L.; Shoemaker, Ian M.; Vecchi, Luca
2011-01-01
In existing dark matter models with global symmetries the relic abundance of dark matter is either equal to that of anti-dark matter (thermal WIMP), or vastly larger, with essentially no remaining anti-dark matter (asymmetric dark matter). By exploring the consequences of a primordial asymmetry on the coupled dark matter and anti-dark matter Boltzmann equations we find large regions of parameter space that interpolate between these two extremes. Interestingly, this new asymm...
Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund
2015-09-01
We study the possibility of asymmetric dark matter with self-interactions forming compact stable objects. We solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and find the mass-radius relation of such "dark stars," their density profile and their Chandrasekhar mass limit. We consider fermionic asymmetric dark matter with Yukawa-type self-interactions appropriate for solving the well-known problems of the collisionless dark matter paradigm. We find that in several cases the relativistic effects are significant.
Kouvaris, Chris
2015-01-01
We study the possibility of asymmetric dark matter with self-interactions forming compact stable objects. We solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and find the mass-radius relation of such "dark stars", their density profile and their Chandrasekhar mass limit. We consider fermionic asymmetric dark matter with Yukawa-type self-interactions appropriate for solving the well known problems of the collisionless dark matter paradigm. We find that in several cases the relativistic effects are significant.
Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund
2015-01-01
We study the possibility of asymmetric dark matter with self-interactions forming compact stable objects. We solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and find the mass-radius relation of such "dark stars", their density profile and their Chandrasekhar mass limit. We consider fermionic asymmetric dark matter with Yukawa-type self-interactions appropriate for solving the well known problems of the collisionless dark matter paradigm. We find that in several cases the relat...
Collective modes of asymmetric nuclear matter in Quantum HadroDynamics
Greco, V; Di Toro, M; Matera, F
2003-01-01
We discuss a fully relativistic Landau Fermi liquid theory based on the Quantum Hadro-Dynamics ($QHD$) effective field picture of Nuclear Matter ({\\it NM}). From the linearized kinetic equations we get the dispersion relations of the propagating collective modes. We focus our attention on the dynamical effects of the interplay between scalar and vector channel contributions. A beautiful ``mirror'' structure in the form of the dynamical response in the isoscalar/isovector degree of freedom is revealed, with a complete parallelism in the role respectively played by the compressibility and the symmetry energy. All that strongly supports the introduction of an explicit coupling to the scalar-isovector channel of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular we study the influence of this coupling (to a $\\delta$-meson-like effective field) on the collective response of asymmetric nuclear matter ($ANM$). Interesting contributions are found on the propagation of isovector-like modes at normal density and on an expe...
Asymmetric nuclear matter based on chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions
Drischler, Christian; Schwenk, Achim
2015-01-01
We calculate the properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter based on chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions. To this end, we develop an improved normal-ordering framework that allows to include general 3N interactions starting from a plane-wave partial-wave-decomposed form. We present results for the energy per particle for general isospin asymmetries based on a set of different Hamiltonians, study their saturation properties, the incompressibility, symmetry energy, and also provide an analytic parametrization for the energy per particle as a function of density and isospin asymmetry.
Gandolfi, S.; Lovato, A.; Carlson, J; Schmidt, Kevin E.
2014-01-01
We present microscopic calculations of light and medium mass nuclei and the equation of state of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter using different nucleon-nucleon forces, including a new Argonne version that has the same spin/isospin structure as local chiral forces at next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO). The calculations are performed using Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) combined with an improved variational wave function. We show that the AFDMC method...
Thermodynamic instabilities in dense asymmetric nuclear matter and in compact stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in compressed asymmetric baryonic matter, reachable in high energy heavy ion collisions, and in the cold ?-stable compact stars. To this end we study the relativistic nuclear equation of state with the inclusion of ?-isobars and require the global conservation of baryon and electric charge numbers. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that a phase transition can occur in dense asymmetric nuclear matter and it is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the electric charge concentration). Such thermodynamic instabilities can imply a very different electric charge fraction Z/A in the coexisting phases during the phase transition and favoring an early formation of ?? particles with relevant phenomenological consequences in the physics of the protoneutron stars and compact stars. Finally, we discuss the possible co-existence of very compact and very massive compact stars in terms of two separate families: compact hadronic stars and very massive quark stars.
Behera, B.; Routray, T. R.; Pradhan, A.; Patra, S. K.; Sahu, P. K.
2005-05-01
Momentum and density dependence of the isospin part of nuclear mean field u(k,?) which is still, in part, the open problem of the old Lane potential is analysed using density dependent finite range effective interactions. The behaviour of u(k=k,?) around the Fermi momentum k is found to be related to the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy J(?) and nucleon effective mass M(k=k,?)/M in symmetric nuclear matter. The momentum dependence of u(k,?) is separated out in terms of a simple functional u?ex(k,?) which vanishes at k=k and involves only the finite range parts of the exchange interactions between pairs of like and unlike nucleons. Depending on the choice of the parameters of these exchange interactions two conflicting trends of momentum dependence are noticed which lead to two opposite types of splitting of neutron and proton effective masses. The equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter and the high density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy J(?) are studied by constraining the additional parameters involved on the basis that pure neutron matter should not be predicted to be bound by any reasonable nuclear interaction. Emphasis is also given on the need of experimental data sensitive to the differences between neutron and proton transport properties in highly asymmetric dense nuclear matter and its analysis to constrain the high density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy as well as to resolve the controversy on the two opposite types of splitting of neutron and proton effective masses.
Variational study for the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures
Togashi, H; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.014
2013-01-01
An equation of state (EOS) for uniform asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is constructed at zero and finite temperatures by the variational method starting from the nuclear Hamiltonian that is composed of the Argonne v18 and Urbana IX potentials. At zero temperature, the two-body energy is calculated with the Jastrow wave function in the two-body cluster approximation which is supplemented by Mayer's condition and the healing-distance condition so as to reproduce the result by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall. The energy caused by the three-body force is treated somewhat phenomenologically so that the total energy reproduces the empirical saturation conditions. The masses and radii of neutron stars obtained with the EOS are consistent with recent observational data. At finite temperatures, thermodynamic quantities such as free energy, internal energy, entropy, pressure and chemical potentials are calculated with an extension of the method by Schmidt and Pandharipande. The validity of the frozen-correlation app...
Momentum, Density, and Isospin dependence of the Symmetric and Asymmetric Nuclear Matter Properties
Van Dalen, E N E; Fuchs, C; Faessler, Amand
2005-01-01
Properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter have been investigated in the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach based on projection techniques using the Bonn A potential. The momentum, density, and isospin dependence of the optical potentials and nucleon effective masses are studied. It turns out that the isovector optical potential depends sensitively on density and momentum, but is almost insensitive to the isospin asymmetry. Furthermore, the Dirac mass $m^*_D$ and the nonrelativistic mass $m^*_{NR}$ which parametrizes the energy dependence of the single particle spectrum, are both determined from relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations. The nonrelativistic mass shows a characteristic peak structure at momenta slightly above the Fermi momentum $\\kf$. The relativistic Dirac mass shows a proton-neutron mass splitting of $m^*_{D,n} m^*_{NR,p}$ which is in agreement with the results from nonrelativistic calculations.
Rabhi, A; Providência, C; Vidaña, I
2014-01-01
We study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields $B \\sim 10^{16} - 10^{17}$ G have already noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same order or even larger for small proton fractions and subsaturation densities for $B > 10^{16}$ G. We expect that neutron superfluidity in the crust will be affected by the presence of magnetic fields.
Decomposition of EOS of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter into Different Spin-isospin Channels
Zuo, Wei; Li, Jun-Qing; Zhao, En-Guang; Scheid, Werner
2013-01-01
We investigate the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter and its isospin dependence in various spin-isospin $ST$ channels within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach extended to include a microscopic three-body force (TBF). It is shown that the potential energy per nucleon in the isospin-singlet T=0 channel is mainly determined by the contribution from the tensor SD coupled channel. At high densities, the TBF effect on the isospin-triplet T=1 channel contribution turns out to be much larger than that on the T=0 channel contribution. At low densities around and below the normal nuclear matter density, the isospin dependence is found to come essentially from the isospin-singlet SD channel and the isospin-triplet T=1 component is almost independent of isospin-asymmetry. As the density increases, the T=1 channel contribution becomes sensitive to the isospin-asymmetry and at high enough densities its isospin-dependence may even become more pronounced than that of the T=0 contribution. The ...
Spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature within the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approximation using the realistic Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon potential plus a three-body force of Urbana type. Our results are compared with those obtained with the Skyrme force SLy230a and the relativistic mean field models NL3 and TW. We find that BHF predicts a larger spinodal region. This result is a direct consequence of the fact that our Brueckner calculation predicts a larger critical temperature and saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter than the Skyrme and relativistic mean field ones. We find that the instability is always dominated by total density fluctuations, in agreement with previous results of other authors. We study also the restoration of the isospin symmetry in the liquid phase, i.e., the so-called isospin distillation or fragmentation effect, finding that its efficiency increases with increasing proton fraction and decreases as temperature and density increase. In general, we find that the Brueckner results are comparable to those obtained with the Skyrme and the relativistic mean field models, although the restoration of isospin symmetry is not so efficient in this case
Spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner--Hartree--Fock approach
Vidana, Isaac
2008-01-01
We study the spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature within the microscopic Brueckner--Hartree--Fock (BHF) approximation using the realistic Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon potential plus a three-body force of Urbana type. Our results are compared with those obtained with the Skyrme force SLy230a and the relativistic mean field models NL3 and TW. We find that BHF predicts a larger spinodal region. This result is a direct consequence of the fact that our Brueckner calculation predicts a larger critical temperature and saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter than the Skyrme and relativistic mean field ones. We find that the instability is always dominated by total density fluctuations, in agreement with previous results of other authors. We study also the restoration of the isospin symmetry in the liquid phase, {\\it i.e.,} the so-called isospin distillation or fragmentation effect, finding that its efficiency increases with increasing proton fraction and decreases as tempera...
Spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vidana, Isaac [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: vidana@ecm.ub.es; Polls, Artur [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2008-08-21
We study the spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature within the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approximation using the realistic Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon potential plus a three-body force of Urbana type. Our results are compared with those obtained with the Skyrme force SLy230a and the relativistic mean field models NL3 and TW. We find that BHF predicts a larger spinodal region. This result is a direct consequence of the fact that our Brueckner calculation predicts a larger critical temperature and saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter than the Skyrme and relativistic mean field ones. We find that the instability is always dominated by total density fluctuations, in agreement with previous results of other authors. We study also the restoration of the isospin symmetry in the liquid phase, i.e., the so-called isospin distillation or fragmentation effect, finding that its efficiency increases with increasing proton fraction and decreases as temperature and density increase. In general, we find that the Brueckner results are comparable to those obtained with the Skyrme and the relativistic mean field models, although the restoration of isospin symmetry is not so efficient in this case.
Variational study for the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An equation of state (EOS) for uniform asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is constructed at zero and finite temperatures by the variational method starting from the nuclear Hamiltonian that is composed of the Argonne v18 and Urbana IX potentials. At zero temperature, the two-body energy is calculated with the Jastrow wave function in the two-body cluster approximation which is supplemented by Mayer's condition and the healing-distance condition so as to reproduce the result by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall. The energy caused by the three-body force is treated somewhat phenomenologically so that the total energy reproduces the empirical saturation conditions. The masses and radii of neutron stars obtained with the EOS are consistent with recent observational data. At finite temperatures, thermodynamic quantities such as free energy, internal energy, entropy, pressure and chemical potentials are calculated with an extension of the method by Schmidt and Pandharipande. The validity of the frozen-correlation approximation employed in this work is confirmed as compared with the result of the fully minimized calculation. The quadratic proton-fraction-dependence of the energy of ANM is confirmed at zero temperature, whereas the free energy of ANM deviates from the quadratic proton-fraction-dependence markedly at finite temperatures. The obtained EOS of ANM will be an important ingredient of a new nuclear EOS for supernova numerical simulations
Variational study for the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Togashi, H., E-mail: hajime_togashi@ruri.waseda.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takano, M. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2013-03-15
An equation of state (EOS) for uniform asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is constructed at zero and finite temperatures by the variational method starting from the nuclear Hamiltonian that is composed of the Argonne v18 and Urbana IX potentials. At zero temperature, the two-body energy is calculated with the Jastrow wave function in the two-body cluster approximation which is supplemented by Mayer's condition and the healing-distance condition so as to reproduce the result by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall. The energy caused by the three-body force is treated somewhat phenomenologically so that the total energy reproduces the empirical saturation conditions. The masses and radii of neutron stars obtained with the EOS are consistent with recent observational data. At finite temperatures, thermodynamic quantities such as free energy, internal energy, entropy, pressure and chemical potentials are calculated with an extension of the method by Schmidt and Pandharipande. The validity of the frozen-correlation approximation employed in this work is confirmed as compared with the result of the fully minimized calculation. The quadratic proton-fraction-dependence of the energy of ANM is confirmed at zero temperature, whereas the free energy of ANM deviates from the quadratic proton-fraction-dependence markedly at finite temperatures. The obtained EOS of ANM will be an important ingredient of a new nuclear EOS for supernova numerical simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuo, Wei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Bombaci, Ignazio [Universita di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Fermi' ' (Italy); Lombardo, Umberto [Universita di Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN), Catania (Italy)
2014-02-15
We present an upgraded review of our microscopic investigation on the single-particle properties and the EOS of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the Brueckner theory extended to include a microscopic three-body force. We pay special attention to the discussion of the three-body force effect and the comparison of our results with the predictions by other ab initio approaches. Three-body force is shown to be necessary for reproducing the empirical saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter within nonrelativistic microscopic frameworks, and also for extending the hole-line expansion to a wide density range. The three-body force effect on nuclear symmetry energy is repulsive, and it leads to a significant stiffening of the density dependence of symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. Within the Brueckner approach, the three-body force affects the nucleon s.p. potentials primarily via its rearrangement contribution which is strongly repulsive and momentum-dependent at high densities and high momenta. Both the rearrangement contribution induced by the three-body force and the effect of ground-state correlations are crucial for predicting reliably the single-particle properties within the Brueckner framework. (orig.)
Equation of state for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using Lane potential
D. N. Basu; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Samanta, C.
2006-01-01
A mean field calculation for obtaining the equation of state (EOS) for symmetric nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction supplemented by a zero-range potential is described. The energy per nucleon is minimized to obtain the ground state of symmetric nuclear matter. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the re...
Farina, Marco
2015-11-01
We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.
Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shin Ik Jae
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.
Asymmetric Dark Matter from Leptogenesis
Falkowski, Adam; Joshua T. Ruderman; Volansky, Tomer
2011-01-01
We present a new realization of asymmetric dark matter in which the dark matter and lepton asymmetries are generated simultaneously through two-sector leptogenesis. The right-handed neutrinos couple both to the Standard Model and to a hidden sector where the dark matter resides. This framework explains the lepton asymmetry, dark matter abundance and neutrino masses all at once. In contrast to previous realizations of asymmetric dark matter, the model allows for a wide range ...
Annihilating Asymmetric Dark Matter
Bell, Nicole F; Shoemaker, Ian M
2014-01-01
The relic abundance of particle and antiparticle dark matter (DM) need not be vastly different in thermal asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models. By considering the effect of a primordial asymmetry on the thermal Boltzmann evolution of coupled DM and anti-DM, we derive the requisite annihilation cross section. This is used in conjunction with CMB and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data to impose a limit on the number density of anti-DM particles surviving thermal freeze-out. When the extended gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center is reanalyzed in a thermal ADM framework, we find that annihilation into $\\tau$ leptons prefer anti-DM number densities 1-4$\\%$ that of DM while the $b$-quark channel prefers 50-100$\\%$.
Annihilating asymmetric dark matter
Bell, Nicole F.; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Shoemaker, Ian M.
2015-01-01
The relic abundance of particle and antiparticle dark matter (DM) need not be vastly different in thermal asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models. By considering the effect of a primordial asymmetry on the thermal Boltzmann evolution of coupled DM and anti-DM, we derive the requisite annihilation cross section. This is used in conjunction with cosmic microwave background and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data to impose a limit on the number density of anti-DM particles surviving thermal freeze-out. When the extended gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center is reanalyzed in a thermal ADM framework, we find that annihilation into ? leptons prefer anti-DM number densities 1%-4% that of DM while the b -quark channel prefers 50%-100%.
Minimal asymmetric dark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofiane M. Boucenna
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet ? carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between ? and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.
Minimal asymmetric dark matter
Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Krauss, Martin B.; Nardi, Enrico
2015-09-01
In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle-antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM) with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic) SU (2)L multiplet ? carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between ? and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y = 1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU (2) representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.
Originally Asymmetric Dark Matter
Okada, Nobuchika; Seto, Osamu
2012-01-01
We propose a scenario with a fermion dark matter, where the dark matter particle used to be the Dirac fermion, but it takes the form of the Majorana fermion at a late time. The relic number density of the dark matter is determined by the dark matter asymmetry generated through the same mechanism as leptogenesis when the dark matter was the Dirac fermion. After efficient dark matter annihilation processes have frozen out, a phase transition of a scalar field takes place and g...
Yin, Peng; Wang, Pei; Zuo, Wei; 10.1103/PhysRevC.87.014314
2013-01-01
We have investigated the three-body force (TBF) effect on the neutron and proton momentum distributions in asymmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach by adopting the $AV18$ two-body interaction plus a microscopic TBF. In asymmetric nuclear matter, it is shown that the neutron and proton momentum distributions become different from their common distribution in symmetric nuclear matter. The predicted depletion of the proton hole states increases while the neutron one decreases as a function of isospin-asymmetry. The TBF effect on the neutron and proton momentum distributions turns out to be negligibly weak at low densities around and below the normal nuclear density. The TBF effect is found to become sizable only at high densities well above the saturation density, and inclusion of the TBF leads to an overall enhancement of the depletion of the neutron and proton Fermi seas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We reexamine effects of the ?-? meson mixing mediated by nucleon polarizations on the symmetry energy in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. Taking into account the rearrangement term neglected in previous studies by others, we evaluate the ?-? mixing angle in a novel way within the relativistic mean-field models with and without chiral limits. It is found that the symmetry energy is significantly softened at high densities contrary to the finding in earlier studies. As the first step of going beyond the lowest-order calculations, we also solve the Dyson equation for the ?-? mixing. In this case, it is found that the symmetry energy is not only significantly softened by the ?-?mixing at suprasaturation densities, similar to the lowest-order ?-? mixing, but interestingly also softened at subsaturation densities. In addition, the softening of the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities can be partly suppressed by the nonlinear self-interaction of the ? meson.
Asymmetric Dark Matter from Leptogenesis
Falkowski, Adam; Volansky, Tomer
2011-01-01
We present a new realization of asymmetric dark matter in which the dark matter and lepton asymmetries are generated simultaneously through two-sector leptogenesis. The right-handed neutrinos couple both to the Standard Model and to a hidden sector where the dark matter resides. This framework explains the lepton asymmetry, dark matter abundance and neutrino masses all at once. In contrast to previous realizations of asymmetric dark matter, the model allows for a wide range of dark matter masses, from keV to 10 TeV. In particular, very light dark matter can be accommodated without violating experimental constraints. We discuss several variants of our model that highlight interesting phenomenological possibilities. In one, late decays repopulate the symmetric dark matter component, providing a new mechanism for generating a large annihilation rate at the present epoch and allowing for mixed warm/cold dark matter. In a second scenario, dark matter mixes with the active neutrinos, thus presenting a distinct meth...
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
Aguirre, Anthony
2015-01-01
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...
Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter
Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
2014-01-01
The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound st...
Solar Constraints on Asymmetric Dark Matter
Lopes, I.; Silk, J
2012-01-01
The dark matter content of the Universe is likely to be a mixture of matter and antimatter, perhaps comparable to the measured asymmetric mixture of baryons and antibaryons. During the early stages of the Universe, the dark matter particles are produced in a process similar to baryogenesis, and dark matter freeze-out depends on the dark matter asymmetry and the annihilation cross section (s-wave and p-wave annihilation channels). In these \\eta-parametrised asymmetric dark ma...
The deconfinement phase transition in asymmetric matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the phase transition of asymmetric hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma within the framework of a simple two-phase model. The analysis is performed in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. The EOS is obtained in a separate description for the hadronic phase and for the quark-gluon plasma. For the hadrons, a relativistic mean-field model calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter is used, and a bag-model type EOS is used for the quarks and gluons. The model is applied to the deconfinement phase transition that may occur in matter created in ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions. Based on the two-dimensional coexistence surface (binodal), various phase separation scenarios and the Maxwell construction through the mixed phase are discussed. In the framework of the two-phase model the phase transition in asymmetric matter is continuous (second-order by Ehrenfest's definition) in contrast to the discontinuous (first-order) transition of symmetric systems. (orig.)
Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.
García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John
2015-09-18
We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale ?_{QCD}^{'}?0.5-20??GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}??_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale ?_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, ?^{'}?b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (?5?_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio ?_{DM}/?_{baryon}?5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (?^{'}-?^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors. PMID:26430985
Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter
García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John
2015-09-01
We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)'×SU(2)', atwin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD' scale ?QCD'?0.5 - 20 GeV , and that t' is heavy. We focus on the light b' quark regime, mb'??QCD', where QCD' is characterized by a single scale ?QCD' with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3 /2 twin baryon, ?'˜b'b'b', with a dynamically determined mass (˜5 ?QCD') in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio ?DM/?baryon?5 . Gauging the U (1 )' group leads to twin atoms (?'-?' ¯ bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.
Asymmetric dark matter in braneworld cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B., E-mail: Michael.Meehan@my.jcu.edu.au, E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 Australia (Australia)
2014-06-01
We investigate the effect of a braneworld expansion era on the relic density of asymmetric dark matter. We find that the enhanced expansion rate in the early universe predicted by the Randall-Sundrum II (RSII) model leads to earlier particle freeze-out and an enhanced relic density. This effect has been observed previously by Okada and Seto (2004) for symmetric dark matter models and here we extend their results to the case of asymmetric dark matter. We also discuss the enhanced asymmetric annihilation rate in the braneworld scenario and its implications for indirect detection experiments.
Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter
García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John
2015-01-01
We study Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (Fraternal) Twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged $SU(3)' \\times SU(2)'$, a twin Higgs, and only third generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD$^\\prime$ scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD} \\simeq 0.5 - 20 \\ {\\rm GeV}$, and $t'$ to be heavy. We focus on the light $b'$ quark regime, $m_{b'} \\lesssim \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$, where QCD$^\\prime$ is characterised by a single scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$ with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful DM candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, $\\Delta' \\sim b'b'b'$, with a dynamically determined mass ($\\sim 5 \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio $\\Omega_{\\rm DM}/\\Omega_{\\rm baryon} \\simeq 5$. Gauging the $U(1)'$ group leads to twin atoms ($\\Delta'$ - $\\bar {\\tau'}$ bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo ...
Aidala, C; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bai, X; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Belmont, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bing, X; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; Cronin, N; Crossette, N; Csanád, M; Csörg?, T; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Ding, L; Do, J H; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; D'Orazio, L; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger,, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hanks, J; Hashimoto, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoshino, T; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isinhue, A; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, C; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Krizek, F; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, G H; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Leitch, M J; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Liu, M X; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Maruyama, T; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oide, H; Okada, K; Oskarsson, A; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Peng, J -C; Perepelitsa, D; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Ryu, M S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sekiguchi, Y; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sharma, D; Shaver, A; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skolnik, M; Slune?ka, M; Solano, S; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Soumya, M; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Stone, M R; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Whitaker, S; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Yoon, I; You, Z; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S
2014-01-01
We report on $J/\\psi$ production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of $J/\\psi$ yields in Cu$+$Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au$+$Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, $J/\\psi$ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-$x$ gluon suppression in the larger Au nucleus. The relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.
Nuclear matter effects on J /? production in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions at ?{sNN}=200 GeV
Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörg?, T.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; D'Orazio, L.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miller, A. J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slune?ka, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.
2014-12-01
We report on J /? production from asymmetric Cu + Au heavy-ion collisions at ?{sNN}=200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J /? yields in Cu + Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au + Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J /? production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression in the larger Au nucleus.
Sammarruca, F; White, L.; Chen, B
2012-01-01
We investigate the effects of charge independence and charge symmetry breaking in neutron-rich matter. We consider neutron and proton properties in isospin-asymmetric matter at normal densities as well as the high-density neutron matter equation of state and the bulk properties of neutron stars. We find charge symmetry and charge independence breaking effects to be very small.
Asymmetric Dark Matter: Theories, Signatures, and Constraints
Zurek, Kathryn M.
2013-01-01
We review theories of Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM), their cosmological implications and detection. While there are many models of ADM in the literature, our review of existing models will center on highlighting the few common features and important mechanisms for generation and transfer of the matter-anti-matter asymmetry between dark and visible sectors. We also survey ADM hidden sectors, the calculation of the relic abundance for ADM, and how the DM asymmetry may be erased...
Asymmetric dark matter from hidden sector baryogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kumar, Jason, E-mail: jkumar@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
2011-05-23
We consider the production of asymmetric dark matter during hidden sector baryogenesis. We consider a particular supersymmetric model where the dark matter candidate has a number density approximately equal to the baryon number density, with a mass of the same scale as the b, c and {tau}. Both baryon asymmetry and dark matter are created at the same time in this model. We describe collider and direct detection signatures of this model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Realistic versions of the M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction have been used to calculate the basic properties of asymmetric nuclear matter within a non-relativistic Hartree-Fock scheme. Special attention was devoted to the dependence of the binding energy, pressure and incompressibility upon the neutron-proton asymmetry. Our results reproduce reasonably well the empirical value of the symmetry energy and the softening of the equation of state for neutron-rich nuclear matter, as suggested in several supernova studies. The same effective interaction has been further used to calculate the interaction potential between neutron-rich nuclei within an extended version of the double-folding model, where the knock-on exchange and the isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are treated explicitly. The symmetry (isospin-dependent) term of the central nucleus-nucleus potential was found to be negligible compared to the isoscalar term. An exploratory study of the elastic 8He,11Li+14C scattering was performed using the new folded potentials, and possible signatures of the 8He,11Li neutron halos in these processes have been discussed. (orig.)
Baryon destruction by asymmetric dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate new and unusual signals that arise in theories where dark matter is asymmetric and carries a net antibaryon number, as may occur when the dark matter abundance is linked to the baryon abundance. Antibaryonic dark matter can cause induced nucleon decay by annihilating visible baryons through inelastic scattering. These processes lead to an effective nucleon lifetime of 1029-1032 yrs in terrestrial nucleon decay experiments, if baryon number transfer between visible and dark sectors arises through new physics at the weak scale. The possibility of induced nucleon decay motivates a novel approach for direct detection of cosmic dark matter in nucleon decay experiments. Monojet searches (and related signatures) at hadron colliders also provide a complementary probe of weak-scale dark-matter-induced baryon number violation. Finally, we discuss the effects of baryon-destroying dark matter on stellar systems and show that it can be consistent with existing observations.
Baryon Destruction by Asymmetric Dark Matter
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Sigurdson, Kris; Tulin, Sean
2011-01-01
We investigate new and unusual signals that arise in theories where dark matter is asymmetric and carries a net antibaryon number, as may occur when the dark matter abundance is linked to the baryon abundance. Antibaryonic dark matter can cause {\\it induced nucleon decay} by annihilating visible baryons through inelastic scattering. These processes lead to an effective nucleon lifetime of 10^{29}-10^{32} years in terrestrial nucleon decay experiments, if baryon number transfer between visible and dark sectors arises through new physics at the weak scale. The possibility of induced nucleon decay motivates a novel approach for direct detection of cosmic dark matter in nucleon decay experiments. Monojet searches (and related signatures) at hadron colliders also provide a complementary probe of weak-scale dark-matter--induced baryon number violation. Finally, we discuss the effects of baryon-destroying dark matter on stellar systems and show that it can be consistent with existing observations.
Asymmetric Inert Scalar Dark Matter
Dhen, Mikael
2015-01-01
In the quite minimal inert scalar doublet dark matter framework, we analyze what would be the effect of a $B-L$ asymmetry that could have been produced in the Universe thermal bath at high temperature. We show that, unless the "$\\lambda_5$" scalar interaction is tiny, this asymmetry is automatically reprocessed in part into a DM asymmetry that can easily dominate the DM relic density today. This scenario requires the inert DM mass scale to lie in the few-TeV range. Two types of relic density suppressions render this scenario viable: thermalization, from the same "$\\lambda_5$" interaction, of the asymmetries at temperature below the dark matter particle threshold, and DM particle-antiparticle oscillations.
DAMA annual modulation effect and asymmetric mirror matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Addazi, A.; Berezhiani, Z. [Universita di L' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Coppito, AQ (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Bernabei, R.; Belli, P. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Roma (Italy)
2015-08-15
The long-standing model-independent annual modulation effect measured by DAMA Collaboration is examined in the context of asymmetric mirror dark matter, assuming that dark atoms interact with target nuclei in the detector via kinetic mixing between mirror and ordinary photons, both being massless. The relevant ranges for the kinetic mixing parameter are obtained taking into account various existing uncertainties in nuclear and particle physics quantities as well as characteristic density and velocity distributions of dark matter in different halo models. (orig.)
Yong, Gao-Chan
2015-01-01
It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. And the size of inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. Existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.
Indirect Detection of Self-Interacting Asymmetric Dark Matter
Pearce, Lauren(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547, U.S.A.); Kusenko, Alexander
2013-01-01
Self-interacting dark matter resolves the issue of cuspy profiles that appear in non-interacting cold dark matter simluations; it may additionally resolve the so-called "too big to fail" problem in structure formation. Asymmetric dark matter provides a natural explanation of the comparable densities of baryonic matter and dark matter. In this paper, we discuss unique indirect detection signals produced by a minimal model of self-interacting asymmetric scalar dark matter. Thr...
Asymmetric dark matter and effective number of neutrinos
Kitabayashi, Teruyuki
2015-01-01
We study the effect of the MeV-scale asymmetric dark matter annihilation on the effective number of neutrinos $N_{\\rm eff}$ at the epoch of the big bang nucleosynthesis. If the asymmetric dark matter $\\chi$ couples more strongly to the neutrinos $\
Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric.
Charge asymmetric cosmic rays as a probe of flavor violating asymmetric dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric
Fixed-velocity chiral sum rules for nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, T.D. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Broniowski, W. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1997-02-01
Infinite sets of sum rules involving the excitations of infinite nuclear matter are derived using only completeness, the current algebra implicit in QCD, and relativistic covariance. The sum rules can be used for isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter, including neutron matter. They relate the chiral condensate and the isospin density to weighted sums over states with fixed velocity relative to the nuclear matter ground state. (author) 16 refs, 2 figs
Upper Bounds on Asymmetric Dark Matter Self Annihilation Cross Sections
ELLWANGER, Ulrich; Mitropoulos, Pantelis
2012-01-01
Most models for asymmetric dark matter allow for dark matter self annihilation processes, which can wash out the asymmetry at temperatures near and below the dark matter mass. We study the coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the symmetric and antisymmetric dark matter number densities, and derive conditions applicable to a large class of models for the absence of a significant wash-out of an asymmetry. These constraints are applied to various existing scenarios. In the ca...
Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. ...
Upper bounds on asymmetric dark matter self annihilation cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most models for asymmetric dark matter allow for dark matter self annihilation processes, which can wash out the asymmetry at temperatures near and below the dark matter mass. We study the coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the symmetric and antisymmetric dark matter number densities, and derive conditions applicable to a large class of models for the absence of a significant wash-out of an asymmetry. These constraints are applied to various existing scenarios. In the case of left- or right-handed sneutrinos, very large electroweak gaugino masses, or very small mixing angles are required
Upper bounds on asymmetric dark matter self annihilation cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellwanger, Ulrich; Mitropoulos, Pantelis, E-mail: ulrich.ellwanger@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: pantelis.mitropoulos@th.u-psud.fr [LPT, UMR 8627, CNRS, Université de Paris-Sud, Bât. 210, 91405 Campus d' Orsay (France)
2012-07-01
Most models for asymmetric dark matter allow for dark matter self annihilation processes, which can wash out the asymmetry at temperatures near and below the dark matter mass. We study the coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the symmetric and antisymmetric dark matter number densities, and derive conditions applicable to a large class of models for the absence of a significant wash-out of an asymmetry. These constraints are applied to various existing scenarios. In the case of left- or right-handed sneutrinos, very large electroweak gaugino masses, or very small mixing angles are required.
Upper Bounds on Asymmetric Dark Matter Self Annihilation Cross Sections
Ellwanger, Ulrich
2012-01-01
Most models for asymmetric dark matter allow for dark matter self annihilation processes, which can wash out the asymmetry at temperatures near and below the dark matter mass. We study the coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the symmetric and antisymmetric dark matter number densities, and derive conditions applicable to a large class of models for the absence of a significant wash-out of an asymmetry. These constraints are applied to various existing scenarios. In the case of left- or right-handed sneutrinos, very large electroweak gaugino masses, or very small mixing angles are required.
Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter
Bishara, Fady
2014-01-01
Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, the continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. The mediators for $B=2$ ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavor breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.
Continuous flavor symmetries and the stability of asymmetric dark matter
Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure
2015-01-01
Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, the continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. The mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavor breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.
Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, I.; Panci, P.
2012-01-01
We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S.; performing combined fits we determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background by Fermi for a complete set of lepton flavor violating primary modes and over a range of DM masses from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We find that the Fermi constraints rule out the flavor violating asymmetric Dark Matter interpretation of the charged cosmic ray anomalies.
Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and HESS performing combined fits we determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic ?-ray background by Fermi for a complete set of lepton flavor violating primary modes and over a range of DM masses from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We find that the Fermi constraints rule out the flavor violating asymmetric Dark Matter interpretation of the charged cosmic ray anomalies
Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir
2010-01-01
Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the `solar composition problem'. The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino fluxes may be measurable by the Borexino and SNO+ experiments.
Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir
2010-01-01
Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particl...
Chromomagnetism in nuclear matter
Ranjan, Akhilesh; Raina, P. K.
2011-01-01
Quarks are color charged particles. Due to their motion there is a strong possibility of generation of color magnetic field. It is shown that however hadrons are color singlet particles they may have non-zero color magnetic moment. Due to this color magnetic moment hadrons can show color interaction. In this paper we have studied the chromomagnetic properties of nuclear matter.
Kaon polarization in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The kaon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is considered by taking into account tree graphs, p-wave interaction, pionic intermediate states and some residual interaction constrained by Adler's consistency condition. The kaon spectra in nuclear matter are discussed as well as the possibility of K- and anti K0 condensation in dense nuclear matter. (orig.)
Decaying asymmetric dark matter relaxes the AMS-Fermi tension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first result of AMS-02 confirms the positron fraction excess observed by PAMELA, but the spectrum is somewhat softer than that of PAMELA. In the dark matter (DM) interpretation it brings a tension between AMS-02 and Fermi-LAT, which reported an excess of the electron plus positron flux. In this work we point out that the asymmetric cosmic ray from asymmetric dark matter (ADM) decay relaxes the tension. It is found that in the case of two-body decay a bosonic ADM around 2.4 TeV and decaying into ???+ can significantly improve the fits. Based on the R?parity-violating supersymmetry with operators LLEc, we propose a minimal model to realize that ADM. The model introduces only a pair of singlets (X, X-bar ) with a tiny coupling LHuX, which makes the ADM share the lepton asymmetry and decay into ???+ along the operator LLEc
A Model of Asymmetric Hadronic Dark Matter and Leptogenesis
Yang, Wei-Min(Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China)
2015-01-01
The paper suggests a model to account for the common origins of the asymmetric dark matter (ADM) and matter-antimatter asymmetry. The ADM nature is a stable hadronic particle consisting of a heavy color scalar and a light $u$ quark, which is formed after the QCD phase transition. At the early stage the ADM are in thermal equilibrium through collisions with the nucleons, moreover, they can emit the $\\gamma$ photons with $0.32$ MeV energy. However they are decoupling and becom...
Constraining asymmetric dark matter through observations of compact stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) can be trapped in progenitors in large numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We impose constraints competitive to direct dark matter search experiments, for WIMPs with masses down to the TeV scale.
Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, I.; Panci, P.; Sannino, F.
2012-01-01
We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S.; performing combined fits we determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background by Fermi for a complete ...
Constraining Asymmetric Dark Matter through observations of compact stars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter
2011-01-01
We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), WIMPs can be trapped in progenitors in large numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We impose constraints competitive to direct dark matter search experiments, for WIMPs with masses down to the TeV scale.
Nuclear Matter Equation of State and Three body Forces
Mansour, Hesham M. M.; Gamoudi, Abdelsalam
2011-01-01
The energy per particle, symmetry energy, pressure, Free energy are calculated for asymmetric nuclear matter using BHF approach and modern nucleon-nucleon CD-Bonn, Nijm1, Argonnev18 and Reid93 potentials. To obtain saturation in nuclear matter we add three-body interaction terms which are equivalent a la Skyrme to a density-dependent two-nucleon interaction. Good agreement is obtained in comparison with previous theoretical estimates and experimental data.
A Model of Asymmetric Hadronic Dark Matter and Leptogenesis
Yang, Wei-Min
2015-01-01
The paper suggests a model to account for the common origins of the asymmetric dark matter (ADM) and matter-antimatter asymmetry. The ADM nature is a stable hadronic particle consisting of a heavy color scalar and a light $u$ quark, which is formed after the QCD phase transition. At the early stage the ADM are in thermal equilibrium through collisions with the nucleons, moreover, they can emit the $\\gamma$ photons with $0.32$ MeV energy. However they are decoupling and become the dark matter at the temperature about $130$ MeV. The mass upper limit of the ADM is predicted as $M_{D}<1207$ GeV. It is feasible and promising to test the model in future experiments.
Bulk matters on symmetric and asymmetric de Sitter thick branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Wei, Shao-Wen; Duan, Yi-Shi, E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhaozhenhua@impcas.ac.cn, E-mail: weishaow06@lzu.cn, E-mail: ysduan@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Tianshui South Road 222, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2009-02-15
An asymmetric thick domain wall solution with de Sitter (dS) expansion in five dimensions can be constructed from a symmetric one by using a same scalar (kink) with different potentials. In this paper, by presenting the mass-independent potentials of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the corresponding Schroedinger equations, we investigate the localization and mass spectra of various bulk matter fields on the symmetric and asymmetric dS thick branes. For spin 0 scalars and spin 1 vectors, the potentials of KK modes in the corresponding Schroedinger equations are the modified Poeschl-Teller potentials, and there exist a mass gap and a series of continuous spectrum. It is shown that the spectrum of scalar KK modes on the symmetric dS brane contains only one bound mode (the massless mode). However, for the asymmetric dS brane with a large asymmetric factor, there are two bound scalar KK modes: a zero mode and a massive mode. For spin 1 vectors, the spectra of KK modes on both dS branes consist of a bound massless mode and a set of continuous ones, i.e., the asymmetric factor does not change the number of the bound vector KK modes. For spin 1/2 fermions, two types of kink-fermion couplings are investigated in detail. For the usual Yukawa coupling {eta}barPsi{phi}{Psi}, there exists no mass gap but a continuous gapless spectrum of KK states. For the scalar-fermion coupling {eta}barPsisin({phi}/{phi}{sub 0})cos{sup -{delta}}({phi}/{phi}{sub 0}){Psi} with a positive coupling constant {eta}, there exist some discrete bound KK modes and a series of continuous ones. The total number of bound states increases with the coupling constant {eta}. For the case of the symmetric dS brane and positive {eta}, there are N{sub L}(N{sub L} {>=} 1) left chiral fermion bound states (including zero mode and massive KK modes) and N{sub L}-1 right chiral fermion bound states (including only massive KK modes). For the asymmetric dS brane scenario, the asymmetric factor a reduces the number of the bound fermion KK modes. For large enough a, there would not be any right chiral fermion bound mode, but at least one left chiral fermion zero mode.
Muller, H. -M.; Koonin, S. E.; Seki, R.; van Kolck, U.
1999-01-01
We investigate nuclear matter on a cubic lattice. An exact thermal formalism is applied to nucleons with a Hamiltonian that accommodates on-site and next-neighbor parts of the central, spin- and isospin-exchange interactions. We describe the nuclear matter Monte Carlo methods which contain elements from shell model Monte Carlo methods and from numerical simulations of the Hubbard model. We show that energy and basic saturation properties of nuclear matter can be reproduced. ...
Constraining Asymmetric Dark Matter through observations of compact stars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter
2011-01-01
We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), WIMPs can be trapped in progenitors in large numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We...
Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew S. Devine
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.
Propagation of neutrinos in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the elementary interactions between neutrinos and dense matter in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme, Gogny, Relativistic Lagrangians) are first discussed. Then, we characterize their stability in spin and isospin. We derive magnetic susceptibilities for all isospin asymmetry values as a function of Landau parameters G??'0 (where ?, ?' = proton or neutron). From this work, we select a parametrization for each of the 3 effective forces: Sly230b,D1P,NL3. We calculate the pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter response functions with and without charge exchange, describing nuclear correlations in both approaches: non-relativistic (Hartree-Fock with Skyrme forces, then complete RPA) and relativistic (in the Hartree approximation). At the end, we calculate neutrino mean free paths neutral current and charged current reactions. Comparisons between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches allow us to identify relativistic effects in nuclear matter at densities as low as twice the saturation density. RPA correlations make the medium more transparent to neutrinos compared to free Fermi gas. The importance of the effective mass in mean free path calculations is also shown. (author)
Nuclear matter and electron scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
1998-06-01
We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)
Three-body Force Effects on the Properties of Neutron-rich Nuclear Matter
Zuo, Wei
2012-01-01
We review our research work on the single-particle properties and the equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach extended by including a microscopic three-body force (TBF). The TBF is shown to affect significantly the nuclear matter EOS and the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities above the normal nuclear matter density, and it is necessary for reproducing the empir...
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-10-23
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Monte Carlo approach to nuclei and nuclear matter
Fantoni, Stefano; Gandolfi, Stefano; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Pederiva, Francesco
2008-01-01
We report on the most recent applications of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method. The equation of state (EOS) for pure neutron matter in both normal and BCS phase and the superfluid gap in the low--density regime are computed, using a realistic Hamiltonian containing the Argonne AV8' plus Urbana IX three--nucleon interaction. Preliminary results for the EOS of isospin--asymmetric nuclear matter are also presented.
Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
Biberian, Jean-Paul
2006-02-01
1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results of analysis of Ti foil after glow discharge with deuterium / I. B. Savvat
Phase transitions in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references
Bosonic variables in nuclear matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the boson theoretical interpretation of nuclear forces nessecitates the introduction of bosonic variables within the state function of nuclear matter. In this framework the 2-boson exchange plays a decisive role and calls for the introduction of special selfenergy diagrams. This generalized scheme is discussed with the help of a solvable field theoretical model. (orig.)
Anatomy of nuclear matter fundamentals
Patra, S . K.; Biswal, S. K.; Singh, S.K.; M Bhuyan
2014-01-01
The bridge between finite and infinite nuclear system is analyzed for the fundamental quantities like binding energy, density, compressibility, giant monopole excitation energy and effective mass of both nuclear matter and finite nuclei systems. It is shown quantitatively that by knowing one of the fundamental property of one system one can estimate the same in its counter part, only approximately
Moments of ? meson spectral functions in vacuum and nuclear matter
Gubler, Philipp; Weise, Wolfram
2015-12-01
Moments of the ? meson spectral function in vacuum and in nuclear matter are analyzed, combining a model based on chiral SU (3) effective field theory (with kaonic degrees of freedom) and finite-energy QCD sum rules. For the vacuum we show that the spectral density is strongly constrained by a recent accurate measurement of the e+e- ?K+K- cross section. In nuclear matter the ? spectrum is modified by interactions of the decay kaons with the surrounding nuclear medium, leading to a significant broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the ? meson peak. We demonstrate that both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the first two moments of the spectral function are compatible with finite-energy QCD sum rules. A brief discussion of the next-higher spectral moment involving strange four-quark condensates is also presented.
Nuclear fluxes during coherent tunnelling in asymmetric double well potentials
Liu, ChunMei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang
2015-08-01
Previous results for nuclear fluxes during coherent tunnelling of molecules with symmetric double well potentials are extended to fluxes in asymmetric double well potentials. The theory is derived using the two-state approximation (TSA). The symmetric system serves as a reference. As an example, we consider the one-dimensional model of the tunnelling inversion of oriented ammonia, with semiclassical dipole coupling to an electric field. The tunnelling splitting increases with the dipole coupling by a factor f?slant 1. The tunnelling time decreases by 1/f. The nuclear density appears as the sum of two parts: The tunnelling part decreases as {1/f}2 times the density of the symmetric reference, whereas the non-tunnelling part is the initial density times ?ft({{1-1}/f}2\\right). Likewise, the nuclear flux decreases by 1/f, with essentially the same shape as for the symmetric reference, with maximum value at the potential barrier. Coherent nuclear tunnellings starting from the upper or lower wells of the asymmetric potential are equivalent. The results are universal, in the frame of the TSA, hence they allow straightforward extrapolations from one system to others. This is demonstrated by the prediction of isotope effects for five isotopomers of ammonia.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter
Symmetry energy: from nuclear matter to finite nuclei
Kolomietz, V M
2014-01-01
We suggest a particular procedure of derivation of the beta-stability line and isotopic symmetry energy. The behavior of the symmetry energy coefficient $b(A,N-Z)$ is analyzed. We redefine the surface tension coefficient and the surface symmetry energy for an asymmetric nuclear Fermi-liquid drop with a finite diffuse layer. Following Gibbs-Tolman concept, we introduce the equimolar radius at which the surface tension is applied. The relation of the nuclear macroscopic characteristics like surface and symmetry energies, Tolman length, etc. to the bulk properties of nuclear matter is considered. The surface-to-volume symmetry energy ratio for several Skyrme-force parametrizations is obtained.
Nuclear and neutron matters at low density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter, as well as pure neutron matter in the low-density regime, where the density ranges 0.01 fm-3 ? 0.13 fm-3, have been investigated. Two different realistic and accurate two-body forces are considered. These include Argonne V18 and the CD-Bonn, which give quite different equations of state. The binding energy per nucleon as a function of the density is calculated using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Both the conventional (gap) and continuous choice of single-particle energies are utilized. For the sake of comparison, the equation of state within the self-consistent Green's function approach is calculated using the CD-Bonn potential. The contribution of the hole-hole terms leads to a repulsive contribution to the energy per nucleon which increases with the nuclear density. Significantly, very good agreement between the experimental symmetry energy values and those calculated in the self-consistent Green's function and BHF approaches especially at low density, has been accomplished. Finally, The results are compared with those from various many-body approaches, such as variational and relativistic mean field approaches. (orig.)
Big Bang synthesis of nuclear dark matter
Hardy, Edward; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John; West, Stephen M.
2015-06-01
We investigate the physics of dark matter models featuring composite bound states carrying a large conserved dark "nucleon" number. The properties of sufficiently large dark nuclei may obey simple scaling laws, and we find that this scaling can determine the number distribution of nuclei resulting from Big Bang Dark Nucleosynthesis. For plausible models of asymmetric dark matter, dark nuclei of large nucleon number, e.g. ? 108, may be synthesised, with the number distribution taking one of two characteristic forms. If small-nucleon-number fusions are sufficiently fast, the distribution of dark nuclei takes on a logarithmically-peaked, universal form, independent of many details of the initial conditions and small-number interactions. In the case of a substantial bottleneck to nucleosynthesis for small dark nuclei, we find the surprising result that even larger nuclei, with size ? 108, are often finally synthesised, again with a simple number distribution. We briefly discuss the constraints arising from the novel dark sector energetics, and the extended set of (often parametrically light) dark sector states that can occur in complete models of nuclear dark matter. The physics of the coherent enhancement of direct detection signals, the nature of the accompanying dark-sector form factors, and the possible modifications to astrophysical processes are discussed in detail in a companion paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: High energy collisions of Hadrons or finite Nuclei with nuclei can generate locally high density and temperature. In such a case there will be copious production of mesons and baryons with strange, charm and bottom quarks. This will allow a study of their behaviour in nuclei, thus opening a vast range of new nuclear physics that complements the usual nuclear physics. The propagation and decay of these tagged particles will help us to understand the role of high density and temperature. There is also a large probability of producing double hypernuclei, thus allowing a study of interaction among hyperons. At present Japan Hadron Facility is focussed on such studies. However colliders like RHIC, that is able to study the deconfinement transition, and LHCb, the b meson facility at LHC, will add a great deal of new information. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heiselberg, H. [NORDITA, Copenhagen (Denmark)
1998-06-01
The kaon energy in a nuclear medium and its dependence on kaon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon correlations is discussed. The transition from the Lenz potential at low densities to the Hartree potential at high densities can be calculated analytically by making a Wigner-Seitz cell approximation and employing a square well potential. As the Hartree potential is less attractive than the Lenz one, kaon condensation inside cores of neutron stars appears to be less likely than previously estimated. (orig.)
Role of isospin in nuclear-matter liquid-gas phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)
Periodic structure in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of nuclear matter are studied in the framework of the quantumhadrodynamics. Assuming an ?-meson field, periodic in space, a self-consistent set of equations is derived in mean field approximation for the description of nucleons interacting via ?-meson and ?-meson fields. Solutins of these self-consistent equations have been found: the baryon density is constant in space, however the baryon current density is periodic. This high density phase of nuclear matter can be produced by anisotropic external pressure, occurring e.g. in relativistic heavy ion reactions. The self-consistent fields developing beyond the instability limit have a special screw symmetry. In the presence of such an ? field the energy spectrum of the relativistic nucleons exhibits allowed and forbidden bands similarly to the energy spectrum of the electrons in solids. (author) 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab
BCS-BEC crossovers and unconventional phases in dilute nuclear matter. II
Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W
2014-01-01
We study the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetrical nuclear matter in the density-temperature plane, allowing for four competing phases of nuclear matter: (i) the unpaired phase, (ii) the translationally and rotationally symmetric, but isospin-asymmetrical BCS condensate, (iii) the current-carrying Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase, and (iv) the heterogeneous phase-separated phase. The phase diagram of nuclear matter composed of these phases features two tri-critical points in general, as well as crossovers from the asymmetrical BCS phase to a BEC of deuterons plus a neutron gas, both for the homogeneous superfluid phase (at high temperatures) and for the heterogeneous phase (at low temperatures). The BCS-BEC type crossover in the condensate occurs as the density is reduced. We analyze in detail some intrinsic properties of these phases, including the Cooper-pair wave function, the coherence length, the occupation numbers of majority and minority nucleonic components, and the dispersion relations of quasi...
Three-body Force Effects on the Properties of Neutron-rich Nuclear Matter
Zuo, Wei
2013-01-01
We review our research work on the single-particle properties and the equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach extended by including a microscopic three-body force (TBF). The TBF is shown to affect significantly the nuclear matter EOS and the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities above the normal nuclear matter density, and it is necessary for reproducing the empirical saturation property of symmetric nuclear matter in a nonrelativistic microscopic framework. The TBF-induced rearrangement effect and the ground state (g.s.) correlation effect on the s.p. properties in neutron-rich nuclear matter are investigated. Both effects turn out to be crucial for predicting reliably the s.p. properties within the Brueckner framework. The TBF effect on nucleon superfluidity in neutron star matter and neutron stars has also been discussed.
Asymmetric nuclear reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer?
Loi, Pasqualino; Beaujean, Nathalie; Khochbin, Saadi; Fulka, Josef; Ptak, Grazyna
2008-01-01
Despite the progress achieved over the last decade after the birth of the first cloned mammal, the efficiency of reproductive cloning remains invariably low. However, research aiming at the use of nuclear transfer for the production of patient-tailored stem cells for cell/tissue therapy is progressing rapidly. Yet, reproductive cloning has many potential implications for animal breeding, transgenic research and the conservation of endangered species. In this article we suggest that the changes in the epi-/genotype observed in cloned embryos arise from unbalanced nuclear reprogramming between parental chromosomes. It is probable that the oocyte reprogramming machinery, devised for resident chromosomes, cannot target the paternal alleles of somatic cells. We, therefore, suggest that a reasonable approach to balance this asymmetry in nuclear reprogramming might involve the transient expression in donor cells of chromatin remodelling proteins, which are physiologically expressed during spermatogenesis, in order to induce a male-specific chromatin organisation in the somatic cells before nuclear transfer. PMID:18081016
Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun
Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan
2015-01-01
Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is consider...
Baryogenesis and asymmetric dark matter from the left–right mirror symmetric model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper suggests a left–right mirror symmetric model to account for the baryogenesis and asymmetric dark matter. The model can simultaneously accommodate the standard model, neutrino physics, matter–antimatter asymmetry and dark matter. In particular, it naturally and elegantly explains the origin of the baryon and dark matter asymmetries, and clearly gives the close interrelations of them. In addition, the model predicts a number of interesting results, e.g. that the cold dark matter neutrino mass is 3.1 times the proton mass. It is also feasible and promising to test the model in future experiments
Quartic isospin asymmetry energy of nuclear matter from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics
Kaiser, N.
2015-06-01
Based on a chiral approach to nuclear matter, the quartic term in the expansion of the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is calculated. The contributions to the quartic isospin asymmetry energy A4(kf) arising from 1 ? exchange and chiral 2 ? exchange in nuclear matter are calculated analytically together with three-body terms involving virtual ? (1232 ) isobars. From these interaction terms one obtains at saturation density ?0=0.16 fm-3 the value A4(kf 0) =1.5 MeV , more than three times as large as the kinetic energy part. Moreover, iterated 1 ? exchange exhibits components for which the fourth derivative with the respect to the isospin asymmetry parameter ? becomes singular at ? =0 . The genuine presence of a nonanalytical term ?4ln|? | in the expansion of the energy per particle of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is demonstrated by evaluating an s -wave contact interaction at second order.
Anomalous pseudorapidity correlations in asymmetrical nucleus-nuclear interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By the method of normalized amplitude the analysis of pseudorapidity correlations in 315 interaction of 197Au nuclei with energy 10.7 GeV/nucleon and 264 interactions of 32S nuclei with energy 200 GeV/nucleon with photoemulsion nuclei was carried out. The events with anomalous multi-particle correlations have been revealed. At that the most effect in interaction of asymmetrical nuclei has been exhibited namely in Au nuclei and nuclei of CNO group in which the complete target nucleus decay is taking place. For clarification anomalous events a nucleus-nuclear interactions with pseudo-rapidity distributions were simulated. From simulation calculation it was revealed, that behavior of experimental correlation curve of anomalous events is similarly to correlation curve, corresponding to processes of blowing up character with generation of some interim system of great size, from which of the 40 % secondary particles in rather narrow pseudo-rapidities range ??<1 have being born
Hot Nuclear Matter Equation of State and Finite Temperature Kaon Condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform a systematic calculation of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature within the framework of the Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach with a microscopic three-body force. When applying it to the study of hot kaon condensed matter, we find that the thermal effect is more profound in comparison with normal matter, in particular around the threshold density. Also, the increase of temperature makes the equation of state slightly stiffer through suppression of kaon condensation
Quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A microscopic calculation of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter is detailed. In order to take especial care of the contributions from the low momentum states, a model space is introduced. Excluded from the model space, the high momentum states are absorbed into the model interaction. Brueckner theory suggests the choice of a truncated G-matrix as a good approximation for this model interaction. A simple perturbative approach is attempted within the model space. The calculated quasiparticle interaction is consistent with experimental results. (11 tables, 14 figures)
Carbone, A.; Polls, A.; Rios, A.; Vidana, I.
2010-01-01
We study the latent heat of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter using self-consistent mean-field calculations with a few Skyrme forces. The temperature dependence of the latent heat is rather independent of the mean-field parametrization and it can be characterized by a few parameters. At low temperatures, the latent heat tends to the saturation energy. Near the critical point, the latent heat goes to zero with a well-determined mean-field critical exponent. A maximum ...
Hot Nuclear Matter : A Variational Approach
Mishra, H.; Misra, S. P.; P.K. Panda; Parida, B. K.
1992-01-01
We develop a nonperturbative technique in field theory to study properties of infinite nuclear matter at zero temperature as well as at finite temperatures. Here we dress the nuclear matter with off-mass shell pions. The techniques of thermofield dynamics are used for finite temperature calculations. Equation of state is derived from the dynamics of the interacting system in a self consistent manner. The transition temperature for nuclear matter appears to be around 15 MeV.
Nuclear matter between gas and liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heavy ion collisions on target nuclei can create very hot and very dense nuclear systems. The way back to equilibrium that follows the nuclear matter is not very well known. To observe its condensation would be a spectacular show of nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. This article presents the nuclear matter-real gas analogy and recalls notions of critical points, around which droplets are forming. Nuclear fragment research near the critical point at GANIL, SARA or at the Michigan State University cyclotron is then evoked in relation to the condensation phenomenon
Hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory
Petschauer, S; Kaiser, N; Meißner, Ulf-G; Weise, W
2015-01-01
Brueckner theory is used to investigate the properties of hyperons in nuclear matter. The hyperon-nucleon interaction is taken from chiral effective field theory at next-to-leading order with SU(3) symmetric low-energy constants. Furthermore, the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction is also derived within chiral effective field theory. We present the single-particle potentials of Lambda and Sigma hyperons in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter computed with the continuous choice for intermediate spectra. The results are in good agreement with the empirical information. In particular, our calculation gives a repulsive Sigma-nuclear potential and a weak Lambda-nuclear spin-orbit force.
Asymmetric dark matter from spontaneous cogenesis in the supersymmetric standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2012-01-15
The observational relation between the density of baryon and dark matter in the Universe, {omega}{sub DM}/{omega}{sub B}{approx_equal}5, is one of the most difficult problems to solve in modern cosmology. We discuss a scenario that explains this relation by combining the asymmetric dark matter scenario and the spontaneous baryogenesis associated with the flat direction in the supersymmetric standard model. A part of baryon asymmetry is transferred to charge asymmetry D that dark matter carries, if a symmetry violating interaction that works at high temperature breaks not only B-L but also D symmetries simultaneously. In this case, the present number density of baryon and dark matter can be same order if the symmetric part of dark matter annihilates sufficiently. Moreover, the baryon number density can be enhanced as compared to that of dark matter if another B-L violating interaction is still in thermal equilibrium after the spontaneous genesis of dark matter, which accommodates a TeV scale asymmetric dark matter model. (orig.)
Unifying Asymmetric Inert Fermion Doublet Dark Matter and Leptogenesis with Neutrino Mass
Sahu, Narendra
2012-01-01
We propose a scalar Triplet extension of the standard model (SM) to unify the origin of neutrino mass with the visible and dark matter component of the Universe. We assume that the scalar triplet is super heavy, so that its CP-violating out-of-equilibrium decay in the early Universe not only produce asymmetric dark matter which is the neutral component of an additional vector like fermion doublet, but also give rise to lepton asymmetry. The latter gets converted to observed baryon asymmetry via B+L violating sphaleron processes. Below electroweak phase transition the scalar triplet acquires a vacuum expectation value and give rise to sub-eV Majorana masses to three flavors of active neutrinos. Thus an unification of the origin of neutrino mass, lepton asymmetry and asymmetric dark matter is achieved within a scalar triplet extension of the SM.
Does asymmetric dark matter always lead to an anti-neutrino signal?
Fukuda, Hajime; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan
2014-01-01
Under rather generic assumptions, we show that in the asymmetric dark matter (ADM) scenario, the sign of the B-L asymmetry stored in the dark matter sector and the standard model sector are always the same. One particularly striking consequence of this result is that, when the dark matter decays or annihilates in the present universe, the resulting final state always involves an anti-neutrino. As a concrete example of this, we construct a composite ADM model and explore the feasibility of detecting such an anti-neutrino signal in atmospheric neutrino detectors.
Asymmetric Dark Matter and CP Violating Scatterings in a UV Complete Model
Baldes, Iason; Millar, Alexander J; Volkas, Raymond R
2015-01-01
We explore possible asymmetric dark matter models using CP violating scatterings to generate an asymmetry. In particular, we introduce a new model, based on DM fields coupling to the SM Higgs and lepton doublets, $\\overline{L}H$, and explore its UV completions. We study the CP violation and asymmetry formation of this model, to demonstrate that it is capable of producing the correct abundance of dark matter and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Crucial to achieving this is the introduction of interactions which violate CP with a $T^{2}$ dependence.
Asymmetric dark matter and CP violating scatterings in a UV complete model
Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F.; Millar, Alexander J.; Volkas, Raymond R.
2015-10-01
We explore possible asymmetric dark matter models using CP violating scatterings to generate an asymmetry. In particular, we introduce a new model, based on DM fields coupling to the SM Higgs and lepton doublets, a neutrino portal, and explore its UV completions. We study the CP violation and asymmetry formation of this model, to demonstrate that it is capable of producing the correct abundance of dark matter and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Crucial to achieving this is the introduction of interactions which violate CP with a T2 dependence.
Structure of the subsaturated nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maruyama, Toshiki; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Chiba, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Niita, Koji; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro
1998-07-01
Quantum molecular dynamics is applied to study the ground state and excited state properties of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. The structure of nuclear matter at subsaturation density shows some exotic shapes with variation of the density. However, the structure in our result is rather irregular compared to those of previous works due to the existence of local minimum configurations. (author)
Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the latent heat of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter using self-consistent mean-field calculations with a few Skyrme forces. The temperature dependence of the latent heat is rather independent of the mean-field parametrization and it can be characterized by a few parameters. At low temperatures, the latent heat tends to the saturation energy. Near the critical point, the latent heat goes to zero with a well-determined mean-field critical exponent. A maximum value of the latent heat in the range l?25-30 MeV is found at intermediate temperatures, which might have experimental relevance. All these features can be explained from very basic principles.
Carbone, Arianna; Rios, Arnau; Vidaña, Isaac
2010-01-01
We study the latent heat of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter using self-consistent mean-field calculations with a few Skyrme forces. The temperature dependence of the latent heat is rather independent of the mean-field parametrization and can be characterized by a few parameters. At low temperatures, the latent heat tends to the saturation energy. Near the critical point, the latent heat goes to zero with a well-determined mean-field critical exponent. A maximum value of the latent heat in the range l ~ 25-30 MeV is found at intermediate temperatures, which might have experimental relevance. All these features can be explained from very basic principles.
Light asymmetric dark matter from new strong dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai
2011-01-01
A ~5 GeV `dark baryon' with a cosmic asymmetry similar to that of baryons is a natural candidate for the dark matter. We study the possibility of generating such a state through dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking, and show that it can share the relic baryon asymmetry via sphaleron interactions, even though it has no electroweak interactions. The scattering cross-section on nucleons, estimated in analogy to QCD, is within reach of underground direct detection experiments.
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases in isospin-asymmetric matter
Nowakowski, Daniel; Carignano, Stefano; Wambach, Jochen
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of isospin asymmetry on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases within the two-flavor NJL model. After introducing a plane-wave ansatz for each quark-flavor condensate, we find that, as long as their periodicities are enforced to be equal, a non-zero isospin chemical potential shrinks the size of the inhomogeneous phase. The asymmetry reached in charge neutral matter is nevertheless not excessively large, so that an inhomogeneous window is still present in the phase diagram. Lifting the constraint of equal periodicities alters the picture significantly, as the inhomogeneous phase survives in a much larger region of the phase diagram.
Collective modes in strange and isospin asymmetric hadronic matter
Aguirre, R M
2004-01-01
We study the propagation of non-strange and strange meson modes in hadronic matter considering isospin and/or strangeness mixing induced by quantum fluctuations in the medium. Baryons are described using the Quark Meson Coupling model extended to include couplings with strange quarks. In particular we evaluate the dependence of the meson masses on the baryonic density, the strangeness fraction and the isospin asymmetry of the medium. We have found a considerable admixture of strangeness and isospin in the sigma mode at the high density regime.
Bordbar, G H; Taghizade, M
2015-01-01
In this work, we have done a completely microscopic calculation using a many-body variational method based on the cluster expansion of energy to compute the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter. In our calculations, we have employed the $AV_{18}$ nuclear potential. We have also investigated the temperature and density dependence of asymmetry energy. Our results show that the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter depends on both density and temperature. We have also studied the effects of different terms in the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter. These investigations indicate that at different densities and temperatures, the contribution of parabolic term is very substantial with respect to the other terms. Therefore, we can conclude that the parabolic approximation is a relatively good estimation, and our calculated binding energy of asymmetric nuclear matter is in a relatively good agreement with that of semi-empirical mass formula. However, for the accurate calculations, it is better to consider the effects of o...
Nuclear matter, nuclear and subnuclear degrees of freedom
Alberico, Wanda M.
1999-01-01
We report here theoretical investigations on the complexity of nuclear structure, which have been carried out in the framework of different many-body approaches, typically applied to nuclear matter and quark matter studies. The variational, functional and perturbative scheme are illustrated in their latest developments. The effect of various nucleon-nucleon interactions are tested, particularly in the context of the nuclear response functions, against a large body of experim...
Asymmetric dark matter in early Universe chemical equilibrium always leads to an antineutrino signal
Fukuda, Hajime; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan
2015-07-01
Under rather generic assumptions, we show that, in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) scenarios in which the ADM sector was in chemical equilibrium with the standard model sector in early epochs, the sign of the B -L asymmetry stored in the dark matter sector and the standard model sector are always the same. One particularly striking consequence of this result is that, when such an ADM decays or annihilates in the present universe, the resulting final state always involves an antineutrino. As a concrete example, we construct a composite ADM model and explore the feasibility of detecting such an antineutrino signal in atmospheric neutrino detectors.
