Thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter
Fedoseew, A.; Lenske, H.
2015-03-01
The thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in a relativistic mean-field approach. We start from free-space N N interactions and derive in-medium self-energies by the Dirac-Brueckner theory. By the density-dependent relativistic hadron procedure we derive in a self-consistent approach density-dependent meson-baryon vertices. At the mean-field level, we include isoscalar and isovector-scalar and vector interactions. The nuclear equation of state is investigated for a large range of total baryon densities up to the neutron star regime, the full range of asymmetries ? =Z /A from symmetric nuclear matter to pure neutron matter, and temperatures up to T ˜100 MeV. The isovector-scalar self-energies are found to modify strongly the thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. A striking result is the change of phase transitions when isovector-scalar self-energies are included.
Thermal Properties of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Fedoseew, Andreas
2014-01-01
The thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in a relativistic mean- field approach. We start from free space NN-interactions and derive in-medium self-energies by Dirac-Brueckner theory. By the DDRH procedure we derive in a self-consistent approach density- dependent meson-baryon vertices. At the mean-field level, we include isoscalar and isovector scalar and vector interactions. The nuclear equation of state is investigated for a large range of total baryon densities up to the neutron star regime, the full range of asymmetries from symmetric nuclear matter to pure neutron matter, and temperatures up to T~100 MeV. The isovector-scalar self-energies are found to modify strongly the thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. A striking result is the change of phase transitions when isovector-scalar self-energies are included.
Asymmetric Nuclear Matter with Pion Dressing
Sarangi, S.; Panda, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Maharana, L.
2007-01-01
We discuss a self-consistent method to calculate the properties of cold asymmetric nuclear matter which is dressed with isoscalar scalar pion condensates. The nucleon-nucleon interaction is mediated by these pion pairs, omega- and rho- mesons. The parameters of these interactions are evaluated self-consistently using the saturation properties of nuclear matter like binding energy, pressure, compressibility and symmetry energy. The computed equation of state of pure neutron m...
Isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
López, J. A.; Ramírez-Homs, E.; González, R.; Ravelo, R.
2013-01-01
This study uses classical molecular dynamics to simulate infinite nuclear matter and study the effect of isospin asymmetry on bulk properties such as energy per nucleon, pressure, saturation density, compressibility and symmetry energy. The simulations are performed on systems embedded in periodic boundary conditions with densities and temperatures in the ranges $\\rho$=0.02 to 0.2 fm$^{-3}$ and T = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 MeV, and with isospin content of $x=Z/A$=0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. T...
Meson mixing amplitudes in asymmetric nuclear matter
Mori, Yoshiharu; Saito, Koichi
2002-01-01
Using a purely hadronic model, we study the charge-symmetry-breaking $\\rho$-$\\omega$, $\\sigma$-$\\delta$, $\\sigma$-$\\rho$ and $\\delta$-$\\omega$ mixing amplitudes in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. The basic assumption of the model is that the mixing amplitude is generated by nucleon and anti-nucleon loops and hence driven entirely by the difference between proton and neutron Fermi momenta and the proton-neutron mass difference. We find that the behavior of the mixing ampli...
Response Function of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Takayanagi, Kazuo; Cheon, Taksu
1995-01-01
The charge longitudinal response function is examined in the framework of the random-phase approximation in an isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter where proton and neutron densities are different. This asymmetry changes the response through both the particle-hole interaction and the free particle-hole polarization propagator. We discuss these two effects on the response function on the basis of our numerical results in detail.
Symmetry energy coefficients for asymmetric nuclear matter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Fábio L., Braghin.
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Symmetry energy coefficients of asymmetric nuclear matter generalized are investigated as the inverse of nuclear matter polarizabilities with two different approaches. Firstly a general calculation shows they may depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry itself. The choice of particular prescriptions f [...] or the density fluctuations lead to certain isospin (n-p asymmetry) dependences of the polarizabilities. Secondly, with Skyrme type interactions, the static limit of the dynamical polarizability is investigated corresponding to the inverse symmetry energy coefficient which assumes different values at different asymmetries (and densities and temperatures). The symmetry energy coefficient (in the isovector channel) is found to increase as n-p asymmetries increase. The spin symmetry energy coefficient is also briefly investigated.
Phase transitions in warm, asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction is studied at finite temperature. An analysis is performed of the liquid-gas phase transition in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws, and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. For a binary system with two phases, the coexistence surface (binodal) is two dimensional. The Maxwell construction through the phase-separation region is discussed, and it is shown that the stable configuration can be determined uniquely at every density. Moreover, because of the greater dimensionality of the binodal surface, the liquid-gas phase transition is continuous (second order by Ehrenfest's definition), rather than discontinuous (first order), as in familiar one-component systems. Using a mean-field equation of state calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, various phase-separation scenarios are considered. The model is then applied to the liquid-gas phase transition that may occur in the warm, dilute matter produced in energetic heavy-ion collisions. In asymmetric matter, instabilities that produce a liquid-gas phase separation arise from fluctuations in the proton concentration (chemical instability), rather than from fluctuations in the baryon density (mechanical instability)
Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the chiral limit in dense isoptin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter. (author). 20 refs
Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter
Bordbar, G. H.; Bigdeli, M.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the $AV_{18}$, $Reid93$, $UV_{14}$ and $AV_{14}$ potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.
Quantal Effects on Spinodal Instabilities in Charge Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Ayik, S.; Er, N.; Yilmaz, O.; Gokalp, A.
2008-01-01
Quantal effects on growth of spinodal instabilities in charge asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the framework of a stochastic mean field approach. Due to quantal effects, in both symmetric and asymmetric matter, dominant unstable modes shift towards longer wavelengths and modes with wave numbers larger than the Fermi momentum are strongly suppressed. As a result of quantum statistical effects, in particular at lower temperatures, magnitude of density fluctuations...
Asymmetric nuclear matter based on chiral effective field theory interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the properties of asymmetric nuclear matter with small proton fractions (high asymmetries). Our calculations are based on two- and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. We compare our microscopic results, including theoretical uncertainties, to a quasi-parabolic approximation developed to interpolate between pure neutron and symmetric nuclear matter. Our investigations are important for neutron-rich matter in astrophysics and as constraints for energy density functionals.
Bordbar, G. H.
2003-01-01
We have studied the influences of isospin symmetry breaking of nucleon-nucleon interaction on the various properties of asymmetrical nuclear matter and $\\beta$-stable matter. For asymmetrical nuclear matter, it is found that by including this isospin symmetry breaking, the changes of bulk properties increase by increasing both density and asymmetry parameter. However, these effects on the total energy and equation of state of $\\beta$-stable matter are ignorable. For asymmetr...
Liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use a density-dependent relativistic mean field model to study the properties of nuclear systems at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. A limiting pressure plim for hot asymmetric nuclear matter has been found because of the density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon-? meson coupling. It is found that the liquid-gas phase transition cannot take place if p>plim. The binodal surface for this model is addressed. In addition, we calculated the asymmetry parameter dependence of the critical temperature.
Spinodal decomposition of low-density asymmetric nuclear matter
Baran, V.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Larionov, A. B.
2007-01-01
We investigate the dynamical properties of asymmetric nuclear matter at low density. The occurrence of new instabilities, that lead the system to a dynamical fragment formation, is illustrated, discussing in particular the charge symmetry dependence of the structure of the most important unstable modes. We observe that instabilities are reduced by charge asymmetry, leading to larger size and time scales in the fragmentation process. Configurations with less asymmetric fragme...
Short range correlations and spectral functions in asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamical correlations in asymmetric infinite nuclear matter are investigated in a transport theoretical approach. Self-energies due to short range correlations and their influence on the nucleon spectral functions are described in an approach accounting for a realistic treatment of mean-field dynamics and a self-consistently derived quasiparticle interaction. Landau-Migdal theory is used to derived the short range interaction from a phenomenological Skyrme energy density functional. The spectral functions in asymmetric nuclear matter are found to follow in their gross features closely the patterns observed previously in symmetric nuclear matter. An interesting sensitivity of dynamical self-energies and spectral functions on the momentum structure of the underlying interactions is found
Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter and in finite nuclei has been a subject of major interest in recent years. The Van-der-waal's behavior of pressure P versus density ? (or, equivalently chemical potential ? versus ?) is typical of a liquid gas phase transition and the critical temperature Tc is determined at which the isotherm has an inflection point. In the present work it is planned to study the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter as well as in finite nuclear systems in the framework of mean field theory using a finite range effective interaction
Neutron-proton mass difference in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
Meißner, Ulf-G.(Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, 53115, Bonn, Germany); Rakhimov, A. M.; Wirzba, A.; Yakhshiev, U. T.
2007-01-01
Isospin-breaking effects in the baryonic sector are studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The neutron-proton mass difference in infinite, asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. In order to describe the influence of the nuclear environment on the skyrmions, we include energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its ...
Momentum distribution of nucleons in asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the momentum distribution of nucleons in asymmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, use Argonne V18 potential as two nucleons potential. The isospin-asymmetry dependence of the nuc-leon momentum distribution predicted and discussed. It is shown that as the asymmetry increases, the proton momentum distribution become smaller while the neutron one gets higher below their respective Fermi surfaces with respect to their common values in symmetric nuclear matter. The quasi-particle strength at the Fermi momentum also calculated and discussed, we got an improved fulfillment of the Migdal-Luttinger theorem and nucleon number conservation. (authors)
Neutron-proton mass difference in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
Meißner, Ulf-G; Wirzba, A; Yakhshiev, U T
2007-01-01
Isospin-breaking effects in the baryonic sector are studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The neutron-proton mass difference in infinite, asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. In order to describe the influence of the nuclear environment on the skyrmions, we include energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it strongly decreases in neutron matter.
Asymmetric nuclear matter : A variational approach with reid93 interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter have been performed in the frame work of the lowest order constrained variational method (LOCV) approach in a wide range of both density and asymmetry parameter. The new charge independent breaking Reid potential (Ried39) used for calculating the equation of state of this system. It is shown that the empirical parabolic law of the binding energy per nucleon is fulfilled in the whole asymmetric range up to high densities. The results compared with the others many body calculations
Warm Asymmetric Nuclear Matter and Proto-Neutron Star
Jena, Pravat Kumar; Singh, Lambodar Prasad
2003-01-01
Asymmetric nuclear matter equation of state at finite temperature is studied in SU(2) chiral sigma model using mean field approximation. The effect of temperature on effective mass, entropy, and binding energy is discussed. Treating the system as one with two conserved charges the liquid-gas phase transition is investigated. We have also discussed the effect of proton fraction on critical temperature with and without $\\rho$-meson contribution. We have extended our work to st...
The relativistic treatment of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of relativistic nuclear field theory the authors discuss and compare the different approaches in the treatment of nuclear-many-problem with inclusion of two-body correlations. The equations are solved self-consistently in the full Dirac space, so avoiding the ambiguities in the choice of the effective scattering amplitude. The results are compared with the standard method, where one only determines the scattering amplitude for positive energy spinors. Furthermore they tested the assumption of momentum independent self-energy. The results for asymmetric matter are in the structure similar to the outcome of the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, but differ from the nonrelativistic treatment. The agreement with the empirical values is quite satisfactory
Off-Shell Behavior of Nucleon Self-Energy in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
Dalen, E. N. E.; Mu?ther, H.
2010-01-01
The off-shell behavior of the nucleon self-energy in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the framework of relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach based on projection techniques. The dependence of the Dirac components of the self-energy on momentum as well as energy is evaluated for symmetric as well as asymmetric nuclear matter. Special attention is paid to the various contributions to the momentum dependence of the real and imaginary part of ...
Dalen, E. N. E.; Fuchs, C.; Faessler, Amand
2006-01-01
We present Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter which are based on improved approximations schemes. The potential matrix elements have been adapted for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter in order to account for the proton-neutron mass splitting in a more consistent way. The proton properties are particularly sensitive to this adaption and its consequences, whereas the neutron properties remains almost unaffected in neutron rich matte...
From asymmetric nuclear matter to neutron stars: A functional renormalization group study
Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram
2015-03-01
A previous study of nuclear matter in a chiral nucleon-meson model is extended to isospin-asymmetric matter. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is investigated in detail as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of both symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with realistic many-body computations. We also study the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in neutron matter is addressed; we find a stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry once fluctuations are included. Finally, neutron-star matter including ? equilibrium is discussed. The model satisfies the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar mass neutron stars.
From asymmetric nuclear matter to neutron stars: a functional renormalization group study
Drews, Matthias
2014-01-01
A previous study of nuclear matter in a chiral nucleon-meson model is extended to isospin-asymmetric matter. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is investigated in detail as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of both symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with realistic many-body computations. We also study the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in neutron matter is addressed; we find a stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry once fluctuations are included. Finally, neutron star matter including beta equilibrium is discussed. The model satisfies the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars.
Spin ordered phase transitions in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
Isayev, A A
2006-01-01
The possibility of appearance of spin polarized states in nuclear matter is studied within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with Skyrme effective forces in a wide range of isospin asymmetries and densities. There are a few possible scenarios of spin ordered phase transitions: (a) nuclear matter with SLy4 interaction undergoes at some critical density a phase transition to a spin polarized state with the oppositely directed spins of neutrons and protons; (b) in nuclear matter with SkI5 interaction a spin polarized state with the like-directed neutron and proton spins is formed; (c) nuclear matter with SkI3 interaction under increasing density, at first, undergoes a phase transition to the state with the opposite directions of neutron and proton spins, which goes over at larger density to the state with the same direction of nucleon spins. Spin polarized states at strong excess neutrons over protons are accompanied by the long tails in the density profiles of the neutron spin polarization parameter near t...
Nucleon mean free path in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nucleon mean free path in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the finite temperature Brueckner theory. The realistic Bonn B two-body nucleon–nucleon interaction in combination with a consistent microscopic three-body force is adopted in the calculations. The results of the nucleon mean free path at zero temperature are in good agreement with the experimental data. The temperature and density and isospin dependence of the mean free path are studied systematically in asymmetric nuclear matter. (paper)
Off-Shell Behavior of Nucleon Self-Energy in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
van Dalen, E N E
2010-01-01
The off-shell behavior of the nucleon self-energy in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the framework of relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach based on projection techniques. The dependence of the Dirac components of the self-energy on momentum as well as energy is evaluated for symmetric as well as asymmetric nuclear matter. Special attention is paid to the various contributions to the momentum dependence of the real and imaginary part of the optical potential. The consequences to the different definitions of the effective nucleon mass and particle spectral functions are discussed.
Off-shell behavior of nucleon self-energy in asymmetric nuclear matter
van Dalen, E. N. E.; Müther, H.
2010-07-01
The off-shell behavior of the nucleon self-energy in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the framework of the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach based on projection techniques. The dependence of the Dirac components of the self-energy on momentum as well as energy is evaluated for symmetric as well as asymmetric nuclear matter. Special attention is paid to the various contributions to the momentum dependence of the real and imaginary part of the optical potential. The consequences to the different definitions of the effective nucleon mass and particle spectral functions are discussed.
Nuclear superfluidity in isospin asymmetric matter within the Skyrme model
Aguirre, R
2013-01-01
The phase diagram of the superfluid phase coupled to spin singlet (S=0) and isospin triplet (T=1) states in infinite nuclear matter is analyzed within the nonrelativistic Skyrme model. We use an approach that allows a unified and consistent treatment of the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. The gap equation is solved for the full range of accessible densities, isospin asymmetries, and temperatures. The characteristic features of each of the components Tz=0, +1, -1 are emphasized. The search for signatures of a BCS-BEC crossover yields negative results within the scheme proposed.
Thermodynamics of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory
Wellenhofer, Corbinian; Kaiser, Norbert
2015-01-01
The density and temperature dependence of the nuclear symmetry free energy is investigated using microscopic two- and three-body nuclear potentials constructed from chiral effective field theory. The nuclear force models and many-body methods are benchmarked to properties of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter in the vicinity of the saturation density as well as the virial expansion of the neutron matter equation of state at low fugacities. The free energy per particle of nuclear matter with varying neutron-to-proton ratio is calculated assuming a quadratic dependence of the interaction contributions on the isospin asymmetry. The thermodynamic equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is examined in detail.
Kumar, Jason
2013-01-01
We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.
Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition: the boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry, and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry, all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.
Phase Transition Of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter Beyond The 4-Nucleon Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contribution of the delta meson to asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) in the four-nucleon model is considered within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach. In the double-bubble approximation the theory provides the nuclear symmetry energy (NSE) consistent with the recent analysis of experimental data and, at the same time, leads to a softer incompressibility, K0 = 240 MeV, without invoking any additional term similar to the Boguta-Bodmer potential. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter which are based on improved approximations schemes. The potential matrix elements have been adapted for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter in order to account for the proton-neutron mass splitting in a more consistent way. The proton properties are particularly sensitive to this adaption and its consequences, whereas the neutron properties remains almost unaffected in neutron-rich matter. Although at present full Brueckner calculations are still too complex to apply to finite nuclei, these relativistic Brueckner results can be used as a guidance to construct a density-dependent relativistic mean-field theory, which can be applied to finite nuclei. It is found that an accurate reproduction of the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock equation of state requires a renormalization of these coupling functions. (orig.)
Neutron-proton mass difference in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
Meißner, U.-G.; Rakhimov, A. M.; Wirzba, A.; Yakhshiev, U. T.
2007-06-01
Isospin-breaking effects in the baryonic sector are studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The neutron-proton mass difference in infinite, asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. In order to describe the influence of the nuclear environment on the skyrmions, we include energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s - and p -wave channels. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it strongly decreases in neutron matter.
Neutron-proton mass difference in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meissner, U.-G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich (Germany); Rakhimov, A.M. [Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent-132 (Uzbekistan); Yonsei University, Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Seoul (Korea); Wirzba, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich (Germany); Yakhshiev, U.T. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich (Germany); National University of Uzbekistan, Physics Department and Institute of Applied Physics, Tashkent-174 (Uzbekistan)
2007-06-15
Isospin-breaking effects in the baryonic sector are studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The neutron-proton mass difference in infinite, asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. In order to describe the influence of the nuclear environment on the skyrmions, we include energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it strongly decreases in neutron matter. (orig.)
What can we learn from the instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on a general approach to binary systems we show that in low density region asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is unstable only against isoscalarlike fluctuations. The physical meaning of the thermodynamical chemical and mechanical instabilities is related to the inequality relations verified by the strength of interaction among different components. Relevance of these results for bulk and neck fragmentation in the reaction 124 Sn + 124 Sn at 50 MeV/n is discussed. (authors)
Landau parameters for asymmetric nuclear matter with a strong magnetic field
Perez-garcia, M. A.; Providencia, C.; Rabhi, A.
2011-01-01
The Landau Fermi Liquid parameters are calculated for charge neutral asymmetric nuclear matter in beta equilibrium at zero temperature in the presence of a very strong magnetic field with relativistic mean-field models. Due to the isospin structure of the system, with different populations of protons and neutrons and spin alignment to the field, we find non-vanishing Landau mixing parameters. The existence of quantized Landau levels for the charged sector has some impact on ...
Rabhi, A.; Pérez-García, M.A.; Providência, C.; Vidaña, I
2014-01-01
We study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields $B \\sim 10^{16} - 10^{17}$ G have already noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same...
Single particle potentials of asymmetric nuclear matter in different spin-isospin channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the neutron and proton single particle (s.p.) potentials of asymmetric nuclear matter and their isospin dependence in various spin-isospin ST channels within the framework of the Brueckner- Hartree-Fock approach. It is shown that in symmetric nuclear matter, the s.p. potentials in both the isospin- singlet T=0 channel and isospin-triplet T=1 channel are essentially attractive, and the magnitudes in the two different channels are roughly the same. In neutron-rich nuclear matter, the isospin-splitting of the proton and neutron s.p. potentials turns out to be mainly determined by the isospin-singlet T=0 channel contribution which becomes more attractive for the proton and more repulsive for the neutron at higher asymmetries. (authors)
Coexistence of phases in asymmetric nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields
Aguirre, R
2014-01-01
The equation of state of nuclear matter is strongly affected by the presence of a magnetic field. Here we study the equilibrium configuration of asymmetric nuclear matter for a wide range of densities, isospin composition, temperatures and magnetic fields. Special attention is paid to the low density and low temperature domain, where a thermodynamical instability exists. Neglecting fluctuations of the Coulomb force, a coexistence of phases is found under such conditions, even for extreme magnetic intensities. We describe the nuclear interaction by using the non--relativistic Skyrme potential model within a Hartree--Fock approach. We found that the coexistence of phases modifies the equilibrium configuration, masking most of the manifestations of the spin polarized matter. However, the compressibility and the magnetic susceptibility show clear signals of this fact. Thermal effects are significative for both quantities, mainly out of the coexistence region.
Lowest-order constrained variational calculation for hot asymmetric nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Modarres, Majid [Centre for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, AEOI, PO Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Amir-Kabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
1997-08-01
The method of lowest-order constrained variational that reasonably predicts the nuclear matter saturation data is used to calculate the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature. The Reid soft-core potential with and without the N-{delta} interaction, which fits N-N scattering data, is taken as the nuclear Hamiltonian. The calculation is performed for a wide range of density, asymmetry parameter and nuclear temperature, which are of interest in heavy-ion collisions and astrophysics. Beside spin, isospin, total angular momentum and density dependence of the correlation functions, they are also arranged to depend on the temperature and asymmetry parameter of the system. The free energy, pressure, effective mass etc of asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated. It is shown that while the calculated symmetry coefficient defined in the semi-empirical mass formula is roughly constant and is near its empirical value at zero temperature, it depends on the proton-to-neutron ratio at finite temperature. Finally, the dependence of the liquid-vapour phase transition, as well as the effective mass dependence on the temperature and asymmetry parameter, is investigated. (author)
Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature in a relativistic mean field approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ground state and thermostatistical properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are studied in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory, with and without the use of non-linear self interaction terms for the scalar meson ?. The dependency of the nuclear symmetry energy and of the bulk symmetry energy on density are studied. The comparison between the results for the non-linear model and for the standard model shows the significance of the nuclear symmetry energy on understanding the properties of neutron-rich nuclei. The quadratic approximation for the volume energy remains valid at higher temperature. Nuclear matter becomes harder to compress with increasing temperature. The level density parameter turns out to depend weakly on the details of the potential used. It decreases strongly with increasing density, is almost independent on asymmetry, and depends weakly on temperature. The nuclear matter equation of state at a finite temperature is derived, and used to study the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. The transition is found to occur at an excitation energy of 15 - 19 MeV per nucleon, and a density ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 of saturation density for symmetric nuclear matter, in accordance with experimental observations. The critical temperature decreases with increasing asymmetry, and there exists a maximum value for the asymmetry parameter, behind which the nuclear matter becomes stable against the transition. The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is found to be of first order, i.e., latent heat is needed to convert the liquid into vapor. (author)
Asymmetric nuclear matter in a parity doublet model with hidden local symmetry
Motohiro, Yuichi; Harada, Masayasu
2015-01-01
We construct a model to describe dense hadronic matter at zero and finite temperature, based on the parity doublet model of DeTar and Kunihiro, with including the iso-singlet scalar meson $\\sigma$ as well as $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ mesons. We show that, by including a six-point interaction of $\\sigma$ meson, the model reasonably reproduces the properties of the normal nuclear matter with the chiral invariant nucleon mass $m_0$ in the range from $500~{\\rm MeV}$ to $900~{\\rm MeV}$. Furthermore, we study the phase diagram based on the model, which shows that the value of the chiral condensate drops at the liquid-gas phase transition point and at the chiral phase transition point. We also study asymmetric nuclear matter and find that the first order phase transition for the liquid-gas phase transition disappears in asymmetric matter and that the critical density for the chiral phase transition at non-zero density becomes smaller for larger asymmetry.
Graesser, Michael L.; Shoemaker, Ian M.; Vecchi, Luca
2011-01-01
In existing dark matter models with global symmetries the relic abundance of dark matter is either equal to that of anti-dark matter (thermal WIMP), or vastly larger, with essentially no remaining anti-dark matter (asymmetric dark matter). By exploring the consequences of a primordial asymmetry on the coupled dark matter and anti-dark matter Boltzmann equations we find large regions of parameter space that interpolate between these two extremes. Interestingly, this new asymm...
Kouvaris, Chris
2015-01-01
We study the possibility of asymmetric dark matter with self-interactions forming compact stable objects. We solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and find the mass-radius relation of such "dark stars", their density profile and their Chandrasekhar mass limit. We consider fermionic asymmetric dark matter with Yukawa-type self-interactions appropriate for solving the well known problems of the collisionless dark matter paradigm. We find that in several cases the relativistic effects are significant.
Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund
2015-01-01
We study the possibility of asymmetric dark matter with self-interactions forming compact stable objects. We solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and find the mass-radius relation of such "dark stars", their density profile and their Chandrasekhar mass limit. We consider fermionic asymmetric dark matter with Yukawa-type self-interactions appropriate for solving the well known problems of the collisionless dark matter paradigm. We find that in several cases the relat...
Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.
Rabhi, A.; Pérez-García, M. A.; Providência, C.; Vidaña, I.
2015-04-01
We study the effects of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields B ˜1016 -1017 G have noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same order or even larger for small proton fractions and subsaturation densities for B >1016 G. We expect that neutron superfluidity in the crust will be affected by the presence of magnetic fields.
Thermodynamic instabilities in dense asymmetric nuclear matter and in compact stars
Lavagno, A.; Drago, A.; Pagliara, G.; Pigato, D.
2014-07-01
We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in compressed asymmetric baryonic matter, reachable in high energy heavy ion collisions, and in the cold ?-stable compact stars. To this end we study the relativistic nuclear equation of state with the inclusion of ?-isobars and require the global conservation of baryon and electric charge numbers. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that a phase transition can occur in dense asymmetric nuclear matter and it is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the electric charge concentration). Such thermodynamic instabilities can imply a very different electric charge fraction Z/A in the coexisting phases during the phase transition and favoring an early formation of ?- particles with relevant phenomenological consequences in the physics of the protoneutron stars and compact stars. Finally, we discuss the possible co-existence of very compact and very massive compact stars in terms of two separate families: compact hadronic stars and very massive quark stars.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A phenomenological momentum dependent interaction (MDI) is considered to describe the equation of state (EOS) for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM), where the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry is the basic input. In this interaction, the symmetry energy shows soft dependence of density. Within the nonrelativistic mean field approach we calculate the nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4(?). Our result shows that the value of Esym,4(?) at normal nuclear matter density ?0( = 0.161 fm-3) is less than 1 MeV conforming the empirical parabolic approximation to the EOS of ANM at ?0. Then the higher-order effects of the isospin asymmetry on the saturation density ?sat(?), binding energy per nucleon Ksat(?) and isobaric incompressibility Ksat(?) of ANM is being studied, where ? = [?n - ?p]/? is the isospin asymmetry. We have found that the fourth-order isospin asymmetry ? cannot be neglected, while calculating these quantities. Hence the second-order Ksat,2 parameter basically characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of ANM at saturation density. (author)
Finite size effects in liquid-gas phase transition of asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Since the nuclear equation of state has been studied in astrophysical context as an element of neutron star or super-nova theories - a call for an evidence was produced in experimental nuclear physics. Heavy-ion collisions became a tool of study on thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter. A particular interest has been inspired here by critical behavior of nuclear systems, as a phase transition of liquid-gas type. A lot of efforts was put to obtain an experimental evidence of such a phenomenon in heavy-ion collisions. With the use of radioactive beams and high performance identification systems in a near future it will be possible to extend experimental investigation to asymmetric nuclear systems, where neutron-to-proton ratio is far from the stability line. This experimental development needs a corresponding extension of theoretical studies. To obtain a complete theory of the liquid-gas phase transition in small nuclear systems, produced in violent heavy-ion collisions, one should take into account two facts. First, that the nuclear matter forming nuclei is composed of protons and neutrons; this complicates the formalism of phase transitions because one has to deal with two separate, proton and neutron, densities and chemical potentials. The second and more important is that the surface effects are very strong in a system composed of a few hundreds of nucleons. This point is especially difficult to hold, because surface becomes an additional, independen surface becomes an additional, independent state parameter, depending strongly on the geometrical configuration of the system, and introducing a non-local term in the equation of state. In this presentation we follow the recent calculation by Lee and Mekjian on the finite-size effects in small (A = 102 -103) asymmetric nuclear systems. A zero-range isospin-dependent Skyrme force is used to obtain a density and isospin dependent potential. The potential is then completed by additional terms giving contributions from surface and Coulomb energies. Taking into account the particle number conservation and assuming a specific geometrical configuration we introduce different and more precise formulae for these terms, keeping the main idea presented in unchanged. Applying a mean-field theory of nuclear matter, pressure and chemical potentials are obtained and used to resolve Gibbs conditions, giving properties of gas and liquid phases. (Author)
Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An
2014-01-01
Thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter, including the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy, single-particle properties, and differential isospin fractionation, are investigated with different neutron-proton effective mass splittings using an improved isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction. In this improved interaction, the momentum-dependence of the isoscalar single-particle potential at saturation density is well fitted to that extracted from optical model analyses of proton-nucleus scattering data up to nucleon kinetic energy of 1 GeV, and the isovector properties, i.e., the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy, the momentum-dependence of the symmetry potential, and the symmetry energy at saturation density can be flexibly adjusted via three parameters $x$, $y$, and $z$, respectively. Our results indicate that the nucleon phase-space distribution in equilibrium, the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy, and the differential isospin fractionation can be significantly affected ...
Rabhi, A; Providência, C; Vidaña, I
2014-01-01
We study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields $B \\sim 10^{16} - 10^{17}$ G have already noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same order or even larger for small proton fractions and subsaturation densities for $B > 10^{16}$ G. We expect that neutron superfluidity in the crust will be affected by the presence of magnetic fields.
FFLO state with angle-dependent gap in asymmetric nuclear matter
Shang, Xin-le; Wang, Pei; Yin, Peng; Zuo, Wei
2015-05-01
We consider the Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state with an angle-dependent gap (ADG) for the arbitrary angle {{? }0} between the direction of the Cooper pair momentum and the symmetry axis of the ADG in asymmetric nuclear matter. We find two kinds of locally stable states, i.e., the FFLO–ADG–orthogonal and FFLO–ADG–parallel states, which correspond to {{? }0}=\\frac{? }{2} and {{? }0}=0, respectively. Furthermore, the FFLO–ADG–orthogonal state is located at small asymmetry, whereas the FFLO–ADG–parallel state is favored for large asymmetry. The critical isospin asymmetry {{? }c}, where the superfluid vanishes, is enhanced largely by considering the Cooper pair momentum with an ADG.
Yin, Peng; Li, Jian-yang; Wang, Pei; Zuo, Wei
2013-01-01
We have investigated the three-body force (TBF) effect on the neutron and proton momentum distributions in asymmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach by adopting the $AV18$ two-body interaction plus a microscopic TBF. In asymmetric nuclear matter, it is shown that the neutron and proton momentum distributions become different from their common distribution in symmetric nuclear matter. The predicted depletion of the proton h...
Nishihara, Hiroki; Harada, Masayasu
2014-01-01
We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and it's slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: The critical chemical potential is larger than the pion...
Variational study for the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An equation of state (EOS) for uniform asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is constructed at zero and finite temperatures by the variational method starting from the nuclear Hamiltonian that is composed of the Argonne v18 and Urbana IX potentials. At zero temperature, the two-body energy is calculated with the Jastrow wave function in the two-body cluster approximation which is supplemented by Mayer's condition and the healing-distance condition so as to reproduce the result by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall. The energy caused by the three-body force is treated somewhat phenomenologically so that the total energy reproduces the empirical saturation conditions. The masses and radii of neutron stars obtained with the EOS are consistent with recent observational data. At finite temperatures, thermodynamic quantities such as free energy, internal energy, entropy, pressure and chemical potentials are calculated with an extension of the method by Schmidt and Pandharipande. The validity of the frozen-correlation approximation employed in this work is confirmed as compared with the result of the fully minimized calculation. The quadratic proton-fraction-dependence of the energy of ANM is confirmed at zero temperature, whereas the free energy of ANM deviates from the quadratic proton-fraction-dependence markedly at finite temperatures. The obtained EOS of ANM will be an important ingredient of a new nuclear EOS for supernova numerical simulations
Farina, Marco
2015-01-01
We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural dark matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon dark matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. Th...
Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Li, Bao-An
2015-01-01
Thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter, including the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy, single-particle properties, and differential isospin fractionation, are investigated with different neutron-proton effective mass splittings by using an improved isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction. In this improved interaction, the momentum dependence of the isoscalar single-particle potential at saturation density is well fit to that extracted from optical-model analyses of proton-nucleus scattering data up to the nucleon kinetic energy of 1 GeV, and the isovector properties, i.e., the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy, the momentum dependence of the symmetry potential, and the symmetry energy at saturation density, can be flexibly adjusted via three parameters: x ,y , and z , respectively. Our results indicate that the nucleon phase-space distribution in equilibrium, the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy, and the differential isospin fractionation can be significantly affected by the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass.
Landau parameters for asymmetric nuclear matter with a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Landau Fermi-liquid parameters are calculated for charge-neutral asymmetric nuclear matter in beta equilibrium at zero temperature in the presence of a very strong magnetic field with relativistic mean-field models. Due to the isospin structure of the system, with different populations of protons and neutrons and spin alignment to the field, we find nonvanishing Landau mixing parameters. The existence of quantized Landau levels for the charged sector has some impact on the Landau parameters with the presence of discretized features in those involving the proton sector. Using the Fermi-liquid formalism singlet and triplet excited quasiparticle states are analyzed, and we find that in-medium effects and magnetic fields are competing; however, the former are more important in the interaction energy range considered. It is found that for magnetic field strengths log10B(G)?17 the relatively low polarization of the system produces mild changes in the generalized Landau parameters with respect to the unmagnetized case, while for larger strengths there is a resolution of the degeneracy of the interaction energies of quasiparticles in the system. As an application we calculate the incompressibility and first sound velocities to illustrate how this formalism can be used to obtain physical information from the system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-component isospin lattice gas model has been employed to study the liquid-gas phase transition for asymmetric nuclear matter. An additional degree of freedom, namely, the asymmetry parameter ?, has been considered carefully for studying the phase transition. We have shown that under the mean field approximation, the liquid-gas phase transition given by this model is of second order. The entropy continues at the phase transition point. The binodal surface is addressed
Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shin Ik Jae
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.
Farina, Marco
2015-01-01
We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural dark matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon dark matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.
Asymmetric Dark Matter from Leptogenesis
Falkowski, Adam; Joshua T. Ruderman; Volansky, Tomer
2011-01-01
We present a new realization of asymmetric dark matter in which the dark matter and lepton asymmetries are generated simultaneously through two-sector leptogenesis. The right-handed neutrinos couple both to the Standard Model and to a hidden sector where the dark matter resides. This framework explains the lepton asymmetry, dark matter abundance and neutrino masses all at once. In contrast to previous realizations of asymmetric dark matter, the model allows for a wide range ...
Nishihara, Hiroki
2014-01-01
We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and it's slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: The critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the 4-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the r...
Nishihara, Hiroki; Harada, Masayasu
2014-12-01
We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: the critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the four-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the rho and omega mesons based on the hidden local symmetry.
Critical temperature for ?-condensation in asymmetric nuclear matter: the astrophysical context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The critical temperature for ?-particle condensation in nuclear matter with Fermi surface imbalance between protons and neutrons is determined. The in-medium four-body Schroedinger equation, generalizing the Thouless criterion of the BCS transition, is applied using a Hartree-Fock wave function for the quartet projected onto zero total momentum in matter with different chemical potentials for protons and neutrons. (author)
Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD
Shin Ik Jae; Seo Yunseok; Kim Youngman; Sin Sang-Jin
2012-01-01
We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyper...
Schuck, Peter; Sogo, Takaaki; Röpke, Gerd
2012-01-01
A general theory for the condensation of strongly bound quartets in infinite nuclear matter is presented. Critical temperatures for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are evaluated. A fully nonlinear theory for the quartet order parameter, based on an analogy of the Gorkov approach to pairing, is presented and solved. The strong qualitative difference with pairing is pointed out.
Originally Asymmetric Dark Matter
Okada, Nobuchika; Seto, Osamu
2012-01-01
We propose a scenario with a fermion dark matter, where the dark matter particle used to be the Dirac fermion, but it takes the form of the Majorana fermion at a late time. The relic number density of the dark matter is determined by the dark matter asymmetry generated through the same mechanism as leptogenesis when the dark matter was the Dirac fermion. After efficient dark matter annihilation processes have frozen out, a phase transition of a scalar field takes place and g...
Asymmetric Dark Matter from Leptogenesis
Falkowski, Adam; Volansky, Tomer
2011-01-01
We present a new realization of asymmetric dark matter in which the dark matter and lepton asymmetries are generated simultaneously through two-sector leptogenesis. The right-handed neutrinos couple both to the Standard Model and to a hidden sector where the dark matter resides. This framework explains the lepton asymmetry, dark matter abundance and neutrino masses all at once. In contrast to previous realizations of asymmetric dark matter, the model allows for a wide range of dark matter masses, from keV to 10 TeV. In particular, very light dark matter can be accommodated without violating experimental constraints. We discuss several variants of our model that highlight interesting phenomenological possibilities. In one, late decays repopulate the symmetric dark matter component, providing a new mechanism for generating a large annihilation rate at the present epoch and allowing for mixed warm/cold dark matter. In a second scenario, dark matter mixes with the active neutrinos, thus presenting a distinct meth...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h0?aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to ??. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
Aguirre, Anthony
2015-01-01
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...
Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter
Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
2014-01-01
The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound st...
The study of participant-spectator matter and thermalization for charge asymmetric nuclear collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model, we study the N/Z dependence of participant-spectator matter, anisotropic ratio ?Ra? and relative momentum ?KR?, at different incident energies (E = 100, 200 and 300 MeV per nucleon) and at scaled impact parameters ( b-hat = b/bmax= 0.0-0.4). We have also investigated the effect of isospin-dependent cross-section on these quantities as a function of N/Z of the system. Simulations are carried out for the reactions of 124Pr59 + 124Pr59 (N/Z = 1.101), 124Ba56 + 124Ba56 (N/Z = 1.214), 124I53 + 124I53 (N/Z = 1.33), 124Sn50 + 124Sn50 (N/Z = 1.48) and 124Ag47 + 124Ag47 (N/Z = 1.638). Our results show that the participant matter and anisotropic ratio decrease and the spectator matter and relative momentum increase with an increase in N/Z of the system. (paper)
Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter
García, Isabel García; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John
2015-01-01
We study Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (Fraternal) Twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged $SU(3)' \\times SU(2)'$, a twin Higgs, and only third generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD$^\\prime$ scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD} \\simeq 0.5 - 20 \\ {\\rm GeV}$, and $t'$ to be heavy. We focus on the light $b'$ quark regime, $m_{b'} \\lesssim \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$, where QCD$^\\prime$ is characterised by a ...
Asymmetric dark matter and effective operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to annihilate in the early Universe to levels well below the measured dark matter density, asymmetric dark matter must possess large couplings to the standard model. In this paper, we consider effective operators which allow asymmetric dark matter to annihilate into quarks. In addition to a bound from requiring sufficient annihilation, the energy scale of such operators can be constrained by limits from direct detection and monojet searches at colliders. We show that the allowed parameter space for these operators is highly constrained, leading to nontrivial requirements that any model of asymmetric dark matter must satisfy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sammarruca, F. [University of Idaho, Physics Department, Moscow, ID (United States)
2014-02-15
After reviewing our microscopic approach to nuclear and neutron-rich matter, we focus on how nucleon-nucleon scattering is impacted by the presence of a dense hadronic medium, with special emphasis on the case where neutron and proton densities are different. We discuss in detail medium and isospin asymmetry effects on the total elastic cross section and the mean free path of a neutron or a proton in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. We point out that in-medium cross sections play an important role in heavy-ion simulations aimed at extracting constraints on the symmetry potential. We argue that medium and isospin dependence of microscopic cross sections are the result of a complex balance among various effects, and cannot be simulated with a simple phenomenological model. (orig.)
Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles that were in thermal equilibrium in the early universe. The standard analytic calculation of the symmetric Dark Matter is generalized to the asymmetric case. We calculate the asymmetry required to explain the observed Dark Matter relic abundance as a function of the annihilation cross section. We show that introducing an asymmetry always reduces the indirect detection signal from WIMP annihilation, although it has a larger annihilation cross section than symmetric Dark Matter. This opens new possibilities for the construction of realistic models of MeV Dark Matter
Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter
García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John
2015-01-01
We study Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (Fraternal) Twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged $SU(3)' \\times SU(2)'$, a twin Higgs, and only third generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD$^\\prime$ scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD} \\simeq 0.5 - 20 \\ {\\rm GeV}$, and $t'$ to be heavy. We focus on the light $b'$ quark regime, $m_{b'} \\lesssim \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$, where QCD$^\\prime$ is characterised by a single scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$ with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful DM candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, $\\Delta' \\sim b'b'b'$, with a dynamically determined mass ($\\sim 5 \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio $\\Omega_{\\rm DM}/\\Omega_{\\rm baryon} \\simeq 5$. Gauging the $U(1)'$ group leads to twin atoms ($\\Delta'$ - $\\bar {\\tau'}$ bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo ...
Aidala, C; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bai, X; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Belmont, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bing, X; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; Cronin, N; Crossette, N; Csanád, M; Csörg?, T; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Ding, L; Do, J H; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; D'Orazio, L; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger,, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hanks, J; Hashimoto, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoshino, T; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isinhue, A; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, C; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Krizek, F; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, G H; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Leitch, M J; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Liu, M X; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Maruyama, T; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oide, H; Okada, K; Oskarsson, A; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Peng, J -C; Perepelitsa, D; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Ryu, M S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sekiguchi, Y; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sharma, D; Shaver, A; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skolnik, M; Slune?ka, M; Solano, S; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Soumya, M; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Stone, M R; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Whitaker, S; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Yoon, I; You, Z; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S
2014-01-01
We report on $J/\\psi$ production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of $J/\\psi$ yields in Cu$+$Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au$+$Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, $J/\\psi$ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-$x$ gluon suppression in the larger Au nucleus. The relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.
Sammarruca, F.; White, L.; Chen, B.
2012-01-01
We investigate the effects of charge independence and charge symmetry breaking in neutron-rich matter. We consider neutron and proton properties in isospin-asymmetric matter at normal densities as well as the high-density neutron matter equation of state and the bulk properties of neutron stars. We find charge symmetry and charge independence breaking effects to be very small.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the effects of charge independence and charge symmetry breaking in neutron-rich matter. We consider neutron and proton properties in isospin-asymmetric matter at normal densities as well as the high-density neutron matter equation of state and the bulk properties of neutron stars. We find charge symmetry and charge independence breaking effects to be very small. (orig.)
DAMA annual modulation effect and asymmetric mirror matter
Addazi, A; Bernabei, R; Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Incicchitti, A
2015-01-01
The long-standing model-independent annual modulation effect measured by the DAMA Collaboration is examined in the framework of asymmetric mirror dark matter interacting with target nuclei in the detector via the kinetic mixing between mirror and ordinary photons. The allowed physical ranges for the kinetic mixing parameter are obtained taking into account various existing uncertainties in nuclear and particle physics quantities as well as in the density and velocity distributions of dark matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, a momentum-independent interaction (MID), and an isoscalar momentum-dependent interaction (eMDYI). The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy with a softer symmetry energy giving a higher critical pressure and a larger area of phase-coexistence region. Compared with the momentum-independent MID interaction, the isospin and momentum-dependent MDI interaction is found to increase the critical pressure and enlarge the area of phase-coexistence region. For the isoscalar momentum-dependent eMDYI interaction, a limiting pressure above which the liquid-gas phase transition cannot take place has been found and it is shown to be sensitive to the stiffness of the symmetry energy
Color superconductivity in asymmetric matter
Bedaque, P F
1999-01-01
The influence of different chemical potential for different flavors on color superconductivity is analyzed. It is found that there is a first order transition as the asymmetry grows. This transition proceeds through the formation of bubbles of low density, flavor asymmetric normal phase inside a high density, superconducting phase with a gap {\\it larger} than the one found in the symmetric case. For small fixed asymmetries the system is normal at low densities and superconducting only above some critical density. For larger asymmetries the two massless quarks system stays in the mixed state for arbitrarily high densities.
Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Brane World Cosmology
Iminniyaz, Hoernisa
2015-01-01
Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in brane world cosmological scenario is investigated in this article. Hubble expansion rate is enhanced in brane world cosmology and it affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles. We analyze how the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter is changed in this model. We show that in such kind of nonstandard cosmological scenario, indirect detection of asymmetric Dark Matter is possible if the cross secti...
DAMA annual modulation effect and asymmetric mirror matter
Addazi, A.; Z. Berezhiani; Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.(Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi, Italy); Cerulli, R.(Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi, Italy); Incicchitti, A.
2015-01-01
The long-standing model-independent annual modulation effect measured by the DAMA Collaboration is examined in the framework of asymmetric mirror dark matter interacting with target nuclei in the detector via the kinetic mixing between mirror and ordinary photons. The allowed physical ranges for the kinetic mixing parameter are obtained taking into account various existing uncertainties in nuclear and particle physics quantities as well as in the density and velocity distrib...
Phenomenology of light fermionic asymmetric dark matter
Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan; Nojiri, Mihoko M.
2013-10-01
Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) has been an attractive possibility attempting to explain the observed ratio of baryon to dark matter abundance in the universe. While a bosonic ADM is constrained by the limits from existence of old neutron stars, a fermionic ADM requires an additional light particle in order to annihilate its symmetric component in the early universe. We revisit the phenomenology of a minimal GeV scale fermionic ADM model including a light scalar state. The current constraints on this scenario from cosmology, dark matter direct detection, flavour physics and collider searches are investigated in detail. We estimate the future reach on the model parameter space from next-generation dark matter direct detection experiments, Higgs boson property measurements and search for light scalars at the LHC, as well as the determination of Higgs invisible branching ratio at the proposed ILC.
Indirect Detection of Self-Interacting Asymmetric Dark Matter
Pearce, Lauren; Kusenko, Alexander(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547, U.S.A.)
2013-01-01
Self-interacting dark matter resolves the issue of cuspy profiles that appear in non-interacting cold dark matter simluations; it may additionally resolve the so-called "too big to fail" problem in structure formation. Asymmetric dark matter provides a natural explanation of the comparable densities of baryonic matter and dark matter. In this paper, we discuss unique indirect detection signals produced by a minimal model of self-interacting asymmetric scalar dark matter. Thr...
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The free energy and the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated at finite temperature up to three loop order in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory, systematically incorporating one- and two-pion exchange dynamics to this order. Effects from the 2?-exchange with explicit ?-isobar excitation are included, as well as three-body forces. We construct the phase diagram of nuclear matter for different proton fractions xp and investigate the dependence of nuclear matter properties on the isospin-asymmetry. A detailed study of the liquid–gas phase transition is performed. For isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find a critical temperature of 15.1 MeV; as the isospin-asymmetry is increased, the liquid–gas coexistence region decreases until it disappears at xp?0.05, while nuclear matter becomes unbound at xp?0.12. The quadratic expansion of the free energy in the asymmetry parameter ? is a good approximation at low temperature even for large ?. An estimate of chiral four-body correlations in nuclear and neutron matter is also performed and the corrections from such four-body interactions are found to be small.
Annihilation Signals from Asymmetric Dark Matter
Edward Hardyrudolf Peierls Centre For Theoretical Physics, University Of Oxford; Robert Lasenby(Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP, U.K.); James Unwin(Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556, U.S.A.)
2014-01-01
In the simplest models of asymmetric dark matter (ADM) annihilation signals are not expected, since the DM is non-self-conjugate and the relic density of anti-DM is negligible. We investigate a new class of models in which a symmetric DM component, in the `low-mass' 1-10 GeV regime favoured for linking the DM and baryon asymmetries, is repopulated through decays. We find that, in models without significant velocity dependence of the annihilation cross section, observational ...
Constraints on asymmetric dark matter from asteroseismology
Casanellas, Jordi
2013-01-01
We report recent results on the impact of asymmetric dark matter (DM) particles on low-mass stars. First, we found that the small convective core expected in stars with masses between 1.1 and 1.3 Msun is suppressed due to DM cooling. Moreover, stars with masses below 1 Msun have their central temperatures and densities more strongly influenced by DM than in the solar case. We were able to put limits to the DM mass and spin-dependent DM-proton scattering cross section by comparing the modelling of the nearby star Alpha Cen B with photometric, spectroscopic and asteroseismic observations.
The phases of isospin asymmetric matter in the two flavor NJL model
Lawley, S.; Bentz, W.; Thomas, A. W.
2005-01-01
We investigate the phase diagram of isospin asymmetric matter at T=0 in the two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Our approach describes the single nucleon as a confined quark-diquark state, the saturation properties of nuclear matter at normal densities, and the phase transition to normal or color superconducting quark matter at higher densities. The resulting equation of state of charge neutral matter is discussed.
Nuclear Symmetry energy in chiral model of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physical properties of asymmetric nuclear matter are studied in the Extended Nambou-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model formulated directly in the nucleon degrees of freedom. It results that the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and its related quantities are basically in good agreement with data of recent analyses. (author)
Exotic States of Nuclear Matter
Lombardo, Umberto; Baldo, Marcello; Burgio, Fiorella; Schulze, Hans-Josef
2008-02-01
pt. A. Theory of nuclear matter EOS and symmetry energy. Constraining the nuclear equation of state from astrophysics and heavy ion reactions / C. Fuchs. In-medium hadronic interactions and the nuclear equation of state / F. Sammarruca. EOS and single-particle properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner theory / W. Zuo, U. Lombardo & H.-J. Schulze. Thermodynamics of correlated nuclear matter / A. Polls ... [et al.]. The validity of the LOCV formalism and neutron star properties / H. R. Moshfegh ... [et al.]. Ferromagnetic instabilities of neutron matter: microscopic versus phenomenological approaches / I. Vidaã. Sigma meson and nuclear matter saturation / A. B. Santra & U. Lombardo. Ramifications of the nuclear symmetry energy for neutron stars, nuclei and heavy-ion collisions / A. W. Steiner, B.-A. Li & M. Prakash. The symmetry energy in nuclei and nuclear matter / A. E. L. Dieperink. Probing the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities / M. Di Toro et al. Investigation of low-density symmetry energy via nucleon and fragment observables / H. H. Wolter et al. Instability against cluster formation in nuclear and compact-star matter / C. Ducoin ... [et al.]. Microscopic optical potentials of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering / Z.-Y. Ma, J. Rong & Y.-Q. Ma -- pt. B. The neutron star crust: structure, formation and dynamics. Neutron star crust beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation / N. Chamel. The inner crust of a neutron star within the Wigner-Seitz method with pairing: from drip point to the bottom / E. E. Saperstein, M. Baldo & S. V. Tolokonnikov. Nuclear superfluidity and thermal properties of neutron stars / N. Sandulescu. Collective excitations: from exotic nuclei to the crust of neutron stars / E. Khan, M. Grasso & J. Margueron. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear medium: fermi gases, nuclei and the role of Pauli potentials / M. A. Pérez-García. Low-density instabilities in relativistic hadronic models / C. Providência et al. Quartetting in nuclear matter and [symbol] particle condensation in nuclear systems / G. Röpke & P. Schuck et al. -- pt. C. Neutron star structure and dynamics. Shear viscosity of neutron matter from realistic nuclear interactions / O. Benhar & M. Valli. Protoneutron star dynamo: theory and observations / A. Bonanno & V. Urpin. Magnetic field dissipation in neutron stars: from magnetars to isolated neutron stars / J. A. Pons. Gravitational radiation and equations of state in super-dense cores of core-collapse supernovae / K. Kotake. Joule heating in the cooling of magnetized neutron stars / D. N. Aguilera, J. A. Pons & J. A. Miralles. Exotic fermi surface of dense neutron matter / M. V. Zverev, V. A. Khodel & J. W. Clark. Coupling of nuclear and electron modes in relativistic stellar matter / A. M. S. Santos et al. Neutron stars in the relativistic Hartree-Fock theory and hadron-quark phase transition / B. Y. Sun ... [et al.] -- pt. D. Prospects of present and future observations. Measurements of neutron star masses / D. G. Yakovlev. Dense nuclear matter: constraints from neutron stars / J. M. Lattimer. Neutron star versus heavy-ion data: is the nuclear equation of state hard or soft? / J. Schaffner-Bielich ... [et al.]. Surface emission from x-ray dim isolated neutron stars / R. Turolla. High energy neutrino astronomy / E. Migneco. What gravitational waves say about the inner structure of neutron stars / V. Ferrari. Reconciling 2 M[symbol] pulsars and SN1987A: two branches of neutron stars / P. Haensel, M. Bejger & J. L. Zdunik. EOS of dense matter and fast rotation of neutron stars / J. L. Zdunik ... [et al.] -- pt. E. Quark and strange matter in neutron stars. Bulk viscosity of color-superconducting quark matter / M. Alford. Chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement at large densities and temperature / A. Drago, L. Bonanno & A. Lavagno. Color superconducting quark matter in compact stars / D. B. Blaschke, T. Klähn & F. Sandin. Thermal hadronization, Hawking-Unruh radiation and e
Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum
Collective flow measurements in asymmetric nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The collective flow measurements presented in this lecture have been performed with the DIOGENE electronic 4?-detector installed at the Saturne synchrotron in Saclay, which can deliver beams up to mass 40. In order to study the properties of dense (and hot) nuclear matter, it is required to measure nucleus-nucleus collisions involving a large number of nucleons. That is the reason why we focused our experiment on asymmetric collisions, with target nuclei heavier than the beam. We measured triple differential cross sections of pseudoprotons (free protons as well as protons bound in light nuclei), inside the acceptance of the DIOGENE pictorial drift chamber (PDC), restricted to 200 0 in polar angle and to kinetic energy larger than ? 40 MeV. We analysed these cross sections in three different ways, which lead to various features of the collective flow: the usual flow parameter F, azimuthal angular distributions dN/d? showing possible evidence for preferential emission transversely to the reaction plane, and finally two-dimensional Gaussian fits giving a more complete characterization of the participants collective flow, with the flow angle and two aspect ratios
Charge asymmetric cosmic rays as a probe of flavor violating asymmetric dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric
Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric.
Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Brane World Cosmology
Iminniyaz, Hoernisa
2015-01-01
Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in brane world cosmological scenario is investigated in this article. Hubble expansion rate is enhanced in brane world cosmology and it affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles. We analyze how the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter is changed in this model. We show that in such kind of nonstandard cosmological scenario, indirect detection of asymmetric Dark Matter is possible if the cross section is small enough which let the anti--particle abundance kept in the same amount with the particle. We show the indirect detection signal like Fermi--LAT constraints can be used to such model only when the cross section and the 5 dimensional Planck mass scale are in appropriate values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is stated that at the Workshop on Nuclear and Dense Matter held at the University of Illinois in May 1977 significant progress was reported that largely resolves many of the questions raised in this journal Vol. 6, p.149, 1976. These include perturbative versus variational methods as applied to nuclear matter, exact solutions for bosons, what is known as the fermion 'homework problem', and various other considerations regarding nuclear matter, including the use of variational methods as opposed to perturbation theory. (15 references) (U.K.)
Dorso, C. O.; Molinelli, P. A. Giménez; Nichols, J. I.; López, J. A.
2012-01-01
The behavior of nuclear matter is studied at low densities and temperatures using classical molecular dynamics with three different sets of potentials with different compressibility. Nuclear matter is found to arrange in crystalline structures around the saturation density and in non-homogeneous (i.e. pasta-like) structures at lower densities. Similar results were obtained with a simple Lennard-Jones potential. Finite size effects are analysed and the existence of the non-ho...
Usmani, Q N; Anwar, K; Sauli, Zaliman
2011-01-01
We present a phenomenological theory of nuclei that incorporates clustering at the nuclear surface in a general form. The theory explains the recently extracted large symmetry energy by Natowitz et al. at low densities of nuclear matter and is fully consistent with the static properties of nuclei. In phenomenological way clusters of all sizes, shapes along with medium modifications are included. Symmetric nuclear matter properties are discussed in detail. Arguments are given that lead to an equation of state of nuclear matter consistent with clustering in the low density region. We also discuss properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. Because of clustering, an interesting interpretation of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter emerges. As a framework, an extended version of Thomas Fermi theory is adopted for nuclei which also contain phenomenological pairing and Wigner contributions. This theory connects the nuclear matter equation of state, which incorporate clustering at low densities, with clu...
Multifragmentation of charge asymmetric nuclear systems
Larionov, A. B.; Botvina, A. S.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.
1999-01-01
The multifragmentation of excited spherical nuclear sources with various N/Z ratios and fixed mass number is studied within dynamical and statistical models. The dynamical model treats the multifragmentation process as a final stage of the growth of density fluctuations in unstable expanding nuclear matter. The statistical model makes a choice of the final multifragment configuration according to its statistical weight at a global thermal equilibrium. Similarities and differ...
Nucleon properties in nuclear matter
Yakhshiev, Ulugbek
2011-01-01
We present recent studies on the effective mass of the nucleon in infinite and homogeneous nuclear matter and its relation to nuclear matter properties within the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. Medium modifications are achieved by introducing optical potential for pion fields and parametrization of the Skyrme parameter in nuclear medium. The present approach is phenomenologically well justified by pion physics in nuclear matter and describe successfully bulk nuclear matter properties.
Nucleon Properties in Nuclear Matter
Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul
2011-10-01
We present recent studies on the effective mass of the nucleon in infinite and homogeneous nuclear matter and its relation to nuclear matter properties within the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. Medium modifications are achieved by introducing optical potential for pion fields and parametrization of the Skyrme parameter in nuclear medium. The present approach is phenomenologically well justified by pion physics in nuclear matter and describe successfully bulk nuclear matter properties.
Upper bounds on asymmetric dark matter self annihilation cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most models for asymmetric dark matter allow for dark matter self annihilation processes, which can wash out the asymmetry at temperatures near and below the dark matter mass. We study the coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the symmetric and antisymmetric dark matter number densities, and derive conditions applicable to a large class of models for the absence of a significant wash-out of an asymmetry. These constraints are applied to various existing scenarios. In the case of left- or right-handed sneutrinos, very large electroweak gaugino masses, or very small mixing angles are required
Chromomagnetism in nuclear matter
Ranjan, Akhilesh; Raina, P. K.
2011-01-01
Quarks are color charged particles. Due to their motion there is a strong possibility of generation of color magnetic field. It is shown that however hadrons are color singlet particles they may have non-zero color magnetic moment. Due to this color magnetic moment hadrons can show color interaction. In this paper we have studied the chromomagnetic properties of nuclear matter.
Pseudogap states in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The protons and neutrons, usually called nucleons, just like electrons in metals may be considered as a degenerate fermi-gas. In this work it was stated that the nuclear matter can be divided into two parts, one corresponding to the high-density nuclear matter and the other one corresponding to the low-density nuclear matter. It was shown that the low- and high-density regions of nuclear matter are similar to the underdoped and overdoped cuprate superconductors
Nuclear Matter Mean Field with Extended NJL Model
Moszkowski, Steven A.; Da Providencia, Constanca; Da Providencia, Joao; Moreira, Joao M.
2002-01-01
An extended version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is applied to describe both nuclear matter and surface properties of finite nuclei. Several parameter sets are discussed and a comparison of the saturation properties and equation of state (EOS) with the NL3 parametrization of the non-linear Walecka model is made. The properties of asymmetric matter are discussed.
Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, I.; Panci, P.
2012-01-01
We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S.; performing combined fits we determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background by Fermi for a complete set of lepton flavor violating primary modes and over a range of DM masses from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We find that the Fermi constraints rule out the flavor violating asymmetric Dark Matter interpretation of the charged cosmic ray anomalies.
Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and HESS performing combined fits we determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic ?-ray background by Fermi for a complete set of lepton flavor violating primary modes and over a range of DM masses from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We find that the Fermi constraints rule out the flavor violating asymmetric Dark Matter interpretation of the charged cosmic ray anomalies
Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir
2010-01-01
Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the `solar composition problem'. The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino fluxes may be measurable by the Borexino and SNO+ experiments.