Light Asymmetric Dark Matter on the Lattice: SU(2) Technicolor with Two Fundamental Flavors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lewis, Randy; Pica, Claudio
2012-01-01
The SU(2) gauge theory with two massless Dirac flavors constitutes the building block of several models of Technicolor. Furthermore it has also been used as a template for the construction of a natural light asymmetric, or mixed type, dark matter candidate. We use explicit lattice simulations to confirm the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking by determining the Goldstone spectrum and therefore show that the dark matter candidate can, de facto, be constituted by a complex Goldstone boson. We also determine the phenomenologically relevant spin one and spin zero isovector spectrum and demonstrate that it is well separated from the Goldstone spectrum.
Dense nuclear matter and symmetry energy in strong magnetic fields
Dong, Jianmin; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Hongfei
2012-01-01
The properties of nuclear matter in the presence of a strong magnetic field, including the density-dependent symmetry energy, the chemical composition and spin polarizations, are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field models FSU-Gold. The anomalous magnetic moments (AMM) of the particles and the nonlinear isoscalar-isovector coupling are included. It is found that the parabolic isospin-dependence of the energy per nucleon of asymmetric nuclear matter remains valid for values of the magnetic field below $10^{5}B_{c}^{e}$, $B_{c}^{e}=4.414\\times10^{13}$G being the electron critical field. Accordingly, the symmetry energy can be obtained by the difference of the energy per nucleon in pure neutron matter and that in symmetric matter. The symmetry energy, which is enhanced by the presence of the magnetic field, significantly affects the chemical composition and the proton polarization. The effects of the AMM of each component on the energy per nucleon, symmetry energy, chemical composition an...
Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas
Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun
2015-12-01
Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K? = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.
Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas
Wang, Ning; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun
2015-01-01
Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizs\\"acker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are $K_\\infty=230 \\pm 11$ MeV and $235\\pm 11$ MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is $L=41.6\\pm 7.6$ MeV for LSD and $51.5\\pm 9.6$ MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [ApJ. \\textbf{771}, 51 (2013)]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrm...
Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic–microscopic mass formulas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Wang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas–Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic–microscopic mass formulas: Lublin–Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD formula and Weizsäcker–Skyrme (WS* formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K?=230±11 MeV and 235±11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L=41.6±7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5±9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron–proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.
Charge symmetry breaking in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) is investigated in nuclear matter with the isospin mixing of neutral vector mesons. The equations of motion are solved by the relativistic mean field approximation. (author)
Sigma meson and properties of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have calculated the saturation observables of symmetric nuclear matter and nuclear symmetry energy in the framework of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) formalism with Bonn-B potential as two-body interaction, including modification of hadronic parameter inside nuclear medium. We have found that it is possible to understand all the saturation observables of symmetric nuclear matter by incorporating in-medium modification of the parameters of sigma meson alone. Linear density dependent reduction of ?-nucleon coupling constant by about 6.8% and density independent reduction ?-meson mass by about 3.5% is sufficient to understand nuclear matter saturation observables. We find with the calculated symmetry energy that neutron skin thickness of 208Pb is 0.20 fm and the radius of 1.4 solar mass neutron stars as 11.98 ± 0.75 km. (author)
Heavy Mesons in Nuclear Matter and Nuclei
Tolos, Laura; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M
2014-01-01
Heavy mesons in nuclear matter and nuclei are analyzed within different frameworks, paying a special attention to unitarized coupled-channel approaches. Possible experimental signatures of the properties of these mesons in matter are addressed, in particular in connection with the future FAIR facility at GSI.
Nuclear shock waves and quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atomic nuclei colliding with each other in a particle accelerator at extremely high velocities undergo interactions which lead to novel states of matter. The equation of state of this hot, dense nuclear matter reveals information on the processes occurring in a supernova, and on the big bang at the origin of the universe. (orig.)
Describing Nuclear Matter with Effective Field Theories
Steele, James V.; Furnstahl, R. J.
1999-01-01
An accurate description of nuclear matter starting from free-space nuclear forces has been an elusive goal. The complexity of the system makes approximations inevitable, so the challenge is to find a consistent truncation scheme with controlled errors. The virtues of an effective field theory approach to this problem are discussed.
Nuclear matter in all its states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report includes the nine lectures which have been presented at the Joliot-Curie School of Nuclear Physics in 1985. The subjects covered are the following: thermodynamic description of excited nuclei; heavy ion reactions at high energy (theoretical approach); heavy ion reactions at high energy (experimental approach); relativistic nuclear physics and quark effects in nuclei; quark matter; nuclear compressibility and its experimental determinations; hot nuclei; anti p-nucleus interaction; geant resonances at finite temperature
Physics of nuclear matter at high density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Relativistic nuclear collisions should cause shockwaves of high densities. The conditions for their generation are discussed. The angular distributions of the reaction products in central relativistic collision between a light projectile and a heavier target nucleus were analysed. Significant energy-dependent peaks were found which may be interpreted in a quasi-hydrodynamic model as Mach shockwaves of high density. Theoretically, the occurrence of density variations due to pion condensation ought to facilitate the hydrodynamic behaviour of the nuclear matter even at very high energies. The vanishing of the peak at energies between 1 and 2 GeV per nucleon might be interpreted as an indication of a phase transition in nuclear matter, i.e. of the formation of a density isomer. According to this interpretation, the binding energy per nucleon for higher densities of nuclear matter may be derived from the data. (orig/BJ.)
Moments of $\\phi$ meson spectral functions in vacuum and nuclear matter
Gubler, Philipp
2015-01-01
Moments of the $\\phi$ meson spectral function in vacuum and in nuclear matter are analyzed, combining a model based on chiral SU(3) effective field theory (with kaonic degrees of freedom) and finite-energy QCD sum rules. For the vacuum we show that the spectral density is strongly constrained by a recent accurate measurement of the $e^+ e^- \\to K^+ K^-$ cross section. In nuclear matter the $\\phi$ spectrum is modified by interactions of the decay kaons with the surrounding nuclear medium, leading to a significant broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the $\\phi$ meson peak. We demonstrate that both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the first two moments of the spectral function are compatible with finite-energy QCD sum rules. A brief discussion of the next-higher spectral moment involving strange four-quark condensates is also presented.
A new effective Lagrangian for nuclear matter
Biro, T. S.; Zimanyi, J.
1996-01-01
The relativistic mean field model, the Zim\\'anyi - Moszkowski (ZM) Lagrangian describes nuclear matter and stable finite nuclei even in the non-relativistic limit. It fails, however, to predict the correct non-relativistic spin-orbit (SO) coupling. In this paper we improve on this matter by an additional tensor coupling analogous to the anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. It can be adjusted to describe the SO-term without changing the mean field solution of the ZM-Lagrangian for n...
Possible Indication of Momentum-Dependent Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun
Vincent, Aaron C.; Scott, Pat; Serenelli, Aldo
2015-02-01
Broad disagreement persists between helioseismological observables and predictions of solar models computed with the latest surface abundances. Here we show that most of these problems can be solved by the presence of asymmetric dark matter coupling to nucleons as the square of the momentum q exchanged in the collision. We compute neutrino fluxes, small frequency separations, surface helium abundances, sound speed profiles, and convective zone depths for a number of models, showing more than a 6 ? preference for q2 models over others, and over the standard solar model. The preferred mass (3 GeV) and reference dark matter-nucleon cross section (10-37 cm2 at q0=40 MeV ) are within the region of parameter space allowed by both direct detection and collider searches.
QMC calculations of symmetric nuclear matter
Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Fantoni, S.; Schmidt, K E
2006-01-01
We present an accurate numerical study of the equation of state of nuclear matter based on realistic nucleon--nucleon interactions by means of Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations. The AFDMC method samples the spin and isospin degrees of freedom allowing for quantum simulations of large nucleonic systems and represents an important step forward towards a quantitative understanding of problems in nuclear structure and astrophysics.
Femtotechnology: Nuclear Matter with Fantastic Properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Bolonkin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: At present the term 'nanotechnology' is well known-in its' ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. Such a power over nature would offer routine achievement of remarkable properties in conventional matter and creation of metamaterials where the structure not the composition brings forth new powers of matter. But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons, electrons and other nuclear particles. Approach: The researcher researches the nuclear forces. He shows these force may be used for design the new nuclear matter from protons, neutrons, electrons and other nuclear particles. Results: Author shows this new 'AB-Matter' has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency and zero friction., which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux. Conclusion: People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought-nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts and meta-materials and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature! and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times-surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them. Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms having the size in nanometer (10-9 m. The researcher here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei having size in the femtometer range, (10-15m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale. The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.
Hot Nuclear Matter Equation of State with a Three-body Force
Zuo, W; Li, A; Lu, G C
2004-01-01
The finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach is extended by introducing a microscopic three-body force. In the framework of the extended model, the equation of state of hot asymmetric nuclear matter and its isospin dependence have been investigated. The critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition for symmetric nuclear matter has been calculated and compared with other predictions. It turns out that the three-body force gives a repulsive contribution to the equation of state which is stronger at higher density and as a consequence reduces the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition. The calculated energy per nucleon of hot asymmetric nuclear matter is shown to satisfy a simple quadratic dependence on asymmetric parameter $\\beta$ as in the zero-temperature case. The symmetry energy and its density dependence have been obtained and discussed. Our results show that the three-body force affects strongly the high-density behavior of the symmetry energy and makes the symmetry energy mor...
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ryu, Chung-Yeol
2010-01-01
We calculate asymmetric neutrino absorption and scattering cross sections on hot and dense magnetized neutron-star matter including hyperons in fully relativistic mean field theory. The absorption/scattering cross sections are suppressed/enhanced incoherently in the direction of the magnetic fielld, B. The asymmetry is 2-4% at the matter density \\rho_0 < \\rho_B < 3\\rho_0 and temperature T < 40 MeV for B=2 X 10^{17} G. This asymmetry is comparable to the effects owing to parity violation or asymmetric magnetic field topology proposed for the origin of pulsar kicks.
Cold nuclear matter in holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. We find that as the baryon chemical potential is increased above a critical value, there is a phase transition to a nuclear matter phase characterized by a condensate of instantons on the probe D-branes in the string theory dual. As a result of electrostatic interactions between the instantons, this condensate expands towards the UV when the chemical potential is increased, giving a holographic version of the expansion of the Fermi surface. We argue based on properties of instantons that the nuclear matter phase is necessarily inhomogeneous to arbitrarily high density. This suggests an explanation of the 'chiral density wave' instability of the quark Fermi surface in large Nc QCD at asymptotically large chemical potential. We study properties of the nuclear matter phase as a function of chemical potential beyond the transition and argue in particular that the model can be used to make a semi-quantitative prediction of the binding energy per nucleon for nuclear matter in ordinary QCD
Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)
Nuclear matter in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report the measurement of the inclusive production of negative pions and protons in reactions of 40Ar with KCl at 1.8 GeV/nucleon is described. The measured energy spectra and multiplicities are presented and discussed regarding the stopping power of nuclear matter. (HSI)
Quartic isospin asymmetry energy of nuclear matter from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics
Kaiser, N
2015-01-01
Based on a chiral approach to nuclear matter, we calculate the quartic term in the expansion of the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. The contributions to the quartic isospin asymmetry energy $A_4(k_f)$ arising from $1\\pi$-exchange and chiral $2\\pi$-exchange in nuclear matter are calculated analytically together with three-body terms involving virtual $\\Delta(1232)$-isobars. From these interaction terms one obtains at saturation density $\\rho_0 = 0.16\\,$fm$^{-3}$ the value $A_4(k_{f0})= 1.5\\,$MeV, more than three times as large as the kinetic energy part. Moreover, iterated $1\\pi$-exchange exhibits components for which the fourth derivative with the respect to the isospin asymmetry parameter $\\delta$ becomes singular at $\\delta =0$. The genuine presence of a non-analytical term $\\delta^4 \\ln|\\delta|$ in the expansion of the energy per particle of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is demonstrated by evaluating a s-wave contact interaction at second order.
Charge-dependent directed flow in asymmetric nuclear collisions
Voronyuk, V; Voloshin, S A; Cassing, W
2014-01-01
The directed flow of identified hadrons is studied within the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) approach for the asymmetric system Cu+Au in non-central collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. It is emphasized that due to the difference in the number of protons of the colliding nuclei an electric field emerges which is directed from the heavy to the light nucleus. This strong electric field is only present for about 0.25 fm/c at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and leads to a splitting of the directed flow $v_1$ for particles with the same mass but opposite electric charges in case of an early presence of charged quarks and antiquarks. The microscopic calculations of the directed flow for $\\pi^\\pm, K^\\pm, p$ and $\\bar{p}$ are carried out in the PHSD by taking into account the electromagnetic field induced by the spectators as well as its influence on the hadronic and partonic quasiparticle trajectories. It is shown that the splitting of the directed flow as a function of pseudorapidity $\\eta$ and in particular as...
Probing cold dense nuclear matter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Subedi, R.; Monaghan, P.; Shneor, R.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Arrington, J.; Physics; Kent State Univ.; Tel Aviv Univ.; California State Univ. Los Angeles
2008-06-13
The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.
The public and nuclear matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nuclear industry has an image problem and is facing a major crisis of public confidence. The solution lies not merely in better public relations and advertising campaigns, but in a fundamental reassessment of electricity management, a comprehensive re-examination of the economics of electricity use and generation and, in all probability, a shift towards more public-friendly reactor designs. Over the next decade the industry faces two great forces: the power of public opinion and the momentum of inherent technological advance. Somehow these two elements have to be guided so that they complement each other. This article aims to show how this might be achieved. (author)
Chiral density wave in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inspired by recent work on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter within models featuring quark degrees of freedom, we investigate the chiral density-wave solution in nuclear matter at zero temperature and nonvanishing baryon number density in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM). The eLSM is an effective model for the strong interaction based on the global chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons as well as baryons. In the latter sector, the nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The eLSM simultaneously provides a good description of hadrons in vacuum as well as nuclear matter ground-state properties. We find that an inhomogeneous phase in the form of a chiral density wave is realized, but only for densities larger than 2.4?0, where ?0 is the nuclear matter ground-state density
Chiral density wave in nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, Achim [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Giacosa, Francesco [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Rischke, Dirk H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2015-01-15
Inspired by recent work on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter within models featuring quark degrees of freedom, we investigate the chiral density-wave solution in nuclear matter at zero temperature and nonvanishing baryon number density in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM). The eLSM is an effective model for the strong interaction based on the global chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons as well as baryons. In the latter sector, the nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The eLSM simultaneously provides a good description of hadrons in vacuum as well as nuclear matter ground-state properties. We find that an inhomogeneous phase in the form of a chiral density wave is realized, but only for densities larger than 2.4?{sub 0}, where ?{sub 0} is the nuclear matter ground-state density.
Chen, Shao-Long
2015-01-01
The inverse seesaw mechanism provides an attractive approach to generate small neutrino mass, which origins from a tiny $U(1)_L$ breaking. In this paper, we work in the supersymmetric version of this mechanism, where the singlet-like sneutrino could be an asymmetric dark matter (ADM) candidate in the maximally $U(1)_{L}$ symmetric limit. However, even a tiny $\\delta m$, the mass splitting between sneutrino and anti-sneutrino as a result of the tiny $U(1)_{L}$ breaking effect, could lead to fast oscillation between sneutrino and anti-sneutrino and thus spoils the ADM scenario. We study the evolution of this oscillation and find that a weak scale sneutrino, which tolerates a relatively larger $\\delta m\\sim 10^{-5}$ eV, is strongly favored. We also investigate possible natural ways to realize that small $\\delta m$ in the model.
A Naturally Light Sterile neutrino in an Asymmetric Dark Matter Model
Zhang, Yongchao; Mohapatra, Rabindra N
2013-01-01
A recently proposed asymmetric mirror dark matter model where the mirror sector is connected with the visible one by a right handed neutrino portal, is shown to lead naturally to a 3+1 active-sterile neutrino spectrum, if the portal consists only of two right handed neutrinos. At the tree level the model has four massless neutrino states, three active and one sterile. The active neutrinos pick up tiny masses via the minimal radiative inverse seesaw mechanism at the one loop level. The loop effects also generate the large solar and atmospheric mixings, as well as the observed reactor mixing for certain range of parameters of the model. The dominant contribution to the sterile neutrino mass ($\\sim$ eV) arises from the gravitationally induced dimension-5 operators. Generating active-sterile mixing requires a two Higgs doublet extension of SM and a small mixing between the ordinary and mirror Higgs fields, which occurs naturally in mirror models.
A naturally light sterile neutrino in an asymmetric dark matter model
Zhang, Yongchao; Ji, Xiangdong; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.
2013-10-01
A recently proposed asymmetric mirror dark matter model where the mirror sector is connected with the visible one by a right-handed neutrino portal, is shown to lead naturally to a 3+1 active-sterile neutrino spectrum, if the portal consists only of two right-handed neutrinos. At tree level the model has four massless neutrino states, three (predominately) active and one sterile. The active neutrinos pick up tiny masses via the minimal radiative inverse seesaw mechanism at one-loop level. The loop effects also generate the large solar and atmospheric mixings, as well as the observed reactor mixing for certain ranges of parameters of the model. The dominant contribution to the sterile neutrino mass (~eV) arises from the gravitationally induced dimension-5 operators. Generating active-sterile mixing requires a two Higgs doublet extension of the standard model and a small mixing between the ordinary and mirror Higgs fields, which occurs naturally in mirror models.
From QCD to nuclear matter saturation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a relativistic chiral theory of nuclear matter with ? and ? exchange using a formulation of the ? model in which all the chiral constraints are automatically fulfilled. We establish a relation between the nuclear response to the scalar field and the QCD one which includes the nucleonic parts. It allows a comparison between nuclear and QCD information. Going beyond the mean field approach we introduce the effects of the pion loops supplemented by the short-range interaction. The corresponding Landau-Migdal parameters are taken from spin-isospin physics results. The parameters linked to the scalar meson exchange are extracted from lattice QCD results. These inputs lead to a reasonable description of the saturation properties, illustrating the link between QCD and nuclear physics. We also derive from the corresponding equation of state the density dependence of the quark condensate and of the QCD susceptibilities. (authors)
From QCD to nuclear matter saturation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ericson, Magda [Universite de Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]|[Theory division, CERN, CH-12111 Geneva (Switzerland); Chanfray, Guy [Universite de Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)
2007-03-15
We discuss a relativistic chiral theory of nuclear matter with {sigma} and {omega} exchange using a formulation of the {sigma} model in which all the chiral constraints are automatically fulfilled. We establish a relation between the nuclear response to the scalar field and the QCD one which includes the nucleonic parts. It allows a comparison between nuclear and QCD information. Going beyond the mean field approach we introduce the effects of the pion loops supplemented by the short-range interaction. The corresponding Landau-Migdal parameters are taken from spin-isospin physics results. The parameters linked to the scalar meson exchange are extracted from lattice QCD results. These inputs lead to a reasonable description of the saturation properties, illustrating the link between QCD and nuclear physics. We also derive from the corresponding equation of state the density dependence of the quark condensate and of the QCD susceptibilities. (authors)
Two-nucleon forces and nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent nuclear matter calculations have shown that (a) a precise knowledge of the tensor force in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and (b) an explicit description of the intermediate-range attraction, are absolutely essential to aobtain saturation at empirical density. This article describes the progress made recently with respect to these two topics. Concerning the tensor force, we discuss the influence of ?- and rho-exchange and show the importance of a precise knowledge of the ?NN-form factor. As to the second point, we demonstrate the outstanding role of the ?-isobar. We emphasize the importance of a consistent treatment of the two-body and the many-body problem, starting from a field-theoretical Hamiltonian. We present an explicit boson-exchange model for the NN-interaction including the ?, and show results for NN-scattering, the deuteron and nuclear matter. (orig.)
Anatomy of symmetry energy of dilute nuclear matter
De, J N; Agrawal, B K
2010-01-01
The symmetry energy coefficients of dilute clusterized nuclear matter are evaluated in the $S$-matrix framework. Employing a few different definitions commonly used in the literature for uniform nuclear matter, it is seen that the different definitions lead to perceptibly different results for the symmetry coefficients for dilute nuclear matter. They are found to be higher compared to those obtained for uniform matter in the low density domain. The calculated results are in reasonable consonance with those extracted recently from experimental data.
Inhomogeneous phases of isospin-asymmetric matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the phase structure of strong-interaction matter within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Earlier it has been shown for degenerate quark flavors that chiral symmetry-breaking phases with spatially modulated order-parameters can occur. We analyze the emergence of these inhomogeneous phases in isospin-asymmetric matter by extending the model through an additional isospin chemical potential, however restricting the order-parameter to be spatially modulated in only one dimension. It is found that for a non-vanishing isospin chemical potential the formation of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry-breaking phases is disfavored, when enforcing equal periodicities for the up and down quarks and neglecting charged pion condensation. If the periodicities of the quarks are not limited to be of the same magnitude, inhomogeneous chiral symmetry-breaking phases are found to be less sensitive to the additional pairing stress and can occur in a larger domain of the phase diagram. As an outlook we discuss possible extensions, like the addition of inhomogeneous charged pion condensation or color superconductivity.
Consequences of DM/antiDM oscillations for asymmetric WIMP dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient annihilations to recouple. We calculate the evolution of the DM relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of aDM models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. A typical WIMP with a mass at the EW scale ( ? 100 GeV – 1 TeV) presenting a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the DM-number-violating ?(DM) = 2 mass term is in the ? meV range. The re-establishment of annihilations implies that constraints from the accumulation of aDM in astrophysical bodies are evaded. On the other hand, the ordinary bounds from BBN, CMB and indirect detection signals on annihilating DM have to be considered
History of the nuclear matter safety and control law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this text we give the history of the law creation on the control and safety of nuclear matter. Initially based on the CEA regulation single owner of nuclear matter, the development of nuclear energy has conducted the French government to edict law in relation with IAEA and Euratom recommendations
Stellar properties and nuclear matter constraints
Dutra, Mariana; Menezes, Débora P
2015-01-01
We have analyzed stellar properties of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) parametrizations shown to be consistent with the recently studied constraints related to nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy and its derivatives [Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 90, 055203 (2014)]. Our results show that only two RMF parametrizations do not allow the emergence of the direct Urca process, important aspect regarding the evolution of a neutron star. Moreover, among all approved RMF models, fourteen of them produce neutron stars with maximum masses inside the range $1.93\\leqslant M/M_\\odot\\leqslant 2.05$, with $M_\\odot$ being the solar mass. Only three models yield maximum masses above this range and a discussion on the inclusion of hyperons is presented. Finally, we have verified that the models satisfying the neutron star maximum mass constraint do not observe the squared sound velocity bound, namely, $v_s^2 < 1/3$, corroborating recent findings.
Nuclear target effect on dark matter detection rate
Bednyakov, V. A.; Simkovic, F.
2005-01-01
Expected event rates for a number of dark matter nuclear targets were calculated in the effective low-energy minimal supersymmetric standard model, provided the lightest neutralino is the dark matter Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). These calculations allow direct comparison of sensitivities of different dark matter detectors to intermediate mass WIMPs expected from the measurements of the DArk MAtter (DAMA) experiment.
Mass shift of -meson in nuclear matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J R Morones-Ibarra; Mónica Menchaca Maciel; Ayax Santos-Guevara; Felipe Robledo Padilla
2013-03-01
The propagation of -meson in nuclear matter is studied in the Walecka model, by assuming that the sigma couples to a pair of nucleon–antinucleon states and to particle–hole states. The in-medium effect of $\\sigma -\\omega$ mixing is also studied. For completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions was also considered. It is found that the -meson mass decreases with respect to its value in vacuum and that the contribution of the $\\sigma -\\omega$ mixing effect on the mass shift is relatively small.
Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dupre, Raphael [IPN Orsay; et. al.,
2015-05-01
Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.
Nuclear interaction rates for dark matter detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I describe nuclear shell model calculations of the spin-dependent elastic cross sections of supersymmetric particles on the nuclei 73Ge and 29Si, which are being used in the construction of dark matter detectors. To check the accuracy of the wave functions I have calculated excited state energy spectra, magnetic moments, and spectroscopic factors for each of the nuclei. Our results differ significantly from previous estimates based upon the independent single particle shell model and the odd group model. I at% discuss the modifications that occur when finite momentum transfer between the neutralino and nucleus is included
Recent Advances in Microscopic Approaches to Nuclear Matter and Symmetry Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Sammarruca
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Nuclear matter is a convenient theoretical laboratory to test many-body theories. When neutron and proton densities are different, the isospin dependence of the nuclear force gives rise to the symmetry energy term in the equation of state. This quantity is a crucial mechanism in the formation of the neutron skin in nuclei, as well as in other systems and phenomena involved in the dynamics of neutrons and protons in neutron-rich systems, such as isospin-asymmetric heavy-ion collisions. In this article, we will review phenomenological facts about the symmetry energy and recent experimental efforts to constrain its density dependence and related quantities. We will then review our microscopic approach to the equation of state of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and present a corresponding set of predictions. Our calculations utilize the Dirac–Brueckner–Hartree–Fock method and realistic meson-theoretic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Chiral perturbation theory is an alternative approach, based on a well-defined scheme, which allows one to develop nuclear forces at each order of the chiral expansion. We will present and discuss predictions based on chiral perturbation theory, where we employ consistent two- and three-body chiral interactions. Throughout the article, one of the focal points is the importance of pursuing ab initio methods towards a deeper understanding of the many-body system.
Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun and the Diphoton Excess at the LHC
Dev, P S Bhupal
2015-01-01
Recently, ATLAS and CMS have observed an excess in the diphoton channel with respect to the Standard Model background, with resonance at an invariant mass of about 750 GeV. At the same time, it has been recently pointed out that a momentum-dependent cross section for asymmetric Dark Matter (DM) interacting with nucleons can explain the disagreement between helioseismological observables and the predictions of solar models. In this letter we consider the minimal model for generating such momentum-dependent cross section, which consists of a scalar and a pseudoscalar mediator, in addition to the DM Dirac fermion. Remarkably, the pseudoscalar can be taken at a mass of 750 GeV, explaining quantitatively at the same time the observed diphoton excess and the solar anomaly. In this framework, the total width of the resonance is naturally large, as suggested by the ATLAS experiment. The model predicts the existence of a new scalar in the GeV range, interacting with quarks, and observable t-tbar and dijet signals in t...
Heavy Vector and Axial-Vector Mesons in Hot and Dense Asymmetric Strange Hadronic Matter
Kumar, Arvind
2015-01-01
We calculate the effects of finite density and temperature of isospin asymmetric strange hadronic matter, for different strangeness fractions, on the in-medium properties of vector $\\left( D^{\\ast}, D_{s}^{\\ast}, B^{\\ast}, B_{s}^{\\ast}\\right)$ and axial-vector $\\left( D_{1}, D_{1s}, B_{1}, B_{1s}\\right)$ mesons, using chiral hadronic SU(3) model and QCD sum rules. We focus on the evaluation of in-medium mass-shift and shift in decay constant of above vector and axial-vector mesons. In QCD sum rule approach, the properties, e.g., the masses and decay constants of vector and axial-vector mesons are written in terms of quark and gluon condensates. These quark and gluon condensates are evaluated in the present work within chiral SU(3) model, through the medium modification of, scalar-isoscalar fields $\\sigma$ and $\\zeta$, the scalar-isovector field $\\delta$ and scalar dilaton field $\\chi$, in the strange hadronic medium which includes both nucleons as well as hyperons. As we shall see in detail, the masses and de...
The few scales of nuclei and nuclear matter
Delfino, A.; Frederico, T; Timoteo, V. S.; Tomio, Lauro
2007-01-01
The well-known correlations of low-energy three and four-nucleon observables with a typical three-nucleon scale (e.g., the Tjon line) is extended to light nuclei and nuclear matter. Evidence for the scaling between light nuclei binding energies and the triton one are pointed out. We argue that the saturation energy and density of nuclear matter are correlated to the triton binding energy. The available systematic nuclear matter calculations indicate a possible band structure...
Studies for the equation of state in the isospin asymmetrical nuclear interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to determine the equation of state in the isospin asymmetrical nuclear interactions, we have found the observables for extracting the information of them within the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics in recent years. The several sensitive probes for extracting the information of the in-medium nucleon–nucleon cross section and the symmetry potential have found; meanwhile, their mechanisms are investigated in more details. The main point in this paper gives the summary for above probes and their outlook in the future. (author)
Cherenkov and Fano effects at the origin of asymmetric vector mesons in nuclear media
Dremin, I M
2015-01-01
It is argued that the experimentally observed phenomenon of asymmetric vector mesons produced in nuclear media during high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained as Cherenkov and Fano effects. The mass distributions of lepton pairs created at meson decays decline from the traditional Breit-Wigner shape in the low-mass wing of the resonance. That is explained by the positive real part of the amplitude in this wing for classic Cherenkov treatment and further detalized in quantum mechanics as the interference of direct and continuum states in Fano effect. The corresponding parameters are found from the comparison with rho-meson data and admit reasonable explanation.
Hirschegg '95: Dynamical properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The following topics were dealt with: Chiral symmetry, chiral condensates, in-medium effective chiral Lagrangians, ?'s in nuclei, nonperturbative QCD, electron scattering from nuclear matter, nuclear shadowing, QCD sum rules, deconfinement, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, nuclear dimuon and electron pair production, photoproduction from nuclei, subthreshold K+ production, kaon polarization in nuclear matter, charged pion production in relativistic heavy ion collisions, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the SU(3)LxSU(3)R sigma model, nonequilibrium dense nuclear matter, pion pair production at finite temperature. (HSI)
Relativistic Chiral Theory of Nuclear Matter and QCD Constraints
Chanfray, G
2009-01-01
We present a relativistic chiral theory of nuclear matter which includes the effect of confinement. Nuclear binding is obtained with a chiral invariant scalar background field associated with the radial fluctuations of the chiral condensate Nuclear matter stability is ensured once the scalar response of the nucleon depending on the quark confinement mechanism is properly incorporated. All the parameters are fixed or constrained by hadron phenomenology and lattice data. A good description of nuclear saturation is reached, which includes the effect of in-medium pion loops. Asymmetry properties of nuclear matter are also well described once the full rho meson exchange and Fock terms are included.
Quark distributions in nuclear matter and the EMC effect
Mineo, H.; Bentz, W.; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Australia); Yazaki, K
2003-01-01
Quark light cone momentum distributions in nuclear matter and the structure function of a bound nucleon are investigated in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This framework describes the nucleon as a relativistic quark-diquark state, and the nuclear matter equation of state by using the mean field approximation. The scalar and vector mean fields in the nuclear medium couple to the quarks in the nucleon and their effect on the spin independent nuclear structure f...
Bulk Properties of Symmetric Nuclear and Pure Neutron Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khaled Hassaneen
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We study the equation of state (EOS of symmetric nuclear and neutron matter within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF approach which is extended by including a density-dependent contact interaction to achieve the empirical saturation property of symmetric nuclear matter. This method is shown to affect significantly the nuclear matter EOS and the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities above the normal nuclear matter density, and it is necessary for reproducing the empirical saturation property of symmetric nuclear matter in a nonrelativistic microscopic framework. Realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions which reproduce the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts are used in the present calculations.
Chiral Fermi liquid description of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holt, Jeremy; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)
2012-07-01
We employ Landau's theory of normal Fermi liquids to study the bulk properties of nuclear matter with high-precision two- and three-nucleon interactions derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. The L=0,1 Landau parameters, characterizing the isotropic and p-wave interaction between two quasiparticles on the Fermi surface, are computed to second order in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) with chiral and low-momentum two-nucleon forces. Already at this order a number of observables are well described in the theory, including the nuclear isospin asymmetry energy, the quasiparticle effective mass and the spin-isospin response. An adequate description of the nuclear compression modulus (encoded in the Landau parameter F{sub 0}) requires the inclusion of the leading-order (N{sup 2}LO) chiral three-nucleon force, which we include to first order in MBPT. The remaining L=0 Landau parameters receive only small corrections from the chiral three-nucleon force, and the L=1 parameters are all reduced, resulting in an effective interaction of apparent short range. We then employ renormalization group techniques to study the scale dependence of the quasiparticle interaction, which allows for an estimation of theoretical uncertainties.
Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing M(T2) to Asymmetric Event Topologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.
2012-04-03
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem M{sub T2} variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different 'children' particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint M{sub T2(max)} of the M{sub T2} distribution now gives the mass {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}) of the parent particles as a function of two input children masses {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)} and {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}. We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses M{sub c}{sup (a)} and M{sub c}{sup (b)}. First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum PUTM the corresponding function {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}, P{sub UTM}) is independent of P{sub UTM} at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 'kink' is now generalized to a 'ridge' on the 2-dimensional surface {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}). As we show in several examples, quite often there is a special point along that ridge which marks the true values of the children masses. Our results allow collider experiments to probe a multi-component dark matter sector directly and without any theoretical prejudice.
Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petraki, Kalliopi [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pearce, Lauren; Kusenko, Alexander, E-mail: kpetraki@nikhef.nl, E-mail: lpearce@ucla.edu, E-mail: kusenko@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)
2014-07-01
Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds.