Correlations in Nuclear Matter
Baldo, M; Moshfegh, H. R.
2012-01-01
We analyze the nuclear matter correlation properties in terms of the pair correlation function. To this aim we systematically compare the results for the variational method in the Lowest Order Constrained Variational (LOCV) approximation and for the Bruekner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) scheme. A formal link between the Jastrow correlation factor of LOCV and the Defect Function (DF) of BHF is established and it is shown under which conditions and approximations the two approaches are ...
Nucleon properties in nuclear matter
Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-chul
2011-01-01
We present recent studies on the effective mass of the nucleon in infinite and homogeneous nuclear matter and its relation to nuclear matter properties within the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. Medium modifications are achieved by introducing optical potential for pion fields and parametrization of the Skyrme parameter in nuclear medium. The present approach is phenomenologically well justified by pion physics in nuclear matter and describe successfully bu...
Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter
Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asy...
Nuclear physics of dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent progress in applying nuclear physics to calculate properties of dense matter is reviewed. Topics considered include nuclei below neutron drip, the equation of state of matter at densities both below and above that of nuclear matter, the possibility of rapid neutron star cooling by the direct Urca process, superfluid gaps for neutrons and superconducting gaps for protons. (orig.)
Liquid-gas phase transition and Coulomb instability of asymmetric nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use a chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to study the properties of nuclear systems at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. For two formulations of the model the critical temperature, Tc, for symmetric nuclear matter is found to be 15.8 MeV and 17.9 MeV. These values are consistent with those derived from recent experiments. The limiting temperatures for finite nuclei are in good agreement with the experimental points
Asymmetric dark matter via spontaneous co-genesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate, in the context of asymmetric dark matter (DM), a new mechanism of spontaneous co-genesis of linked DM and baryon asymmetries, explaining the observed relation between the baryon and DM densities, ?DM?/?B ? 5. The co-genesis mechanism requires a light scalar field, ?, with mass below 5 eV which couples derivatively to DM, much like a 'dark axion'. The field ? can itself provide a final state into which the residual symmetric DM component can annihilate away
Constraining Asymmetric Dark Matter through observations of compact stars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter
2011-01-01
We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), WIMPs can be trapped in progenitors in large numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We impose constraints competitive to direct dark matter search experiments, for WIMPs with masses down to the TeV scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB)
Matter induced charge symmetry breaking and pion form factor in nuclear medium
Roy, Pradip; Dutt-mazumder, Abhee K.; Sarkar, Sourav; Alam, Jan-e
2006-01-01
Medium modification of pion form factor has been evaluated in asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that both the shape and the pole position of the pion form factor in dense asymmetric nuclear matter is different from its vacuum counterpart with $\\rho$-$\\omega$ mixing. This is due to the density and asymmetry dependent $\\rho$-$\\omega$ mixing which could even dominate over its vacuum counterpart in matter. Effect of the in-medium pion factor on experimental observables {\\it...
In-medium nucleons and nucleonic systems: Infinite nuclear matter
Yakhshiev, U. T.
2013-09-01
In the present work we discuss the modifications of infinite nuclear matter properties. The modifications are performed in the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. The model is developed to study the properties of in-medium nucleons and nucleonic systems. The mesonic sector of the model contains the nonlinear pion fields propagating in the nuclear medium. The properties of in-medium pions are defined by the pion-nucleus optical potential. The isospin-breaking part of the optical potential and the isospin-breaking effects in the mesonic sector generate the isospin-breaking effects in the baryonic sector. Further, the isospin-breaking effects in the baryonic sector are related to the asymmetric-matter properties. First, we discuss the binding energy per nucleon and the bulk properties of the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter. Then, we include the isospin-breaking effects and discuss the asymmetric-matter properties.
Hot nuclear matter in asymmetry chiral sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the frame work of SU(2) chiral sigma model, the nuclear matter properties at zero and finite temperature have been investigated. We have analyzed the nuclear matter equation of state by varying different parameters, which agrees well with the one derived from the heavy-ion collision experiment at extreme densities and reliable realistic (DBHF) model at low density region. We have then calculated the temperature dependent asymmetric nuclear matter, also investigated the critical temperature of liquid gas phase transition and compared with the experimental data. We found that the critical temperature in our model is in the range of 14-20 MeV
Functional renormalization group study of nuclear and neutron matter
Drews, Matthias
2014-01-01
A chiral model based on nucleons interacting via boson exchange is investigated. Fluctuation effects are included consistently beyond the mean-field approximation in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric nuclear matter is studied in detail. No sign of a chiral restoration transition is found up to temperatures of about 100 MeV and densities of at least three times the density of normal nuclear matter. Moreover, the model is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter and the constraints from neutron star observations are discussed.
Covariant density functional theory for nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 we study the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction in Dirac-Brueckner (DB) approach. We start by considering the NN interaction in free-space in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation to the meson exchange potential model. Then we present the DB approach for nuclear matter by extending the BS equation for the in-medium NN interaction. From the solution of the three-dimensional in-medium BS equation, we derive the DB self-energies and total binding energy which are the main results of the DB approach, which we later incorporate in the field theoretical calculation of the nuclear equation of state. In Chapter 3, we introduce the basic concepts of density functional theory in the context of Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD-I). We reach the main point of this work in Chapter 4 where we introduce the DDRH approach. In the DDRH theory, the medium dependence of the meson-nucleon vertices is expressed as functionals of the baryon field operators. Because of the complexities of the operator-valued functionals we decide to use the mean-field approximation. In Chapter 5, we contrast microscopic and phenomenological approaches to extracting density dependent meson-baryon vertices. Chapter 6 gives the results of our studies of the EOS of infinite nuclear matter in detail. Using formulas derived in Chapters 4 and 5 we calculate the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. (orig.)
Propagation of neutrinos in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the elementary interactions between neutrinos and dense matter in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme, Gogny, Relativistic Lagrangians) are first discussed. Then, we characterize their stability in spin and isospin. We derive magnetic susceptibilities for all isospin asymmetry values as a function of Landau parameters G??'0 (where ?, ?' = proton or neutron). From this work, we select a parametrization for each of the 3 effective forces: Sly230b,D1P,NL3. We calculate the pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter response functions with and without charge exchange, describing nuclear correlations in both approaches: non-relativistic (Hartree-Fock with Skyrme forces, then complete RPA) and relativistic (in the Hartree approximation). At the end, we calculate neutrino mean free paths neutral current and charged current reactions. Comparisons between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches allow us to identify relativistic effects in nuclear matter at densities as low as twice the saturation density. RPA correlations make the medium more transparent to neutrinos compared to free Fermi gas. The importance of the effective mass in mean free path calculations is also shown. (author)
Covariant density functional theory for nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badarch, U.
2007-07-01
The present thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 we study the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction in Dirac-Brueckner (DB) approach. We start by considering the NN interaction in free-space in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation to the meson exchange potential model. Then we present the DB approach for nuclear matter by extending the BS equation for the in-medium NN interaction. From the solution of the three-dimensional in-medium BS equation, we derive the DB self-energies and total binding energy which are the main results of the DB approach, which we later incorporate in the field theoretical calculation of the nuclear equation of state. In Chapter 3, we introduce the basic concepts of density functional theory in the context of Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD-I). We reach the main point of this work in Chapter 4 where we introduce the DDRH approach. In the DDRH theory, the medium dependence of the meson-nucleon vertices is expressed as functionals of the baryon field operators. Because of the complexities of the operator-valued functionals we decide to use the mean-field approximation. In Chapter 5, we contrast microscopic and phenomenological approaches to extracting density dependent meson-baryon vertices. Chapter 6 gives the results of our studies of the EOS of infinite nuclear matter in detail. Using formulas derived in Chapters 4 and 5 we calculate the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. (orig.)
Possible implications of asymmetric fermionic dark matter for neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldman, I. [Department of Exact Sciences, Afeka Tel Aviv Academic Engineering College, Tel Aviv (Israel); Mohapatra, R.N., E-mail: rmohapat@umd.edu [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Nussinov, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Rosenbaum, D. [Physics Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States); Teplitz, V. [Physics Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2013-10-01
We consider the implications of fermionic asymmetric dark matter (ADM) for a “mixed neutron star” composed of ordinary baryons and dark fermions. We find examples, where for a certain range of dark fermion mass – when it is less than that of ordinary baryons – such systems can reach higher masses than the maximal values allowed for ordinary (“pure”) neutron stars. This is shown both within a simplified, heuristic Newtonian analytic framework with non-interacting particles and via a general relativistic numerical calculation, under certain assumptions for the dark matter equation of state. Our work applies to various dark fermion models such as mirror matter models and to other models where the dark fermions have self-interactions.
Nuclear matter and electron scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
1998-06-01
We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)
Bound states in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The formation of bound states in dilute nuclear matter will be discussed and its implications for the equation of state and composition of astrophysical plasma in supernova envelopes. Bulk properties of dense nuclear and hypernuclear matter will be discussed in the framework of the Brueckner theory. (author)
Multi skyrmions in nuclear matter
Yakhshiev, U T
2002-01-01
Properties of multi skyrmions in a nuclear matter are analyzed. The deformation effect is taken into account via distortion of the profile function of the chiral field under action of an external field. Masses of classical multi skyrmions in a nuclear matter are discussed. (author)
Magnetic catalysis in nuclear matter
Haber, Alexander; Schmitt, Andreas
2014-01-01
Due to magnetic catalysis, a strong magnetic field enhances the chiral condensate at low temperatures and thus can also be expected to increase the vacuum mass of nucleons. We employ two relativistic field-theoretical models for nuclear matter, the Walecka model and an extended linear sigma model, to discuss the resulting effect on the transition between vacuum and nuclear matter at zero temperature. In both models we find that the creation of nuclear matter in a sufficiently strong magnetic field becomes energetically more costly due to the heaviness of magnetized nucleons, even though it is also found that nuclear matter is more strongly bound in a magnetic field. Our results are potentially important for dense nuclear matter in compact stars, especially since previous studies in the astrophysical context have always ignored the contribution of the magnetized Dirac sea and thus the effect of magnetic catalysis.
Pion correlations in Nuclear Matter
Panda, P. K.; Sarangi, S.; Da Provide?ncia, J.
2009-01-01
The saturation properties of the nuclear matter taking pion correlations into account is studied. We construct a Bogoliubov transformations for the pion pair operators and calculate the energy associated with the pion pairs. The pion dispersion relation is investigated. We next study the correlation energy due to one pion exchange in nuclear matter and neutron matter at random phase approximation using the generator coordinate method. The techniques of the charged pion corre...
What can we learn from nuclear matter instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the features of instabilities in binary systems, in particular for asymmetric nuclear matter. We show the relevance for the interpretation of results obtained in experiments and in 'ab initio' simulations of the reaction 124 Sn + nat Sn at 50 MeV/n (authors)
What can we learn from Nuclear Matter Instabilities?
Baran, V.; M. Colonna; Di Toro, M; Zielinska-Pfabe, M.; Wolter, H. H.
2000-01-01
We discuss the features of instabilities in binary systems, in particular, for asymmetric nuclear matter. We show its relevance for the interpretation of results obtained in experiments and in "ab initio" simulations of the reaction between $^{124}Sn+^{124}Sn$ at 50AMeV.}
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-10-23
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro
Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation element on multi-layered Pd sample by deuterium permeation / H. Yamada ... [et al.]. Experimental observation and combined investigation of high-performance fusion of iron-region isotopes in optimal growing microbiological associations / V. I. Vysotskii ... [et al.]. Research into low-energy nuclear reactions in cathode sample solid with production of excess heat, stable and radioactive impurity nuclides / A. B. Karabut. Influence of parameters of the glow discharge on change of structure and the isotope composition of the cathode materials / I. B. Savvatimova and D. V. Gavritenkov. Elemental analysis of palladium electrodes after Pd/Pd light water critical electrolysis / Y. Toriyabe ... [et al.]. Progress on the study of isotopic composition in metallic thin films undergone to electrochemical loading of hydrogen / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. In situ accelerator analyses of palladium complex under deuterium permeation / A. Kitamura ... [et al.]. High-resolution mass spectrum for deuterium (hydrogen) gas permeating palladium film / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. ICP-MS analysis of electrodes and electrolytes after HNO[symbol]/H[symbol]O electrolysis / S. Taniguchi ... [et al.]. The Italy-Japan project - fundamental research on cold transmutation process for treatment of nuclear wastes / A. Takahashi, F. Celani and Y. Iwamura -- 4. Nuclear physics approach. Reproducible nuclear emissions from Pd/PdO:Dx heterostructure during controlled exothermic deuterium desorption / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:H[symbol] heterostructure / A. S. Roussetski ... [et al.]. Intense non-linear soft X-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment / G. H. Miley ... [et al.]. Enhancement of first wall damage in ITER type TOKAMAK due to LENR effects / A. G. Lipson, G. H. Miley and H. Momota. Generation of DD-reactions in a ferroelectric KD[symbol]PO[symbol] single crystal during transition
Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew S. Devine
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.
Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Devine, Matthew S.; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A.; Rose, Stephen E.; Henderson, Robert D.
2015-01-01
Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15) or left-sided limb (n = 15). Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left) motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01). Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability. PMID:25844330
Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
Biberian, Jean-Paul
2006-02-01
1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results of analysis of Ti foil after glow discharge with deuterium / I. B. Savvat
The phase diagram of bulk nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent analyses of nuclear multifragmentation and compound nuclear data determined the pressure-density-temperature phase diagram of bulk nuclear matter. A condensation model, modified to account for nuclear energies, was used to describe the fragment yields and finite size scaling techniques were used to determine the bulk property of nuclear matter from finite, charged samples of nuclear matter, i.e. nuclei. (orig.)
Soliton formation in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The propagation of a density disturbance in nuclear fluid is considered for the case when the nuclear equation of state is derived from a Skyrme-type effective nucleon-nucleon potential. It is shown that the velocity-dependent terms of this potential are responsible for the possible formation of solitary waves in nuclear matter. These solitons are rarefaction waves and not compressional as previously suggested. Their amplitudes increase with increasing temperature, which makes them a possible mechanism for nuclear multifragmentation
Soliton formation in nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abul-Magd, A.Y.; El-Taher, I.; Khaliel, F.M. (Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt))
1992-01-01
The propagation of a density disturbance in nuclear fluid is considered for the case when the nuclear equation of state is derived from a Skyrme-type effective nucleon-nucleon potential. It is shown that the velocity-dependent terms of this potential are responsible for the possible formation of solitary waves in nuclear matter. These solitons are rarefaction waves and not compressional as previously suggested. Their amplitudes increase with increasing temperature, which makes them a possible mechanism for nuclear multifragmentation.
Shear viscosity of nuclear matter
Xu, Jun
2013-01-01
In this talk I report my recent study on the shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. An isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction is used in the study. Effects of density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry of nuclear matter on its shear viscosity have been discussed. Similar to the symmetry energy, the symmetry shear viscosity is defined and its density and temperature dependence are studied.
A Dirac description of ¹S0+³ S1-³ D1 pairing in nuclear matter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
B. Funke, Haas; B. V., Carlson; Tobias, Frederico.
2004-09-01
Full Text Available We develop a Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov description of nuclear matter pairing in ¹S0 and ³S¹-³ D¹ channels. Here we investigate the density dependence ot the ¹S0 and ³S¹-³ D¹ pairing fields in asymmetric nuclear matter, using a Bonn meson-exchange interaction between Dirac nucleons. In this work, [...] we present preliminary results.
Phase transitions in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references
Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals
Pastore, A; Navarro, J
2014-01-01
Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin-orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the particle-hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin-isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.
Bosonic variables in nuclear matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the boson theoretical interpretation of nuclear forces nessecitates the introduction of bosonic variables within the state function of nuclear matter. In this framework the 2-boson exchange plays a decisive role and calls for the introduction of special selfenergy diagrams. This generalized scheme is discussed with the help of a solvable field theoretical model. (orig.)
Anatomy of nuclear matter fundamentals
Patra, S K; Singh, S K; Bhuyan, M
2014-01-01
The bridge between finite and infinite nuclear system is analyzed for the fundamental quantities like binding energy, density, compressibility, giant monopole excitation energy and effective mass of both nuclear matter and finite nuclei systems. It is shown quantitatively that by knowing one of the fundamental property of one system one can estimate the same in its counter part, only approximately
Spectral properties of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review self-consistent spectral methods for nuclear matter calculations. The in-medium T-matrix approach is conserving and thermodynamically consistent. It gives both the global and the single-particle properties the system. The T-matrix approximation allows to address the pairing phenomenon in cold nuclear matter. A generalization of nuclear matter calculations to the super.uid phase is discussed and numerical results are presented for this case. The linear response of a correlated system going beyond the Hartree-Fock+ Random-Phase-Approximation (RPA) scheme is studied. The polarization is obtained by solving a consistent Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the coupling of dressed nucleons to an external field. We find that multipair contributions are important for the spin(isospin) response when the interaction is spin(isospin) dependent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aparajita Bhattacharya
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The modification of the properties of nucleon in nuclear medium has been investigated in the context of flux tube model. A nucleon has been described as diquark-quark system connected by flux tube and quasi particle diquark model has been used to describe the diquak constituting the nucleon. The modification of incompressiblity, the Roper resonance etc in the nuclear medium have been investigated. The results are compared with recent experimental and theoretical predictions. Some interesting observations are made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter
Reflection-asymmetric nuclear deformations within the Density Functional Theory
Olsen, E; Nazarewicz, W; Stoitsov, M; 10.1088/1742-6596/402/1/012034
2013-01-01
Within the nuclear density functional theory (DFT) we study the effect of reflection-asymmetric shapes on ground-state binding energies and binding energy differences. To this end, we developed the new DFT solver AxialHFB that uses an approximate second-order gradient to solve the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations of superconducting DFT with the quasi-local Skyrme energy density functionals. Illustrative calculations are carried out for even-even isotopes of radium and thorium.
Symmetry energy: from nuclear matter to finite nuclei
Kolomietz, V M
2014-01-01
We suggest a particular procedure of derivation of the beta-stability line and isotopic symmetry energy. The behavior of the symmetry energy coefficient $b(A,N-Z)$ is analyzed. We redefine the surface tension coefficient and the surface symmetry energy for an asymmetric nuclear Fermi-liquid drop with a finite diffuse layer. Following Gibbs-Tolman concept, we introduce the equimolar radius at which the surface tension is applied. The relation of the nuclear macroscopic characteristics like surface and symmetry energies, Tolman length, etc. to the bulk properties of nuclear matter is considered. The surface-to-volume symmetry energy ratio for several Skyrme-force parametrizations is obtained.
Nuclear matter in the crust of neutron stars derived from realistic NN interactions
Go?gelein, P.; Dalen, E. N. E.; Fuchs, C.; Mu?ther, H.
2007-01-01
Properties of inhomogeneous nuclear matter are evaluated within a relativistic mean field approximation using density dependent coupling constants. A parameterization for these coupling constants is presented, which reproduces the properties of the nucleon self-energy obtained in Dirac Brueckner Hartree Fock calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter but also provides a good description for bulk properties of finite nuclei. The inhomogeneous infinite matter is described in te...
Electron scattering from nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use inclusive electron scattering to study the short-range aspects of nuclear matter wave functions. Comparison to data at large momentum transfer allows detailed studies of P(k, E) at large momenta, N-N correlations and colour transparency. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heiselberg, H. [NORDITA, Copenhagen (Denmark)
1998-06-01
The kaon energy in a nuclear medium and its dependence on kaon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon correlations is discussed. The transition from the Lenz potential at low densities to the Hartree potential at high densities can be calculated analytically by making a Wigner-Seitz cell approximation and employing a square well potential. As the Hartree potential is less attractive than the Lenz one, kaon condensation inside cores of neutron stars appears to be less likely than previously estimated. (orig.)
Role of isospin in nuclear-matter liquid-gas phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)
Relic Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Scalar--Tensor Model
Wang, Shun-zhi; Mamat, Mamatrishat
2015-01-01
The relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in the scalar--tensor model is analysized in this article. We extend the numeric and analytic calculation of the relic density of the asymmetric Dark Matter in the standard cosmological scenario to the nonstandard cosmological scenario. We focus on the scalar--tensor model. Hubble expansion rate is changed in the nonstandard cosmological scenario. This leaves its imprint on the relic density of Dark Matter particles. In this article we investigate to what extent the asymmetric Dark Matter particle's relic density is changed in the scalar--tensor model. We use the observed present day Dark Matter abundance to find the constraints on the parameter space in this model.
Thermostatistical properties of nuclear matter and the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermostatistical properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are studied in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory at a finite temperature. The statistical description via the grand canonical potential produces an equation of state, which describes the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition as first order. The transition occurs at an excitation energy of 15-16 MeV per nucleon, and a density of 0.3-0.4 symmetric matter saturation density. This result is in accordance with the results of experimental observations of fragment distributions in heavy-ion collisions. (author)
Thermostatistical Properties of Nuclear Matter and the Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermostatistical properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are studied in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory at a finite temperature. The statistical description via the grandcanonical potential produces an equation of state, which describes the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition as first order. The transition occurs at an excitation energy of 15-16 MeV per nucleon, and a density of 0.3-0.4 symmetric matter saturation density. This result is in accordance with the results of experimental observations of fragment distributions in heavy-ion collisions. (author)
Weak Response of Nuclear Matter
Farina, Nicola
2009-01-01
The quantitative understanding of neutrino interactions with nuclei and nuclear matter is needed to the study of many different problems. In the astrophysics environment, neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-nucleus reaction rates are used as inputs in the simulations of phenomena like supernov$\\ae$ explosions and neutron star cooling. In the field of neutrino physics, the quantitative knowledge of neutrino-nucleus cross-section is critical to reduce the systematic uncertainty of t...
BCS-BEC crossovers and unconventional phases in dilute nuclear matter. II
Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W
2014-01-01
We study the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetrical nuclear matter in the density-temperature plane, allowing for four competing phases of nuclear matter: (i) the unpaired phase, (ii) the translationally and rotationally symmetric, but isospin-asymmetrical BCS condensate, (iii) the current-carrying Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase, and (iv) the heterogeneous phase-separated phase. The phase diagram of nuclear matter composed of these phases features two tri-critical points in general, as well as crossovers from the asymmetrical BCS phase to a BEC of deuterons plus a neutron gas, both for the homogeneous superfluid phase (at high temperatures) and for the heterogeneous phase (at low temperatures). The BCS-BEC type crossover in the condensate occurs as the density is reduced. We analyze in detail some intrinsic properties of these phases, including the Cooper-pair wave function, the coherence length, the occupation numbers of majority and minority nucleonic components, and the dispersion relations of quasi...
Effects of gravitational confinement on bosonic asymmetric dark matter in stars
Jamison, Alan O
2013-01-01
Considering the existence of old neutron stars puts strong limits on the dark matter/nucleon cross section for bosonic asymmetric dark matter. Key to these bounds is formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of the asymmetric dark matter particles. We consider the effects of the host neutron star's gravitational field on the BEC transition. We find this substantially shifts the transition temperature and so strengthens the bounds on cross section. In particular, for the well-motivated mass range of ~5-15 GeV, we improve previous bounds by an order of magnitude.
Nuclear Matter in Relativistic Mean Field Theory with Isovector Scalar Meson
Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.
1997-01-01
Relativistic mean field (RMF) theory of nuclear matter with the isovector scalar mean field corresponding to the delta-meson [a_0(980)] is studied. While the delta-meson mean field vanishes in symmetric nuclear matter, it can influence properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in neutron stars. The RMF contribution due to delta-field to the nuclear symmetry energy is negative. To fit the empirical value, E_s=30 MeV, a stronger rho-meson coupling is required than in the absence...
Asymmetric Dark Matter and CP Violating Scatterings in a UV Complete Model
Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia); Millar, Alexander J.; Volkas, Raymond R
2015-01-01
We explore possible asymmetric dark matter models using CP violating scatterings to generate an asymmetry. In particular, we introduce a new model, based on DM fields coupling to the SM Higgs and lepton doublets, $\\overline{L}H$, and explore its UV completions. We study the CP violation and asymmetry formation of this model, to demonstrate that it is capable of producing the correct abundance of dark matter and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Crucial to achieving t...
Carbone, A.; Polls, A.; Rios, A.; Vidana, I.
2011-01-01
We study the latent heat of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter using self-consistent mean-field calculations with a few Skyrme forces. The temperature dependence of the latent heat is rather independent of the mean-field parametrization and it can be characterized by a few parameters. At low temperatures, the latent heat tends to the saturation energy. Near the critical point, the latent heat goes to zero with a well-determined mean-field critical exponent. A maximum ...
Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun
Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan
2015-01-01
Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is consider...
Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data
Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun
Blennow, Mattias
2015-01-01
Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is considered to be a Poisson process, we find that a significant asymmetry between the captured dark particles and anti-particles is possible. Such an asymmetry puts a lower bound on the total amount of captured dark matter and could be a possible solution to the solar composition problem.
Light Front Theory Of Nuclear Matter
Miller, G. A.; Machleidt, R.
1998-01-01
A relativistic light front formulation of nuclear dynamics is applied to infinite nuclear matter. A hadronic meson-baryon Lagrangian, consistent with chiral symmetry, leads to a nuclear eigenvalue problem which is solved, including nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations, in the one-boson-exchange approximation for the NN potential. The nuclear matter saturation properties are reasonably well reproduced, with a compression modulus of 180 MeV. We find that there are about 0.05 exce...
Simple effective interaction: Infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei
Behera, B; Bhuyan, M; Routray, T R; Sharma, B K; Patra, S K
2013-01-01
The mean field properties and equation of state for asymmetric nuclear matter are studied by using a simple effective interaction which has a single finite range Gaussian term. The study of finite nuclei with this effective interaction is done by means of constructing a quasilocal energy density functional for which the single particle equations take the form of Skryme-Hartree-Fock equations. The predictions of binding energies and charge radii of spherical nuclei are found to be compatible with the results of standard models as well as experimental data.
Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)
Kuwabara, H.; Hatsuda, T.
1995-01-01
$\\phi$-meson mass in nuclear matter ($m_{\\phi}^*$) is investigated using an effective Lagrangian of $\\phi$ interacting with octet baryons. $m_{\\phi}^*$ decreases by a few \\% in nuclear matter due to the current conservation and effective nucleon/hyperon masses. Its implication to the p-A and A-A collisions are briefly discussed.
Holographic Symmetry Energy of the Nuclear Matter
Park, Chanyong
2011-01-01
We calculate the symmetry energy of the nuclear matter by using the bottom-up approach, so called hard wall model. To consider the nuclear matter, we introduce the isospin for u- and d-quarks. We find that in the hard wall model, the symmetry energy of the nuclear matter is proportional to the square of nucleon density. We also study the symmetry energy of the quark matter in the deconfining phase. Finally, we investigate the effect of the symmetry energy on the Hawking-Page...
Carbone, Arianna; Rios, Arnau; Vidaña, Isaac
2010-01-01
We study the latent heat of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter using self-consistent mean-field calculations with a few Skyrme forces. The temperature dependence of the latent heat is rather independent of the mean-field parametrization and can be characterized by a few parameters. At low temperatures, the latent heat tends to the saturation energy. Near the critical point, the latent heat goes to zero with a well-determined mean-field critical exponent. A maximum value of the latent heat in the range l ~ 25-30 MeV is found at intermediate temperatures, which might have experimental relevance. All these features can be explained from very basic principles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the latent heat of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter using self-consistent mean-field calculations with a few Skyrme forces. The temperature dependence of the latent heat is rather independent of the mean-field parametrization and it can be characterized by a few parameters. At low temperatures, the latent heat tends to the saturation energy. Near the critical point, the latent heat goes to zero with a well-determined mean-field critical exponent. A maximum value of the latent heat in the range l?25-30 MeV is found at intermediate temperatures, which might have experimental relevance. All these features can be explained from very basic principles.
From nuclear matter to Neutron Stars
Jha, T. K.
2009-01-01
Neutron stars are the most dense objects in the observable Universe and conventionally one uses nuclear theory to obtain the equation of state (EOS) of dense hadronic matter and the global properties of these stars. In this work, we review various aspects of nuclear matter within an effective Chiral model and interlink fundamental quantities both from nuclear saturation as well as vacuum properties and correlate it with the star properties.
Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Ray Signals From Dark Matter Decay
Chang, Spencer; Goodenough, Lisa
2011-01-01
The PAMELA and Fermi measurements of the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra have generated much interest over the past two years, because they are consistent with a significant component of the electron and positron fluxes between 20 GeV and 1 TeV being produced through dark matter annihilation or decay. However, since the measurements are also consistent with astrophysical interpretations, the message is unclear. In this paper, we point out that dark matter can have a...
Asymmetric dark matter from spontaneous cogenesis in the supersymmetric standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2012-01-15
The observational relation between the density of baryon and dark matter in the Universe, {omega}{sub DM}/{omega}{sub B}{approx_equal}5, is one of the most difficult problems to solve in modern cosmology. We discuss a scenario that explains this relation by combining the asymmetric dark matter scenario and the spontaneous baryogenesis associated with the flat direction in the supersymmetric standard model. A part of baryon asymmetry is transferred to charge asymmetry D that dark matter carries, if a symmetry violating interaction that works at high temperature breaks not only B-L but also D symmetries simultaneously. In this case, the present number density of baryon and dark matter can be same order if the symmetric part of dark matter annihilates sufficiently. Moreover, the baryon number density can be enhanced as compared to that of dark matter if another B-L violating interaction is still in thermal equilibrium after the spontaneous genesis of dark matter, which accommodates a TeV scale asymmetric dark matter model. (orig.)
Unifying Asymmetric Inert Fermion Doublet Dark Matter and Leptogenesis with Neutrino Mass
Sahu, Narendra
2012-01-01
We propose a scalar Triplet extension of the standard model (SM) to unify the origin of neutrino mass with the visible and dark matter component of the Universe. We assume that the scalar triplet is super heavy, so that its CP-violating out-of-equilibrium decay in the early Universe not only produce asymmetric dark matter which is the neutral component of an additional vector like fermion doublet, but also give rise to lepton asymmetry. The latter gets converted to observed baryon asymmetry via B+L violating sphaleron processes. Below electroweak phase transition the scalar triplet acquires a vacuum expectation value and give rise to sub-eV Majorana masses to three flavors of active neutrinos. Thus an unification of the origin of neutrino mass, lepton asymmetry and asymmetric dark matter is achieved within a scalar triplet extension of the SM.
Does asymmetric dark matter always lead to an anti-neutrino signal?
Fukuda, Hajime; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan
2014-01-01
Under rather generic assumptions, we show that in the asymmetric dark matter (ADM) scenario, the sign of the B-L asymmetry stored in the dark matter sector and the standard model sector are always the same. One particularly striking consequence of this result is that, when the dark matter decays or annihilates in the present universe, the resulting final state always involves an anti-neutrino. As a concrete example of this, we construct a composite ADM model and explore the feasibility of detecting such an anti-neutrino signal in atmospheric neutrino detectors.
Asymmetric Dark Matter and CP Violating Scatterings in a UV Complete Model
Baldes, Iason; Millar, Alexander J; Volkas, Raymond R
2015-01-01
We explore possible asymmetric dark matter models using CP violating scatterings to generate an asymmetry. In particular, we introduce a new model, based on DM fields coupling to the SM Higgs and lepton doublets, $\\overline{L}H$, and explore its UV completions. We study the CP violation and asymmetry formation of this model, to demonstrate that it is capable of producing the correct abundance of dark matter and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Crucial to achieving this is the introduction of interactions which violate CP with a $T^{2}$ dependence.
Interaction of nuclear radiation with matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This chapter of a textbook presents an overview of an important aspect of nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry. The effects of the interaction of nuclear radiation with substances are classified according to the acting particle, and the reacting constituents of the substance. The interactions of alpha radiation with matter (slowing down, scattering), of electron radiation with matter (slowing down, Cherenkov radiation, backscattering, absorption, annihilation), and of gamma radiation with matter (Compton effect, photoelectric effect, pair formation, absorption) are discussed. The reacting constituents are categorized as shell electrons, atomic nuclei, the Coulomb field of nuclei. In the complex interactions, the Auger effect and the photoelectron-induced bremsstrahlung is discussed. (R.P.)
Charge asymmetric cosmic ray signals from dark matter decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The PAMELA and Fermi measurements of the cosmic ray electron and positron spectra have generated much interest over the past two years, because they are consistent with a significant component of the electron and positron fluxes between 20 GeV and 1 TeV being produced through dark matter annihilation or decay. However, since the measurements are also consistent with astrophysical interpretations, the message is unclear. In this paper, we point out that dark matter can have a more distinct signal in cosmic rays, that of a charge asymmetry. Such charge asymmetry can result if the dark matter's abundance is due to a relic asymmetry, allowing its decay to generate an asymmetry in positrons and electrons. This is analogous to the baryon asymmetry, where decaying neutrons produce electrons and not positrons. We explore benchmark scenarios where the dark matter decays into a leptophilic charged Higgs boson or electroweak gauge bosons. These models have observable signals in gamma rays and neutrinos, which can be tested by Fermi and IceCube. The most powerful test will be at AMS-02, given its ability to distinguish electron and positron charge above 100 GeV. Specifically, an asymmetry favoring positrons typically predicts a larger positron ratio and a harder (softer) high energy spectrum for positrons (electrons) than charge symmetric sources. We end with a brief discussion on how such scenarios differ from the leading astrophysical explanations.xplanations.
Lepton-Flavored Asymmetric Dark Matter and Interference in Direct Detection
Hamze, Ali; Koeller, Jason; Trendafilova, Cynthia; Yu, Jiang-Hao
2014-01-01
In flavored dark matter models, dark matter can scatter off of nuclei through Higgs and photon exchange, both of which can arise from renormalizable interactions and individually lead to strong constraints from direct detection. While these two interaction channels can destructively interfere in the scattering amplitude, for a thermal relic with equal abundances for the dark matter particle and its antiparticle, this produces no effect on the total event rate. Focusing on lepton-flavored dark matter, we show that it is quite natural for dark matter to have become asymmetric during high-scale leptogenesis, and that in this case the direct detection bounds can be significantly weakened due to interference. We quantify this by mapping out and comparing the regions of parameter space that are excluded by direct detection for the symmetric and asymmetric cases of lepton-flavored dark matter. In particular, we show that the entire parameter region is ruled out for symmetric dark matter, while large portions of para...
On phase transitions of nuclear matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) approach a general formalism is established for the study of asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) described by Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. Restricting to the double-bubble approximation (DBA) we determine the bulk properties of ANM. Restricting to the double-bubble approximation (DBA) we determine the bulk properties of ANM, in particular, the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, which is in good agreement with data of recent analyses. (author)
Light asymmetric dark matter from new strong dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir
2011-01-01
A ~5 GeV `dark baryon' with a cosmic asymmetry similar to that of baryons is a natural candidate for the dark matter. We study the possibility of generating such a state through dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking, and show that it can share the relic baryon asymmetry via sphaleron interactions, even though it has no electroweak interactions. The scattering cross-section on nucleons, estimated in analogy to QCD, is within reach of underground direct detection experiments.
Clusters in nuclear matter and Mott points
Ro?pke, G.
2015-01-01
Light clusters (mass number $A \\leq 4$) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach. In addition to self-energy and Pauli-blocking, effects of continuum correlations are taken into account to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. Medium-modified quasiparticle properties are important ingredients to derive a nuclear matter equation of state applicable in the entire region of warm dense matt...
Asymmetric WIMP Dark Matter in the presence of DM/anti-DM oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general class of 'Asymmetric Dark Matter (DM)' scenarios assumes the existence of a primordial particle/anti-particle asymmetry in the dark matter sector related to the asymmetry in the baryonic one, as a way to achieve the observed similarity between the baryonic and dark matter energy densities today. Focusing on this framework we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its anti-particle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry. We calculate the evolution of the dark matter relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of asymmetric dark matter models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. We found in particular that a typical WIMP with a mass at the EW scale (about 1 TeV) having a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry, naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the ?m mass term is in the ? meV range. This turns out to be a natural value for fermionic DM arising from the higher dimensional operator H2DM2/? where H is the Higgs field and ? ? MPl. Finally, we constrain the parameter space in this framework by applying up-to-date bounds from indirect detection signals on annihilating DM
Collective modes in strange and isospin-asymmetric hadronic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the propagation of non-strange and strange meson modes in hadronic matter considering both isospin and strangeness mixing induced by quantum fluctuations in the medium. Baryons are described using the quark-meson coupling model extended to include interactions of strange quarks. In particular, we evaluate the dependence of the meson masses on the baryonic density, the strangeness fraction and the isospin asymmetry of the medium. We have found a considerable admixture of strangeness and isospin in the ?-mode in the high density regime
Photon Production from Charge-Asymmetric Hot and Dense Matter
Qin, Guang-you; Majumder, Abhijit; Gale, Charles
2007-01-01
A new channel of direct photon production from a quark gluon plasma (QGP) is explored. This process appears at Next-to-Leading-Order in the presence of a charge asymmetry in the heated matter and may be effectively described as the bremsstrahlung of a real photon from a thermal gluon. The photon production from this new mechanism is calculated in the effective theory of QCD at high temperature. The results show that the photon production rate may not as big as the annihilati...
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases in isospin-asymmetric matter
Nowakowski, Daniel; Carignano, Stefano; Wambach, Jochen
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of isospin asymmetry on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases within the two-flavor NJL model. After introducing a plane-wave ansatz for each quark-flavor condensate, we find that, as long as their periodicities are enforced to be equal, a non-zero isospin chemical potential shrinks the size of the inhomogeneous phase. The asymmetry reached in charge neutral matter is nevertheless not excessively large, so that an inhomogeneous window is still present in the phase diagram. Lifting the constraint of equal periodicities alters the picture significantly, as the inhomogeneous phase survives in a much larger region of the phase diagram.
Heavy Mesons in Nuclear Matter and Nuclei
Tolos, Laura; Cabrera, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.
2014-12-01
Heavy mesons in nuclear matter and nuclei are analyzed within different frameworks, paying a special attention to unitarized coupled-channel approaches. Possible experimental signatures of the properties of these mesons in matter are addressed, in particular in connection with the future FAIR facility at GSI.
Heavy Mesons in Nuclear Matter and Nuclei
Tolos, Laura; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M
2014-01-01
Heavy mesons in nuclear matter and nuclei are analyzed within different frameworks, paying a special attention to unitarized coupled-channel approaches. Possible experimental signatures of the properties of these mesons in matter are addressed, in particular in connection with the future FAIR facility at GSI.
Nuclear matter with JISP16 NN interaction
Shirokov, A. M.; Negoita, A. G.; Vary, J. P.; Bogner, S. K.; Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, E. A.; Gogny, D.
2014-01-01
Saturation properties of the JISP16 NN interaction are studied in symmetric nuclear matter calculations, with special attention paid to the convergence properties with respect to the number of partial waves. We also present results of pure neutron matter calculations with the JISP16 interaction.
Nuclear shock waves and quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atomic nuclei colliding with each other in a particle accelerator at extremely high velocities undergo interactions which lead to novel states of matter. The equation of state of this hot, dense nuclear matter reveals information on the processes occurring in a supernova, and on the big bang at the origin of the universe. (orig.)
Hadron-quark phase transition in asymmetric matter with boson condensation
Cavagnoli, Rafael; Providência, Constança; Menezes, Debora P.
2010-01-01
In the present work we study the hadron-quark phase transition with boson condensation in asymmetric matter by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature in order to mimic the QCD phase diagram. We consider a system with two conserved charges (isospin and baryon densities) using the Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. In order to obtain these conditions we use two different models for the two possible phases, namely the non-linear Walecka mod...