On the thermal properties of polarised nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thermal properties of polarised nuclear matter are calculated using the Skyrme-III interaction as modified by Dabrowski (Nukleonika;21:143 (1977)) for polarised nuclear matter. The temperature dependences of the volume, isospin, spin and spin-isospin pressure and energies are determined. The temperature, isospin, spin and spin-isospin dependences of the equilibrium Fermi momentum are also discussed. (author)
On the spin saturation and thermal properties of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The binding energy and the incompressibility of nuclear matter with degree of spin saturation D is calculated using the Skyrme interaction and two forms of a velocity dependent effective potential. The effect of the degree of spin saturation D on the thermal properties of nuclear matter is also discussed. It is found that generally the pressure decreases with increasing D. (author)
On the thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter are calculated using Skyrme III interaction modified by Dabrowski for polarized nuclear matter. The temperature dependence of the volume, isospin, spin and spin isospin pressure and energies are determined. The temperature, isospin, spin and spin isospin dependence of the equilibrium Fermi momentum is also discussed. (author)
Relativistic calculation of polarized nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The binding energy of nuclear matter with excess of neutrons, of spin-up neutrons, and spin-up protons (characterized by the corresponding parameters, ?sub(tau) = (N - Z)/A, ?sub(N) = (N - N )/A, and ?sub(p) = (Z - Z)/A)), contains three symmetry energies: the isospin symmetry energy epsilon sub(?), the spin symmetry energy epsilon sub(?), and the spin-isospin symmetry energy epsilon sub(?tau). The relativistic corrections to epsilon sub(tau), epsilon sub(?) and epsilon sub(?tau) are found to be -2.06, -2.6 and -0.89 MeV respectively. The relativistic correction to the compression modulus is -10.8 MeV. (author)
Attenuation of ? mesons in cold nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The attenuation of ? mesons in cold nuclear matter has been investigated via the time-dependent multiple-scattering Monte Carlo multicollisional (MCMC) intranuclear cascade model. The inelastic ? width deduced from CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration data of meson transparency in complex nuclei (?*?30 MeV/c2) is approximately 5 times lower than the value obtained with recent theoretical models and consistent with an in-medium total ?N cross section within 25-30 mb for an average meson momentum of 1.1 GeV/c . The momentum-dependent transparency ratios suggest an elastic/total cross-section ratio around 40%. For the case of CLAS Collaboration data a much higher width is deduced (?* > or approx. 120 MeV/c2), with the MCMC model providing a consistent interpretation of the data, assuming a much higher meson absorption (??N* > or approx. 100 mb) for p??1.7 GeV/c.
On the Density Dependent Nuclear Matter Compressibility
Dexheimer, V A; Bodmann, B E J
2007-01-01
In the present work we apply a quantum hadrodynamic effective model in the mean-field approximation to the description of neutron stars. We consider an adjustable derivative-coupling model and study the parameter influence on the dynamics of the system by analyzing the full range of values they can take. We establish a set of parameters which define a specific model that is able to describe phenomenological properties such as the effective nucleon mass at saturation as well as global static properties of neutron stars (mass and radius). If one uses observational data to fix the maximum mass for neutron stars by a specific model, we are able to predict the compression modulus of nuclear matter K = 257,2MeV.
Nuclear Matter from Effective Quark-Quark Interaction
Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K.
2014-01-01
We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other non-relativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H. [Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
1998-06-01
Nuclear matter and ground state properties for (proton and neutron) semi-closed shell nuclei are described in relativistic mean field theory with coupling constants which depend on the vector density. The parametrization of the density dependence for {sigma}-, {omega}- and {rho}-mesons is obtained by fitting to properties of nuclear matter and some finite nuclei. The equation of state for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Finite nuclei are described in Hartree approximation, including a charge and an improved center-of-mass correction. Pairing is considered in the BCS approximation. Special attention is directed to the predictions for properties at the neutron and proton driplines, e.g. for separation energies, spin-orbit splittings and density distributions. (orig.)
The curvature dependence of the surface tension of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the curvature dependence of the surface tension of nuclear matter is analogous to that of normal liquids. This can be described quantitatively by the modified Tolman equation. The surface tension of plane nuclear matter is 2.4 x 1017 Nm-1. According to its physical meaning the delta-parameter has been interpreted as the half-width of the nuclear surface. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ducoin, C
2006-10-15
Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)
Track theory and nuclear photographic emulsions for Dark Matter searches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work is devoted to the analysis of possibilities of nuclear emulsions for Dark Matter search, particles of which can produce slow recoil-nuclei. Tracks of such recoil-nuclei in developed nuclear emulsion consist from several emulsion grains. The analysis was carried out with Monte-Carlo calculations made on the basis of the Track Theory and the various factors influencing Dark Matter particles registration efficiency were investigated. Problems, which should be solved for optimal utilization of nuclear emulsions in Dark Matter search, were formulated.Body - Highlights: ? Specific features of Dark Matter Search in nuclear photographic emulsions. ? Track theory for WIMP search in nuclear emulsions. ? Primary efficiency for single WIMP registration. ? Properties of primary WIMP registration efficiency. ? Primary registration efficiency of WIMP flow
Antikaons in infinite nuclear matter and nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeller, M.
2007-12-10
In this work we studied the properties of antikaons and hyperons in infinite cold nuclear matter. The in-medium antikaon-nucleon scattering amplitude and self-energy has been calculated within a covariant many-body framework in the first part. Nuclear saturation effects have been taken into account in terms of scalar and vector nucleon mean-fields. In the second part of the work we introduced a non-local method for the description of kaonic atoms. The many-body approach of anti KN scattering can be tested by the application to kaonic atoms. A self-consistent and covariant many-body approach has been used for the determination of the antikaon spectral function and anti KN scattering amplitudes. It considers s-, p- and d-waves and the application of an in-medium projector algebra accounts for proper mixing of partial waves in the medium. The on-shell reduction scheme is also implemented by means of the projector algebra. The Bethe-Salpeter equation has been rewritten, so that the free-space anti KN scattering can be used as the interaction kernel for the in-medium scattering equation. The latter free-space scattering is based on a realistic coupled-channel dynamics and chiral SU(3) Lagrangian. Our many-body approach is generalized for the presence of large scalar and vector nucleon mean-fields. It is supplemented by an improved renormalization scheme, that systematically avoids the occurrence of medium-induced power-divergent structures and kinematical singularities. A modified projector basis has been introduced, that allows for a convenient inclusion of nucleon mean-fields. The description of the results in terms of the 'physical' basis is done with the help of a recoupling scheme based on the projector algebra properties. (orig.)
Dielectron spectroscopy in cold nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of this thesis is the production of light mesons and baryonic resonances in p+Nb collisions at Ekin=3.5 GeV via their decay in e+e- pairs and their kinematic observables. This reaction system in particular allows for the production of vector mesons in approximately cold nuclear matter and the study of expected in-medium effects. The experiment was conducted at the dielectron spectrometer HADES at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH. In total, 64827±294 signal pairs with an pair opening angle ?ee>9 and e+/e- momenta 80e(MeV/c)ee(MeV/c2)ee> 550 MeV/c2). Inclusive e+e- production cross sections inside the HADES acceptance were calculated by analyzing the simultaneously measured charged pions and by comparing the obtained ?- yields to an independent data set. For the vector mesons one obtains ??,acc=(65.8±4.6(stat)±18.4(sys)) nb and ??,acc=(7.8±1.7(stat)±2.2 (sys)) nb. A comparison with cross sections in free p+p collisions at Ekin=3.5 GeV results in the nuclear modification factors RpA as well as their scaling ? with the nuclear mass number A and their dependence on the pair lab momenta pee. While absorption is not important for the ? meson (?? ?1), scaling factors ? ?0.7 are established for the quasi free decay (pee>800 MeV/c) of all other hadrons. From an adapted Glauber model calculation a minimal absorption >or similar 35% of all contributing hadrons in nuclei can be deduced. At smaller pair momenta different scaling factors are obtained. The ? meson is absorbed with a higher probability (??=0.62), but for all other sources above the ?0 mass, dominantly ?, ?, and ? with ?=0.82-0.86, production in secondary reactions exceeds the absorption inside the nucleus. Measured e+e- distributions were compared with different transport model calculations. Within the uncertainties the cross section of the ?0 Dalitz decay is reproduced in all models. However differences arise in the high mass region and the distributions of transverse momenta and rapidities. Additionally the GiBUU calculations describe the behaviour of slow and fast e+e- sources due to a momentum dependent in medium decay width. In the experiment no signal of the direct decay ??e+e- was measured. The existing upper level for the branching ratio BR=2.7 x 10-5 has to be reduced by at least a factor of 3. (orig.)
Kaons in nuclear matter; Kaonen in Kernmaterie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolomeitsev, E.E.
1997-02-01
The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung der Eigenschaften von Kao nen in Kernmaterie. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, di e Kaon- Nukleon- Wechselwirkung und Kaon- Nukleon- Streuung im Vakuumzu beschreiben. Die Hauptherausforderung bestand darin, dass die abgel eiteten Relationen ausserhalb der Kaonen- Massenschale anwendbar werde n. Eine Nebenforderung war, dass die vorgeschlagenen Verfahren moeglic hst modell- unabhaengig sind. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, wurden Redu ktionsformeln, Stromalgebra- Relationen und die PCAC- Hypothese angewe ndet.
Strangeness and Charm in Nuclear Matter
Tolos, Laura; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis
2012-01-01
The properties of strange ($K$, $\\bar K$ and $\\bar K^*$) and open-charm ($D$, $\\bar D$ and $D^*$) mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary approach in coupled channels for meson-baryon scattering. In the strangeness sector, the interaction with nucleons always comes through vector-meson exchange, which is evaluated by chiral and hidden gauge Lagrangians. For the interaction of charmed mesons with nucleons we extend the SU(3) Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian to incorporate spin-flavor symmetry and implement a suitable flavor symmetry breaking. The in-medium solution for the scattering amplitude accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies. On one hand, we obtain the $K$, $\\bar K$ and $\\bar K^*$ spectral functions in the nuclear medium and study their behaviour at finite density, temperature and momentum. We also make an estimate of the transparency ratio of the $\\gamma A \\to K^+ K^{*-} A^\\prime$ reaction, which we propose as a tool to detect in-medium modifications of the $\\bar K^*$ meson....
Effects of Brown-Rho scalings in nuclear matter, neutron stars and finite nuclei
Kuo, T. T. S.; Dong, Huan
2011-01-01
We have carried out calculations for nuclear matter, neutron stars and finite nuclei using NN potentials with and without the medium-dependent modifications based on the Brown-Rho (BR) scalings. Using the Vlow-k low-momentum interactions derived from such potentials, the equations of state (EOS) for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter, for densities up to ~ 5?0, are calculated using a RPA method where the particle-particle hole-hole ring diagrams are summed to all orders. The medium effects from both a linear BR scaling (BR1) and a non-linear one (BR2) are considered, and they both are essential for our EOSs to reproduce the nuclear matter saturation properties. For densities ? below ?0, results from BR1 and BR2 are close to each other. For higher densities, the EOS given by BR2 is more desirable and is well reproduced by that given by the interaction (Vlow-k+TBF) where Vlow-k is the unsealed low-momentum interaction and TBF is an empirical Skyrme three-body force. The moment of inertia of neutron stars is ~ 60 and ~ 25Modotkm2 respectively with and without the inclusion of the above BR2 medium effects. Effects from the BR scaling are important for the long half-life, ~ 5000yrs, of the 14C - 14N ?-decay.
A contribution to phenomenology of phase transitions in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A review is given on the phenomenology of phase transitions in nuclear matter and neutron matter. We deal with (1) the liquid-gas transition in expanding nuclear systems and collapsing stellar cores, (2) the pion condensation in neutron stars and the direct pion emission in relativistic heavy ion collisions and (3) the deconfinement transition in neutron stars, in the early universe and in the compression/expansion stage of heavy ion reactions. (author)
Surface Tension between Kaon Condensate and Normal Nuclear Matter Phase
Christiansen, Michael B.; Glendenning, Norman K.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen
2000-01-01
We calculate for the first time the surface tension and curvature coefficient of a first order phase transition between two possible phases of cold nuclear matter, a normal nuclear matter phase in equilibrium with a kaon condensed phase, at densities a few times the saturation density. We find the surface tension is proportional to the difference in energy density between the two phases squared. Furthermore, we show the consequences for the geometrical structures of the mixe...
Equation of state for $\\beta$-stable hot nuclear matter
Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Panos, C. P.
2008-01-01
We provide an equation of state for hot nuclear matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium by applying a momentum-dependent effective interaction. We focus on the study of the equation of state of high-density and high-temperature nuclear matter, containing leptons (electrons and muons) under the chemical equilibrium condition in which neutrinos have left the system. The conditions of charge neutrality and equilibrium under $\\beta$-decay process lead first to the evaluation of proton and...
Reflection on penal policy in nuclear matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document expresses ethical reflexions as far as nuclear energy development is concerned. The potential diversion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy results in the necessity of a criminal policy which would control the nuclear regulations. For each potential nuclear infringement, systems of laws are established either to prevent damages or to penalize them. (TEC)
Nuclear matter burning induced by strange matter into protoneutron star
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: In this work we present a schematic description of the dynamical evolution of a protoneutron star which begins to burn neutron matter into strange matter inside the core. We have used a simple two-shell model where the inner shell medium is initially composed of a small lump of strange quark matter surrounded by an outer shell composed of free neutron matter. In a first attempt, we have utilized a polytropic equation of state (EOS) for the outer hadronic medium description and the MIT bag model EOS describing for the strange quark matter. We investigate, as was suggested by Lugones et al (1994), if the combustion mode can actually become a detonation process. The main purpose of the work is to study the formation and propagation of the shock front generated by the detonation process. An effective description for the thermodynamic global evolution of the burning shell is developed and we also investigate the possibility of matter ejection as a consequence of the process of detonation, which could produce a pure quark star as a remnant or even a hybrid neutron star. The mass and radii values obtained for the final equilibrium configurations are compared with the observational data of compact stars. (author)
Nuclear matter burning induced by strange matter into protoneutron star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almeida, Luis Gustavo de [Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC), AC (Brazil). Campus Floresta; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Hilario A. Rodrigues [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: In this work we present a schematic description of the dynamical evolution of a protoneutron star which begins to burn neutron matter into strange matter inside the core. We have used a simple two-shell model where the inner shell medium is initially composed of a small lump of strange quark matter surrounded by an outer shell composed of free neutron matter. In a first attempt, we have utilized a polytropic equation of state (EOS) for the outer hadronic medium description and the MIT bag model EOS describing for the strange quark matter. We investigate, as was suggested by Lugones et al (1994), if the combustion mode can actually become a detonation process. The main purpose of the work is to study the formation and propagation of the shock front generated by the detonation process. An effective description for the thermodynamic global evolution of the burning shell is developed and we also investigate the possibility of matter ejection as a consequence of the process of detonation, which could produce a pure quark star as a remnant or even a hybrid neutron star. The mass and radii values obtained for the final equilibrium configurations are compared with the observational data of compact stars. (author)
Many-body theory of nuclear and neutron star matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pandharipande, V.R.; Akmal, A.; Ravenhall, D.G. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
1998-06-01
We present results obtained for nuclei, nuclear and neutron star matter, and neutron star structure obtained with the recent Argonne v{sub 18} two- nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions including relativistic boost corrections. These interactions predict that matter will undergo a transition to a spin layered phase with neutral pion condensation. We also consider the possibility of a transition to quark matter. (orig.)
The role of meson dynamics in nuclear matter saturation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of the saturation of nuclea matter in the non-relativistic limit of the model proposed by J.D. Walecka is studied. In the original context nuclear matter saturation is obtained as a direct consequence of relativistic effects and both scalar and vector mesons are treated statically. In the present work we investigate the effect of the meson dynamics for the saturation using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the ground state. An upper limit for the saturation curve of nuclear matter and are able to decide now essential is the relativistic treatment of the nucleons for this problem, is obtained. (author)
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of symmetric nuclear matter
Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Fantoni, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.
2006-01-01
We present an accurate numerical study of the equation of state of nuclear matter based on realistic nucleon--nucleon interactions by means of Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations. The AFDMC method samples the spin and isospin degrees of freedom allowing for quantum simulations of large nucleonic systems and can provide quantitative understanding of problems in nuclear structure and astrophysics.
National control of nuclear matters. Protection against malicious intent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This talk deals with, at first, the regulatory dispositions taken to guarantee the protection and the control of nuclear matters in installations and during transportation, and then with the general principles kept to evaluate the nuclear installations protection against malicious intent. (TEC)
Effective field theory for nuclear matter
Lutz, Matthias
1999-01-01
We apply the relativistic chiral Lagrangian to the nuclear equation of state. An effective chiral power expansion scheme, which is constructed to work around nuclear saturation density, is presented. The leading and subleading terms are evaluated and are shown to provide an equation of state with excellent saturation properties. Our saturation mechanism is found to probe details of the nuclear pion dynamics.
Nucleon correlations and the equation of state of nuclear matter
Rios Huguet, A; Polls, A.; Vidana, I.; A. Ramos; Dickhoff, WH; Muther, H.
2010-01-01
The self-consistent Green's function method within the ladder approximation provides a microscopic description of correlated nuclear systems which properly treats the nucleon-nucleon correlations induced by the short-range and tensor components present in any realistic interaction. These correlations produce a sizable depletion of low momenta below the Fermi surface as well as the occupation of high momenta in the nuclear ground state. A few representative results for nuclear matter are prese...
From holography towards real-world nuclear matter
Li, Si-wen; Wang, Qun
2015-01-01
Quantum chromodynamics is notoriously difficult to solve at nonzero baryon density, and most models or effective theories of dense quark or nuclear matter are restricted to a particular density regime and/or a particular form of matter. Here we study dense (and mostly cold) matter within the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model, aiming at a strong-coupling framework in the wide density range between nuclear saturation density and ultra-high quark matter densities. The model contains only three parameters, and we ask whether it fulfills two basic requirements of real-world cold and dense matter, a first-order onset of nuclear matter and a chiral phase transition at high density to quark matter. Such a model would be extremely useful for astrophysical applications because it would provide a single equation of state for all densities relevant in a compact star. Our calculations are based on two approximations for baryonic matter, firstly an instanton gas and secondly a homogeneous ansatz for the non-abelian gauge fi...
Extended Skyrme interactions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei and neutron stars
Zhang, Zhen
2015-01-01
Recent progress in theory, experiment and observation challenges the mean field models using the conventional Skyrme interaction, suggesting that the extension of the conventional Skyrme interaction is necessary. In this work, we construct three Skyrme interaction parameter sets, namely, eMSL07, eMSL08 and eMSL09, based on an extended Skyrme interaction which includes additional momentum and density dependent two-body forces to effectively simulate the momentum dependence of the three-body force. The three new interactions can well reproduce both the ground-state properties and isoscalar giant monopole resonance energy of finite nuclei, nicely conform to the current knowledge on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter around and below saturation density $\\rho_0$, eliminate the notorious unphysical instabilities of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter at densities up to about $7.5\\rho_0$, and simultaneously support heavier neutron stars with mass larger than two times solar mass. The new...
Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJ? (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJ? in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJ?.
On the influence of the nuclear medium on the new nuclear matter states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In many nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies an increase of the particle production below the free nucleon-nucleon threshold has been observed. This increase can be related to the effects of the nuclear medium on the properties of the elementary particles, as well as on the new states of the nuclear matter, as resonance matter, for example. The present work takes into account the previous predictions on the rest mass particle modifications and resonance matter formation to discuss the influences of the nuclear medium on this new nuclear matter state. Experimental results on neutron-proton collisions at momenta between 1.25 GeV/c and 5.1 GeV/c, as well as on nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies between 1 A GeV and 15 A GeV are considered. Nuclear density and temperature determinations mainly at the pion emission, and the effective mass are used to establish the rest mass modification and the resonance weights in the considered collisions. A significant increase of the resonance matter formation is observed in nucleus-nucleus collisions, as compared with nucleon-nucleon collisions, at the same energy. The behaviour of the resonance matter formation in nucleus-nucleus collisions is also discussed. A like-saturation behaviour with energy increase can be considered. The major conclusion is that the nuclear medium has an important influence on the new states of nuclear matter. (authors)
Nucleon correlations and the equation of state of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The self-consistent Green's function method within the ladder approximation provides a microscopic description of correlated nuclear systems which properly treats the nucleon-nucleon correlations induced by the short-range and tensor components present in any realistic interaction. These correlations produce a sizable depletion of low momenta below the Fermi surface as well as the occupation of high momenta in the nuclear ground state. A few representative results for nuclear matter are presented to illustrate the present progress in the application of this method to nuclear systems.
Valid QCD sum rules for vector mesons in nuclear matter
Jin, X; Jin, Xuemin; Leinweber, Derek B
1995-01-01
QCD sum rules for vector mesons (rho, omega, phi) in nuclear matter are reexamined with an emphasis on the reliability of various sum rules. Monitoring the continuum contribution and the convergence of the operator product expansion plays a crucial role in determining the validity of a sum rule. The uncertainties arising from less than precise knowledge of the condensate values and other input parameters are analyzed via a Monte-Carlo error analysis. Our analysis leaves no doubt that vector-meson masses decrease with increasing density. This resolves the current debate over the behavior of the vector-meson masses and the sum rules to be used in extracting vector meson properties in nuclear matter. We find a ratio of rho-meson masses of m_{\\rho^*}/m_\\rho = 0.78\\pm0.08 at nuclear matter saturation density.
Strange nuclear matter within Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory
Vidaña Haro, Isaac; Polls Martí, Artur; Ramos Gómez, Àngels; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Stoks, V. G. J.
2000-01-01
We have developed a formalism for microscopic Brueckner-type calculations of dense nuclear matter that includes all types of baryon-baryon interactions and allows to treat any asymmetry on the fractions of the different species (n, p, $\\Lambda$, $\\Sigma^0$, $\\Sigma^+$, $\\Sigma^-$, $\\Xi^-$ and $\\Xi^0$). We present results for the different single-particle potentials focussing on situations that can be relevant in future microscopic studies of beta-stable neutron star matter w...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margueron, J
2001-07-01
We study the elementary interactions between neutrinos and dense matter in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme, Gogny, Relativistic Lagrangians) are first discussed. Then, we characterize their stability in spin and isospin. We derive magnetic susceptibilities for all isospin asymmetry values as a function of Landau parameters G{sup {pi}}{sup {pi}}{sup '}{sub 0} (where {pi}, {pi}' = proton or neutron). From this work, we select a parametrization for each of the 3 effective forces: Sly230b,D1P,NL3. We calculate the pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter response functions with and without charge exchange, describing nuclear correlations in both approaches: non-relativistic (Hartree-Fock with Skyrme forces, then complete RPA) and relativistic (in the Hartree approximation). At the end, we calculate neutrino mean free paths neutral current and charged current reactions. Comparisons between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches allow us to identify relativistic effects in nuclear matter at densities as low as twice the saturation density. RPA correlations make the medium more transparent to neutrinos compared to free Fermi gas. The importance of the effective mass in mean free path calculations is also shown. (author)
Sharma, Arun; Gautam, Sakshi; Bharti, Arun
2015-08-01
Here we perform a systematic study to extract the information for colliding nuclear matter via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the fragmentation of some asymmetric colliding nuclei (O16+Br80, 84, 92) in the energy range between 50-200 MeV/nucleon. The simulations are carried out using isospin-dependent quantum-molecular dynamics (IQMD) computational approach for central collisions. Our study reveals that fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich colliding nuclei is sensitive to symmetry energy at lower incident energies, whereas isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section becomes dominant for reactions at higher incident energies.
Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter
Strugalski, Z.
1985-01-01
Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.
Lectures notes on phase transformations in nuclear matter
López, Jorge A
2000-01-01
The atomic nucleus, despite of being one of the smallest objects found in nature, appears to be large enough to experience phase transitions. The book deals with the liquid and gaseous phases of nuclear matter, as well as with the experimental routes to achieve transformation between them.Theoretical models are introduced from the ground up and with increasing complexity to describe nuclear matter from a statistical and thermodynamical point of view. Modern critical phenomena, heavy ion collisions and computational techniques are presented while establishing a linkage to experimental data.The
The ?? cloud contribution to the ? width in nuclear matter
Cabrera, D.Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Rapp, R.
2014-01-01
The width of the ? meson in cold nuclear matter is computed in a hadronic many-body approach, focusing on a detailed treatment of the medium modifications of intermediate ?? states. The ? and ? propagators are dressed by their self-energies in nuclear matter taken from previously constrained many-body calculations. The pion self-energy includes Nh and ?h excitations with short-range correlations, while the ? self-energy incorporates the same dressing of its 2? cloud with a full 3-momentum dep...
Thermal properties of nuclear matter under the periodic boundary condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otuka, Naohiko; Ohnishi, Akira [Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)
1999-08-01
We present the thermal properties of nuclear matter under the periodic boundary condition by the use of our hadronic nucleus-nucleus cascade model (HANDEL) which is developed to treat relativistic heavy-ion collisions from BNL-AGS to CERN-SPS. We first show some results of p-p scattering calculation in our new version which is improved in order to treat isospin ratio and multiplicity more accurately. We then display the results of calculation of nuclear matter with baryon density {rho}{sub b} = 0.77 fm{sup 3} at some energy densities. Time evolution of particle abundance and temperature are shown. (author)
Pion absorption in excited nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The target dependence and azimuthal correlations of protons and plons are investigated for pA reactions at 4.9, 60 and 200 GeV. The experimental observations can be understood qualitatively under the assumption that pions are absorbed in excited target spectator matter. (orig.)
Final state interactions and hadron quenching in cold nuclear matter
Accardi, Alberto
2007-01-01
I examine the role of final state interactions in cold nuclear matter in modifying hadron production on nuclear targets with leptonic or hadronic beams. I demonstrate the extent to which available experimental data in electron-nucleus collisions can give direct information on final state effects in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. For hadron-nucleus collisions, a theoretical estimate based on a parton energy loss model tested in lepton-nucleus collisions shows ...
Nuclear condensation and symmetry energy of dilute nuclear matter: an S-matrix approach
J.N.; Samaddar, S. K.
2008-01-01
Based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the S-matrix framework, the calculated results on symmetry energy, free energy and entropy of dilute warm nuclear matter are presented. At a given temperature and density, the symmetry energy or symmetry free energy of the clusterized nuclear matter in the S-matrix formulation deviates, particularly at low temperature and relatively higher density, in a subtle way, from the linear dependence on the sq...
The Modification of the Scalar Field in dense Nuclear Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ro?ynek J.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We show the possible evolution of the nuclear deep inelastic structure function with nuclear density ?. The nucleon deep inelastic structure function represents distribution of quarks as function of Björken variable x which measures the longitudinal fraction of momentum carried by them during the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS of electrons on nuclear targets. Starting with small density and negative pressure in Nuclear Matter (NM we have relatively large inter-nucleon distances and increasing role of nuclear interaction mediated by virtual mesons.When the density approaches the saturation point, ? = ?0, we have no longer separate mesons and nucleons but eventually modified nucleon Structure Function (SF in medium. The ratio of nuclear to nucleon SF measured at saturation point is well known as “EMC effect”. For larger density, ? > ?0, when the localization of quarks is smaller then 0.3 fm, the nucleons overlap. We argue that nucleon mass should start to decrease in order to satisfy the Momentum Sum Rule (MSR of DIS. These modifications of the nucleon Structure Function (SF are calculated in the frame of the nuclear Relativistic Mean Field (RMF convolution model. The correction to the Fermi energy from term proportional to the pressure is very important and its inclusion modifies the Equation of State (EoS for nuclear matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of nuclear matter and nuclear scattering reactions were studied from the same effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. In this project, we used CDM3Y and M3Y-Pn interaction version as the input to build the nuclear interaction potential (nuclear optical potential). After that, nuclear scattering reactions were studied by coupled channel formalism and folding model for scattering potential. The theoretical calculated cross sections of (alpha, nucleus) and (nucleon, nucleus) scattering system have been compared with the experimental values. Using the above interactions, the properties of nuclear matter: (i) biding energy, (ii) pressure and (iii) Compressibility were deduced in the Hartree-Fock calculation frame work. From the consistence between theory and experiment, the information of nuclear structure has been extracted. (author)
Condensates and correlations in nuclear matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Röpke G.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Nuclei in dense matter are in?uenced by the medium. Solving an A-particle Schroedinger equation including the e?ects of self-energy and Pauli blocking, a quasiparticle description is introduced. Deriving thermodynamic properties, this approach contains the NSE at low densities as well as mean-?eld approaches at high densities. Consequences for the symmetry energy, the phase transition, the determination of thermodynamic parameters from cluster yields and astrophysical applications are discussed.
Supernovae and high density nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing MT2 to Asymmetric Event Topologies
Konar, Partha; Matchev, Konstantin T; Park, Myeonghun
2009-01-01
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem MT2 variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different "children" particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint MT2max of the MT2 distribution now gives the mass Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)) of the parent particle as a function of two input children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum P(UTM) the corresponding function Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b),P(UTM)) is independent of P(UTM) at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 "kink" is now generalized to a "ridge" on the 2-dimensional surface Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)). As we show in sev...
Radiative energy loss of jets in hot / cold nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The radiative energy loss encountered by a high energy quark or gluon propagating in a nuclear medium is estimated. Under reasonable assumptions it is found to be larger by at least an order of magnitude in hot compared to cold matter. (author)
Thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter at finite temperature
Soma, V.; Bozek, P.
2006-01-01
A self-consistent approach based on finite temperature Green's functions is used to investigate thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter. The internal energy is derived from the diagrams associated to the interaction energy. Pressure and entropy up to T=20 MeV are obtained from the generating functional form of the thermodynamic potential.
The coexistence curve of finite charged nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration and the EOS Collaboration are examined. Fisher's droplet formalism, modified to account for Coulomb energy, is used to determine the critical exponents ? and ?, the surface energy coefficient c0, the pressure-temperature-density coexistence curve of finite nuclear matter and the location of the critical point
Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian
2004-08-20
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.
Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at ?s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state
Matter in extremis: ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
Jacobs, Peter; Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian
2004-01-01
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at sqrt{s}=200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply the early onset of thermalization and ideal hydrodynamic expansion, with a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.
Matter in extremis: ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian
2005-04-01
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the quark-gluon plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at ?{s}=200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a quark-gluon plasma equation of state.
Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.
Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K
2014-12-12
We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces. PMID:25541769
Formation of hot, dense matter in fast nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High energy (Esub(LAB) >> 10 MeV/u) heavy ion collisions are investigated in a nuclear fluid dynamical model. We discuss the influence of the properties of the nuclear equation of state at high densities and strong thermal excitation on the reaction dynamics. We predict that sideways emission of matter will occur and that nuclear residues will obtain large transverse momenta. For collisions of equal nuclei at small impact parameters we expect four jet events, due to 'bounce-off' fragments, and the explosion of the remaining, highly excited matter perpendicular to the scattering plane. For the collision of a small projectile with a heavy target the flow of Mach-shock-matter at a characteristic angle to the beam direction is predicted. At intermediate impact parameters the possibility of using the bounce-off effect to study the nuclear equation of state is investigated. We present recent experimental data (mostly obtained in 4? counters) which support the prediction of high compression phenomena. These experiments were performed by selecting events of high multiplicity of low and intermediate energy fragments, which indicate nearly central collisions. He-fragments and also protons are observed, which, following their angular and energy spectra, can not be attributed to evaporative emission from a source moving along the reaction axis. Finally we discuss the formation of quark matter at very high energies. In this process rapid oscillations of the expanding dense quark matter may lead to pulsed emission of matter. These oscillating quark blobs may explain the abnormally enhanced geometrical cross sections observed recently in secondary collisions of projectile fragments with target nuclei. (author)
From atomic helium to nuclear matter
Fantoni, S; Schmidt, K E
1999-01-01
Differences between the quasiparticle and the bare particle, as constituents of Fermi systems, mainly result from the effects of correlations. Comparative studies performed in liquid helium and indicating interesting similarities in the single particle properties of Bose and Fermi liquids will be discussed, also in connection with the theoretical and experimental quasihole strength in nuclei. A new Quantum Monte Carlo method for nuclear systems is also outlined.
Nonlinear mean field theory for nuclear matter and surface properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuclear matter properties are studied in a nonlinear relativistic mean field theory. We determine the parameters of the model from bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter and a reasonable value of the effective mass. In this work, we stress the nonrelativistic limit of the theory which is essentially equivalent to a Skyrme hamiltonian, and we show that most of the results can be obtained, to a good approximation, analytically. The strength of the required parameters is determined from the binding energy and density of nuclear matter and the effective nucleon mass. For realistic values of the parameters, the nonrelativistic approximation turns out to be quite satisfactory. Using reasonable values of the parameters, we can account for other key properties of nuclei, such as the spin-orbit coupling, surface energy, and diffuseness of the nuclear surface. Also the energy dependence of the nucleon-nucleus optical model is accounted for reasonably well except near the Fermi surface. It is found, in agreement with empirical results, that the Landau parameter F0 is quite small in normal nuclear matter. Both density dependence and momentum dependence of the NN interaction, but especially the former, are important for nuclear saturation. The required scalar and vector coupling constants agree fairly well with those obtained from analyses of NN scattering phase shifts with one-boson-exchange models. The mean field theory provides a semiquantitative justification for the weak Skyrme interaction in odd states. The strength of the required nonlinear term is roughly consistent with that derived using a new version of the chiral mean field theory in which the vector mass as well as the nucleon mass is generated by the sigma-field. (orig.)
Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS
Ding, D; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Rios, A; Polls, A
2014-01-01
The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ?30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64 C long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert J. Goldston
2010-03-03
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Nuclear matter descriptions including quark structure of the hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is nowadays well established that nucleons are composite objects made of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by Quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, because of the non-perturbative character of QCD at the energies of nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei starting from quarks and gluons is still not available. A possible alternative is to construct effective field theories based on hadronic degrees of freedom, in which the interaction is constrained by QCD. In this framework, we have constructed descriptions of infinite nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theories taking into account the quark structure of hadrons. In a first approach, the in medium modifications of mesons properties is dynamically obtained in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) quark model. This modification is taken into account in a relativistic mean field theory based on a meson exchange interaction between nucleons. The in-medium modification of mesons masses and the properties of infinite nuclear matter have been studied. In a second approach, the long and short range contributions to the in-medium modification of the nucleon are determined. The short range part is obtained in a NJL quark model of the nucleon. The long range part, related to pions exchanges between nucleons, has been determined in the framework of Chiral Perturbation theory. These modifications have been used to constrain the couplings of a point coupling relativistic mean field model. A realistic description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter is obtained. (author)
Rates for inelastic nuclear excitation by dark matter particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate rates for the inelastic scattering of dark matter particles X on nuclei to produce low-lying excited nuclear states. Assuming a maxwellian velocity distribution for the dark matter particles X, the inelastic two-body phase space suppresses all rates by factors > 10 for mX ? 100 GeV unless the excitation energy ?E-4 events/kg.day, with the least unfavourable rates being for 69169Tm and 75187Os. Problems of natural radioactivity and expense disfavour these and many other materials, leaving 53127I, 74183W and 80201Hg as the least unpromising isotopes. (orig.)
Matter in extremis: ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian
2004-01-01
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of $Au$ nuclei at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the str...
Strange nuclear matter within Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Theory
Vidaña, I; Ramos, A; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Stoks, V G J
2000-01-01
We have developed a formalism for microscopic Brueckner-type calculations of dense nuclear matter that includes all types of baryon-baryon interactions and allows to treat any asymmetry on the fractions of the different species (n, p, results for the different single-particle potentials focussing on situations that can be relevant in future microscopic studies of beta-stable neutron star matter with strangeness. We find the both the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions play a non-negligible role in determining the chemical potentials of the different species.
Initial-state splitting kernels in cold nuclear matter
Ovanesyan, Grigory; Vitev, Ivan
2015-01-01
We derive medium-induced splitting kernels for energetic partons that undergo interactions in dense QCD matter before a hard-scattering event at large momentum transfer $Q^2$. Working in the framework of the effective theory ${\\rm SCET}_{\\rm G}\\,$, we compute the splitting kernels beyond the soft gluon approximation. We present numerical studies that compare our new results with previous findings. We expect the full medium-induced splitting kernels to be most relevant for the extension of initial-state cold nuclear matter energy loss phenomenology in both p+A and A+A collisions.
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert J. Goldston
2011-04-28
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ?12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ?30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, D.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Dussan, H. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Witte, S. J. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rios, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Polls, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2014-10-15
The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the {sup 3}P{sub 2}?{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the {sup 3}P{sub 2}?{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.
Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.
2015-08-01
Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter, as well as the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb nucleus by ˜50 % . The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.
Mondal, C; De, J N
2015-01-01
Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter as well as the neutron-skin thickness in $^{208}$Pb nucleus by $\\sim 50\\%$. The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.
Open charm tomography of cold nuclear matter
Vitev, I; Johnson, M B; Qiu, J W
2006-01-01
We study the relative contribution of partonic sub-processes to D meson production and D meson-triggered inclusive di-hadrons to lowest order in perturbative QCD. While gluon fusion dominates the creation of large angle DD-bar pairs, charm on light parton scattering determines the yield of single inclusive D mesons. The distinctly different non-perturbative fragmentation of c quarks into D mesons versus the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into light hadrons results in a strong transverse momentum dependence of anticharm content of the away-side charm-triggered jet. In p+A reactions, we calculate and resum the coherent nuclear-enhanced power corrections from the final state partonic scattering in the medium. We find that single and double inclusive open charm production can be suppressed as much as the yield of neutral pions from dynamical high-twist shadowing. Effects of energy loss in p+A collisions are also investigated phenomenologically and may lead to significantly weaker transverse momentum dependenc...
Collective motion in nuclear matter at low and high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A comparison of kinematic characteristics of the collective motions in nuclear matter at low and high energies has been performed. The experimental data used in analysis are comprised of the nuclear fission at low energies and the deep spallation of heavy nuclei induced by relativistic particles at high energies. The connection between the collective processes at low and high energies is dicussed. It is shown that final result of the collective intranuclear motion for both cases consists in forming of stable or unstable massive fragments. The existence of the latter is confirmed by the results of independent experimental investigations
Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A B Santra
2001-08-01
We investigate the effect on the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) due to modi?cation of meson and nucleon parameters in nuclear medium as a consequence of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Golstone formalism with Bonn- potential as two-body interaction and QCD sum rule and Brown–Rho scaling prescriptions for modi?cation of hadron parameters. We ?nd that EOS is very much sensitive to the meson parameters. We can ?t, with two body interaction alone, both the saturation density and the binding energy per nucleon.
Phase transitions in a saturating chiral theory of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formalism of a relativistically covariant saturating chiral field theory of nuclear matter is developed in the mean approximation, and some of the properties are studied. The theory possesses the normal saturated state of nuclear matter. The finite temperature properties are examined. A normal gas-liquid phase equilibrium region exists below T roughly-equal 23 MeV. The maximum mass for a neutron star is calculated, and it lies well above the lower bound set by observation. In the high-temperature regime, there is a second minimum in the free energy, on which branch the effective baryon mass is very small. However, this branch is everywhere mechanically unstable, and so is not a realizable state of the theory. Above a certain critical temperature there is in fact no stable state at low baryon density. There is no density or temperature regime where chiral symmetry is restored
Pure Neutron Matter Constraints and Nuclear Symmetry Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this review, we will discuss the results of our recent work [1] to study the general optimization of the pure isovector parameters of the popular relativistic mean-field (RMF) and Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) nuclear energy-density functionals (EDFs), using constraints on the pure neutron matter (PNM) equation of state (EoS) from recent ab initio calculations. By using RMF and SHF parameterizations that give equivalent predictions for ground-state properties of doubly magic nuclei and properties of symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) and PNM, we found that such optimization leads to broadly consistent symmetry energy J and its slope parameter L at saturation density within a tight range of ?(J) sym, (b) the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities, and (c) the radius of neutron stars.
FRG Approach to Nuclear Matter at Extreme Conditions
Pósfay, Péter; Jakovác, Antal
2015-01-01
Functional renormalization group (FRG) is an exact method for taking into account the effect of quantum fluctuations in the effective action of the system. The FRG method applied to effective theories of nuclear matter yields equation of state which incorporates quantum fluctuations of the fields. Using the local potential approximation (LPA) the equation of state for Walecka-type models of nuclear matter under extreme conditions could be determined. These models can be tested by solving the corresponding Tolman--Oppenheimer--Volkov (TOV) equations and investigating the properties (mass and radius) of the corresponding compact star models. Here, we present the first steps on this way, we obtained a Maxwell construction within the FRG-based framework using a Walecka-type Lagrangian.
From nuclear matter to finite nuclei. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss various relativistic models describing ground-state properties of spherical nuclei, are discussed. Relativistic mean-field and Hartree-Fock theories, which serve as a startingpoint for subsequent models, are reviewed. Using a density-dependent parametrization of the Dirac-Brueckner G-matrix in nuclear matter, we achieve an effective Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock model for finite nuclei. Finite nuclei results obtained with this model are compared with the less advanced Density-Dependent Mean-Field model, which simulates Dirac-Brueckner calculations for nuclear matter as well. It is shown that the effective Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach most successfully reproduces experimental data concerning spherical nuclei. (orig.)
Strangeness in nuclear matter at DA?NE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The low energy kaons from the ? meson produced at DA?NE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DA?NE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DA?NE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors
Strangeness in nuclear matter at DA{Phi}NE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gianotti, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)
1998-01-01
The low energy kaons from the {phi} meson produced at DA{Phi}NE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DA{Phi}NE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DA{Phi}NE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors.
Finite size effects in Neutron Star and Nuclear matter simulations
Molinelli, P A Giménez
2014-01-01
In this work we study molecular dynamics simulations of symmetric nuclear matter using a semi-classical nucleon interaction model. We show that, at sub-saturation densities and low temperatures, the solutions are non-homogeneous structures reminiscent of the ``nuclear pasta'' phases expected in Neutron Star Matter simulations, but shaped by artificial aspects of the simulations. We explore different geometries for the periodic boundary conditions imposed on the simulation cell: cube, hexagonal prism and truncated octahedron. We find that different cells may yield different solutions for the same physical conditions (i.e. density and temperature). The particular shape of the solution at a given density can be predicted analytically by energy minimization. We also show that even if this behavior is due to finite size effects, it does not mean that it vanishes for very large systems and it actually is independent of the system size: The system size sets the only characteristic length scale for the inhomogeneitie...
The Coester line in relativistic mean field nuclear matter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
A., Delfino; M., Malheiro; V. S., Timóteo; J. S. Sá, Martins.
2005-03-01
Full Text Available The Walecka model contains essentially two parameters that are associated with the Lorentz scalar (S) and vector (V) interactions. These parameters are related to a two-body interaction consisting of S and V, imposing the condition that the two-body binding energy is fixed. We have obtained a set of [...] different values for the nuclear matter binding energies (B N) at equilibrium densities (rhoo). We investigated the existence of a linear correlation between B N and rhoo, claimed to be universal for nonrelativistic systems and usually known as the Coester line, and found an approximate linear correlation only if V - S remains constant. It is shown that the relativistic content of the model, which is related to the strength of V - S, is responsible for the shift of the Coester line to the empirical region of nuclear matter saturation.
Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.
1990-08-01
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.
Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation : antiprotons vs. pions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Rowland, D.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Winchester, E.; Yennello, S. J.
1999-05-03
Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c {bar p} and {pi}{sup {minus}} beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z {approx_equal} 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code.
Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation: antiprotons vs. pions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c bar p and ?- beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z ? 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4? array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code
Pairing effects in low density domain of nuclear matter
Isayev, A. A.; Bastrukov, S. I.; Yang, J.
2004-01-01
Using equations, governing np pairing correlations in S=1, T=0 pairing channel (PRC 63 (2001) 021304(R)), it is shown that at low densities equations for the energy gap in the spectrum of quasiparticles and chemical potentials of protons and neutrons allow solutions with negative chemical potential. This corresponds to appearance of Bose--Einstein condensate (BEC) of deuterons in low density region of nuclear matter.
Competition of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin ordering in nuclear matter
Isayev, A. A.
2003-01-01
In the framework of a Fermi liquid theory it is considered the possibility of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase transitions in symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme effective interaction. The zero temperature dependence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin polarization parameters as functions of density is found for SkM$^*$, SGII effective forces. It is shown that in the density domain, where both type of solutions of self--consistent equations exist, ferromagn...
Quark mean field theory and consistency with nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1/Nc expansion in QCD (with Nc the number of colours) suggests using a potential from meson sector (e.g. Richardson) for baryons. For light quarks a ? field has to be introduced to ensure chiral symmetry breaking (?SB). It is found that nuclear matter properties can be used to pin down the ?SB-modelling. All masses, M?, m?, m? are found to scale with density. The equations are solved self consistently. (author)
The 2-neutrino double beta decay in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the suppression mechanism of the (2-neutrino? ?) amplitudes, in the framework of superfluid nuclear matter. We show that the interplay between spin-isospin modes and spin pairing vibrations in quenching the ? ? amplitude is particularly transparent in the context of the polarization propagator method and quite efficient in suppressing the decay width. Our procedure is applied to finite nuclei of interest and the results compared to other theoretical evaluations and to the experimental data
Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter
Zuo, W.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Lu, G. C.; Schulze, H. -J.
2008-01-01
The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the ...
Properties of the ? meson in dense nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to reach a description of the ? meson, which is in accordance with the principles of the gauge invariance of the electromagnetic interaction, the vector-dominance hypothesis, and the unitarity a model for the ? meson in the vacuum is developed. Thereafter follows the calculation of the properties of the ? meson in nuclear matter. First the connection between the spectral function of the ? meson and the dilepton production rate for an equilibrium state is derived. Then the model for the pion in nuclear matter is described. Following approximations are applied: The description of the pion-baryon interaction pursues non-relativistically and both the width of the delta resonance and the short-range repulsive delta-nucleon interaction is neglected. The self-energy of the ? meson in nuclear matter following from this description is formally derived from the requirement to couple the ? meson to a conserved current. The corrections for the 3-point and 4-point vertex resulting from this are calculated and discussed. Thereafter the physical consequences of the changed self-energy of the ? meson in nuclear matter are considered. By means of the spectral function it is shown that up to the two-fold of the ground-state density the position of the resonance is nearly not changed. At still higher densities the resonances is a little shifted to higher energies. In the range of an invariant mass of about 400 meV a strong increasement concentrated on a small range results. This is caused by coupling to a naked delta-hole state and a pion. Finally the possibilities are discussed to apply the results of this thesis to the prediction of experimental data. Thereby it is proved to be necessary to base on a simulation of the heavy ion reaction. (orig./HSI)
Probing the nuclear matter at the CERN super proton synchrotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text : A survey is given of signals probing the phase structure of nuclear matter created in the interactions of heavy atomic nuclei. The structures in the excitation functions of inclusive observables in 208Pb+208Pb collisions, measured by the NA49 experiment, are discussed. Seen in this light, the necessity for the differential study of event-by-event fluctuations in two dimensions is introduced. In this context, the dedicated program of the NA61/Shine experiment is discussed
High-density nuclear matter with nonlocal confining solitons
Johnson, C W; Johnson, Charles W.; Fai, George
1997-01-01
An infinite system of nonlocal, individually confining solitons is considered as a model of high-density nuclear matter. The soliton-lattice problem is discussed in the Wigner-Seitz approximation. The cell size is varied to study the density dependence of physical quantities of interest. A transition to a system where quarks can migrate between solitons is found. We argue that this signals quark deconfinement. The model is applied to the calculation of selected in-medium properties.
Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes
A quark-meson model for nuclear and neutron matter
Saito, K; Thomas, A.W.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Australia)
1994-01-01
An explicit quark model, based on a mean field description of non-overlapping nucleon bags bound by the self-consistent exchange of $\\sigma$, $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ mesons, is used to investigate the properties of both nuclear and neutron matter. We establish a clear understanding of the relationship between this model, which incorporates the internal structure of the nucleon, and QHD. Finally, we use the model to study the density dependence of the quark condensate in-medium.
$D_S$ Mesons in Asymmetric Hot and Dense Hadronic Matter
Pathak, Divakar
2014-01-01
The in-medium properties of $D_S$ mesons are investigated within the framework of a chiral effective model. These are observed to experience net attractive interactions in a dense hadronic medium, hence reducing the masses of the $D_S^+$ and $D_S^-$ mesons from the vacuum values. While this conclusion holds in both nuclear and hyperonic media, the magnitude of the mass drop is observed to intensify with the inclusion of strangeness in the medium. Additionally, in hyperonic medium, the mass degeneracy of the $D_S$ mesons is observed to be broken, due to opposite signs of the Weinberg-Tomozawa interaction term in the Lagrangian density. Along with the magnitude of the mass drops, the mass splitting between $D_S^+$ and $D_S^-$ mesons is also observed to grow with an increase in baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. However, all medium effects analyzed are found to be weakly dependent on isospin asymmetry and temperature. We discuss the possible implications emanating from this analysis, which a...
Coexisting single particle solutions in low density symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The only two nucleon bound state system occurring in free space is the deuteron, constituted by a proton neutron pair. Although the neutron neutron interaction is attractive, its strength is not deep enough to allow for a bound state in the form of a dineutron. However, this picture changes drastically when the interacting neutrons are submerged in nuclear matter. In this contribution we address di nucleon properties as implied by the Brueckner Hartree Fock approximation for infinite symmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature.Special emphasis is given to di nucleon formation in the search of self-consistent single-particle fields, leading to novel features for low-density nuclear matter, i.e. mass densities of the order of 1011-12 g cm-3. Searches have been carried out at Fermi momenta in the range 0 < k F 1.75 fm-1 using the Argonne vt8 bare nucleon-nucleon potential. As a result, two distinct solutions meeting self-consistency are found with overlapping domains in the interval 0.130 fm-1 k F 0.285 fm-1. Effective masses as high as three times the nucleon mass are found in the coexistence domain, in resemblance to heavy Fermions in strongly correlated systems. Properties of di nucleon bound state solutions and possible implications shall be discussed
Infinite nuclear matter based for mass of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ground-state energy of an atomic nucleus with asymmetry ? is considered to be equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus a residual energy eta, called the local energy. Eta represents the energy due to shell, deformation, diffuseness and exchange Coulomb effects, etc. Using this picture and the generalised Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem of many-body theory, the previously proposed mass relation is derived in a transport way in which eta drops away in a very natural manner. The validity of this mass relation is studied globally using the latest mass table. The model is suitable for the extraction of the saturation properties of nuclear matter. The binding energy per nucleon and the saturation Fermi momentum of nuclear matter obtained through this model are 18.33 MeV and 1.48 fm-1 respectively. It is shown in several representative cases in the Periodic Table that the masses of nuclei in the far unknown region can be reliably predicted. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Internucleonic forces of the semiphenomenological nuclear theory are applied to description of the nUclear matter properties. The latter are found to be as follows: the equilibrium density, rho0=0.202 fm-3; Fermi momentum Ksub(F)=144 fm-1; binding energy per nucleon, E/A=-15.65 MeV stiffness coefficient, k=385.5 MeV
Nuclear Transparency Effect in the Strongly Interacting Matter
Ajaz, M; Abdinov, O B; Zaman, Ali; Khan, K H; Wazir, Z; Khalilova, Sh
2012-01-01
We discuss that the results of study of the nuclear transparency effect in nuclear-nuclear collisions at relativistic and ultrarelativistic energies could help to extract the information on new phases of the strongly interacting matter as well as the QCD critical point. The results could provide further confirmation of the existence of the "horn" effect which had initially been obtained for the ratio of average values of K+ to pi+ -mesons' multiplicity as a function of the initial energies in the NA49 SPS CERN experiment. To observe the "horn" as a function of centrality, the new more enriched experimental data are required. The data which are expected from NICA/MPD JINR and CBM GSI setups could fulfill the requirement.
Application of effective field theory on nuclear matter and neutron matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the thesis the effective field theory in NLO and NNLO order is applied. The order NLO still knows no three-particle forces. The theory yields however already in this order the saturation behaviour of nuclear matter. This is due to the fact that in the NLO order the scattering phases are qualitatively correctly reproduced, especially the scattering phases 1S0 and 3S1 are for energies above 200 MeV negative, which is in all potentials by a so called hard core represented. In the NNLO orde three-particle forces occur, which lead to a larger improvement of the saturation curve, however the saturation point lies still at too high densities. A correction of the low-energy constants by scarcely three percent of the value in the vacuum generates however a saturation curve, which reproduces the empirical binding energy per particle, the density and the compressibility of nuclear matter. About the equation of state of neutron matter is empirically few known. At small densities of neutron matter (kf-1) the NLO and NNLO orders scarcely differ, but indeed from the free Fermi gas. For applications in finite nuclei a simplified parametrization of the nucleon-nucleon interactions was developed, which reproduces both the known scattering phases with an NLO-comparable accuracy and the empirical saturation behaviour
Chiral relativistic model of nuclear matter including effects of confinement mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work aims at constructing a model for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter in a relativistic approach including effects from quantum chromodynamics, in particular chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider an assembly of nucleons interacting via meson exchange. The attraction is due to a chiral invariant scalar field associated with the fluctuations of the chiral condensate. The inclusion of scalar nucleonic effects due to the quark substructure of the nucleon ensures the saturation to occur. The parameters corresponding to the scalar sector of the interaction and to the quarks confinement in the nucleon are obtained from lattice calculations. The rest of the parameters are obtained as much as possible by hadron phenomenology. With such constrained inputs, the results are nevertheless very good: this constitutes the originality of this work. In one part, we chose to work at the mean-field level in the Hartree-Fock scheme. The propagation of the scalar field in the Hartree-Fock terms induce some rearrangement effects which play an essential role in the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem. We discuss also the role of the tensor part of the ? interaction in the symmetry energy and the isospin dependence of the Landau effective mass. Then, in the idea to enlarge this work to neutron stars, we give the equation of state predicted by our model. The last step corresponds to the introduction of effects after the mean-field including the correlation energy due to pion loops. An important ingredient is the Landau-Migdal parameter controlling short range interactions. The correlation energy enhances the description of the saturation point of nuclear matter. (author)
Nuclear condensation and symmetry energy of dilute nuclear matter: An S-matrix approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the S-matrix framework, the calculated results on symmetry energy, free energy, and entropy of dilute warm nuclear matter are presented. At a given temperature and density, the symmetry energy or symmetry free energy of the clusterized nuclear matter in the S-matrix formulation deviates, particularly at low temperature and relatively higher density, in a subtle way, from the linear dependence on the square of the isospin asymmetry parameter X=(?n-?p)/(?n+?p), contrary to those obtained for homogeneous nucleonic matter. The symmetry coefficients, in conventional definition, can then be even negative. The symmetry entropy similarly shows a very different behavior
Quarks and the saturation properties of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-region model of the nuclear force is developed. The short-range force is calculated using quark degrees of freedom; the long-range force is calculated using nucleon degrees of freedom. In the quark sector, the Soliton Bag model and the method of generator coordinates are used. This allows the quark fields to undergo a continuous deformation as the two nucleons overlap. In the nucleon sector, the Reid potential is used. The matching radius between the quark and nucleon sectors is approximately 1 fm. The model is used in a nucleon-nucleon scattering calculation and in a lowest-order Brueckner theory calculation of nuclear matter. In the scattering calculation, the spin singlet scattering data is well described with a single choice of parameters. Several approximations are examined. The reference-spectrum method is used in a calculation of the density and binding energy of nuclear matter. Quark effects are important and modify the standard Reid potential results by decreasing both the saturation density and binding energy. The results also indicate that a microscopic meson-exchange theory which includes nucleon resonances should be used for the long-range force
Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Bolonkin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Researcher offered a new nuclear generator which allowed to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with Einstein equation E = mc2. The method was based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH and Hawking radiation created by this MBH. Researcher did not meet the idea and its research in literature to develop the method for getting a cheap energy. Approach: As is well-known, vacuum continuously produced virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, photons and anti-photons. MBH event horizon allowed separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to MBH and be annihilated, decreasing mass of MBH, resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by Researcher as AB-generator utilized Hawking radiation and injected the matter into MBH and kept MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. Results: AB-generator can be produced gigantic energy outputs and should be cheaper than a conventional electric station by a factor of hundreds of times. One also may be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for many vehicles. Conclusion: Many scientists expect Large Hadron Collider at CERN may be produced one MBH every second. A technology to capture them may be developed; than they may be used for the AB-generator.
Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter
Kaiser, N
2015-01-01
The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion-exchanges and a spin-spin contact-term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi-spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One observes substantial cancelations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of $-1.3$\\,MeV for densities $\\rho<2\\rho_0$.
Nonrelativistic nucleon effective masses in nuclear matter: BHF versus RHF
Li, A; Shang, X L; Zuo, W
2015-01-01
The density and isospin dependences of the nonrelativistic nucleon effective mass ($m^*$) are studied, which is a measure of the nonlocality of the single particle (s.p.) potential. We decouple it further into the so called k-mass ($m^*_k$, i.e., the nonlocality in space) and E-mass ($m^*_E$, i.e., the nonlocality in time). Both masses are determined and compared from the latest versions of the nonrelativistic Brueckner-Hartree Fock (BHF) model and the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) model. The latter are achieved based on the corresponding Schr\\"{o}dinger equivalent s.p. potential in a relativistic framework. We demonstrate the origins of different effective masses and discuss also their neutron-proton splitting in the asymmetric matter in different models. We find that the neutron-proton splittings of both the k-mass and the E-mass have the same asymmetry dependences at considered densities, namely $m^*_{k,n} > m^*_{k,p}$ and $m^*_{E,p} > m^*_{E,n}$. However, the resulting splittings of nucleon effective ma...
Comparison of reaction matrices for free scattering and nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The matrix inversion method in momentum space provides a powerful tool for analysing numerically the correlation between the free scattering matrix and the Brueckner reaction matrix in nuclear matter. A study of this correlation is made for the 1S0 Reid soft-core and the de Tourreil-Rouben=Sprung super-soft-core potential. Reaction matrices and binding energies for all uncoupled channels with J less than two are studied. The effect of the important isobar virtual channels on these is also investigated. (author)
Compression modes and the nuclear matter incompressibility coef?cient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shalom Shlomo
2001-08-01
We review the current status of the nuclear matter ($N = Z$ and no Coulomb interaction) incompressibility coef?cient, $K_{nm}$, and describe the theoretical and the experimental methods used to determine $K_{nm}$ from properties of compression modes in nuclei. In particular we consider the long standing problem of the con?icting results obtained for $K_{nm}$, deduced from experimental data on excitation cross sections for the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) and data for the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR).
Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Nuclear Matter in General Relativity
Rueda, Jorge A; Xue, S -S; Pugliese, D
2011-01-01
We formulate the set of self-consistent ground-state equilibrium equations for nuclear matter taking into account quantum statistics, electro-weak, and strong interactions, within the framework of general relativity. The strong interaction between nucleons is modeled through the $\\sigma$-$\\omega$-$\\rho$ meson exchange in the context of the extended Walecka model, all duly expressed in general relativity. We demonstrate that the thermodynamic equilibrium condition given by the constancy of the generalized chemical potential of each particle-specie, for short the constancy of the Klein potentials, and by the Tolman's isothermal condition, can be properly generalized to include the contribution of all fields.
pion-rho-omega vertex in nuclear matter
Baran, Anna; Bieniek, Agnieszka; Broniowski, Wojciech
2002-01-01
Medium modifications of the pion-omega-rho vertex are analyzed in context of the omega -> pi gamma* and rho -> pi gamma* decays in nuclear matter. A relativistic hadronic model with mesons, nucleons, and Delta(1232)isobars is applied. A substantial increase of the widths for the decays omega -> pi gamma* and rho -> pi gamma* is found for photon virtualities in the range 0.3-0.6 GeV. This enhancement has a direct importance for the description of dilepton yields obtained in r...
Numerical simulation of anomalous wave phenomena in hot nuclear matter
Konyukhov, A. V.; Likhachev, A. P.
2015-11-01
The collective dynamic phenomena accompanying the collision of high-energy heavy ions are suggested to be approximately described in the framework of ideal relativistic hydrodynamics. If the transition from hadron state to quark-gluon plasma is the first-order phase transition (presently this view is prevailing), the hydrodynamic description of the nuclear matter must demonstrate several anomalous wave phenomena—such as the shock splitting and the formation of rarefaction shock and composite waves, which may be indicative of this transition. The present work is devoted to numerical study of these phenomena.
Nuclear matter equation of state and -meson parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A B Santra; U Lambardo
2005-01-01
We try to determine phenomenologically the extent of in-medium modification of -meson parameters so that the saturation observables of the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) are reproduced. To calculate the EOS we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Goldstone formalism with Bonn potential as two-body interaction. We find that it is possible to understand all the saturation observables, namely, saturation density, energy per nucleon and incompressibility, by incorporating in-medium modification of -meson–nucleon coupling constant and -meson mass by a few per cent.
Mass shift of sigma-Meson in Nuclear Matter
Morones-Ibarra, J R; Santos-Guevara, Ayax; Padilla, Felipe Robledo
2010-01-01
The propagation of sigma meson in nuclear matter is studied in the Walecka model, assuming that the sigma couples to a pair of nucleon-antinucleon states and to particle-hole states, including the in medium effect of sigma-omega mixing. We have also considered, by completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions. We have found that the sigma meson mass decreases respect to its value in vacuum and that the contribution of the sigma omega mixing effect on the mass shift is relatively small.
Mass shift of sigma-Meson in Nuclear Matter
Morones-Ibarra, J. R.; Maciel, Monica Menchaca; Santos-Guevara, Ayax; Padilla, Felipe Robledo
2010-01-01
The propagation of sigma meson in nuclear matter is studied in the Walecka model, assuming that the sigma couples to a pair of nucleon-antinucleon states and to particle-hole states, including the in medium effect of sigma-omega mixing. We have also considered, by completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions. We have found that the sigma meson mass decreases respect to its value in vacuum and that the contribution of the sigma omega mixing effect on the mass shif...
From evaporation to explosion of heated nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two sets of experimental data concerning product yield distributions are investigated: one set for nuclei of mass A ? 100 with excitation energies of 0 to ?5 A MeV and one set for a system of A ? 400 with excitation energies of ? 10 to 50 A MeV. The yield distributions of percolation are compared to the data and a critical excitation energy is estimated and compared to the condensation energy in ?-nuclear matter. Shortcomings of the percolation model are discussed. (authors). 27 refs., 4 figs
Zhou, Zhengzhen; Guo, Laodong
2015-06-19
Colloidal retention characteristics, recovery and size distribution of model macromolecules and natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) were systematically examined using an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFlFFF) system under various membrane size cutoffs and carrier solutions. Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) standards with known molecular weights (MW) were used to determine their permeation and recovery rates by membranes with different nominal MW cutoffs (NMWCO) within the AFlFFF system. Based on a ?90% recovery rate for PSS standards by the AFlFFF system, the actual NMWCOs were determined to be 1.9 kDa for the 0.3 kDa membrane, 2.7 kDa for the 1 kDa membrane, and 33 kDa for the 10 kDa membrane, respectively. After membrane calibration, natural DOM samples were analyzed with the AFlFFF system to determine their colloidal size distribution and the influence from membrane NMWCOs and carrier solutions. Size partitioning of DOM samples showed a predominant colloidal size fraction in the <5 nm or <10 kDa size range, consistent with the size characteristics of humic substances as the main terrestrial DOM component. Recovery of DOM by the AFlFFF system, as determined by UV-absorbance at 254 nm, decreased significantly with increasing membrane NMWCO, from 45% by the 0.3 kDa membrane to 2-3% by the 10 kDa membrane. Since natural DOM is mostly composed of lower MW substances (<10 kDa) and the actual membrane cutoffs are normally larger than their manufacturer ratings, a 0.3 kDa membrane (with an actual NMWCO of 1.9 kDa) is highly recommended for colloidal size characterization of natural DOM. Among the three carrier solutions, borate buffer seemed to provide the highest recovery and optimal separation of DOM. Rigorous calibration with macromolecular standards and optimization of system conditions are a prerequisite for quantifying colloidal size distribution using the flow field-flow fractionation technique. In addition, the coupling of AFlFFF with fluorescence EEMs could provide new insights into DOM heterogeneity in different colloidal size fractions. PMID:25958093
Equation of state for nuclear matter based on density dependent effective interaction
D. N. Basu
2003-01-01
An interesting method of obtaining equation of state for nuclear matter, from a density dependent M3Y interaction, by minimizing the energy per nucleon is described. The density dependence parameters of the interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The nuclear matter equation of state thus obtained is then used to calculate the pressure, the energy density, ...
ANDREAS MARKWITZ; Hopke, Philip K.; DIAH DWIANA LESTIANI; MUHAYATUN SANTOSO
2010-01-01
Nuclear analytical techniques such as Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) have been used in quantification of environmental pollutant. INAA and PIXE have been turned out to be particularly useful in the analysis of airborne particulate matter. Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia has carried out the monitoring air quality especially for airborne particulate matter using nuclear analytical techniques. Sampling of airborne particulate matter ...
Antiferromagnetic spin phase transition in nuclear matter with effective Gogny interaction
Isayev, A. A.; Yang, J.
2004-01-01
The possibility of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase transitions in symmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the effective Gogny interaction. It is shown that at some critical density nuclear matter with D1S effective force undergoes a phase transition to the antiferromagnetic spin state (the opposite direction of neutron and proton spins). The self--consistent equations of spin polarized nuclear matter with D1S force ha...