Cosmic ray-dark matter scattering: a new signature of (asymmetric) dark matter in the gamma ray sky
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the process of scattering of Galactic cosmic-ray electrons and protons off of dark matter with the radiation of a final-state photon. This process provides a novel way to search for Galactic dark matter with gamma rays. We argue that for a generic weakly interacting massive particle, barring effects such as co-annihilation or a velocity-dependent cross section, the gamma-ray emission from cosmic-ray scattering off of dark matter is typically smaller than that from dark matter pair-annihilation. However, if dark matter particles cannot pair-annihilate, as is the case for example in asymmetric dark matter scenarios, cosmic-ray scattering with final state photon emission provides a unique window to detect a signal from dark matter with gamma rays. We estimate the expected flux level and its spectral features for a generic supersymmetric setup, and we also discuss dipolar and luminous dark matter. We show that in some cases the gamma-ray emission might be large enough to be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
Past and present of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not even close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of ? 10-22sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete
Clusters in nuclear matter and Mott points
Röpke, G
2015-01-01
Light clusters (mass number $A \\leq 4$) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach. In addition to self-energy and Pauli-blocking, effects of continuum correlations are taken into account to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. Medium-modified quasiparticle properties are important ingredients to derive a nuclear matter equation of state applicable in the entire region of warm dense matter below saturation density. The influence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction on the quasiparticle shift is discussed.
Light Asymmetric Dark Matter on the Lattice: SU(2) Technicolor with Two Fundamental Flavors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lewis, Randy; Pica, Claudio
2012-01-01
The SU(2) gauge theory with two massless Dirac flavors constitutes the building block of several models of Technicolor. Furthermore it has also been used as a template for the construction of a natural light asymmetric, or mixed type, dark matter candidate. We use explicit lattice simulations to confirm the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking by determining the Goldstone spectrum and therefore show that the dark matter candidate can, de facto, be constituted by a complex Goldstone boson. We also determine the phenomenologically relevant spin one and spin zero isovector spectrum and demonstrate that it is well separated from the Goldstone spectrum.
Nuclear matter in all its states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report includes the nine lectures which have been presented at the Joliot-Curie School of Nuclear Physics in 1985. The subjects covered are the following: thermodynamic description of excited nuclei; heavy ion reactions at high energy (theoretical approach); heavy ion reactions at high energy (experimental approach); relativistic nuclear physics and quark effects in nuclei; quark matter; nuclear compressibility and its experimental determinations; hot nuclei; anti p-nucleus interaction; geant resonances at finite temperature
Big Bang Synthesis of Nuclear Dark Matter
Hardy, Edward; March-Russell, John; West, Stephen M
2014-01-01
We investigate the physics of dark matter models featuring composite bound states carrying a large conserved dark "nucleon" number. The properties of sufficiently large dark nuclei may obey simple scaling laws, and we find that this scaling can determine the number distribution of nuclei resulting from Big Bang Dark Nucleosynthesis. For plausible models of asymmetric dark matter, dark nuclei of large nucleon number, e.g. > 10^8, may be synthesised, with the number distribution taking one of two characteristic forms. If small-nucleon-number fusions are sufficiently fast, the distribution of dark nuclei takes on a logarithmically-peaked, universal form, independent of many details of the initial conditions and small-number interactions. In the case of a substantial bottleneck to nucleosynthesis for small dark nuclei, we find the surprising result that even larger nuclei, with size >> 10^8, are often finally synthesised, again with a simple number distribution. We briefly discuss the constraints arising from the...
Chiral effective field theory for nuclear matter
Lacour, A; Oller, J A
2010-01-01
We report on the recent developments of a new effective field theory for nuclear matter [1,2,3]. We present first the nuclear matter chiral power counting that takes into account both short-- and long--range inter-nucleon interactions. It also identifies non-perturbative strings of diagrams, related to the iteration of nucleon-nucleon interactions, which have to be re-summed. The methods of unitary chiral perturbation theory has been shown to be a useful tool in order to perform those resummations. Results up to next-to-leading order for the ground state energy per particle of nuclear matter, the in-medium chiral quark condensate and pion self-energy are discussed.
Moments of $\\phi$ meson spectral functions in vacuum and nuclear matter
Gubler, Philipp
2015-01-01
Moments of the $\\phi$ meson spectral function in vacuum and in nuclear matter are analyzed, combining a model based on chiral SU(3) effective field theory (with kaonic degrees of freedom) and finite-energy QCD sum rules. For the vacuum we show that the spectral density is strongly constrained by a recent accurate measurement of the $e^+ e^- \\to K^+ K^-$ cross section. In nuclear matter the $\\phi$ spectrum is modified by interactions of the decay kaons with the surrounding nuclear medium, leading to a significant broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the $\\phi$ meson peak. We demonstrate that both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the first two moments of the spectral function are compatible with finite-energy QCD sum rules. A brief discussion of the next-higher spectral moment involving strange four-quark condensates is also presented.
Pion condensation in isospin symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the energy of the pion condensate a mean field or Hartree-calculation has been proposed and performed for neutron star matter. The same method is used to investigate nuclear matter. A calculation of the energy requires a knowledge of the ?N- and ??-interaction. The author considers the linear sigma model which is consistent with SU(2) X SU(2) symmetry. It incorporates current algrbra, PCAC and the low energy theorems. (Auth.)
Nuclear matter with three-body forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We present spectral calculations of nuclear matter properties, with three-body forces included in the in-medium T-matrix equations. The thermodynamic observables are computed for symmetric and pure neutron matter, and estimations for the density dependence of the symmetry energy are obtained. We also investigate the influence of three-body forces on the single-particle properties, discussing spectral functions, self-energies and effective masses. (author)
Chiral Quark Dynamics in Dense Nuclear Matter
Forkel, Hilmar
1994-01-01
We consider a new approach to the description of dense nuclear matter in the framework of chirally symmetric, quark-based hadron models. As previously in the Skyrme model, the dense environment is described in terms of hyperspherical cells of unit baryon number. The intrinsic curvature of these cells generates a new gauge interaction for the quark fields which mediates interactions with the ambient matter. We apply this approach to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, constru...
Three nucleon potential in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper a new calculation is presented of the two-pion exchange three nucleon potential for use in nuclear matter calculations. The new features of the potential compared to the older potential of Fujita and Miyazawa, which has been used in most previous calculations in nuclear matter, are: i) The potential is based on a ?N scattering amplitude which is constructed to satisfy the constraints imposed by current algebra and the most recent ?N scattering data. ii) There is a significant s wave ?N amplitude, although the well known cancellation at the Adler point is imposed. (Auth.)
Phase transitions in high density nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for the description of spin-isospin phase transitions in nuclear matter is developed. It allows a complete description of the pion condensation phase transition in the framework of the Landau-Migdal Fermi liquid theory. The equation of the order parameters is derived and the condensation energy is calculated. We study the influence of pion condensation on the nuclear equation of state and the temperature dependence of pion condensation. Finally the phase transition from nucleon to quark matter is investigated. The relevance of the color degree of freedom is discussed. (orig.)
The exploration of hot nuclear matter.
Jacak, Barbara V; Müller, Berndt
2012-07-20
When nuclear matter is heated beyond 2 trillion degrees, it becomes a strongly coupled plasma of quarks and gluons. Experiments using highly energetic collisions between heavy nuclei have revealed that this new state of matter is a nearly ideal, highly opaque liquid. A description based on string theory and black holes in five dimensions has made the quark-gluon plasma an archetypical strongly coupled quantum system. Open questions about the structure and theory of the quark-gluon plasma are under active investigation. Many of the insights are also relevant to ultracold fermionic atoms and strongly correlated condensed matter. PMID:22822143
Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics
Gondolo, Paolo
2013-01-01
Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor ...
Femtotechnology: Nuclear Matter with Fantastic Properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Bolonkin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: At present the term 'nanotechnology' is well known-in its' ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. Such a power over nature would offer routine achievement of remarkable properties in conventional matter and creation of metamaterials where the structure not the composition brings forth new powers of matter. But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons, electrons and other nuclear particles. Approach: The researcher researches the nuclear forces. He shows these force may be used for design the new nuclear matter from protons, neutrons, electrons and other nuclear particles. Results: Author shows this new 'AB-Matter' has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency and zero friction., which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux. Conclusion: People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought-nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts and meta-materials and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature! and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times-surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them. Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms having the size in nanometer (10-9 m. The researcher here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei having size in the femtometer range, (10-15m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale. The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.
Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)
Nuclear physics of hot dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The equation of state of hot dense matter is an essential ingredient to describe the gravitational contraction of massive stars. Some of the nuclear physics problems occurring in the determination of the equation of state of hot dense matter are discussed. This particularly rich domain of nuclear physics deals with very unusual nuclei, whose mass numbers can be sometimes as large as a thousand, whose existence becomes possible in dense matter because of the screening of Coulomb forces. A calculation of the properties of hot nuclear matter in the mean field approximation is presented. It is shown that a useful approximation to study the phase equilibrium equations is to consider low temperature expansions for the nucleus expansions for the vapor. A simple formula is derived for the limiting temperature TL beyond which nuclei no longer exist. The equation of state is discussed at subnuclear density and in the domain densities greater than the nuclear saturation density. The standard methods of non relativistic many-body theory as well as relativistic mean-field and Dirac-Brueckner approaches are also discussed. (K.A.) 70 refs., 9 figs
BCS-BEC crossovers and unconventional phases in dilute nuclear matter
Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W.
2014-12-01
We study the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetrical nuclear matter in the density-temperature plane, allowing for four competing phases of nuclear matter: (i) the unpaired phase; (ii) the translationally and rotationally symmetric, but isospin-asymmetrical BCS condensate; (iii) the current-carrying Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase; and (iv) the heterogeneous phase-separated phase. The phase diagram of nuclear matter composed of these phases features two tricritical points, in general, as well as crossovers from the asymmetrical BCS phase to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of deuterons plus a neutron gas, for both the homogeneous superfluid phase (at high temperatures) and the heterogeneous phase (at low temperatures). The BCS-BEC-type crossover in the condensate occurs as the density is reduced. We analyze in detail some intrinsic properties of these phases, including the Cooper-pair wave function, the coherence length, the occupation numbers of majority and minority nucleonic components, and the dispersion relations of quasiparticle excitations about the ground state. We show by explicit examples that the physics of the individual phases and the transition from weak to strong coupling can be well understood by tracing the behavior of these quantities.
Resonance properties in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the formation and decay properties of nucleon resonances formed in heavy-ion collisions at 1--2 GeV/u within a microscopic transport approach. In case of Au+Au reactions the density of ? resonances reaches 0.15 fm-3 in the central cell for a time period of the order of 10 fm/c such that one can legitimately speak about resonance matter. The lifetime of the ?'s is found to be shortened at high density by only 20% due to the in-medium channel ?+N?N+N
Consequences of DM/antiDM Oscillations for Asymmetric WIMP Dark Matter
Cirelli, Marco; Servant, Geraldine; Zaharijas, Gabrijela
2012-01-01
Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient annihilations to recouple. We calculate the evolution of the DM relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of aDM models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. The re-establishment of annihilations implies that constraints from the accumulation of aDM in astrophysical bodies are evaded. On the other hand, the ordinary bounds from BBN, CMB and indirect detection signals on annihilating DM have to be considered.
Hadron-quark phase transition in asymmetric matter with boson condensation
Cavagnoli, Rafael; Menezes, Debora P
2010-01-01
In the present work we study the hadron-quark phase transition with boson condensation in asymmetric matter by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature in order to mimic the QCD phase diagram. We consider a system with two conserved charges (isospin and baryon densities) using the Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. In order to obtain these conditions we use two different models for the two possible phases, namely the non-linear Walecka model (NLWM) for the hadron matter (also including hyperons) and the MIT bag model for the quark phase. It is shown that the phase transition is very sensitive to the density dependence of the equation of state and the symmetry energy. For isospin asymmetry of 0.2 and a mixed phase with a fraction of 20% of quarks, a transition density in the interval 2 rho_0 to 4 rho_0 was obtained for temperatures 30 < T < 65 MeV.
Hadron-quark phase transition in asymmetric matter with boson condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work we study the hadron-quark phase transition with boson condensation in asymmetric matter by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature to mimic the QCD phase diagram. We consider a system with two conserved charges (isospin and baryon densities) using the Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. To obtain these conditions we use two different models for the two possible phases, namely, the nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM) for the hadron matter (also including hyperons) and the MIT bag model for the quark phase. It is shown that the phase transition is very sensitive to the density dependence of the equation of state and the symmetry energy. For an isospin asymmetry of 0.2 and a mixed phase with a fraction of 20% of quarks, a transition density in the interval 2?0t0 was obtained for temperatures 30< T<65 MeV.
Hadron-quark phase transition in asymmetric matter with boson condensation
Cavagnoli, Rafael; Providência, Constança; Menezes, Debora P.
2011-04-01
In the present work we study the hadron-quark phase transition with boson condensation in asymmetric matter by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature to mimic the QCD phase diagram. We consider a system with two conserved charges (isospin and baryon densities) using the Gibbs’ criteria for phase equilibrium. To obtain these conditions we use two different models for the two possible phases, namely, the nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM) for the hadron matter (also including hyperons) and the MIT bag model for the quark phase. It is shown that the phase transition is very sensitive to the density dependence of the equation of state and the symmetry energy. For an isospin asymmetry of 0.2 and a mixed phase with a fraction of 20% of quarks, a transition density in the interval 2?0
Possible indication of momentum-dependent asymmetric dark matter in the sun.
Vincent, Aaron C; Scott, Pat; Serenelli, Aldo
2015-02-27
Broad disagreement persists between helioseismological observables and predictions of solar models computed with the latest surface abundances. Here we show that most of these problems can be solved by the presence of asymmetric dark matter coupling to nucleons as the square of the momentum q exchanged in the collision. We compute neutrino fluxes, small frequency separations, surface helium abundances, sound speed profiles, and convective zone depths for a number of models, showing more than a 6? preference for q^{2} models over others, and over the standard solar model. The preferred mass (3 GeV) and reference dark matter-nucleon cross section (10^{-37}??cm^{2} at q_{0}=40??MeV) are within the region of parameter space allowed by both direct detection and collider searches. PMID:25768751
Quartic isospin asymmetry energy of nuclear matter from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics
Kaiser, N
2015-01-01
Based on a chiral approach to nuclear matter, we calculate the quartic term in the expansion of the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. The contributions to the quartic isospin asymmetry energy $A_4(k_f)$ arising from $1\\pi$-exchange and chiral $2\\pi$-exchange in nuclear matter are calculated analytically together with three-body terms involving virtual $\\Delta(1232)$-isobars. From these interaction terms one obtains at saturation density $\\rho_0 = 0.16\\,$fm$^{-3}$ the value $A_4(k_{f0})= 1.5\\,$MeV, more than three times as large as the kinetic energy part. Moreover, iterated $1\\pi$-exchange exhibits components for which the fourth derivative with the respect to the isospin asymmetry parameter $\\delta$ becomes singular at $\\delta =0$. The genuine presence of a non-analytical term $\\delta^4 \\ln|\\delta|$ in the expansion of the energy per particle of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is demonstrated by evaluating a s-wave contact interaction at second order.
Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.
The public and nuclear matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nuclear industry has an image problem and is facing a major crisis of public confidence. The solution lies not merely in better public relations and advertising campaigns, but in a fundamental reassessment of electricity management, a comprehensive re-examination of the economics of electricity use and generation and, in all probability, a shift towards more public-friendly reactor designs. Over the next decade the industry faces two great forces: the power of public opinion and the momentum of inherent technological advance. Somehow these two elements have to be guided so that they complement each other. This article aims to show how this might be achieved. (author)
Charge-dependent directed flow in asymmetric nuclear collisions
Voronyuk, V.; Toneev, V. D.; Voloshin, S. A.; Cassing, W.
2014-01-01
The directed flow of identified hadrons is studied within the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) approach for the asymmetric system Cu+Au in non-central collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. It is emphasized that due to the difference in the number of protons of the colliding nuclei an electric field emerges which is directed from the heavy to the light nucleus. This strong electric field is only present for about 0.25 fm/c at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and leads to a sp...
Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics
Gondolo, P.
2014-06-01
Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.
A variational theory of nuclear matter. III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Developments in a variational theory of nuclear matter for treating v6 homework potentials that include central, spin, isospin and tensor operators are reported. The central, spin, isospin and tensor correlations are parametrized by their range d, and the magnitudes of the non-central correlations. Integral equations are used to sum Fermi hypernetted chain, and single operator chain diagrams. All commutators required to evaluate the energy from the operator chain functions are treated exactly, and the energy is found to have a minimum with respect to variations in all parameters. Results of calculations with v6 models based on the Reid and Bethe-Johnson potentials are reported. A crude estimate of the effect of the spin-orbit potentials on nuclear matter binding energy indicates that it could be significant. (Auth.)
Collective modes of infinite nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we study the longitudinal collective vibrations of infinite nuclear matter in the long wavelength limit. We present an alternative method for solving the Landau equations which allows analytical expression for the response function, the odd sum rules and the strength of the modes. We solve the theory for a selection of Skyrme interactions and we also consider the properties of the ground state of the system specifically associated with the four collective states which exist in nuclear matter. The relationship between the quantum mechanical response function and the corresponding classical hydrodynamical quantity is explored and the approximate results obtained through sum rules are compared with the exact solutions of the RPA equations. Finally the Landau parameters obtained with the Skyrme forces are tested against the antisymmetry property of the foward particle-hole scattering amplitude on the Fermi surface and the enhancement factor in the photonuclear dipole sum rule
On the ? Binding Energy in Nuclear Matter
DC{A}Browski, J.; Ro?Ynek, J.
2001-06-01
The widely used low-order Brueckner (LOB) scheme for calculating the binding energy of the Λ hyperon in nuclear matter, B?, is discussed. Two corrections to B? are considered: the rearrangement energy and the effect of replacing the LOB spectrum of the single particle Λ energies in the intermediate states of the reaction matrix equation by a continuous spectrum. It is shown that the two corrections approximately cancel.
Quantum shock waves in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Propagation of waves of a finite amplitude in a cold nuclear matter is investigated. It is found that in presence of nonlinear terms in the equations of the Fermi liquid solitary wave solutions arise, the solitons. It is shown that with account of dissipative effects these solutions aquire the shape of quantum shock waves, that deviate substantially from the known hydrodynamical solutions. Possibility to observe the soliton states in collisions of heavy nuclei is discussed
Neutron-Proton Mass Difference in Nuclear Matter and in Finite Nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly
Yakhshiev U.T.; Wirzba A.; Rakhimov A.M.; Meißner U.-G.
2009-01-01
The neutron-proton mass difference in (isospin asymmetric) nuclear matter and finite nuclei is studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The proposed effective Lagrangian incorporates both the medium influence of the surrounding nuclear environment on the single nucleon properties and an explicit isospin-breaking effect in the mesonic sector. Energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels are included as well. The...
Controllable Asymmetric Matter-wave Beam Splitter and Ring Potential on an Atom Chip
Kim, S J; Gang, S T; Anderson, D; Kim, J B
2015-01-01
We have constructed an asymmetric matter-wave beam splitter and a ring potential on an atom chip with Bose-Einstein condensates using radio-frequency dressing. By applying rf-field parallel to the quantization axis in the vicinity of the static trap minima added to perpendicular rf-fields, versatile controllability on the potentials is realized. Asymmetry of the rf-induced double well is manipulated without discernible displacement of the each well along horizontal and vertical direction. Formation of an isotropic ring potential on an atom chip is achieved by compensating the gradient due to gravity and inhomogeneous coupling strength. In addition, position and rotation velocity of a BEC along the ring geometry are controlled by the relative phase and the frequency difference between the rf-fields, respectively.
Charge-dependent directed flow in asymmetric nuclear collisions
Voronyuk, V; Voloshin, S A; Cassing, W
2014-01-01
The directed flow of identified hadrons is studied within the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) approach for the asymmetric system Cu+Au in non-central collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. It is emphasized that due to the difference in the number of protons of the colliding nuclei an electric field emerges which is directed from the heavy to the light nucleus. This strong electric field is only present for about 0.25 fm/c at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and leads to a splitting of the directed flow $v_1$ for particles with the same mass but opposite electric charges in case of an early presence of charged quarks and antiquarks. The microscopic calculations of the directed flow for $\\pi^\\pm, K^\\pm, p$ and $\\bar{p}$ are carried out in the PHSD by taking into account the electromagnetic field induced by the spectators as well as its influence on the hadronic and partonic quasiparticle trajectories. It is shown that the splitting of the directed flow as a function of pseudorapidity $\\eta$ and in particular as...