Composition and thermodynamics of nuclear matter with light clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate nuclear matter at a finite temperature and density, including the formation of light clusters up to the ? particle (1?A?4). The novel feature of this work is to include the formation of clusters as well as their dissolution due to medium effects in a systematic way using two many-body theories: a microscopic quantum statistical (QS) approach and a generalized relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. Nucleons and clusters are modified by medium effects. While the nucleon quasiparticle properties are determined within the RMF model from the scalar and vector self-energies, the cluster binding energies are reduced because of Pauli blocking shifts calculated in the QS approach. Both approaches reproduce the limiting cases of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) at low densities and cluster-free nuclear matter at high densities. The treatment of the cluster dissociation is based on the Mott effect due to Pauli blocking, implemented in slightly different ways in the QS and the generalized RMF approaches. This leads to somewhat different results in the intermediate density range of about 10-3 to 10-1 fm-3, which gives an estimate of the present accuracy of the theoretical predictions. We compare the numerical results of these models for cluster abundances and thermodynamics in the region of medium excitation energies with temperatures T?20 MeV and baryon number densities from zero to a few times saturation density. The effects of cluster formation on the liquid-gas phase transition and on the density dependence of the symmetry energy are studied. It is demonstrated that the parabolic approximation for the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear equation of state breaks down at low temperatures and at subsaturation densities because of cluster formation. Comparison is made with other theoretical approaches, in particular, those that are commonly used in astrophysical calculations. The results are relevant for heavy-ion collisions and astrophysical applications.
2010-01-29
...EA-09-147, NRC-2010- 0028] In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology (BGNR) (Licensee) is the holder of medical License No....
The Hypothesis of Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter: An Update
Jones, Steven; Ellsworth, John; Rees, Lawrence
2004-05-01
In our 1986 and1989 papers, we discussed the hypothesis of nuclear fusion in condensed matter and particularly in the planets and provided supporting evidence.[1,2] We continue to assert that non-thermonuclear d-Z fusion (including but not limited to d-d fusion) may occur in the core-region of the earth, and generally in hydrogen-bearing metals and minerals which are subjected to extreme off-equilibrium conditions. This hypothesis can be tested by measuring tritium and helium-3 in magmatic fluids from hot-spot volcanoes which tap plumes arising from the core-mantle boundary. In particular, magmatic waters of Kilauea, Loihi, and Icelandic volcanoes are predicted to contain significant tritium. Magmatic emissions of Kilauea demonstrated anomalous tritium content over twelve years ago[3], and a re-test of Kilauea emissions is urged along with further laboratory experiments. [1] C. DeW. Van Siclen and S. E. Jones, "Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules," J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 12: 213-221 (March 1986). [2] S. E. Jones, et al., Observation of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter, Nature 338: 737-740 (April 1989). [4] F. Goff and G. M. McMurtry, "Tritium and stable isotopes of magmatic waters," J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 97: 347-396 (2000)
Nuclear matter calculations with a pseudoscalar-pseudovector chiral model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niembro, R.; Marcos, S.; Bernardos, P. [University of Cantabria, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Modern Physics, 39005 Santander (Spain); Fomenko, V.N. [St Petersburg University for Railway Engineering, Department of Mathematics, 197341 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Savushkin, L.N. [St Petersburg University for Telecomunications, Department of Physics, 191065 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lopez-Quelle, M. [University of Cantabria, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Applied Physics, 39005 Santander, Spain (Spain)
1998-10-01
A mixed pseudoscalar-pseudovector {pi}N coupling relativistic Lagrangian is obtained from a pure pseudoscalar chiral one, by transforming the nucleon field according to a generalized Weinberg transformation, which depends on a mixing parameter. The interaction is generated by the {sigma}, {omega} and {pi} meson exchanges. Within the Hartree-Fock context, pion polarization effects, including the {delta} isobar, are considered in the random phase approximation in nuclear matter. These effects are interpreted, in a non-relativistic framework, as a modification of the range and intensity of a Yukawa-type potential by means of a simple function which takes into account the nucleon-hole and {delta}-hole excitations. Results show stability of relativistic nuclear matter against pion condensation. Compression modulus is diminished by the combined effects of the nucleon and {delta} polarization towards the usually accepted experimental values. The {pi}N interaction strength used in this paper is less than the conventional one to ensure the viability of the model. The fitting parameters of the model are the scalar meson mass m{sub {sigma}} and the {omega}-N coupling constant g{sub {omega}}. (author)
Symmetry Energy of Nuclear Matter at Low Densities and Clustering at the Nuclear Surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a density functional theory which connects nuclear matter equation of state, which incorporates clustering at low densities, with clustering in medium and heavy nuclei at the nuclear surface. This explains the large values of symmetry energy reported by Natowitz et al for densities ?3 in addition to the binding energies and charge rms radii of 367 spherical nuclei. The present theory which is partly macroscopic competes with other high quality microscopic-macroscopic approaches. Merits of the results with clustering and no-clustering are discussed. We also make connection with realistic interactions (AV18+UIX/IL2) which have been used in ab initio calculations in s- and p-shell nuclei and neutron matter. Theory predicts new situations and regimes to be explored both theoretically and experimentally. It is demonstrated that, due to clustering, the neutron skin thickness reduces significantly.
2012-02-08
... In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue Star Memorial.... 3-2011-003) associated with an at- the-controls reactor operator at the Palisades Nuclear Plant who... (10 CFR) part 50 on March 24, 1971. The license authorizes the operation of the Palisades...
Nuclear matter with Brown-Rho-scaled Fermi liquid interactions
Holt, J W; Holt, J D; Kuo, T T S; Holt, Jason D.; Holt, Jeremy W.
2006-01-01
We present a description of symmetric nuclear matter within the framework of Landau Fermi liquid theory. The low momentum nucleon-nucleon interaction V(low-k) is used to calculate the effective interaction between quasiparticles on the Fermi surface, from which we extract the quasiparticle effective mass, the nuclear compression modulus, the symmetry energy, and the anomalous orbital gyromagnetic ratio. The exchange of density, spin, and isospin collective excitations is included through the Babu-Brown induced interaction, and it is found that in the absence of three-body forces the self-consistent solution to the Babu-Brown equations is in poor agreement with the empirical values for the nuclear observables. This is improved by lowering the nucleon and meson masses according to Brown-Rho scaling, essentially by including a scalar tadpole contribution to the meson and nucleon masses, as well as by scaling g_A. We suggest that modifying the masses of the exchanged mesons is equivalent to introducing a short-ra...
Investigation of nuclear matter properties by means of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review recent advances towards an understanding of high density nuclear matter, as created in central collisions of nuclei at high energy. In particular, information obtained for the nuclear matter equation of state will be discussed. The lectures focus on the Bevalac energy domain of 0.4 to 2 GeV per projectile nucleon. (orig.)
Das, C B; Gale, C; Li, B A; Li, Bao-An
2003-01-01
For transport model simulations of collisions between two nuclei which have $N/Z$ significantly different from unity one needs a one-body potential which is both isospin and momentum dependent. This work provides sets of such potentials.
Neutron-Proton Mass Difference in Nuclear Matter and in Finite Nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yakhshiev U.T.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The neutron-proton mass di?erence in (isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and ?nite nuclei is studied in the framework of a medium-modi?ed Skyrme model. The proposed e?ective Lagrangian incorporates both the medium in?uence of the surrounding nuclear environment on the single nucleon properties and an explicit isospin-breaking e?ect in the mesonic sector. Energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels are included as well. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass di?erence is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it markedly decreases in neutron matter. Furthermore, the possible interplay between the e?ective nucleon mass in ?nite nuclei and the Nolen-Schi?er anomaly is discussed. In particular, we ?nd that a correct description of the properties of mirror nuclei leads to a stringent restriction of possible modi?cations of the nucleon’s e?ective mass in nuclei.
Resilience of nuclear matter in light ion induced reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavitation and heating of the target nucleus in the first instances of 3He-induced collisions in the GeV/u range are investigated in an intranuclear cascade model for the formation of this structure and a stochastic one-body dynamics calculation to study its evolution. The hard collisions having essentially ceased when the structure is fully developed, the latter model is particularly suited to study the possible break-up of the system. It is shown, however, that the target recovers a spherical shape rather rapidly, and has thus a good chance to decay by standard evaporation, justifying the use of a cascade + evaporation model to analyze the data. It is also shown that the system should be modified to break up into pieces instead of recovering a compact shape: in these reactions, it is thus expected that nuclear matter is resilient to shape deformation and thermal excitation. (author)
Collective expansion of hot and compressed nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Central collisions of Au + Au at incident energies of 90, 150, 250 and 400 A· MeV were studied with the complete FOPI - facility at GSI Darmstadt. The complete phase space distributions at 250 A· MeV confirms the spherical symmetry. The energies corresponding to the onset of collective expansion and side-flow are obtained and compared with the transition energies at which the azimuthal distributions show a change from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement. A semianalytical model for the expansion and clusterization of hot and compressed nuclear matter is used to explain some of the experimental trends. Modulation of the mean value and the slope of the energy spectra for different fragments as a function of azimuth is evidenced for mid-central collisions. (authors)
Behera, B; Routray, T R; Centelles, M
2015-01-01
The properties of spin polarized pure neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter are studied using the finite range simple effective interaction, upon its parametrization revisited. Out of the total twelve parameters involved, we now determine ten of them from nuclear matter, against the nine parameters in our earlier calculation, as required in order to have predictions in both spin polarized nuclear matter and finite nuclei in unique manner being free from uncertainty found using the earlier parametrization. The information on the effective mass splitting in polarized neutron matter of the microscopic calculations is used to constrain the one more parameter, that was earlier determined from finite nucleus, and in doing so the quality of the description of finite nuclei is not compromised. The interaction with the new set of parameters is used to study the possibilities of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transitions in completely polarized symmetric nuclear matter. Emphasis is given to analyze the resul...
Study of Charmonium Production in Asymmetric Nuclear Collisions by the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC
,
2015-01-01
The measurement of quarkonia production in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides a powerful tool for studying the properties of the hot and dense matter created in these collisions. To be really useful, however, such measurements must cover a wide range of quarkonia states and colliding species. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has successfully measured J/psi, psi-prime, chi_c and Upsilon production in different colliding systems at various energies. In this talk I will present recent results from the PHENIX collaboration on charmonium production in d+Au, Cu+Au and U+U collisions at 200 GeV/c.
Empirical observations on the unpredictable behavior of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While many aspects of matter are unpredictable from basic principles, there are some that are susceptible to empirical descriptions which can be quite accurate and beautiful. One such example from the field of ''Nuclear Matter Under Extreme Conditions'' is the distribution of the number of particles produced, or alternatively, of the energy carried by these particles, in energetic collisions of atomic nuclei. The present work consists of a series of published scientific papers on measurements of the distribution of particles produced, or the energy carried by these particles, in collisions of various nuclei, spanning more than a decade of research. Due to the unpredictability of the theory, the work includes empirical studies of the regularity of the measured distributions from which significant knowledge is gained. The aesthetics of this subject derives from the physical beauty of the measured curves, the characteristic changes of shape with different species of nuclei, and the deep understanding obtained by the use of a simple and elegant mathematical function to describe the data
Study of the nuclear matter flow with the multidetector INDRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The work presented in this thesis relates to the study of the products which are not emitted by the statistical deexcitation of the projectile and target. The experiment on which this work is based on was performed at GANIL with the detector INDRA on two systems: 36 Ar + 58 Ni and 129 Xe + 119 Sn. A whole characterization (mass, composition, multiplicities and energy properties) of mid-rapidity emission has been done for the system 36 Ar + 58 Ni between 52 and 95 A.MeV. The amount of matter associated to this emission seems to be independent of the incident energy and directly linked with the centrality of the collision. The available energy per nucleon for the production of mid-rapidity products seems to be insensitive to the impact parameter. A systematic study of the nuclear matter in-plane flow has also been carried out. It has been established that the usual methods for reaction plane determination do not allow one to measure accurately the value of flow parameter at intermediate energies. Nevertheless, the inversion energy of the system 36 Ar + 58 Ni can be calculated for central collisions. This energy is independent of the nature of the products. Its value and the features of the mid-rapidity emission should allow one to extract in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section by comparison with theoretical results. (author)
Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Froemel, Frank
2007-06-15
In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)
Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)
Functional renormalization group approach to neutron matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Drews
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The chiral nucleon-meson model, previously applied to systems with equal number of neutrons and protons, is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter. Fluctuations are included in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The equation of state for pure neutron matter is studied and compared to recent advanced many-body calculations. The chiral condensate in neutron matter is computed as a function of baryon density. It is found that, once fluctuations are incorporated, the chiral restoration transition for pure neutron matter is shifted to high densities, much beyond three times the density of normal nuclear matter.
Self-consistent tensor effects on nuclear matter system under relativistic Hartree-Fock approach
Jiang, Li Juan; YANG, SHEN; Dong, Jian Min; Long, Wen Hui(School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China)
2014-01-01
With the relativistic representation of the nuclear tensor force that is included automatically by the Fock diagrams, we explored the self-consistent tensor effects on the properties of nuclear matter system. The analysis were performed within the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock (DDRHF) theory. The tensor force is found to notably influence the saturation mechanism, the equation of state and the symmetry energy of nuclear matter, as well as the neutron star prope...
Effective interaction: From nuclear reactions to neutron stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D N Basu
2014-05-01
An equation of state (EoS) for symmetric nuclear matter is constructed using the density-dependent M3Y effective interaction and extended for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompressibility, symmetry energy and its slope agree well with experimentally extracted values. Folded microscopic potentials using this effective interaction, whose density dependence is determined from nuclear matter calculations, provide excellent descriptions for proton, alpha and cluster radioactivities, elastic and inelastic scattering. The nuclear deformation parameters extracted from inelastic scattering of protons agree well with other available results. The high density behaviour of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter satisfies the constraints from the observed flow data of heavy-ion collisions. The neutron star properties studied using -equilibrated neutron star matter obtained from this effective interaction reconcile with the recent observations of the massive compact stars.
Multiplicity and cold-nuclear matter effects from Glauber-Gribov theory at LHC
Arsene, I. C.(Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway); Bravina, L.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Tywoniuk, K; Zabrodin, E.
2007-01-01
We present predictions for nuclear modification factor in proton-lead collisions at LHC energy 5.5 TeV from Glauber-Gribov theory of nuclear shadowing. We have also made predictions for baseline cold-matter nuclear effects in lead-lead collisions at the same energy.
Relativistic description of BCS-BEC crossover in nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun Baoyuan [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Toki, Hiroshi, E-mail: toki@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.j [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Meng Jie, E-mail: mengj@pku.edu.c [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing (China); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator, 730000 Lanzhou (China)
2010-01-18
We study theoretically the di-neutron spatial correlations and the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron pairs for both symmetric and neutron matter in the microscopic relativistic pairing theory. We take the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction Bonn-B in the particle-particle channel and the effective interaction PK1 of the relativistic mean-field approach in the particle-hole channel. It is found that the spatial structure of neutron Cooper pair wave function evolves continuously from BCS-type to BEC-type as density decreases. We see a strong concentration of the probability density revealed for the neutron pairs in the fairly small relative distance around 1.5 fm and the neutron Fermi momentum k{sub Fn} element of [0.6,1.0] fm{sup -1}. However, from the effective chemical potential and the quasiparticle excitation spectrum, there is no evidence for the appearance of a true BEC state of neutron pairs at any density. The most BEC-like state may appear at k{sub Fn}approx0.2 fm{sup -1} by examining the density correlation function. From the coherence length and the probability distribution of neutron Cooper pairs as well as the ratio between the neutron pairing gap and the kinetic energy at the Fermi surface, some features of the BCS-BEC crossover are seen in the density regions, 0.05 fm{sup -1}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text : Large Hadron Collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research, Geneva Switzerland is the biggest Collider and Physics experiment in history. Over the last 30-35 years a lot of efforts have been made to search for QGP - new phases of matter under extreme conditions of high temperature and baryon density, as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics. In 2000 CERN announced some evidences for the existence of a new state of matter. In this article it is discussed some possibilities to identify the nuclear matter under extreme conditions of high temperature and baryon density -newly created matter in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions
Experimental aspects of quarkonia production and suppression in cold and hot nuclear matter
Frawley, A D
2015-01-01
When heavy Quarkonia are formed in collisions between between nuclei, their production cross section is modified relative to that in p+p collisions. The physical effects that cause this modification fall into two categories. Hot matter effects are due to the large energy density generated in the nuclear collision, which disrupts the formation of the quarkonium state. Cold nuclear matter effects are due to the fact that the quarkonium state is created in a nuclear target. I will review experimental aspects of quarkonia production due to both hot and cold matter effects.
Kahlau, R.; Bock, D.; Schmidtke, B.; Rössler, E. A.
2014-01-01
Dielectric spectroscopy as well as 2H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene (PS/PS-d3) in the full concentration (cTPP) range. In addition, depolarized light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry experiments are performed. Two glass transition temperatures are found: Tg1(cTPP) reflects PS dynamics and shows a monotonic plasticizer effect, while the lower Tg2(cTPP) exhibits a maximum and is attributed to (faster) TPP dynamics, occurring in a slowly moving or immobilized PS matrix. Dielectric spectroscopy probing solely TPP identifies two different time scales, which are attributed to two sub-ensembles. One of them, again, shows fast TPP dynamics (?2-process), the other (?1-process) displays time constants identical with those of the slow PS matrix. Upon heating the ?1-fraction of TPP decreases until above some temperature Tc only a single ?2-population exists. Inversely, below Tc a fraction of the TPP molecules is trapped by the PS matrix. At low cTPP the ?2-relaxation does not follow frequency-temperature superposition (FTS), instead it is governed by a temperature independent distribution of activation energies leading to correlation times which follow Arrhenius laws, i.e., the ?2-relaxation resembles a secondary process. Yet, 31P NMR demonstrates that it involves isotropic reorientations of TPP molecules within a slowly moving or rigid matrix of PS. At high cTPP the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of ?2(T), as well as FTS are recovered, known as typical of the glass transition in neat systems.
2013-05-17
...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0096...DPR-48] In the Matter of Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2...licensee and owner of the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and...
Numerical comparison of three theories of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three independent evaluations of the ground-state energy of a simple model of nuclear matter are compared. The potential chosen is central, consisting of a state-independent hard core surrounded by a spin-dependent Serber square well with parameters adjusted to produce a fit of the low-energy two-nucleon data. A careful evaluation of the energy expectation value with respect to a Jastrow wave function is performed within the Fermi-hypernetted-chain scheme of Fantoni and Rosati. At the test point ksub(F)=1.56 fm-1, the variational result lies about 2 MeV above the best available Pade approximants to the R-matrix expansion for the energy. This may be regarded as excellent agreement, considering the state-independence of the assumed Jastrow correlations. An estimate of the correction to the variational result due to the state dependence of the realistic correlations is made within the framework of the method of correlated basis functions (CBF). Both theories, R-matrix-Pade and Jastrow-CBF, yield substantially more binding than lowest-order Brueckner theory based on the choice of a self-consistent hole potential and zero particle potential in intermediate states. (Auth.)
Resilience of nuclear matter in light ion induced reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavitation and heating of the target nucleus in the first instances of 3He-induced collisions in the GeV/nucleon range are investigated in an intranuclear cascade model for the formation of this structure and a stochastic one-body dynamics calculation to study its evolution. The hard collisions having essentially ceased when the structure is fully developed, the latter model is particularly suited to study the possible breakup of the system. It is shown, however, that the target recovers a spherical shape rather rapidly, and has thus a good chance to decay by standard evaporation, justifying the use of a cascade + evaporation model to analyze the data. It is also shown that the system has to be much more modified to break up into pieces instead of recovering a compact shape: in these reactions, it is thus expected that nuclear matter is resilient to shape deformation and thermal excitation. Arguments are given to explain that expansion of the system, not important in these reactions, is required to overcome this resilience. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
The Brueckner G matrix for a slab of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Brueckner theory G matrix is investigated for the slab geometry. A method of calculating the G matrix in a slab of nuclear matter is developed for the case of a separate form of the NN-interaction potential. In particular, the separable representation of the Paris potential is used. The singlet 1S0 and triplet 3S1-3D1 channels are examined. The mixed coordinate-momentum representation is used, the momentum one in the slab plane and the coordinate one, in the perpendicular direction. The complete Hilbert space is split onto a rather small model subspace and the complementary one. The 2-particle propagators are considered explicitly in the model space, whereas the local-potential approximation is used in the complementary one. This approximation was suggested previously for treating the effective pairing interaction. Numerical calculations are carried out for the case of the model space constructed from the negative energy single-particle states. The G matrix contains a parametric dependence on the two-particle energy E and the total perpendicular momentum Pperpendicular. Keeping in mind the subsequent use of the G matrix for evaluating the Landau-Migdal interaction amplitude, we fix the value of E =- 2?, where ? is the chemical potential of the system under consideration. The detailed calculations were made for the value of Pperpendicular = 0. The contribution of nonzero values of Pperpendicular is evaluated. A pronounced ? dependence of the G matrix in the surface region is demonstrated
Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter
Zuo, W; Lombardo, U; Lu, G C; Schulze, H -J
2006-01-01
The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force...
Jung, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Chul
2015-01-01
We investigate the medium modification of the generalized vector form factors of the nucleon, which include the electromagnetic and energy-momentum tensor form factors, based on an in-medium modified $\\pi$-$\\rho$-$\\omega$ soliton model. We find that the vector form factors of the nucleon in nuclear matter fall off faster than those in free space, which implies that the charge radii of the nucleon become larger in nuclear medium than in free space. We also compute the corresponding transverse charge densities of the nucleon in nuclear matter, which clearly reveal the increasing of the nucleon size in nuclear medium.
Effect of sound branch of pion on non-mesonic ? decay in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is studied the effect of the sound branch of pion on the non-mesonic decay width of the ? in nuclear matter. It is funded that its effect is sensitive to the energy release and the correlation parameter g'
Size-shrinking of deuterons in very dilute superfluid nuclear matter
U. LombardoU. Catania and LNS-INFN; P. SchuckIPN,U. Paris-Sud
2014-01-01
It is shown within the strong-coupling BCS approach that, starting from the zero-density limit of superfluid nuclear matter, with increasing density deuterons first shrink before they start expanding.
Influence of spin polarizability on liquid gas phase transition in the nuclear matter
Rezaei, Z; Bordbar, G H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the liquid gas phase transition for the spin polarized nuclear matter. Applying the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method, and using two microscopic potentials, $AV_{18}$ and $UV_{14}$+TNI, we calculate the free energy, equation of state, order parameter, entropy, heat capacity and compressibility to derive the critical properties of spin polarized nuclear matter. Our results indicate that for the spin polarized nuclear matter, the second order phase transition takes place at lower temperatures with respect to the unpolarized one. It is also shown that the critical temperature of our spin polarized nuclear matter with a specific value of spin polarization parameter is in good agreement with the experimental result.
Variational Calculation for the Equation of State of Nuclear Matter at Finite Temperatures
Kanzawa, H; Sumiyoshi, K; Takano, M
2007-01-01
An equation of state (EOS) for uniform nuclear matter is constructed at zero and finite temperatures with the variational method starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the Argonne V18 and UIX potentials. The energy is evaluated in the two-body cluster approximation with the three-body-force contribution treated phenomenologically so as to reproduce the empirical saturation conditions. The obtained energies for symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter at zero temperature are in good agreement with those by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall at low densities. At high densities, the EOS is stiffer, and the maximum mass of the neutron star is 2.3 M . At finite temperatures, a variational method by Schmidt and Pandharipande is employed to evaluate the free energy, which is used to derive various thermodynamic quantities of nuclear matter necessary for supernova simulations. The result of this variational method at finite temperatures is found to be self-consistent.
Properties of nuclear and neutron matter using D1 Gogny force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work, we investigate the equation of state of hot and cold nuclear and neutron matter using the Gogny effective interaction. The binding energy per particle, symmetry energies, free energy, and pressure are calculated as a function of the density ?, fm-3, for the nuclear and neutron matter. The results are comparable with previous theoretical estimates using the Seyler-Blanchard effective interaction and the famous calculation of Friedman and Pandharipande using a realistic interaction
Chiral Mirror-Baryon-Meson Model and Nuclear Matter beyond Mean-Field
Weyrich, Johannes; Strodthoff, Nils; von Smekal, Lorenz
2015-01-01
We consider a chiral baryon-meson model for nucleons and their parity partners in mirror assignment interacting with pions, sigma and omega mesons to describe the liquid-gas transition of nuclear matter together with chiral symmetry restoration in the high density phase. Within the mean-field approximation the model is known to provide a phenomenologically successful description of the nuclear-matter transition. Here, we go beyond this approximation and include mesonic fluct...
Derivative-coupling models and the nuclear-matter equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The equation of state of saturated nuclear matter is derived using two different derivative-coupling Lagrangians. We show that both descriptions are equivalent and can be obtained from the ?-? model through an appropriate rescaling of the coupling constants. We introduce generalized forms of this rescaling to study the correlations amongst observables in infinite nuclear matter, in particular, the compressibility and the effective nucleon mass. (orig.)
The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density
Fukushima, Kenji
2013-01-01
We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third reg...
Comparative study of three-nucleon force models in nuclear matter
Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro
2015-01-01
We calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter using the microscopic many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach and employing the Argonne V18 (AV18) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential supplemented with two different three-nucleon force models recently constructed to reproduce the binding energy of $^3$H, $^3$He and $^4$He nuclei as well as the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. We find that none of these new three-nucleon force models is able to reproduce simultaneously the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and the properties of three- and four-nucleon systems.
Study of the nuclear matter distribution in neutron-rich Li isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrovolsky, A.V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: dobrov@pnpi.spb.ru; Alkhazov, G.D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Andronenko, M.N. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Bauchet, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Egelhof, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Fritz, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Geissel, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gross, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Khanzadeev, A.V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Korolev, G.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kraus, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lobodenko, A.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Muenzenberg, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Mutterer, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (IKP), TU-Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Neumaier, S.R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik (IKP), TU-Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schaefer, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Scheidenberger, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Seliverstov, D.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Timofeev, N.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Vorobyov, A.A.; Yatsoura, V.I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation)
2006-02-20
The differential cross sections for small-angle proton elastic scattering on the {sup 6,8,9,11}Li nuclei at energies near 700 MeV/nucleon were measured in inverse kinematics using secondary nuclear beams at GSI Darmstadt. The hydrogen-filled ionization chamber IKAR was employed as target and recoil proton detector. For determining the nuclear matter radii and radial matter distributions, the measured cross sections have been analysed with the aid of the Glauber multiple-scattering theory. The nuclear matter distribution deduced for {sup 11}Li exhibits a very pronounced halo structure, the matter radius of {sup 11}Li being significantly larger than those of the {sup 6,8,9}Li isotopes. The data on {sup 8,9}Li are consistent with the existence of sizable neutron skins in these nuclei. The obtained data allow for a test of various theoretical model calculations of the structure of the studied neutron-rich nuclei.
2010-05-06
... In the Matter of Florida Power and Light Company: Turkey Point Nuclear Plant; Independent Spent Fuel..., in the matter of Turkey Point Nuclear Plant Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Order... that a more stringent requirement is set forth in the Turkey Point Nuclear Plant's physical...
Constraining the nuclear matter equation of state around twice saturation density
Le Fèvre, A.; Leifels, Y.; Reisdorf, W.; Aichelin, J.; Hartnack, Ch.
2016-01-01
Using FOPI data on elliptic flow in Au + Au collisions between 0.4 and 1.5 A GeV we extract constraints for the equation of state (EOS) of compressed symmetric nuclear matter using the transport code IQMD by introducing an observable describing the evolution of the size of the elliptic flow as a function of rapidity. This observable is sensitive to the nuclear EOS and a robust tool to constrain the compressibility of nuclear matter up to 3?0.
Systematic analysis of the incoming quark energy loss in cold nuclear matter
Song, Li-Hua; Duan, Chun-Gui; Liu, Na,
2012-01-01
The investigation into the fast parton energy loss in cold nuclear matter is crucial for a good understanding of the parton propagation in hot-dense medium. By means of four typical sets of nuclear parton distributions and three parametrizations of quark energy loss, the parameter values in quark energy loss expressions are determined from a leading order statistical analysis of the existing experimental data on nuclear Drell-Yan differential cross section ratio as a functio...
Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches
Aleksandrov, A; Asada, T.; Buonaura, A.(Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università Federico II di Napoli, 80125 , Naples, Italy); Consiglio, L.(INFN Sezione di Napoli, 80125 , Naples, Italy); D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.(INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 67010 , Assergi, L’Aquila, Italy); di Vacri, M. L.; Furuya, S; Galati, G.; Gentile, V.; T. Katsuragawa(Nagoya University, J-464-8602 Nagoya, Japan); Laubenstein, M; Lauria, A.(Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università Federico II di Napoli, 80125 , Naples, Italy)
2015-01-01
Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP s...
Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter in the mean-field approximation
Rios Huguet, A; Carbone, A.; Polls, A.; Vidana, I.
2011-01-01
The liquid gas phase transition in nuclear systems is a unique phenomenon, at the frontier of nuclear, many-body and statistical physics. We use self-consistent mean-field calculations to quantify the properties of the transition in symmetric nuclear matter. We explore the available parameter space of critical properties by analyzing the mean-field dependence of the phase transition. The latent heat of the transition is computed and we find that it exhibits a model independent temperature dep...
A beyond-mean-field example with zero–range effective interactions in infinite nuclear matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colò G.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Zero–range effective interactions are commonly used in nuclear physics to describe a many-body system in the mean-field framework. If they are employed in beyond-mean-field models, an artificial ultraviolet divergence is generated by the zero-range of the interaction. We analyze this problem in symmetric nuclear matter with the t0 – t3 Skyrme model. In this case, the second-order energy correction diverges linearly with the momentum cutoff ?. After that, we extend the work to the case of nuclear matter with the full Skyrme interaction. A strong divergence (? ?5 related to the velocity-dependent terms of the interaction is obtained. Moreover, a global fit can be simultaneously performed for both symmetric and nuclear matter with different neutron-to-proton ratios. These results pave the way for applications to finite nuclei in the framework of beyond mean-field theories.
Cylindrically asymmetric hydrodynamic equations
Chojnacki, Mikolaj
2006-01-01
We show that the boost-invariant and cylindrically asymmetric hydrodynamic equations for baryon-free matter may be rewritten as only two coupled partial differential equations. In the case where the system exhibits the cross-over phase transition, the standard numerical methods may be applied to solve these equations. An example of our results describing non-central gold on gold collisions at RHIC energies is presented.
Phase transitions in nuclear matter: metastability and fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the metastable states of superheated hadronic matter and the supercooled quark--gluon plasma. The Blaizot--Ollitrault equation of state is generalized to include metastable states. A stability criterion is established for the metastable states in the presence of a phase transition between hadronic matter and the quark--gluon plasma, and a connection is given between this stability criterion and the Ginzburg criterion, familiar in the theory of second-order phase transitions. The behavior of the fluctuations near the phase transition between hadronic matter and the quark--gluon plasma is discussed, as well as the scenario of the inflation of the universe during its hadronic era
The volume effect on nuclear fragmentation of supernova matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We proposed and have been studying a new heavy element synthesis process during supernova explosion which is proceeded by fragmentation of supernova matter through the liquid-gas phase transition. We have found that there appear the characteristic fragment distributions in the liquid-gas coexisting state during the ?-equilibrium of supernova matter. However, our model used for the distribution has some problems near the normal density ?0. In this talk, we take into account some medium effects of supernova matter in order to improve our model. (author)
The matter of probability controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the first part of this work beside description of split power, power of radioactivity disintegration and afterpower and its ability to extinguish, the genera condition of melting nuclear reactor core and its detailed versions were described. This paper also include the description of consequences melting nuclear reactor core both in case of stationary and mobile (ship) reactor and underline substantial differences. Next, fulfilled with succeed, control under melting of stationary nuclear reactor core was characterized.The middle part describe author's idea of controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor core. It is based on: - the suggestion of prevention pressure's untightness in safety tank of nuclear ship reactor by '' corium '' - and the suggestion of preventing walls of this tank from melting by '' corium ''. In the end the technological and construction barriers of the prevention from melting nuclear ship reactor and draw conclusions was presented. (author)
Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method of correlated basis functions is studied and applied to the Fermi systems: liquid 3He, nuclear matter and neutron matter. The reduced cluster integrals xsub(ijkl...) and so the subnormalization integrals Isub(ijkl...) are generalized to coinciding quantum numbers out of the set [i, j, k, l,...]. This generalization has an important consequence for the radial distribution function g(r) (and then for the liquid structure function); g(r) has no contributions of the order 0(A-1). For 3He the state-independent two-body correlation function f(r) is calculated from the Euler-Lagrange equation (in the limit of r ? 0) for the unrenormalized two-body energy functional. For nuclear matter and neutron matter we adopt the three-parameter correlation function of Baeckman et al. Then the energy expectation values are calculated by including up to the three-body terms in the un-renormalized and renormalized version of the correlated basis functions method. (orig.)
2013-07-10
...In the Matter of Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; (Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2...Modifying License I Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (Duke...to the Licensee, Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Oconee Nuclear Station, 7800...
Tabulated equation of state for supernova matter including full nuclear ensemble
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buyukcizmeci, N.; Botvina, A. S.; Mishustin, I. N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2014-07-01
This is an introduction to the tabulated database of stellar matter properties calculated within the framework of the Statistical Model for Supernova Matter (SMSM). The tables present thermodynamical characteristics and nuclear abundances for 31 values of baryon density (10{sup –8} < ?/?{sub 0} < 0.32, ?{sub 0} = 0.15 fm{sup –3} is the normal nuclear matter density), 35 values of temperature (0.2 MeV < T < 25 MeV), and 28 values of electron-to-baryon ratio (0.02 < Y{sub e} < 0.56). The properties of stellar matter in ? equilibrium are also considered. The main ingredients of the SMSM are briefly outlined, and the data structure and content of the tables are explained.