The ? decay into 3? in asymmetric nuclear medium
Sakai, Shuntaro; Kunihiro, Teiji
2015-01-01
We explore how the ?-? ^0 mixing angle and the ? meson decay into ? ^{+ }? -? ^0 and 3? 0 are modified in the nuclear medium on the basis of the in-medium chiral effective theory with varying isospin asymmetry ?, where ? ? ? ? /? with ? ? =? _n-? _p and ? =? _n+ ? _p. We find that the larger the isospin asymmetry ? ? and the smaller the total density ?, the more enhanced the mixing angle. We show that the decay width in the nuclear medium has an additional density dependence that cannot be renormalized into that of the mixing angle: The additional term originates from the vertex proportional to a low-energy constant c_1, which only comes into play in the nuclear medium but not in free space. It turns out that the resultant density effect on the decay widths overwhelms that coming from the isospin asymmetry, and the higher the ?, the more enhanced the decay widths; the width for the ? ^{+ }? -? ^0 decay is enhanced by a factor of two to three at the normal density ? _0 with a minor increase due to ? ?, while that for the 3? ^0 decay shows only a small increase of around 10% even at ? _0. We mention the possible relevance of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry to the unexpected density effect on the decay widths in the nuclear medium.
History of the nuclear matter safety and control law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this text we give the history of the law creation on the control and safety of nuclear matter. Initially based on the CEA regulation single owner of nuclear matter, the development of nuclear energy has conducted the French government to edict law in relation with IAEA and Euratom recommendations
Chiral quark dynamics in dense nuclear matter
Forkel, H
1995-01-01
We consider a new approach to the description of dense nuclear matter in the framework of chirally symmetric, quark-based hadron models. As previously in the Skyrme model, the dense environment is described in terms of hyperspherical cells of unit baryon number. The intrinsic curvature of these cells generates a new gauge interaction for the quark fields which mediates interactions with the ambient matter. We apply this approach to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, construct its curved-space quark propagator and solve the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the pion. We find a high-density phase transition to chiral restoration, discuss the density dependence of the chiral order parameter and of the pion properties, and compare with results of the conventional chemical-potential approach. The new approach can additionally describe baryon-density-free cavities in the dense medium.
Nuclear target effect on dark matter detection rate
Bednyakov, V. A.; Simkovic, F.
2005-01-01
Expected event rates for a number of dark matter nuclear targets were calculated in the effective low-energy minimal supersymmetric standard model, provided the lightest neutralino is the dark matter Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). These calculations allow direct comparison of sensitivities of different dark matter detectors to intermediate mass WIMPs expected from the measurements of the DArk MAtter (DAMA) experiment.
The $\\eta$ decay into 3$\\pi$ in asymmetric nuclear medium
Sakai, Shuntaro
2015-01-01
We explore how the $\\eta$-$\\pi^0$ mixing angle and the $\\eta$ meson decay into $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^0$ and 3$\\pi^{0}$ are modified in the nuclear medium on the basis of the in-medium chiral effective theory with the isospin asymmetry $\\alpha$ varied, where $\\alpha\\equiv \\delta\\rho/\\rho$ with $\\delta \\rho=\\rho_n-\\rho_p$ and $\\rho=\\rho_n+\\rho_p$. We find that the larger the isospin asymmetry $\\delta \\rho$ and smaller the total density $\\rho$, the more enhanced the mixing angle. We show that the decay width in the nuclear medium has an additional density dependence which cannot be renormalized into that of the mixing angle: The additional term originates from the vertex proportional to a low energy constant $c_1$, which only comes into play in the nuclear medium but not in the free space. It turns out that the resultant density effect on the decay widths overwhelms that coming from the isospin asymmetry, and the higher the $\\rho$, the more enhanced the decay widths; the width for the $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^0$ decay is...
Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E4 diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, Sxyz(r12, r13, r23), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E4 diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid 3He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid 3He and Bethe's hluding liquid 3He and Bethe's homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v14 interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density
Nuclear interaction rates for dark matter detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I describe nuclear shell model calculations of the spin-dependent elastic cross sections of supersymmetric particles on the nuclei 73Ge and 29Si, which are being used in the construction of dark matter detectors. To check the accuracy of the wave functions I have calculated excited state energy spectra, magnetic moments, and spectroscopic factors for each of the nuclei. Our results differ significantly from previous estimates based upon the independent single particle shell model and the odd group model. I at% discuss the modifications that occur when finite momentum transfer between the neutralino and nucleus is included
The collective modes in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Landau parameters are calculated for a finite range density dependent force (Gogny's force D1). In application, the longitudinal modes of propagation are dealt with, in the four available channels (S = 0 T = 0, S = 1 T= 0, S = 0 T = 1 and S = 1 T = 1) in the nuclear matter. The force offers considerable advantages compared to the zero-range forces of the Skyrme type. No instabilities appear in any channel and the Landau parameters deduced from the force D1 well reproduce some previous microscopic calculations with Reid soft core potential G-matrix. Moreover, the forward-scattering amplitude sum rule is satisfied with a very good accuracy
Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dupre, Raphael [IPN Orsay; et. al.,
2015-05-01
Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.
Brueckner-Bethe calculations of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The calculations described here are based on the following model. The nucleus is treated as a collection of point nucleons that obey the nonrelativistic Schroedinger equation and interact through a 2-body potential. The potential has a one-pion-exchange tail, and in some cases additional constraints based on theory are imposed. Typical potentials of interest are Hamada-Johnston, Reid, Paris, and Bonn. The basic question is whether these potentials can account for the saturation properties of nuclei and nuclear matter. (orig./HSI)
Stability of nuclear matter against neutral pion condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The global stability of the uniform ground state of nuclear matter is tested relative to a ?0-condensed state characterized by static spin-(isospin-)waves. Strong nuclear correlations are introduced into the trial wave functions for each phase, thereby permitting models of the realistic two-nucleon force to be employed. In low cluster-order comparison, the uniform phases of symmetrical nuclear matter and neutron matter are emphatically favored over the entire density range considered. (orig.)
The few scales of nuclei and nuclear matter
Delfino, A; Frederico, T; Timoteo, V. S.; Tomio, Lauro
2007-01-01
The well-known correlations of low-energy three and four-nucleon observables with a typical three-nucleon scale (e.g., the Tjon line) is extended to light nuclei and nuclear matter. Evidence for the scaling between light nuclei binding energies and the triton one are pointed out. We argue that the saturation energy and density of nuclear matter are correlated to the triton binding energy. The available systematic nuclear matter calculations indicate a possible band structure...
Recent Advances in Microscopic Approaches to Nuclear Matter and Symmetry Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Sammarruca
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Nuclear matter is a convenient theoretical laboratory to test many-body theories. When neutron and proton densities are different, the isospin dependence of the nuclear force gives rise to the symmetry energy term in the equation of state. This quantity is a crucial mechanism in the formation of the neutron skin in nuclei, as well as in other systems and phenomena involved in the dynamics of neutrons and protons in neutron-rich systems, such as isospin-asymmetric heavy-ion collisions. In this article, we will review phenomenological facts about the symmetry energy and recent experimental efforts to constrain its density dependence and related quantities. We will then review our microscopic approach to the equation of state of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and present a corresponding set of predictions. Our calculations utilize the Dirac–Brueckner–Hartree–Fock method and realistic meson-theoretic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Chiral perturbation theory is an alternative approach, based on a well-defined scheme, which allows one to develop nuclear forces at each order of the chiral expansion. We will present and discuss predictions based on chiral perturbation theory, where we employ consistent two- and three-body chiral interactions. Throughout the article, one of the focal points is the importance of pursuing ab initio methods towards a deeper understanding of the many-body system.
Incomprehensibility in finite nuclei and nuclear matter
Stone, J R; Moszkowski, S A
2014-01-01
The incompressibility (compression modulus) $K_{\\rm 0}$ of infinite symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density has become one of the major constraints on mean-field models of nuclear many-body systems as well as of models of high density matter in astrophysical objects and heavy-ion collisions. We present a comprehensive re-analysis of recent data on GMR energies in even-even $^{\\rm 112-124}$Sn and $^{\\rm 106,100-116}$Cd and earlier data on 58 $\\le$ A $\\le$ 208 nuclei. The incompressibility of finite nuclei $K_{\\rm A}$ is expressed as a leptodermous expansion with volume, surface, isospin and Coulomb coefficients $K_{\\rm vol}$, $K_{\\rm surf}$, $K_\\tau$ and $K_{\\rm coul}$. \\textit{Assuming} that the volume coefficient $K_{\\rm vol}$ is identified with $K_{\\rm 0}$, the $K_{\\rm coul}$ = -(5.2 $\\pm$ 0.7) MeV and the contribution from the curvature term K$_{\\rm curv}$A$^{\\rm -2/3}$ in the expansion is neglected, compelling evidence is found for $K_{\\rm 0}$ to be in the range 250 $ < K_{\\rm 0} < $ 315 MeV,...
Particle-hole states in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work deals with the collective excitations in nuclear matter, from the point of view of the TDA approximation. Our calculations involved the construction of a Hamiltonian, expressed as a matrix in the space of particle-hole excitations with a given momentum transfer. We used in this Hamiltonian an average single nucleon potential, and (in some cases) an effective interaction obtained for the potential HEA in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree Fock theory. The eigenvectors of the TDA-Hamiltonian were used to compute the strength of the collective response of nuclear matter to external probes. Our results, succinctly described in the last section, are summarized in a set of figures at the end of this monograph. The specific form of the TDA equations that we used, and the procedure to calculate the degree of collectivity of the solutions, is studied in detail in the fifth chapter. A derivation of the TDA equations, and a discussion of the solutions for a separable potential, is given in the fourth chapter. The structure of a non-relativistic potential for a system of two nucleons is examined in the third chapter, in several representations. On the other hand, the particle-hole states relevant to our discussions on the TDA equations are introduced in the first two chapters
Hirschegg '95: Dynamical properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The following topics were dealt with: Chiral symmetry, chiral condensates, in-medium effective chiral Lagrangians, ?'s in nuclei, nonperturbative QCD, electron scattering from nuclear matter, nuclear shadowing, QCD sum rules, deconfinement, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, nuclear dimuon and electron pair production, photoproduction from nuclei, subthreshold K+ production, kaon polarization in nuclear matter, charged pion production in relativistic heavy ion collisions, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the SU(3)LxSU(3)R sigma model, nonequilibrium dense nuclear matter, pion pair production at finite temperature. (HSI)
Quark distributions in nuclear matter and the EMC effect
Mineo, H.; Bentz, W.; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A. W.; Yazaki, K.
2003-01-01
Quark light cone momentum distributions in nuclear matter and the structure function of a bound nucleon are investigated in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This framework describes the nucleon as a relativistic quark-diquark state, and the nuclear matter equation of state by using the mean field approximation. The scalar and vector mean fields in the nuclear medium couple to the quarks in the nucleon and their effect on the spin independent nuclear structure f...
Chiral Fermi liquid description of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We employ Landau's theory of normal Fermi liquids to study the bulk properties of nuclear matter with high-precision two- and three-nucleon interactions derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. The L=0,1 Landau parameters, characterizing the isotropic and p-wave interaction between two quasiparticles on the Fermi surface, are computed to second order in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) with chiral and low-momentum two-nucleon forces. Already at this order a number of observables are well described in the theory, including the nuclear isospin asymmetry energy, the quasiparticle effective mass and the spin-isospin response. An adequate description of the nuclear compression modulus (encoded in the Landau parameter F0) requires the inclusion of the leading-order (N2LO) chiral three-nucleon force, which we include to first order in MBPT. The remaining L=0 Landau parameters receive only small corrections from the chiral three-nucleon force, and the L=1 parameters are all reduced, resulting in an effective interaction of apparent short range. We then employ renormalization group techniques to study the scale dependence of the quasiparticle interaction, which allows for an estimation of theoretical uncertainties.
Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon
Petraki, Kalliopi; Kusenko, Alexander
2014-01-01
Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently l...
Hadron-quark phase transition in asymmetric matter with dynamical quark masses
Shao, G Y; Liu, B; Colonna, M; Greco, V; Liu, Y X; Plumari, S
2011-01-01
The two-Equation of State (EoS) model is used to describe the hadron-quark phase transition in asymmetric matter formed at high density in heavy-ion collisions. For the quark phase, the three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) effective theory is used to investigate the influence of dynamical quark mass effects on the phase transition. At variance to the MIT-Bag results, with fixed current quark masses, the main important effect of the chiral dynamics is the appearance of an End-Point for the coexistence zone. We show that a first order hadron-quark phase transition may take place in the region T=(50-80)MeV and \\rho_B=(2-4)\\rho_0, which is possible to be probed in the new planned facilities, such as FAIR at GSI-Darmstadt and NICA at JINR-Dubna. From isospin properties of the mixed phase somepossible signals are suggested. The importance of chiral symmetry and dynamical quark mass on the hadron-quark phase transition is stressed. The difficulty of an exact location of Critical-End-Point comes from its appearance...
Heavy Vector and Axial-Vector Mesons in Asymmetric Strange Hadronic Matter
Kumar, Arvind
2015-01-01
We calculate the effects of finite density of isospin asymmetric strange hadronic matter, for different strangeness fractions, on the in-medium properties of vector $\\left( D^{\\ast}, D_{s}^{\\ast}, B^{\\ast}, B_{s}^{\\ast}\\right)$ and axial-vector $\\left( D_{1}, D_{1s}, B_{1}, B_{1s}\\right)$ mesons using chiral hadronic SU(3) model and QCD sum rules. We focus on the evaluation of in-medium mass-shift and shift of decay constant of above vector and axial vector mesons. In QCD sum rule approach the properties e.g. masses and decay constants of vector and axial vector mesons are written in terms of quark and gluon condensates. These quarks and gluon condensates are evaluated in the present work using chiral SU(3) model through the medium modification of scalar-isoscalar fields $\\sigma$ and $\\zeta$, the scalar-isovector field $\\delta$ and scalar dilaton field $\\chi$ in strange hadronic medium which includes both nucleons as well as hyperons. As we shall see in detail the masses and decay constants of heavy vector an...
Cluster virial expansion for quark and nuclear matter
Blaschke, David
2015-01-01
We employ the $\\Phi-$ derivable approach to many particle systems with strong correlations that can lead to the formation of bound states (clusters) of different size. We define a generic form of $\\Phi-$ functionals that is fully equivalent to a selfconsistent cluster virial expansion up to the second virial coefficient for interactions among the clusters. As examples we consider nuclei in nuclear matter and hadrons in quark matter, with particular attention to the case of the deuterons in nuclear matter and mesons in quark matter. We derive a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck equation of state, where the quasiparticle virial expansion is extended to include arbitrary clusters. The approach is applicable to nonrelativistic potential models of nuclear matter as well as to relativistic field theoretic models of quark matter. It is particularly suited for a description of cluster formation and dissociation in hot, dense matter.
A finite nucleon extended volume model for nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the effects of a finite volume extension for nucleons immersed in nuclear matter. We wish in this way to explore the role played by this non-vanishing (but fixed) volume in shaping nuclear matter properties, in contrast with other models of nuclear physics in which nucleons are treated as point-like particles. We introduce a model characterized by an exclusion volume a la Van der Waals, as well as an effective non-relativistic approximation to model meson-exchange interactions between nucleons. The model is consistent with experimental values of saturation density and binding energy of nuclear matter in the domain of typical densities for neutron stars. (author)
Saturation Properties of Nuclear Matter with a Nonlocal Confining Solitons
Johnson, Charles W.; Fai, George
1998-01-01
We examine saturation properties of a quark-based picture of nuclear matter. Soliton matter consisting of nonlocal confining solitons is used to model nuclear matter. Each composite nucleon is described by a non-topological soliton as given by the Global Color Model. We apply techniques and concepts from the discription of crystal lattices. In particular, the Wigner-Seitz approximation is used to calculate the properties of the soliton lattice at the mean-field level. We foc...
A fermionic molecular dynamics technique to model nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: At sub-nuclear densities of about 1014 g/cm3, nuclear matter arranges itself in a variety of complex shapes. This can be the case in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae. These slab like and rod like structures, designated as nuclear pasta, have been modelled with classical molecular dynamics techniques. We present a technique, based on fermionic molecular dynamics, to model nuclear matter at sub-nuclear densities in a semi classical framework. The dynamical evolution of an antisymmetric ground state is described making the assumption of periodic boundary conditions. Adding the concepts of antisymmetry, spin and probability distributions to classical molecular dynamics, brings the dynamical description of nuclear matter to a quantum mechanical level. Applications of this model vary from investigation of macroscopic observables and the equation of state to the study of fundamental interactions on the microscopic structure of the matter. (author)
Current state of nuclear matter calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The current state of nuclear matter calculations is described with special reference to the present disagreement between the variational and Brueckner--Bethe methods. The system is assumed to consist of point nucleons with a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian containing the kinetic energy and two-body potentials. The physical ideas of the variational method, especially of its hypernetted-chain version, and of the Brueckner: Bethe method are outlined. Practical ways of testing the validity of these mehtods are discussed and are illustrated by numerical results taken from the literature. It is found for central forces that the hypernetted-chain variational method, if properly used, gives reliable upper bounds to the ground-state energy. Lowest-order Brueckner--Bethe results lie well above these upper bounds, and it is both important and feasible to check whether higher-order corrections will bring the Brueckner--Bethe results into agreement with the variational ones. For realistic nuclear potentials, which have tensor forces, spin--orbit forces, etc., the situation is much less clear. An adequate calculation has not yet been done by either the variational or Brueckner--Bethe method. For the Reid potential, with the presently available numerical results, the variational calculation predicts a much higher saturation density than the Brueckner--Bethe calculation. Feasible calculations that will help to resolve this discrepancy are discusseded
Kaon Condensation and the Non-Uniform Nuclear Matter
Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Voskresensky, Dmitri N.; Tanigawa, Tomonori; Chiba, Satoshi
2003-01-01
Non-uniform structures of nuclear matter are studied in a wide density-range. Using the density functional theory with a relativistic mean-field model, we examine non-uniform structures at sub-nuclear densities (nuclear ``pastas'') and at high densities, where kaon condensate is expected. We try to give a unified view about the change of the matter structure as density increases, carefully taking into account the Coulomb screening effects from the viewpoint of first-order ph...
Cherenkov and Fano effects at the origin of asymmetric vector mesons in nuclear media
Dremin, I M
2015-01-01
It is argued that the experimentally observed phenomenon of asymmetric vector mesons produced in nuclear media during high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained as Cherenkov and Fano effects. The mass distributions of lepton pairs created at meson decays decline from the traditional Breit-Wigner shape in the low-mass wing of the resonance. That is explained by the positive real part of the amplitude in this wing for classic Cherenkov treatment and further detalized in quantum mechanics as the interference of direct and continuum states in Fano effect. The corresponding parameters are found from the comparison with rho-meson data and admit reasonable explanation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H. [Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
1998-06-01
Nuclear matter and ground state properties for (proton and neutron) semi-closed shell nuclei are described in relativistic mean field theory with coupling constants which depend on the vector density. The parametrization of the density dependence for {sigma}-, {omega}- and {rho}-mesons is obtained by fitting to properties of nuclear matter and some finite nuclei. The equation of state for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Finite nuclei are described in Hartree approximation, including a charge and an improved center-of-mass correction. Pairing is considered in the BCS approximation. Special attention is directed to the predictions for properties at the neutron and proton driplines, e.g. for separation energies, spin-orbit splittings and density distributions. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ducoin, C
2006-10-15
Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)
Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon
Petraki, Kalliopi; Pearce, Lauren; Kusenko, Alexander
2014-07-01
Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds.
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing MT2 to Asymmetric Event Topologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem MT2 variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different 'children' particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint MT2(max) of the MT2 distribution now gives the mass (tilde M)p((tilde M)c(a), (tilde M)c(b)) of the parent particles as a function of two input children masses (tilde M)c(a) and (tilde M)c(b). We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum PUTM the corresponding function (tilde M)p((tilde M)c(a), (tilde M)c(b), PUTM) is independent of PUTM at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 'kink' is now generalized to a 'ridge' on the 2-dimensional surface (tilde M)p((tilde M)c(a), (tilde M)c(b)). As we show in several examples, quite often there is a special point along that ridge which marks the true values of the ridge which marks the true values of the children masses. Our results allow collider experiments to probe a multi-component dark matter sector directly and without any theoretical prejudice.