Phase transition patterns of nuclear matter based on extended linear sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study systematically various types of phase transitions in nuclear matter at finite temperature T and baryon chemical potential ? based on the extended linear sigma model with nucleon degrees of freedom. It is shown that there are three types of phase transitions in nuclear matter: the chiral symmetry nonrestoration (SNR) at high temperature, the well-known liquid–gas (LG) phase transition at sub-saturation density and the Lifshitz phase transition (LPT) from the fully-gapped state to the state with Fermi surface. Their phase diagrams are established in the (T, ?)-plane and their physical properties are investigated in detail. The relationship between the chiral phase transition and the LG phase transition in nuclear matter is discussed. (author)
Nuclear matter equation of state including two-, three-, and four-nucleon correlations
Röpke, G.
2015-11-01
Light clusters (mass number A ?4 ) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. I review the formalism and approximations used and extend it with respect to the treatment of continuum correlations. Virial coefficients are derived from continuum contributions to the partial densities which depend on temperature, densities, and total momentum. The Pauli blocking is modified taking correlations in the medium into account. Both effects of continuum correlations lead to an enhancement of cluster abundances in nuclear matter at higher densities. Based on calculations for A =2 , estimates for the contributions with A =3 ,4 are given. The properties of light clusters and continuum correlations in dense matter are of interest for nuclear structure calculations, heavy-ion collisions, and astrophysical applications such as the formation of neutron stars in core-collapse supernovae.
Diffusion of dark matter in a hot and dense nuclear environment
Cermeño, Marina; Silk, Joseph
2015-01-01
We calculate the mean free path in a hot and dense nuclear environment for a fermionic dark matter particle candidate interacting with nucleons via scalar and vector couplings. We determine the effects of density and temperature in the medium by using nuclear distribution functions to size the importance of the final state blocking. Our results show that stellar nuclear scenarios, where dark matter may be accreted, provide opacities several orders of magnitude larger than those for Standard Model neutrinos in the context of cooling of proto-neutron stars. We also show that in a diffusive approximation with couplings of Fermi's constant strength the obtained dark matter-nucleon crosss sections display the same sensitivity that upper limits constrained with collider searches in the mass region $m_\\chi \\lesssim$ 5 GeV.
Pigato, Daniele
2013-01-01
The main goal of this Thesis, is the study of the thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting and dense nuclear matter, away from the nuclear ground state. This analysis constitutes one of the most interesting aspect and one of the major tasks in the modern high-energy nuclear physics. The first part of this dissertation, addresses the phenomenological and theoretical study of the nuclear matter equation of state, under the extreme conditions reached in high energy heavy ion collision ex...
2006-11-01
Astronomers are reporting remarkable new findings that shed light on a decade-long debate about one kind of supernovae, the explosions that mark a star's final demise: does the star die in a slow burn or with a fast bang? From their observations, the scientists find that the matter ejected by the explosion shows significant peripheral asymmetry but a nearly spherical interior, most likely implying that the explosion finally propagates at supersonic speed. These results are reported today in Science Express, the online version of the research journal Science, by Lifan Wang, Texas A&M University (USA), and colleagues Dietrich Baade and Ferdinando Patat from ESO. "Our results strongly suggest a two-stage explosion process in this type of supernova," comments Wang. "This is an important finding with potential implications in cosmology." ESO PR Photo 44/06 ESO PR Photo 44/06 Clumpy Explosion (Artist's Impression) Using observations of 17 supernovae made over more than 10 years with ESO's Very Large Telescope and the McDonald Observatory's Otto Struve Telescope, astronomers inferred the shape and structure of the debris cloud thrown out from Type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf - inside a binary system. As its companion continuously spills matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reaches a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. But what sparks the initial explosion, and how the blast travels through the star have long been thorny issues. The supernovae Wang and his colleagues observed occurred in distant galaxies, and because of the vast cosmic distances could not be studied in detail using conventional imaging techniques, including interferometry. Instead, the team determined the shape of the exploding cocoons by recording the polarisation of the light from the dying stars. Polarimetry relies on the fact that light is composed of electromagnetic waves that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy, it is. "This has some impact on the us
Probing the Nuclear Symmetry Energy with Heavy-Ion Reactions Induced by Neutron-Rich Nuclei
Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming(Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA); Li, Bao-an; Yong, Gao-Chan
2007-01-01
Heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei provide a unique means to investigate the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter, especially the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, recent analyses of the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion reactions have already put a stringent constraint on the nuclear symmetry energy around the nuclear matter saturation density. We review this exciting result and discuss its implications on ...
Analysis of zero-frequency solutions of the pion dispersion equation in nuclear matter
Sadovnikova, V. A.
2005-01-01
In this paper we consider instability of nuclear matter which takes place when the frequencies of the collective excitations turn to zero. We investigate collective excitations with pion quantum numbers J^\\pi=0^-. We study the dependence of zero-frequency solutions of the pion dispersion equation on the value of the spin-isospin quasiparticle interaction G'. The solutions of the pion dispersion equation describe the different types of the excitations in the matter, \\omega_i(...
Jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter
Marcinkowski, P; Kiko?a, D; Sikorski, J; Porter-Sobieraj, J; Gawryszewski, P; Zygmunt, B
2015-01-01
We present our studies on jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter. To describe such a matter, we use efficient relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in (3+1) dimensions employing the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the parallel programming framework. We use Cartesian coordinates in the calculations to ensure a high spatial resolution that is constant throughout the evolution of the system. We show our results on how jets modify the hydrodynamics fields and discuss the implications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this contribution, we review the most important physics presented originally in our recent publications. Some new analyses, insights and perspectives are also provided. We showed recently that the symmetry energy Esym (?) and its density slope L(?) at an arbitrary density ? can be expressed analytically in terms of the magnitude and momentum dependence of the single-nucleon potentials using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove (HVH) theorem. These relationships provide new insights about the fundamental physics governing the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy. Using the isospin and momentum (k) dependent MDI interaction as an example, the contribution of different terms in the single-nucleon potential to the Esym (?) and L(?) are analyzed in detail at different densities. It is shown that the behavior of Esym is mainly determined by the first-order symmetry potential Usym,1(?, k) of the single-nucleon potential. The density slope L(?) depends not only on the first-order symmetry potential Usym,1(?, k) but also on the second-order one Usym,2(?, k). Both the Usym,1(?, k) and Usym,2(?, k) at normal density ? 0 are constrained by the isospin- and momentum-dependent nucleon optical potential extracted from the available nucleon-nucleus scattering data. The Usym,2(?, k) especially at high density and momentum affects significantly the L(?), but it is theoretically poorly understood and currently there is almost no experimental constraints known. (orig.)
Jet Quenching and Radiative Energy Loss in Dense Nuclear Matter
Gyulassy, Miklos; Vitev, Ivan; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhang, Ben-Wei
2003-01-01
We review recent finite opacity approaches (GLV, WW, WOGZ) to the computation of the induced gluon radiative energy loss and their application to the tomographic studies of the density evolution in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions.
Nuclear matter equation of state with light clusters
Ferreira, Márcio Rafael Baptista
2011-01-01
Neste projecto foi estudada a equação de estado da matéria nuclear assimétrica a baixas densidades e temperatura zero com a introdução de núcleos leves (hélio, trítio, alfa e deuterão). A equação de estado foi construída utilizando o modelo não linear de Walecka na aproximação de campo médio. Foram estudadas as propriedades da matéria nuclear para vários valores de assimetria com e sem núcleos. A dependência da densidade de dissolução de cada núcleo em função do valor das su...
Proton-nucleus elastic scattering and the equation of state of nuclear matter
Iida, K; Abu-Ibrahim, B; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Abu-Ibrahim, Badawy
2003-01-01
We calculate differential cross sections for proton-nucleus elastic scattering by using a Glauber theory in the optical limit approximation and nucleon distributions that can be obtained in the framework of macroscopic nuclear models in a way dependent on the equation of state of uniform nuclear matter near the saturation density. We find that the peak angle calculated for unstable neutron-rich nuclei in the small momentum transfer regime increases as the parameter L characterizing the density dependence of the symmetry energy decreases. This is a feature associated with the L dependence of the predicted matter radii.
A cluster-variational investigation of static density waves in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed comparison of the energy of the uniform phase and of phases exhibiting periodic density fluctuation is presented for extended nuclear systems. The short-range correlations are taken to be of Jastrow type and the calculations are carried through two-body cluster order. With semi-realistic central potentials containing hard cores, no energetic advantage of a non-uniform state is detected, either in symmetrical nuclear matter or in pure neutron matter. However, the analysis gives useful information on the conditions favoring an instability of the homogeneous phase and points to the essential role of the tensor force in the formation of spin-(isospin-) density waves. (Auth.)
-matrix approach to the equation of state of dilute nuclear matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J N De; S K Samaddar; B K Agrawal
2014-04-01
Based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the -matrix framework, a method is presented to calculate the equation of state of dilute warm nuclear matter. The result is a model-independent virial series for the pressure and density that systematically includes contributions from all the ground and excited states of all the stable nuclear species and their scattering channels. The multiplicity distribution of these species to keep the matter in statistical equilibrium is found out and then the pressure, incompressibility and the symmetry energy of the system are evaluated. The calculated symmetry energy coefficients are found to be in fair agreement with the recent experimental data.
Vacuum Effects and Compressional Properties of Nuclear Matter in Cutoff Field Theory
Kouno, H; Iwasaki, Y; Noda, N; Mitsumori, T; Koide, K; Hasegawa, A; Nakano, M; Kouno, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Katsuaki; Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Noda, Nobuo; Mitsumori, Tomohiro; Koide, Kazuharu; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakano, Masahiro
1997-01-01
Including the vacuum effects, the compressional properties of nuclear matter are studied in the cutoff field theory. Under the Hartree approximation, the low-energy effective Lagrangian is derived in the framework of the renormalization group methods. The coefficients are determined in a way where the physical results hardly depend on the value of the cutoff which is conveniently introduced into the theory. It is shown that, to reproduce the empirical data of the nucleus incompressibility, the compressibility of the nuclear matter is favorable to be 250$\\sim$350MeV.
The future of the nuclear industry: a matter of communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the very first successes achieved by the early scientists the infant nuclear industry was plagued by an atmosphere of uncertainty, conflict, anxiety and expectations. After the initial euphoria the Chernobyl accident shocked public opinion and perspectives changed. Nuclear energy is experience by the public in three dimensions. Firstly there are the technical realities of the reactor and its fantastically reduced source of power. Secondly, there is a psychological and political meaning, including the association of modern technology with authority, government, and control. The third dimension is the product of old myths about 'divine secrets', mad scientists dreadful pollution and cosmic apocalypse. To a large extent the nuclear industry is at fault for these emotional connotations. An early lapse in the communication process can be blamed for many of the misconceptions. The nuclear industry lost an opportunity by sticking to 'vagueness'. Recent trends show that a pattern of conditional acceptance is present in public opinion with regard to the nuclear industry. Possible solutions, including better communication, aggressive marketing, and the training of scientists to become communicators, are discussed. A study was done of community attitudes around Koeberg, and it is concluded that the public must be convinced of the fact that nuclear power is clean, safe, cheap and accepted as such by the industrially developed word. 62 refs., 13 figs
Investigation of compressed and highly excited nuclear matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gross properties of nuclear matter at high densities and temperatures and the significance of the nuclear equation of state for high energy nuclear collisions are investigated within the nuclear fluid dynamical model. The hydrdynamical description and the properties of the nuclear fluid are extensively discussed. It is shown that at bombarding energies of 1-4 GeV/n compressions of 3-6 psub(o) and temperatures T approx. 100 MeV can be reached. At medium energies we compare the nuclear fluid dynamical model and the time-dependent Hartree-Fock model. The importance of isobaric resonance - and pion production at higher energies is discussed, which for an exponentially increasing hadronic mass spectrum leads to a limiting temperature Tsup(Max). (orig.)
2011-04-13
... In the Matter of Indiana Michigan Power Company; DC Cook Nuclear Plant Independent Spent Fuel... notice, in the matter of DC Cook Nuclear Plant Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Order... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72...
Bressaud, Xavier; Quas, Anthony
2014-01-01
We study a simple two player dynamic game with asymmetric information introduced by Renault and studied by H\\"orner, Rosenberg, Solan and Vieille. We improve the range of parameters for which the optimal startegy is known and provide an unexpected bound on this range.
Critical temperature of antikaon condensation in nuclear matter
Banik, Sarmistha; Bandyopadhyay, Debades
2008-01-01
We investigate the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of $K^-$ mesons in neutron star matter. This is studied within the framework of relativistic field theoretical models at finite temperature where nucleon-nucleon and (anti)kaon-nucleon interactions are mediated by the exchange of mesons. The melting of the antikaon condensate is studied for different values of antikaon optical potential depths. We find that the critical temperature of antikaon condensation increases with baryon number density. It is noted that the critical temperature is lowered as antikaon optical potential becomes less attractive. We also discuss the implications of the phase diagram of neutron star matter with $K^-$ condensate in the light of future experiments at FAIR in GSI.
Fermionic condensation in ultracold atoms, nuclear matter and neutron stars
Salasnich, Luca
2013-01-01
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in three different superfluid systems: ultracold and dilute atomic gases, bulk neutron matter, and neutron stars. In the case of dilute gases made of fermionic atoms the average distance between atoms is much larger than the effective radius of the inter-atomic potential. Here the condensation of fermionic pairs is analyzed as a function of the s-wave scattering length, which can be tuned in experiments by usin...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An investigation of the transition to ? matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear ? and ? model. We demonstrate that in addition to the ?-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m* and K, the ? isomer exists at baryon density ?2 3?0 if ?=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and ?, the ? density at baryon density ?2 3?0 and temperature ?0.4 0.5 fm-1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Dark matter search by exclusive studies of X-rays following WIMPs nuclear interactions
Ejiri, H.; Moustakidis, Ch. C.; J. D. Vergados
2005-01-01
It is shown that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which are possible cold dark matter candidates, can be studied by exclusive measurements of X-rays following WIMPs nuclear interactions. Inner-shell atomic electrons are ionized through WIMP-nuclear interaction, and then mono-energetic X-rays are emitted when they are filled by outer-shell electrons. The number of inner-shell holes amounts to as large as one per five nuclear recoils for K-shell and several per re...
Studies of highly compressed nuclear matter using Au+Au at the Brookhaven AGS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions provides information on nuclear matter under conditions of extreme pressure and energy densities. Experiment E895 at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) used a Time Projection Chamber to measure directed and elliptic nuclear 'flow' at 2, 4, 6 and 8 AGeV and the Au+Au reaction. A 'softening' of the nuclear equation-of-state is suggested through a comparison between the differential elliptic flow and predictions from a dynamic transport model. Recent flow results from E895 for charged kaons and lambda particles will also be presented
Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E
2011-02-14
We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.
Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter in the mean-field approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rios, A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Carbone, A; Polls, A [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vidana, I, E-mail: a.rios@surrey.ac.uk [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, PT-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)
2011-09-16
The liquid gas phase transition in nuclear systems is a unique phenomenon, at the frontier of nuclear, many-body and statistical physics. We use self-consistent mean-field calculations to quantify the properties of the transition in symmetric nuclear matter. We explore the available parameter space of critical properties by analyzing the mean-field dependence of the phase transition. The latent heat of the transition is computed and we find that it exhibits a model independent temperature dependence due to basic physical principles.
Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter in the mean-field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The liquid gas phase transition in nuclear systems is a unique phenomenon, at the frontier of nuclear, many-body and statistical physics. We use self-consistent mean-field calculations to quantify the properties of the transition in symmetric nuclear matter. We explore the available parameter space of critical properties by analyzing the mean-field dependence of the phase transition. The latent heat of the transition is computed and we find that it exhibits a model independent temperature dependence due to basic physical principles.
Probing the microscopic nuclear matter self-organization processes in the neutron star crust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate microscopic self-organization processes of nuclear matter in the outermost layers of neutron star crusts with the DYWAN model. In this framework a pure mean-field description of nuclear dynamics has been performed. Starting from initial crystalline lattices, which are expected in the most external regions, the system organizes itself in exotic structures. The present work focuses on the effects of both the initial lattice symmetries and the nuclear species on the morphology and on the evolution of those structures. The response of the system is analyzed when it is subjected to random fluctuations of the initial lattice.
Goldstone and Pseudo-Goldstone Bosons in Nuclear, Particle and Condensed-Matter Physics
Burgess, C P
1998-01-01
These notes review the effective lagrangian treatment of Goldstone and pseudo-Goldstone bosons, taking examples from high-energy/nuclear and condensed-matter physics. The contents are: 1. Goldstone Bosons 2. Pions: A Relativistic Application 3. Magnons: Nonrelativistic Applications 4. SO(5) Invariance and Superconductors 5. Bibliography
Comparison of the different approximations in the Green function scheme for nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comparison of three different approximations in the Green function approach for nuclear matter has been carried out. For this purpose the calculations have been performed for a local S-wave potential with hardcore repulsion, which reproduce the experimental phase-shifts. (author)
Evidences for a new state of the nuclear matter: quark gluon plasma in liquid phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The experimental results obtained in the last years at the RHIC BNL (USA) allowed to obtain an important experimental result, namely the observation of the quark gluon plasma formation in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 A GeV in CMS. Evidences for this new state of nuclear matter are presented in this work. The results of the BRAHMS Experiment are detailed. (author)
Computational methods for the nuclear and neutron matter problems. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A brief report is given of progress on the development of Monte Carlo methods for the treatment of both simplified and realistic models of extensive neutron and nuclear matter and, eventually, of finite nuclei. A wide class of algorithms that may allow the efficient sampling of the integrands required in calculating the energy expectations with useful trial wave functions was devised
Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures
Heavy-quark expansion for D and B mesons in nuclear matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Buchheim Thomas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The planned experiments at FAIR enable the study of medium modifications of D and B mesons in (dense nuclear matter. Evaluating QCD sum rules as a theoretical prerequisite for such investigations encounters heavy-light four-quark condensates. We utilize an extended heavy-quark expansion to cope with the condensation of heavy quarks.
Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Open and Hidden Heavy Flavor Production at the LHC
Vogt, R
2015-01-01
We discuss a number of cold nuclear matter effects that can modify open heavy flavor and quarkonium production in proton-nucleus collisions and could thus also affect their production in nucleus-nucleus collisions, in addition to hot quark-gluon plasma production. We show some results for $p+$Pb collisions at sqrt s = 5 TeV at the LHC.
The nuclear symmetry energy and stability of matter in neutron star
Kubis, Sebastian
2006-01-01
It is shown that behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy is the key quantity in the stability consideration in neutron star matter. The symmetry energy controls the position of crust-core transition and also may lead to new effects in the inner core of neutron star.
Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishimura, Suguru [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takano, Masatoshi [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan and Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2014-05-02
We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.
Relativistic description of BCS-BEC crossover in nuclear matter
Sun, Bao Yuan; Toki, Hiroshi; Meng, Jie
2009-01-01
We study theoretically the di-neutron spatial correlations and the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in the $^1S_0$ pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron pairs for both symmetric and neutron matter in the microscopic relativistic pairing theory. We take the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction Bonn-B in the particle-particle channel and the effective interaction PK1 of the relativistic mean-field approach in the particle-hole channe...
Study of Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quarkonia in Proton-Lead Collisions at LHCb
Jing, Fanfan; Yang, Zhenwei; Schmidt, Burkhard
Proton-nucleus ($p\\rm{A}$) collisions play an important role in high energy nuclear physics as they allow to study nuclear matter effects and the parton distribution functions in the nuclear environment (nPDF). The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase transition from hadron gas to the the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is not expected to occur in a $p\\rm{A}$ collision due to its limited space-time size. Therefore, the $p\\rm{A}$ collisions provide an ideal platform to study cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which are also known as normal nuclear matter effects. The measurements of the productions and correlations of the final-state particles in $p\\rm{A}$ collisions serve the purpose to test various theoretical models for CNM effects, to constrain the benchmarking nPDFs, and thus provide a baseline to understand and interpret the QGP created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Heavy quarkonia (including charmonia and bottomonia), which are produced at the early stage of heavy-ion collisions, are considered goo...
Remarks on a determination of the nuclear matter caloric curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recent publication of a nuclear caloric curve is examined. We study the influence of the excited states of the fragments on the extracted temperatures, the freeze-out density and interpretation of the observed steady rise of the temperature at high excitation energies. A deeper understanding of this curve is necessary before a definite conclusion can be drawn about the observation of a liquid-gas phase transition. (authors)
A further update on possible crises in nuclear-matter theory
Dickhoff, W H
2015-01-01
The ancient problem of the saturation of symmetric nuclear matter is reviewed with an update on the status of the crises that were identified at an early stage by John Clark. We discuss how the initial problem with variational calculations providing more binding than the two hole-line contribution for the same interaction was overcome by calculations including three hole-line contributions without however reproducing the empirical nuclear saturation properties. It is argued that this remaining problem is still open because many solutions have been proposed or ad hoc adjustments implemented without generating universal agreement on the proper interpretation of the physics. The problem of nuclear saturation therefore persists leading to the necessity of an analysis of the way the nuclear saturation properties are obtained from experimental data. We clarify the role of short-range correlations and review results for nuclear saturation when such ingredients are completely taken into account using the Green's func...
Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches
Aleksandrov, A; Buonaura, A; Consiglio, L; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; Di Crescenzo, A; Di Marco, N; Di Vacri, M L; Furuya, S; Galati, G; Gentile, V; Katsuragawa, T; Laubenstein, M; Lauria, A; Loverre, P F; Machii, S; Monacelli, P; Montesi, M C; Naka, T; Pupilli, F; Rosa, G; Sato, O; Tioukov, V; Umemoto, A; Yoshimoto, M
2015-01-01
Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP signal. In this paper we provide an estimation of the contribution to this background from the intrinsic radioactive contamination of nuclear emulsions. We also report the induced background as a function of the read-out threshold, by using a GEANT4 simulation of the nuclear emulsion, showing that it amounts to about 0.02 neutrons per year per kilogram, fully compatible with the design of a 10 kg$\\times$year exposure.
Shear viscosity of hot nuclear matter by the mean free path method
Fang, D Q; Zhou, C L
2014-01-01
The shear viscosity of hot nuclear matter is investigated by using the mean free path method within the framework of IQMD model. Finite size nuclear sources at different density and temperature are initialized based on the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The results show that shear viscosity to entropy density ratio decreases with the increase of temperature and tends toward a constant value for $\\rho\\sim\\rho_0$, which is consistent with the previous studies on nuclear matter formed during heavy-ion collisions. At $\\rho\\sim\\frac{1}{2}\\rho_0$, a minimum of $\\eta/s$ is seen at around $T=10$ MeV and a maximum of the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragment ($M_{\\text{IMF}}$) is also observed at the same temperature which is an indication of the liquid-gas phase transition.
Calculation of nuclear matter in the presence of strong magnetic field using LOCV technique
Bordbar, G H
2015-01-01
In the present work, we are interested in the properties of nuclear matter at zero temperature in the presence of strong magnetic fields using the lowest order constraint variational (LOCV) method employing $AV_{18}$ nuclear potential. Our results indicate that in the absence of a magnetic field, the energy per particle is a symmetric function of the spin polarization parameter. This shows that for the nuclear matter, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state does not occur. However, we have found that for the magnetic fields $ B\\gtrsim 10 ^ {18}\\ G$, the symmetry of energy is broken and the energy has a minimum at a positive value of the spin polarization parameter. We have also found that the effect of magnetic field on the value of energy is more significant at the low densities. Our calculations show that at lower densities, the spin polarization parameter is more sensitive to the magnetic field.
Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi Production: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Transverse Momentum Effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreiro, E.G.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Fleuret, F.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Lansberg, J.P.; /Heidelberg U.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay
2010-08-26
Cold nuclear matter effects on J/{psi} production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are evaluated taking into account the specific J/{psi}-production kinematics at the partonic level, the shadowing of the initial parton distributions and the absorption in the nuclear matter. We consider two different parton processes for the c{bar c}-pair production: one with collinear gluons and a recoiling gluon in the final state and the other with initial gluons carrying intrinsic transverse momentum. Our results are compared to RHIC observables. The smaller values of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in the forward rapidity region (with respect to the mid rapidity region) are partially explained, therefore potentially reducing the need for recombination effects.
Open charm tomography of cold and hot nuclear matter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Ivan, Vitev.
2007-06-01
Full Text Available We identify the nuclear effects that modify the cross sections for open heavy flavor production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. In p+A reactions, we calculate and resum the coherent nuclear-enhanced power corrections from the final-state parton scattering in the medium. We find tha [...] t single and double inclusive open charm production can be suppressed as much as the yield of neutral pions from dynamical high-twist shadowing. Effects of energy loss in p+A collisions are also investigated. These lead to significantly weaker transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear attenuation and give a sizable contribution to the forward rapidity hadron suppression. In A+A reactions we revisit the question of the measured large heavy flavor quenching at RHIC. We derive the collisional broadening of the heavy meson's transverse momentum and the distortion of its intrinsic light cone wave function. The medium-induced dissociation probability of heavy mesons is shown to be sensitive to the opacity of the quark-gluon plasma and the time dependence of its formation and evolution. In contrast to previous results on heavy quark modification, our approach predicts suppression of B-mesons comparable to that of D-mesons at transverse momenta as low as pT ~ 10 GeV. It allows for an improved description of the large attenuation of non-photonic electrons in central Au+Au reactions at RHIC. Preliminary results in the implementation of collisional and radiative energy loss in a Langevin simulation approach to heavy quark diffusion and attenuation are also presented.
QCD evolution equations for high energy partons in nuclear matter
Kinder-Geiger, Klaus; Geiger, Klaus; Mueller, Berndt
1994-01-01
We derive a generalized form of Altarelli-Parisi equations to decribe the time evolution of parton distributions in a nuclear medium. In the framework of the leading logarithmic approximation, we obtain a set of coupled integro- differential equations for the parton distribution functions and equations for the virtuality (``age'') distribution of partons. In addition to parton branching processes, we take into account fusion and scattering processes that are specific to QCD in medium. Detailed balance between gain and loss terms in the resulting evolution equations correctly accounts for both real and virtual contributions which yields a natural cancellation of infrared divergences.
Nuclear matter and ? properties from ? induced reactions and decays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gnesi I.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Measurement of the in-medium modifications of the ? resonance, signatures of the excitation of nuclear collective states and the first experimental evidence for a thermal emission of photons have been obtained from the analysis of new ?± 4He data at T? =106 MeV at PAINUC with the PAINUC experiment at JINR. Experimental limits on the direct measurement of the muon neutrino mass is also being studied: the pion mass resolution, at present 350 eV, heavily constrains the accessible m? sector above 419 keV/c2.
2011-10-04
...09-885-08-COL-BD01] Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Nuclear Innovation North...2011, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board...the application of Nuclear Innovation North...Gibson, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board...T-3 F23, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...
Instabilities in Nuclear and Neutron Matter at Subnuclear Densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The development of the density and temperature inhomogeneities arising in collision of heavy ons is investigated by using the Landau equation involving a Skyrme-type interaction term. We discuss the mechanism of nuclear fragmentation as a result of these inhomogeneities. In recent years, the possible relations of nuclear fragmentation to the phase instabilities have been investigated by many authors. Comparison is made with the earlier works which involved various types of interaction functions. To perform the numerical calculations for instabilities we consider the Landau kinetic equation which is valid only at temperatures low compared with the Fermi temperature on the basis of Landau Fermi liquid theory. For the interaction function we have used an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of the type developed by Skyrme. With a few reasonable assumptions we get our interaction function which is the same as that obtained by Vautherin and Brink. In the calculations we took the results of Ravenhall's parametrisation of Friedman and Pandharipande's calculations for Landau parameters. (author)
Surface effects on the energy gap in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The energy gap in the instrinsic excitation spectra of even-even nuclei is calculated in the BCS approximation starting from separable interactions adjusted to fit 1S0 nucleon scattering data. Simplified nuclear models are used to investigate the relation between the surface properties and the value of the energy gap in finite nuclei, and, in particular a slab model of infinite extent in two directions but finite in the third direction and of variable surface thickness is considered. An effective length of the slab is defined and this is held constant while the density profile is varied. For a fixed effective mass, it is found that the energy gap is essentially determined by the effective length for a particular interaction
Comparative study of three-nucleon force models in nuclear matter
Logoteta, Domenico; Vidaña, Isaac; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro
2015-01-01
We calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter using the microscopic many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach and employing the Argonne V18 (AV18) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential supplemented with two different three-nucleon force models recently constructed to reproduce the binding energy of $^3$H, $^3$He and $^4$He nuclei as well as the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. We find that none of these new three-nucleon f...
Relativistic description of BCS-BEC crossover in nuclear matter
Sun, Bao Yuan; Meng, Jie
2009-01-01
We study theoretically the di-neutron spatial correlations and the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in the $^1S_0$ pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron pairs for both symmetric and neutron matter in the microscopic relativistic pairing theory. We take the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction Bonn-B in the particle-particle channel and the effective interaction PK1 of the relativistic mean-field approach in the particle-hole channel. It is found that the spatial structure of neutron Cooper pair wave function evolves continuously from BCS-type to BEC-type as density decreases. We see a strong concentration of the probability density revealed for the neutron pairs in the fairly small relative distance around $1.5 {\\rm fm}$ and the neutron Fermi momentum $k_{Fn}\\in[0.6,1.0] {\\rm fm^{-1}}$. However, from the effective chemical potential and the quasiparticle excitation spectrum, there is no evidence for the appearance of a true BEC state of neutron pairs at any density....
Dark matter search by exclusive studies of X-rays following WIMPs nuclear interactions
Ejiri, H; Vergados, J D; Moustakidis, Ch.C.
2006-01-01
It is shown that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which are possible cold dark matter candidates, can be studied by exclusive measurements of X-rays following WIMPs nuclear interactions. Inner-shell atomic electrons are ionized through WIMPs nuclear interaction, and then mono-energetic X-rays are emitted when they are filled by outer-shell electrons. The number of inner-shell holes amounts to as large as one per five nuclear recoils for K-shell and several per recoil for L-shell in the case of medium heavy target nuclei interacting with 100 GeV WIMPs, and then the K and L X-ray peaks show up in the 5-50 keV region. Consequently exclusive studies of the X-rays in coincidence with the nuclear recoils and the ionization electrons are found to provide excellent opportunities to detect WIMPs such as the Lightest Super Symmetric Particles (LSP).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The IP-Glasma model of initial conditions based on the ab initio color glass condensate framework successfully explains most of the bulk features of the global data for various systems like p+p, p+A and A+A over a wide range of energies. We employ this framework to study deformed U+U collisions, asymmetric Cu+Au collisions and the effect of deformation in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. A combined study of these heavy ion systems with varying initial geometries can provide a unique opportunity to determine the origin of different sources of fluctuations that affect global observables like multiplicity and flow. We study the sensitivity of multiplicity, eccentricity and their event-by-event distributions to the details of initial state geometry. Results are compared to a two-component MC-Glauber model implementation that includes Negative-Binomial multiplicity fluctuations. We argue that the measurements of global observables for these systems at RHIC can constrain the mechanism of multi-particle production
Seft-consistent determination of QMC model parameters in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is discussed the equivalent properties between QMC and QHD models, and then, the in-medium QMC model parameters are determined self-consistently. The results demonstrate that the bag constant and the nucleon radius are greatly influenced by nuclear medium, however, the parameter for the zero-point motion keeps the same value as in vacuum. the critical curve shows that the QMC model parameters determined in the scheme are valid in low density region (??1.75 ?0) to discuss the finite nuclei and nuclear matter properly
From chiral Lagrangians to Landau Fermi-liquid theory of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple relation between the effective parameters of chiral Lagrangians in medium as predicted by BR scaling and Landau Fermi-liquid parameters is derived. This provides a link between an effective theory of QCD at mean-field level and many-body theory of nuclear matter. It connects in particular the scaling vector-meson mass probed by dileptons produced in heavy-ion collisions (e.g., CERES of CERN-SPS) to the scaling nucleon-mass relevant for low-energy spectroscopic properties, e.g., the nuclear gyromagnetic ratios ?gl and
Chiral approach to antikaon s- and p-wave interactions in dense nuclear matter
Tolós Rigueiro, Laura; Ramos Gómez, Àngels; Oset Baguena, Eulogio
2006-01-01
The properties of the antikaons in nuclear matter are investigated from a chiral unitary approach which incorporates the s- and p-waves of the ${\\bar K}N$ interaction. To obtain the in-medium meson-baryon amplitudes we include, in a self-consistent way, Pauli blocking effects, meson self-energies corrected by nuclear short-range correlations and baryon binding potentials. We pay special attention to investigating the validity of the on-shell factorization, showing that it ca...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saviankou, Pavel
2009-05-15
In the thesis the effective field theory in NLO and NNLO order is applied. The order NLO still knows no three-particle forces. The theory yields however already in this order the saturation behaviour of nuclear matter. This is due to the fact that in the NLO order the scattering phases are qualitatively correctly reproduced, especially the scattering phases {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}S{sub 1} are for energies above 200 MeV negative, which is in all potentials by a so called hard core represented. In the NNLO orde three-particle forces occur, which lead to a larger improvement of the saturation curve, however the saturation point lies still at too high densities. A correction of the low-energy constants by scarcely three percent of the value in the vacuum generates however a saturation curve, which reproduces the empirical binding energy per particle, the density and the compressibility of nuclear matter. About the equation of state of neutron matter is empirically few known. At small densities of neutron matter (k{sub f}<1 fm{sup -1}) the NLO and NNLO orders scarcely differ, but indeed from the free Fermi gas. For applications in finite nuclei a simplified parametrization of the nucleon-nucleon interactions was developed, which reproduces both the known scattering phases with an NLO-comparable accuracy and the empirical saturation behaviour. [German] In der Arbeit wird die Effektive Feldtheorie in der Ordnung NLO und NNLO angewandt. Die Ordnung NLO kennt noch keine Dreiteilchenkraefte. Die Theorie liefert jedoch bereits in dieser Ordnung das Saettigungsverhalten von Kernmaterie. Dies liegt daran, dass bereits in der Ordnung NLO die Streuphasen qualitativ korrekt reproduziert werden, insbesondere sind die Streuphasen {sup 1}S{sub 0} und {sup 3}S{sub 1} fuer Energien oberhalb 200 MeV negativ, was in allen Potentialen durch einen sogenannten ''hard core'' dargestellt wird. In der Ordnung NNLO treten Dreiteilchenkraefte auf, die zu einer grossen Verbesserung der Saettigungskurve fuehren, jedoch liegt der Saettigungspunkt immer noch bei zu hohen Dichten. Eine Korrektur der Niederenergiekonstanten um knapp drei Prozent des Wertes im Vakuum erzeugt jedoch eine Saettigungskurve, die die empirische Bindungsenergie pro Teilchen, die Dichte und die Kompressibilitaet von Kernmaterie reproduziert. Ueber die Zustandsgleichung von Neutronenmaterie ist empirisch wenig bekannt. Bei kleinen Dichten von Neutronenmaterie (k{sub f}<1 fm{sup -1}) unterscheiden sich die Ordnungen NLO und NNLO kaum von einander, wohl aber vom freien Fermigas. Fuer Anwendungen in endlichen Kernen wurde eine vereinfachte Parametrisierung der Nukleon-Nukleon Wechselwirkung entwickelt, die sowohl die bekannten Streuphasen mit einer NLO-vergleichbaren Genauigkeit als auch das empirische Saettigungsverhalten reproduziert. (orig.)
QCD susceptibilities and nuclear matter saturation in a chiral theory: Inclusion of pion loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter in a relativistic theory with ? and ? exchange. We take a chiral version of this model which insures all the chiral constraints. Going beyond the mean field approach we introduce the effects of the pion loops. For the parameters of the model, in order to fix those linked to pion exchange, we exploit the most recent information on the short-range part of the spin-isospin interaction. For those linked to the scalar meson exchange we make use of an analysis of lattice results on the nucleon mass evolution with the quark mass. With these inputs we are able reach a correct description of the saturation properties. From the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter we also derive the density dependence of the quark condensate and of the QCD susceptibilities
Scaled variance, skewness, and kurtosis near the critical point of nuclear matter
Vovchenko, V.; Anchishkin, D. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Poberezhnyuk, R. V.
2015-11-01
The van der Waals (VDW) equation of state predicts the existence of a first-order liquid-gas phase transition and contains a critical point. The VDW equation with Fermi statistics is applied to a description of the nuclear matter. The nucleon number fluctuations near the critical point of nuclear matter are studied. The scaled variance, skewness, and kurtosis diverge at the critical point. It is found that the crossover region of the phase diagram is characterized by the large values of the scaled variance, the almost zero skewness, and the significantly negative kurtosis. The rich structures of the skewness and kurtosis are observed in the phase diagram in the wide region around the critical point; namely, they both may attain large positive or negative values.
Low mass dielectrons radiated off cold nuclear matter measured with HADES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenz M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer HADES [1] is installed at the Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It investigates dielectron emission and strangeness production in the 1-3 AGeV regime. A recent experiment series focusses on medium-modifications of light vector mesons in cold nuclear matter. In two runs, p+p and p+Nb reactions were investigated at 3.5 GeV beam energy; about 9·109 events have been registered. In contrast to other experiments the high acceptance of the HADES allows for a detailed analysis of electron pairs with low momenta relative to nuclear matter, where modifications of the spectral functions of vector mesons are predicted to be most prominent. Comparing these low momentum electron pairs to the reference measurement in the elementary p+p reaction, we find in fact a strong modification of the spectral distribution in the whole vector meson region.
The phase transition of half-skyrmions in the dense nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we have discussed all possible boundary values used in the ordinary. Skyrme model. Among the solutions to these boundary conditions the non-skyrmion and skyrmion and skyrmion one exist according to certain choices. The free parameter R in the boundary value conditions is shown to be related to the density of the nuclear matter in its Wigner-Seitz model. All three types of skyrmion can describe the nucleon in a good agreement with the experimental values of the axial coupling constant and isoscalar radii. However, all three types of skyrmion lead to a large value of nucleon mass and a too small mass splitting between the nucleon and delta particles. The phase transitions of the skyrmions of Type III are also observed in the numerical computations as the density of the nuclear matter varies. (author)
Do Skyrme forces that fit nuclear matter work well in finite nuclei?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: A recent exhaustive survey [1] of published Skyrme force paramaterisations, concluded that of more that 200 available Skyrme forces, only 5 satisfied all nuclear matter constraints derived from a combination of experimental results. This subset of Skyrme forces has been comparatively little used in surveys of properties of finite nuclei. We present an analysis of their ability to reproduce such properties, including masses, skin thicknesses, isotope shifts, fission barriers, giant resonances, and fusion properties derived from time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The five forces, despite all being constrained to reproduce nuclear matter observables, show a range of behaviour in their ability to discuss finite nuclei. The consequences for Skyrme force fits are discussed. [1] M. Dutra, O. Lourenco, J. S. Sa Martins, A. Delfino, J. R. Stone and P. D. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012). (author)
Huguet, R.; Caillon, J. C.; Labarsouque, J.
2006-01-01
We have built an effective Walecka-type hadronic Lagrangian in which the hadron masses and the density dependence of the coupling constants are deduced from the quark dynamics using a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The parameters of this Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model have been determined using the meson properties in the vacuum but also in the medium through the omega meson mass in nuclei measured by the TAPS collaboration. Realistic properties of nuclear matter have been obtained.
Seyyedi, S. A.; Golnarkar, H.
2015-01-01
Fusion reactions with a weakly bound projectile are studied using the double-folding model along with a repulsive interaction modifying term. Using this modified potential, including nuclear matter incompressibility effects, the fusion reaction cross sections and suppression parameters are calculated for 9Be +209Bi,208Pb,29Si and 27Al reactions. The results show that applying these effects at energies near the Coulomb barrier improves the agreement between the calculated and...
Response of the XENON100 Dark Matter Detector to Nuclear Recoils
XENON100 collaboration; et. al.; Baudis, L.
2013-01-01
Results from the nuclear recoil calibration of the XENON100 dark matter detector installed underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy are presented. Data from measurements with an external 241AmBe neutron source are compared with a detailed Monte Carlo simulation which is used to extract the energy dependent charge-yield Qy and relative scintillation efficiency Leff. A very good level of absolute spectral matching is achieved in both observable sign...
NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akerib, D.; Arnold, R.; Balantekin, A.; Barabash, A.; Barnabe, H.; Baroni, S.; Baussan, E.; Bellini, F.; Bobisut, F.; Bongrand, M.; Brofferio, Ch.; Capolupo, A.; Carrara Enrico; Caurier, E.; Cermak, P.; Chardin, G.; Civitarese, O.; Couchot, F.; Kerret, H. de; Heros, C. de los; Detwiler, J.; Dracos, M.; Drexlin, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Ejiri, H.; Falchini, E.; Fatemi-Ghomi, N.; Finger, M.Ch.; Finger Miroslav, Ch.; Fiorillo, G.; Fiorini, E.; Fracasso, S.; Frekers, D.; Fushimi, K.I.; Gascon, J.; Genest, M.H.; Georgadze, A.; Giuliani, A.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Greenfield, M.; H de Jesus, J.; Hallin, A.; Hannestad, St.; Hirai, Sh.; Hoessl, J.; Ianni, A.; Ieva, M.B.; Ishihara, N.; Jullian, S.; Kaim, S.; Kajino, T.; Kayser, B.; Kochetov, O.; Kopylov, A.; Kortelainen, M.; Kroeninger, K.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lalanne, D.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Lazauskas, R.; Lemrani, A.R.; Li, J.; Mansoulie, B.; Marquet, Ch.; Martinez, J.; Mirizzi, A.; Morfin Jorge, G.; Motz, H.; Murphy, A.; Navas, S.; Niedermeier, L.; Nishiura, H.; Nomachi, M.; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, I.; Ohsumi, H.; Palladino, V.; Paniccia, M.; Perotto, L.; Petcov, S.; Pfister, S.; Piquemal, F.; Poves, A.; Praet, Ch.; Raffelt, G.; Ramberg, E.; Rashba, T.; Regnault, N.; Ricol, J.St.; Rodejohann, W.; Rodin, V.; Ruz, J.; Sander, Ch.; Sarazin, X.; Scholberg, K.; Sigl, G.; Simkovic, F.; Sousa, A.; Stanev, T.; Strolger, L.; Suekane, F.; Thomas, J.; Titov, N.; Toivanen, J.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Tytler, D.; Vala, L.; Vignaud, D.; Vitiello, G.; Vogel, P.; Volkov, G.; Volpe, C.; Wong, H.; Yilmazer, A
2006-07-01
This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.
First measurement of low momentum dielectrons radiated off cold nuclear matter
Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A; Belver, D.(LabCAF. F. Física, Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain); Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J.C.(Excellence Cluster ‘Origin and Structure of the Universe’, 85748 Garching, Germany); Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J.L.(Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex, France); Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.(Excellence Cluster ‘Origin and Structure of the Universe’, 85748 Garching, Germany); Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.
2012-01-01
We present data on dielectron emission in proton induced reactions on a Nb target at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy measured with HADES installed at GSI. The data represent the first high statistics measurement of proton-induced dielectron radiation from cold nuclear matter in a kinematic regime, where strong medium effects are expected. Combined with the good mass resolution of 2%, it is the first measurement sensitive to changes of the spectral functions of vector mesons, as ...
On relativistic approaches to the pion self-energy in nuclear matter
Leinson, L. B.; Perez, A.
2003-01-01
We argue that, in contrast to the non-relativistic approach, a relativistic evaluation of the nucleon--hole and delta-isobar--nucleon hole contributions to the pion self-energy incorporates the s-wave scattering, which requires a more accurate evaluation. Therefore relativistic approach containing only these diagrams does not describe appropriately the pion self-energy in isospin symmetric nuclear matter. We conclude that, a correct relativistic approach to the pion self-ene...
Comparative study of neutron and nuclear matter with simplifi ed Argonne nucleon-nucleon potentials
Rios Huguet, A; Baldo, M; Polls, A.; Schulze, H-J; Vidana, I.
2012-01-01
We present calculations of the energy per particle of pure neutron and symmetric nuclear matter with simplified Argonne nucleon-nucleon potentials for different many-body theories. We compare critically the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock results to other formalisms, such as the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone expansion up to third order, self-consistent Green's functions, auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo, and Fermi hypernetted chain. We evaluate the importance of spin-orbit and tensor correlations in ...
Comparative study of neutron and nuclear matter with simplified Argonne nucleon-nucleon potentials
Baldo, M; Polls, A.; Rios, A.; Schulze, H. -J.; Vidana, I.
2012-01-01
We present calculations of the energy per particle of pure neutron and symmetric nuclear matter with simplified Argonne nucleon-nucleon potentials for different many-body theories. We compare critically the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock results to other formalisms, such as the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone expansion up to third order, Self-Consistent Green's Functions, Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo, and Fermi Hyper Netted Chain. We evaluate the importance of spin-orbit and tens...
Hadron resonance gas and mean-field nuclear matter for baryon number fluctuations
Fukushima, Kenji
2014-01-01
I give an estimate for the skewness and the kurtosis of the baryon number distribution in two representative models; i.e., models of a hadron resonance gas and relativistic mean-field nuclear matter. I emphasize formal similarity between these two descriptions. The hadron resonance gas leads to a deviation from the Skellam distribution if quantum statistical correlation is taken into account at high baryon density, but this effect is not strong enough to explain fluctuation ...
Nuclear forces and their impact on neutron-rich nuclei and neutron-rich matter
Hebeler, K; Menendez, J; Schwenk, A
2015-01-01
We review the impact of nuclear forces on matter at neutron-rich extremes. Recent results have shown that neutron-rich nuclei become increasingly sensitive to three-nucleon forces, which are at the forefront of theoretical developments based on effective field theories of quantum chromodynamics. This includes the formation of shell structure, the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, and the location of the neutron dripline. Nuclear forces also constrain the properties of neutron-rich matter, including the neutron skin, the symmetry energy, and the structure of neutron stars. We first review our understanding of three-nucleon forces and show how chiral effective field theory makes unique predictions for many-body forces. Then, we survey results with three-nucleon forces in neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes and neutron-rich matter, which have been explored with a range of many-body methods. Three-nucleon forces therefore provide an exciting link between theoretical, experimental and observational nuclear physi...
Nuclear Forces and Their Impact on Neutron-Rich Nuclei and Neutron-Rich Matter
Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Schwenk, A.
2015-10-01
We review the impact of nuclear forces on matter at neutron-rich extremes. Recent results have shown that neutron-rich nuclei become increasingly sensitive to three-nucleon forces, which are at the forefront of theoretical developments based on effective field theories of quantum chromodynamics. These developments include the formation of shell structure, the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, and the location of the neutron drip line. Nuclear forces also constrain the properties of neutron-rich matter, including the neutron skin, the symmetry energy, and the structure of neutron stars. First, we review our understanding of three-nucleon forces and show how chiral effective field theory makes unique predictions for many-body forces. Then, we survey results with three-nucleon forces in neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes and neutron-rich matter, which have been explored with a range of many-body methods. Three-nucleon forces therefore provide an exciting link between theoretical, experimental, and observational nuclear physics frontiers.
Effective interactions and mean field theory: from nuclear matter to nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Skyrme force is a zero-range force that allows the construction of the mean field inside the nucleus in a simple way. Skyrme forces are reasonably predictive but some features of the infinite nuclear matter or the mass of heavy nuclei are not well computed. The aim of this work is to propose an expanded parametrization of the Skyrme force in order to improve its predictive power. The first part is dedicated to the construction of the expansion of the parametrization. We recall how the effective forces are linked to the nucleon-nucleon interaction then we show the limits of the standard Skyrme forces and we propose a relatively natural improvements based on the integration of spin and isospin instabilities. The second part deals with the validation of the model, first by describing infinite nuclear matter then by studying ?-balanced nuclear matter which has enabled us to reproduce some features of neutron stars like mass and radius. The computation of properties of nuclei like binding energy, mass, radii depends strongly on the adjustment procedure. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using in-medium hadron properties according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities and considering naturalness of the coupling constants, we have newly constructed several relativistic mean-field Lagrangians with chiral limits. The model parameters are adjusted such that the symmetric part of the resulting equation of state at supra-normal densities is consistent with that required by the collective flow data from high energy heavy-ion reactions, while the resulting density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities agrees with that extracted from the recent isospin diffusion data from intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions. The resulting equations of state have the special feature of being soft at intermediate densities but stiff at high densities naturally. With these constrained equations of state, it is found that the radius of a 1.4Mo canonical neutron star is in the range of 11.9 km?R?13.1 km, and the maximum neutron star mass is around 2.0Mo close to the recent observations
New Kohn-Sham density functional based on microscopic nuclear and neutron matter equations of state
Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Viñas, X.
2013-06-01
A new version of the Barcelona-Catania-Paris energy functional is applied to a study of nuclear masses and other properties. The functional is largely based on calculated ab initio nuclear and neutron matter equations of state. Compared to typical Skyrme functionals having 10-12 parameters apart from spin-orbit and pairing terms, the new functional has only 2 or 3 adjusted parameters, fine tuning the nuclear matter binding energy and fixing the surface energy of finite nuclei. An energy rms value of 1.58 MeV is obtained from a fit of these three parameters to the 579 measured masses reported in the Audi and Wapstra [Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003 729, 337 (2003)] compilation. This rms value compares favorably with the one obtained using other successful mean field theories, which range from 1.5 to 3.0 MeV for optimized Skyrme functionals and 0.7 to 3.0 for the Gogny functionals. The other properties that have been calculated and compared to experiment are nuclear radii, the giant monopole resonance, and spontaneous fission lifetimes.
Nuclear Three-body Force Effect on a Kaon Condensate in Neutron Star Matter
Zuo, W; Li, Z H; Lombardo, U
2004-01-01
We explore the effects of a microscopic nuclear three-body force on the threshold baryon density for kaon condensation in chemical equilibrium neutron star matter and on the composition of the kaon condensed phase in the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. Our results show that the nuclear three-body force affects strongly the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy and consequently reduces considerably the critical density for kaon condensation provided that the proton strangeness content is not very large. The dependence of the threshold density on the symmetry energy becomes weaker as the proton strangeness content increases. The kaon condensed phase of neutron star matter turns out to be proton-rich instead of neutron-rich. The three-body force has an important influence on the composition of the kaon condensed phase. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the nuclear symmetry energy results in a significant reduction of the proton and kaon fractions in the kaon condensed...
Nuclear matter studies with density-dependent meson-nucleon coupling constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to the internal structure of the nucleon, we should expect, in general, that the effective meson nucleon parameters may change in nuclear medium. We study such changes by using a chiral confining model of the nucleon. We use density-dependent masses for all mesons except the pion. Within a Dirac-Brueckner analysis, based on the relativistic covariant structure of the NN amplitude, we show that the effect of such a density dependence in the NN interaction on the saturation properties of nuclear matter, while not large, is quite significant. Due to the density dependence of the g?NN, as predicted by the chiral confining model, we find, in particular, a looping behavior of the binding energy at saturation as a function of the saturation density. A simple model is described, which exhibits looping and which is shown to be mainly caused by the presence of a peak in the density dependence of the medium modified ?N coupling constant at low density. The effect of density dependence of the coupling constants and the meson masses tends to improve the results for E/A and density of nuclear matter at saturation. From the present study we see that the relationship between binding energy and saturation density may not be as universal as found in nonrelativistic studies and that more model dependence is exhibited once medium modifications of the basic nuclear interactions are considered. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
A comparative study of statistical models for nuclear equation of state of stellar matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compare three different statistical models for the equation of state (EOS) of stellar matter at subnuclear densities and temperatures (0.5–10 MeV) expected to occur during the collapse of massive stars and supernova explosions. The models introduce the distributions of various nuclear species in nuclear statistical equilibrium, but use somewhat different nuclear physics inputs. It is demonstrated that the basic thermodynamical quantities of stellar matter under these conditions are similar, except in the region of high densities and low temperatures. We demonstrate that mass and isotopic distributions have considerable differences related to the different assumptions of the models on properties of nuclei at these stellar conditions. Overall, the three models give similar trends, but the details reflect the uncertainties related to the modeling of medium effects, such as the temperature and density dependence of surface and bulk energies of heavy nuclei, and the nuclear shell structure effects. We discuss importance of new physics inputs for astrophysical calculations from experimental data obtained in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions, in particular, the similarities of the conditions reached during supernova explosions and multifragmentation reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased ?s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large ?s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering
Many-particle theory of nuclear system with application to neutron-star matter and other systems
Yang, C. H.
1978-01-01
General problems in nuclear-many-body theory were considered. Superfluid states of neutron star matter and other strongly interacting many-fermion systems were analyzed by using the soft-core potential of Reid. The pion condensation in neutron star matter was also treated.
Tensor contribution to nuclear matter in the first order perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The tensor forces are necessary for a fit to the two-body phase shift data and are important for their role in producing the saturation in the nuclear binding energy. The widely used nucleon-nucleon potentials in the nuclear calculations are usually defined parity wise for the zero and unit spin states of the two-particle system. A non-vanishing tensor contribution can be expected from the potentials whose parameters depend on the total angular momentum. A suitable potential for this purpose is that due to Ulehla et al. This finite charge-dependent potential is used to calculate the tensor contribution to the infinite nuclear matter binding energy in the first order perturbation theory. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study was undertaken to broaden understanding of the heat transfer and friction characteristics for confined turbulent flow with asymmetrical roughened surface applicable to Nuclear Waste Repository Configurations. Due to the current Federal Waste Repository Program, the configuration is almost unique. As a result, two kinds of repeated triangular fin type roughness elements have been chosen for this study, that is, continuous roughness and discrete roughness. These two kinds of surface roughnesses were characterized by their average height and the pitch-to-height ratio. A combination of two different roughness heights and three different pitches was constructed covering the range 0.088 to 0.12 and 2.0 to 4.7, respectively. Experiments were performed for a continuous heat flux distribution in a 5 feet 10 inches roughened/heated section preceded by a 24 feet unheated hydraulic entrance section with smooth surfaces. Experimental data were taken to define the friction factor and Nusselt number. A friction factor correlation was developed based on velocity distribution and pressure drop measurements which are confirmed by previous investigators for boundary layer flow over rough surfaces. The heat transfer data at the downstream end of the test section were correlated as a function of the Reynolds number. A heat momentum analogy was applied for this study and this relationship is correlated through temperature and velocity distribution measurements
The experimental liquid-vapor phase diagram of bulk nuclear matter
Moretto, L. G.; Elliott, J. B.; Phair, L.; Lake, P. T.
2011-11-01
The modern investigation of clusters, for which 1 Lt N Lt ?, requires a generalization of the thermodynamics developed for infinite systems. For instance, in finite systems, phase transitions and phase coexistence become ill-defined with ambiguous signals. The existence of phase transitions in nuclear systems, in particular of the liquid-vapor kind, has been widely discussed and even experimentally claimed. A consistent and unambiguous approach to this problem requires a connection between finite systems and the corresponding infinite systems. Historically, this has been achieved at temperature T = 0 by the introduction of the liquid drop model and the extraction of the volume term, which is a fundamental quantity of nuclear matter. This work extends this approach to T > 0, by determining the liquid-vapor coexistence line and its termination at the critical point. Since there is no known experimental situation where a nuclear liquid and vapor are in coexistence, we establish a relationship between evaporation rates and saturated vapor concentration and characterize the saturated vapor with Fisher's droplet model. We validate this approach by analyzing cluster concentrations in the Ising and Lennard-Jones models and extracting the corresponding first-order coexistence line and critical temperature. Since the vapor of clusters coexists with a finite liquid drop, we devise a finite size correction leading to a modified Fisher equation. The application of the above techniques to nuclear systems requires dealing also with the Coulomb force. Nuclear cluster evaporation rates can be corrected for Coulomb effects and can be used to evaluate the cluster concentrations in the 'virtual' equilibrium vapor. These cluster concentrations, determined over a wide temperature range, can be analyzed by means of a modified Fisher formula. This leads to the extraction of the entire liquid-vapor coexistence line terminating at the critical point. A large body of experimental data has been analyzed in this manner and the liquid-vapor phase diagram of nuclear matter has been extracted.
2010-12-01
... entities required to protect SGI (73 FR 63546). The NRC is issuing this Order to Toshiba America Nuclear... In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or Obtain... Regulatory Commission (the Commission or NRC) published a rulemaking in the Federal Register (74 FR...
2011-04-13
...Company; DC Cook Nuclear Plant Independent Spent Fuel...Access to Indiana Michigan Power Company...matter of DC Cook Nuclear Plant Independent Spent Fuel...license to Indiana Michigan Power Company (I&M), authorizing...forth in the Waterford Steam Electric Station's...
General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plohl, Oliver
2008-07-25
The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are decreased in the chiral limit. The present formalism allows within chEFT to perform a consistent comparison of the in-medium nucleon mass and the density dependence of the scalar condensate derived from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem (in HF and BHF approximation). A decoupling of the in-medium nucleon mass and the scalar condensate is observed. It turns out that in contrast to QCD sum rules the effective nucleon mass in matter is mainly determined by short-range contact terms while virtual low-momentum pions provide the essential contributions responsible for the reduction of the in-medium scalar condensate. (orig.)
General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are decreased in the chiral limit. The present formalism allows within chEFT to perform a consistent comparison of the in-medium nucleon mass and the density dependence of the scalar condensate derived from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem (in HF and BHF approximation). A decoupling of the in-medium nucleon mass and the scalar condensate is observed. It turns out that in contrast to QCD sum rules the effective nucleon mass in matter is mainly determined by short-range contact terms while virtual low-momentum pions provide the essential contributions responsible for the reduction of the in-medium scalar condensate. (orig.)
Quark mechanism for the static properties of nuclear matter using hyper central QCD potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A nuclear matter based on the quark structure of the nucleon is proposed. Nuclear matter can be described by nucleon that modifies the internal quark motion.The general success of nuclear physics strongly suggests that nucleons are the appropriate degrees of freedom for the description of nucleus.The static properties of hadrons (charge radius, magnetic moment,) are useful for understanding the quark structure of hadrons.So far the static properties of hadrons have been introduced in different models. This paper reveals that the static properties of hadron models containing u, d, s and c quarks is better than the other models. The two key ingredients of this improvement are the effective quark- gluon potential originating from the color charge and the quark confinement. In the model used, the valence quark interacts by itself as hyper central QCD potential. The author calculates the relativistic wave- function for quarks in a scalar-vector QCD potential analytically. Finally the static properties are found. These depend on the quark mass parameters contrary to almost all previous versions. PACS index 12.39 .Ba, 12.39 .Ki, 12.39. Pn
Chiral Mirror-Baryon-Meson Model and Nuclear Matter beyond Mean-Field
Weyrich, Johannes; von Smekal, Lorenz
2015-01-01
We consider a chiral baryon-meson model for nucleons and their parity partners in mirror assign- ment interacting with pions, sigma and omega mesons to describe the liquid-gas transition of nuclear matter together with chiral symmetry restoration in the high density phase. Within the mean-field approximation the model is known to provide a phenomenologically successful description of the nuclear-matter transition. Here, we go beyond this approximation and include mesonic fluctuations by means of the functional renormalization group. While these fluctuations do not lead to major qualitative changes in the phase diagram of the model, beyond mean-field, one is no-longer free to adjust the parameters so as to reproduce the binding energy per nucleon, the nuclear saturation den- sity, and the nucleon sigma term all at the same time. However, the prediction of a clear first-order chiral transition at low temperatures inside the high baryon-density phase appears to be robust.
Wysocki, Matthew
2008-01-01
A new calculation of R_{dAu} has been performed using the 2003 d+Au data and the higher-statistics 2005 p+p data. These nuclear modification factors are compared to calculations using nuclear-modified PDFs and a J/psi breakup cross section is extracted. These values are then used to project the cold nuclear matter effects in Au+Au collisions. Additionally, a more data-driven projection is performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taking into account a finite conversion rate, the transition of nuclear matter to quark-gluon matter and vice versa is treated in a hydrodynamical model for heavy ion collisions. For fast conversion, pure quark matter is formed for laboratory energies between 4 and 10 GeV per nucleon while below 4 GeV per nucleon matter stays in a mixed phase. Due to the large amount of latent heat, the temperature does not exceed kT=160 MeV. (author)
A Relativistic Mean Field Theory for Nuclear Matter with ?,? Meson Couplings at T ? 0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effects of temperature in hadron dense matter are studied within a generalized relativistic mean field approach based on the naturalness of the various coupling constants of the theory. The lagrangian density of the formulation contains the fundamental baryon octet and nonlinear self interaction components of the ? and ? meson fields coupled to the baryons and to the ? and ? meson fields. We adjust the model parameters to describe bulk static properties of ordinary nuclear matter and neutron stars, in the framework of the Sommerfeld approximation, at the T ? 0 domain. Through integration of the TOV equations we obtain standard plots for the mass and mass-radius of protoneutron stars as a function of the central density and temperature. Our results indicate an absolute value for the protoneutron star limiting mass at low and intermediate temperature regimes
Dynamical Color Correlations in a $SU(2)_c$ Quark Exchange Model of Nuclear Matter
Gardner, S; Piekarewicz, J
1994-01-01
The quark exchange model is a simple realization of an adiabatic approximation to the strong-coupling limit of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD): the quarks always coalesce into the lowest energy set of flux tubes. Nuclear matter is thus modeled in terms of its quarks. We wish to study the correlations imposed by total wavefunction antisymmetry when color degrees of freedom are included. To begin with, we have considered one-dimensional matter with a $SU(2)$ color internal degree of freedom only. We proceed by constructing a totally antisymmetric, color singlet {\\it Ansatz} characterized by a variational parameter $\\lambda$ (which describes the length scale over which two quarks in the system are clustered into hadrons) and by performing a variational Monte Carlo calculation of the energy to optimize $\\lambda$ for a fixed density. We calculate the $q-q$ correlation function as well, and discuss the qualitative differences between the system at low and high density.
Response of the XENON100 Dark Matter Detector to Nuclear Recoils
Aprile, E; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Balan, C; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Behrens, A; Beltrame, P; Bokeloh, K; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Cardoso, J M R; Chen, W -T; Choi, B; Colijn, A P; Contreras, H; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; Duchovni, E; Fattori, S; Ferella, A D; Fulgione, W; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Ghag, C; Giboni, K -L; Goetzke, L W; Grignon, C; Gross, E; Hampel, W; Itay, R; Kaether, F; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Lamblin, J; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Calloch, M Le; Levy, C; Lim, K E; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Lung, K; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Massoli, F V; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Molinario, A; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pantic, E; Persiani, R; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Santos, J M F dos; Sartorelli, G; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Scovell, P R; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Simgen, H; Teymourian, A; Thers, D; Vitells, O; Wang, H; Weber, M; Weinheimer, C; Schuhmacher, H; Wiegel, B
2013-01-01
Results from the nuclear recoil calibration of the XENON100 dark matter detector installed underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy are presented. Data from measurements with an external 241AmBe neutron source are compared with a detailed Monte Carlo simulation which is used to extract the energy dependent charge-yield Qy and relative scintillation efficiency Leff. A very good level of absolute spectral matching is achieved in both observable signal channels - scintillation S1 and ionization S2 - along with agreement in the 2-dimensional particle discrimination space. The results confirm the validity of the derived signal acceptance in earlier reported dark matter searches of the XENON100 experiment.
Transport properties and equation of state of quark-nuclear matter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
C.O. da, Graça; G., Krein.
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Transport equations for composite nucleons and deconfined quarks in quark-nuclear matter (QNM) are derived. QNM is a many-body system containing hadrons and deconfined quarks. The starting point is a microscopic quark-meson coupling (QMC) Hamiltonian with a density-dependent quark-quark interaction. [...] An effective quark-hadron Hamiltonian containing canonical hadron and quark field operators is constructed using a mapping procedure. For high densities, the effective Hamiltonian contains interactions that lead to quark decon- finement. Transport equations of the Ueling-Ullenbeck-Vlasov type for quarks and nucleons are obtained using standard many-body techniques with the effective quark-hadron Hamiltonian.
Nuclear matter superfluidity in an effective hadronic field model with excluded volume corrections
Aguirre, R
2013-01-01
Properties of the 1S0 superfluid phase are studied for symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature. It is described within a covariant hadronic field model, of the sigma-omega type, with addition of density dependent correlations simulating effects due to finite extension of nucleons. The model is solved in a selfconsistent Hartree-Bogoliubov approach, assuming instantaneous interactions in the superfluid phase. A comparison with the results obtained from several hadronic field models is done. Main characteristics of our description of the superfluid gap are in qualitative agreement with some studies using microscopic potentials, although further refinements could improve its performance.
Enthalpic and entropic phase transitions in high energy density nuclear matter
Iosilevskiy, Igor
2014-01-01
Features of Gas-Liquid (GL) and Quark-Hadron (QH) phase transitions (PT) in dense nuclear matter are under discussion in comparison with their terrestrial counterparts, e.g. so-called "plasma" PT in shock-compressed hydrogen, nitrogen, xenon etc. Both, GLPT and QHPT, when being represented in widely accepted $T - \\mu$ diagram, are often considered as similar, i.e. amenable to one-to-one mapping by simple scaling. It is argued that this impression is illusive and that GLPT an...
On the relation between the long-wave instability and the pion condensation in nuclear matter
Sadovnikova, V. A.
2002-01-01
The solutions to the zero-sound frequency equation and pion dispersion equation are considered for the different values of the parameters of the effective particle-hole interaction. The branches of solutions, responsible for the long-wave instability [Pomeranchuk] of the nuclear matter \\omega_P(k) are presented for the both equations. It is shown that in the pion dispersion equation the solutions \\omega_P(k) result in the instability not only for values of the spin-isospin c...