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing M(T2) to Asymmetric Event Topologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.
2012-04-03
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem M{sub T2} variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different 'children' particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint M{sub T2(max)} of the M{sub T2} distribution now gives the mass {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}) of the parent particles as a function of two input children masses {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)} and {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}. We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses M{sub c}{sup (a)} and M{sub c}{sup (b)}. First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum PUTM the corresponding function {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}, P{sub UTM}) is independent of P{sub UTM} at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 'kink' is now generalized to a 'ridge' on the 2-dimensional surface {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}). As we show in several examples, quite often there is a special point along that ridge which marks the true values of the children masses. Our results allow collider experiments to probe a multi-component dark matter sector directly and without any theoretical prejudice.
Antikaons in infinite nuclear matter and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we studied the properties of antikaons and hyperons in infinite cold nuclear matter. The in-medium antikaon-nucleon scattering amplitude and self-energy has been calculated within a covariant many-body framework in the first part. Nuclear saturation effects have been taken into account in terms of scalar and vector nucleon mean-fields. In the second part of the work we introduced a non-local method for the description of kaonic atoms. The many-body approach of anti KN scattering can be tested by the application to kaonic atoms. A self-consistent and covariant many-body approach has been used for the determination of the antikaon spectral function and anti KN scattering amplitudes. It considers s-, p- and d-waves and the application of an in-medium projector algebra accounts for proper mixing of partial waves in the medium. The on-shell reduction scheme is also implemented by means of the projector algebra. The Bethe-Salpeter equation has been rewritten, so that the free-space anti KN scattering can be used as the interaction kernel for the in-medium scattering equation. The latter free-space scattering is based on a realistic coupled-channel dynamics and chiral SU(3) Lagrangian. Our many-body approach is generalized for the presence of large scalar and vector nucleon mean-fields. It is supplemented by an improved renormalization scheme, that systematically avoids the occurrence of medium-induced power-divergent structures and kinematical singularities. A modified projector basis has been introduced, that allows for a convenient inclusion of nucleon mean-fields. The description of the results in terms of the 'physical' basis is done with the help of a recoupling scheme based on the projector algebra properties. (orig.)
Properties of the ?-meson in dense nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of ?-mesons in dense nuclear matter are studied in a model which satisfies unitarity and current conservation. The important coupling of the ?-meson to two pions as well as the strong mixing of pions and delta-nucleon-hole states in nuclear matter are included. The ?-meson self energy in nuclear matter is evaluated with in-medium pion propagators and the corresponding vertex corrections required by current conservation. We find that the ?-meson width grows drastically with increasing density while its mass remains almost unchanged. (orig.)
Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach
Lawley, S.; Bentz, W.; Thomas, A. W.
2006-01-01
We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.
Strangeness and Charm in Nuclear Matter
Tolos, Laura; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis
2012-01-01
The properties of strange ($K$, $\\bar K$ and $\\bar K^*$) and open-charm ($D$, $\\bar D$ and $D^*$) mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary approach in coupled channels for meson-baryon scattering. In the strangeness sector, the interaction with nucleons always comes through vector-meson exchange, which is evaluated by chiral and hidden gauge Lagrangians. For the interaction of charmed mesons with nucleons we extend the SU(3) Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian to incorporate spin-flavor symmetry and implement a suitable flavor symmetry breaking. The in-medium solution for the scattering amplitude accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies. On one hand, we obtain the $K$, $\\bar K$ and $\\bar K^*$ spectral functions in the nuclear medium and study their behaviour at finite density, temperature and momentum. We also make an estimate of the transparency ratio of the $\\gamma A \\to K^+ K^{*-} A^\\prime$ reaction, which we propose as a tool to detect in-medium modifications of the $\\bar K^*$ meson....
Kaons in nuclear matter; Kaonen in Kernmaterie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolomeitsev, E.E.
1997-02-01
The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung der Eigenschaften von Kao nen in Kernmaterie. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, di e Kaon- Nukleon- Wechselwirkung und Kaon- Nukleon- Streuung im Vakuumzu beschreiben. Die Hauptherausforderung bestand darin, dass die abgel eiteten Relationen ausserhalb der Kaonen- Massenschale anwendbar werde n. Eine Nebenforderung war, dass die vorgeschlagenen Verfahren moeglic hst modell- unabhaengig sind. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, wurden Redu ktionsformeln, Stromalgebra- Relationen und die PCAC- Hypothese angewe ndet.
Skyrme-Hartree-Fock plus tensor correction for nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the equation of states of symmetric and pure neutron matter in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) model with tensor corrections. We are aware now that the pion exchange interaction has a significant contribution to nuclear structure in light nuclei. The pion generates a strong tensor interaction between two nucleons, which cannot be treated within the Hartree-Fock framework for the spin-saturated system such as homogeneous nuclear matter. Therefore, we study the role of the tensor interaction based on the SHF model, in which we extend it by explicitly introducing two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) excitations for the treatment of the tensor interaction in symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. We are able to describe infinite matter very well using the SHF model with tensor corrections. We also discuss the connection between the symmetry energy and the tensor interaction in this framework. (author)
Skyrme-Hartree-Fock plus Tensor Correction for Nuclear Matter
Wang, Y.; Hu, J.; Toki, H.; Shen, H.
2012-04-01
We study the equation of states of symmetric and pure neutron matter in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) model with tensor corrections. We are aware now that the pion exchange interaction has a significant contribution to nuclear structure in light nuclei. The pion generates a strong tensor interaction between two nucleons, which cannot be treated within the Hartree-Fock framework for the spin-saturated system such as homogeneous nuclear matter. Therefore, we study the role of the tensor interaction based on the SHF model, in which we extend it by explicitly introducing two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) excitations for the treatment of the tensor interaction in symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. We are able to describe infinite matter very well using the SHF model with tensor corrections. We also discuss the connection between the symmetry energy and the tensor interaction in this framework.
Leptonic contribution to the bulk viscosity of nuclear matter
Alford, Mark G
2010-01-01
For beta-equilibrated nuclear matter we estimate the contribution to the bulk viscosity from purely leptonic processes, namely the conversion of electrons to and from muons. For oscillation frequencies in the kiloHertz range, we find that this process provides the dominant contribution to the bulk viscosity when the temperature is well below the critical temperature for superconductivity or superfluidity of the nuclear matter.
Dense nuclear matter in a strong magnetic field
Chakrabarty, Somenath; Bandyopadhyay, Debades; Pal, Subrata
1997-01-01
We investigate in a relativistic Hartree theory the gross properties of cold symmetric nuclear matter and nuclear matter in beta equilibrium under the influence of strong magnetic fields. If the field strengths are above the critical values for electrons and protons, the respective phase spaces are strongly modified. This results in additional binding of the systems with distinctively softer equations of state compared to the field free cases. For magnetic field $\\sim 10^{20...
A contribution to phenomenology of phase transitions in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A review is given on the phenomenology of phase transitions in nuclear matter and neutron matter. We deal with (1) the liquid-gas transition in expanding nuclear systems and collapsing stellar cores, (2) the pion condensation in neutron stars and the direct pion emission in relativistic heavy ion collisions and (3) the deconfinement transition in neutron stars, in the early universe and in the compression/expansion stage of heavy ion reactions. (author)
Properties of Pairing Correlations in Infinite Nuclear Matter
Elgaroy, O.; Hjorth-jensen, M.
1997-01-01
We discuss various properties of singlet S pairing in neutron and nuclear matter in terms of the bare nuclon-nucleon interaction. Relations to the NN phase shifts are discussed, as well as various properties of the BCS wave function and the coherence length for fermion superfluids in infinite matter.
Many-body theory of nuclear and neutron star matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pandharipande, V.R.; Akmal, A.; Ravenhall, D.G. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
1998-06-01
We present results obtained for nuclei, nuclear and neutron star matter, and neutron star structure obtained with the recent Argonne v{sub 18} two- nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions including relativistic boost corrections. These interactions predict that matter will undergo a transition to a spin layered phase with neutral pion condensation. We also consider the possibility of a transition to quark matter. (orig.)
Many-body theory of nuclear and neutron star matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present results obtained for nuclei, nuclear and neutron star matter, and neutron star structure obtained with the recent Argonne v18 two- nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions including relativistic boost corrections. These interactions predict that matter will undergo a transition to a spin layered phase with neutral pion condensation. We also consider the possibility of a transition to quark matter. (orig.)
Nuclear incompressibility: from finite nuclei to nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recent increase of experimental data concerning the Giant Monopole Resonance Energy Esub(M) gives information on the incompressibility modulus of nuclear matter, provided one can extrapolate the incompressibility of a nucleus Ksub(A) defined by Esub(M)=[h2/m KA/2>]sup(1/2), to the infinite medium. We discuss the theoretical interpretation of the coefficients of an Asup(-1/3) - expansion of Ksub(A) by studying the asymptotic behaviour of two RPA sum rules (corresponding to the scaling and the constrained model), evaluated using self-consistent Thomas-Fermi calculations. We show that the scaling model is the most suitable one as it leads to a rapidly converging Asup(-1/3)-expansion of the corresponding incompressibility Ksub(A)sup(S), whereas this is not the case with the constrained model. Some semi-empirical relations between the coefficients of the expansion of Ksub(A)sup(S) are established, which reduce to one the number of free-parameters in a best fit analysis of the experimental data. This reduction is essential due to the still limited number and accuracy of experimental data. We then show the compatibility of the data given by the various experimental groups with this parametrization and obtain a value of Ksub(nm)=220+-20 MeV, in good agreement with more microscopic analysis
The role of meson dynamics in nuclear matter saturation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of the saturation of nuclea matter in the non-relativistic limit of the model proposed by J.D. Walecka is studied. In the original context nuclear matter saturation is obtained as a direct consequence of relativistic effects and both scalar and vector mesons are treated statically. In the present work we investigate the effect of the meson dynamics for the saturation using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the ground state. An upper limit for the saturation curve of nuclear matter and are able to decide now essential is the relativistic treatment of the nucleons for this problem, is obtained. (author)
Low density nuclear matter in effective ?eld theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saviankou P.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The two- and three-nucleon interaction derived in chiral e?ective ?eld theory is used to obtain the binding energy of nuclear matter for small densities at next-to-leading (NLO and next-to-next-to-leading orders (N2LO. The order N2LO is not yet su?cient to push the range of validity of the expansion beyond the empirical Fermi momentum of nuclear matter. A phenomenological extension of the interaction suggests that both e?ective three- and four-nucleon interactions are required for a description of the bulk properties of nuclear mater.
Reassessing nuclear matter incompressibility and its density dependence
De, J N; Agrawal, B K
2015-01-01
Experimental giant monopole resonance energies are now known to constrain nuclear incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter $K$ and its density slope $M$ at a particular value of sub-saturation density, the crossing density $\\rho_c$. Consistent with these constraints, we propose a reasonable way to construct a plausible equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter in a broad density region around the saturation density $\\rho_0$. Help of two additional empirical inputs, the value of $\\rho_0$ and that of the energy per nucleon $e(\\rho_0)$ are needed. The value of $K(\\rho_0)$ comes out to be $211.9\\pm 24.5$ MeV.
From holography towards real-world nuclear matter
Li, Si-wen; Wang, Qun
2015-01-01
Quantum chromodynamics is notoriously difficult to solve at nonzero baryon density, and most models or effective theories of dense quark or nuclear matter are restricted to a particular density regime and/or a particular form of matter. Here we study dense (and mostly cold) matter within the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model, aiming at a strong-coupling framework in the wide density range between nuclear saturation density and ultra-high quark matter densities. The model contains only three parameters, and we ask whether it fulfills two basic requirements of real-world cold and dense matter, a first-order onset of nuclear matter and a chiral phase transition at high density to quark matter. Such a model would be extremely useful for astrophysical applications because it would provide a single equation of state for all densities relevant in a compact star. Our calculations are based on two approximations for baryonic matter, firstly an instanton gas and secondly a homogeneous ansatz for the non-abelian gauge fi...
From quantum to semiclassical kinetic equations: Nuclear matter estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from the exact microscopic time evolution of the quantum one body density associated with a many fermion system semiclassical approximations are derived to it. In the limit where small momentum transfer two body collisions are dominant we get a Fokker-Planck equation and work out friction and diffusion tensors explicitly for nuclear matter. If arbitrary momentum transfers are considered a Boltzmann equation is derived and used to calculate the viscosity coefficient of nuclear matter. A derivation is given of the collision term used by Landau to describe the damping of zero sound waves at low temperature in Plasmas. Memory effects are essential for this. The damping of zero sound waves in nuclear matter is also calculated and the value so obtained associated with the bulk value of the damping of giant resonances in finite nuclei. The bulk value is estimated to be quite small indicating the importance of the nuclear surface for the damping. (Author)
The thermal curve of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Earlier measurements of nuclear matter thermal curve of liquid to gas phase transition presented two limitation: only one temperature measuring method was available and the mass number of the formed nuclei decreased from 190 to 50 when the excitation energy increased. To avoid these limitations experiments with the multidetector INDRA at GANIL were carried-out. Among the quasi-projectiles issued from the 36Ar collisions at 52, 74, 95 A.MeV on the 58Ni, nuclei of close masses were selected. The excitation energy was determined by the calorimetry of the charged products emitted by quasi-projectiles while the temperature was measured by three different methods. Very different apparent temperatures were obtained for the same excitation energy/nucleon. Only one curve displays a slope variation but no indication of plateau. With the quasi-projectiles obtained from the collisions of 129Xe at 50 MeV/u on a 119Sn target behaviors similar to those of 36Ar were observed in the covered domain of excitation energy. To solve this puzzle and recover the initial temperatures of interest the only mean was to do a theoretical simulation in which one follows the de-excitation of the nuclei formed at different excitation energies and look for the thermal curve able to reproduce the observed temperatures. Two extreme possibilities were taken into account concerning the de-excitation process: either a sequential process established at E*/A? 3 MeV/u or a sudden multifragmentation in several hot fragments, most probably at E*/A? 10 MeV/u. In both cases it was possible to reproduce the whole set of experimental results concerning the 36Ar projectile. The initial temperature increases steadily as a function of excitation energy showing no plateau or singular points. The results indicate that, being a system without external pressure, in its passage from the liquid phase to the gas phase the nucleus does not display necessarily a temperature plateau. Discussions on interpretation of these results are under way
Simulations of cold nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giménez Molinelli, P.A., E-mail: pagm@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Nichols, J.I. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); López, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Dorso, C.O. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)
2014-03-01
Ideal nuclear matter is expected to undergo a first order phase transition at the thermodynamic limit. At such phase transitions the size of density fluctuations (bubbles or droplets) scale with the size of the system. This means that simulations of nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities will inexorably suffer from what is vaguely referred to as “finite size effects”. It is usually thought that these finite size effects can be diminished by imposing periodic boundary conditions and making the system large enough, but as we show in this work, that is actually not the case at sub-saturation densities. In this paper we analyze the equilibrium configurations of molecular dynamics simulations of a classical model for symmetric ideal (uncharged) nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities and low temperatures, where phase coexistence is expected at the thermodynamic limit. We show that the most stable configurations in this density range are almost completely determined by artificial aspects of the simulations (i.e. boundary conditions) and can be predicted analytically by surface minimization. This result is very general and is shown to hold true for several well known semi-classical models of nuclear interaction and even for a simple Lennard-Jones potential. Also, in the limit of very large systems, when “small size” effects can be neglected, those equilibrium configurations seem to be restricted to a few structures reminiscent to the “Pasta Phases” expected in Neutron Star matter, but arising from a completely different origin: In Neutron Star matter, the non-homogeneous structures arise from a competition between nuclear and Coulomb interactions while for ideal nuclear matter they emerge from finite (yet not “small”) size effects. The role of periodic boundary conditions and finite size effects in Neutron Star matter simulations are reexamined.
Binding energy per nucleon and hadron properties in nuclear matter
Yakhshiev, Ulugbek
2010-01-01
We investigate the binding energy per nucleon and hadron properties in infinite and homogeneous nuclear matter within the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. We first consider the medium modifications of the single hadron properties by introducing the optical potential for pion fields into the original Lagrangian of the Skyrme model. The parameters of the optical potential are well fitted to the low-energy phenomenology of pion-nucleus scattering. Furthermore, the Skyrme term is also modified in such a way that the model reproduces bulk properties of nuclear matter, in particular, the binding energy per nucleon. The present approach is self-consistent: the single hadron properties in a nuclear medium, their effective in-medium interactions, and the bulk matter properties are treated on the same footing.
On growth of spinodal instabilities in nuclear matter
Yilmaz, O; Acar, F; Gokalp, A
2015-01-01
Early growth of density fluctuations of nuclear matter in spinodal region is investigated employing the stochastic mean-field approach. In contrast to the earlier treatments in which only collective modes were included in the calculations, in the present work non-collective modes are also included, thus providing a complete treatment of the density correlation functions. Calculations are carried out for symmetric matter in non-relativistic framework using a semi-classical approximation.
The modification of the scalar field in dense nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show the possible evolution of the nuclear deep inelastic structure function with nuclear density ?. The nucleon deep inelastic structure function represents distribution of quarks as a function of Bjorken variable x, which measures the longitudinal fraction of the momentum carried by them during deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of electrons on nuclear targets. The quark localization is proportional to 1/x and this relation introduces the dependence of the nucleon structure function on the nuclear medium. Starting with small density and negative pressure in nuclear matter (NM), we have relatively large inter-nucleon distances and increasing role of nuclear interaction mediated by virtual mesons. When the density approaches the saturation point, ? = ?0, we have no longer separate mesons and nucleons but eventually modified nucleon structure function (SF) in the medium. The ratio of the nuclear to the nucleon SF measured at the saturation point is well known as the "EMC effect". For larger density, ? > ?0, when the localization of quarks is smaller than 0.3 fm, the nucleons overlap. We argue that nucleon mass should start to decrease in order to satisfy the momentum sum rule (MSR) of DIS. These modifications of the nucleon structure function are calculated in the frame of the nuclear relativistic mean field (RMF) convolution model. The correction to the Fermi energy from a term proportional to the pressure is very important and its inclusion modifies the equation of state (EoS) for the nuclear matter. (author)
Lectures notes on phase transformations in nuclear matter
López, Jorge A
2000-01-01
The atomic nucleus, despite of being one of the smallest objects found in nature, appears to be large enough to experience phase transitions. The book deals with the liquid and gaseous phases of nuclear matter, as well as with the experimental routes to achieve transformation between them.Theoretical models are introduced from the ground up and with increasing complexity to describe nuclear matter from a statistical and thermodynamical point of view. Modern critical phenomena, heavy ion collisions and computational techniques are presented while establishing a linkage to experimental data.The
Polarized nuclear matter using extended Seyler-Blanchard potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work the equation of state (EOS) is derived using three types of potentials for polarized nuclear matter. The potentials used are the extended Seyler-Blanchard (SB), modified Seyler-Blanchard (MSB) and the generalized Seyler-Blanchard (GSB) potentials. It is found that the equation of state derived using SB potential is a stiff EOS whereas the equations of state derived using MSB and GSB potentials are soft ones. The phase diagram for nuclear matter is also studied. The shapes are similar for the three potentials used but the critical temperatures are slightly different. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Binding energy per nucleon and hadron properties in nuclear matter
Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul
2011-03-01
We investigate the binding energy per nucleon and hadron properties in infinite and homogeneous nuclear matter within the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. We first consider the medium modifications of the single hadron properties by introducing the optical potential for pion fields into the original Lagrangian of the Skyrme model. The parameters of the optical potential are well fitted to the low-energy phenomenology of pion-nucleus scattering. Furthermore, the Skyrme term is also modified in such a way that the model reproduces the bulk properties of nuclear matter, in particular, the binding energy per nucleon.
Hot nuclear matter in the quark meson coupling model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study here hot nuclear matter in the quark meson coupling model which incorporates explicitly quark degrees of freedom, with quarks coupled to scalar and vector mesons. The equation of state of nuclear matter including the composite nature of the nucleons is calculated at finite temperatures. The calculations are done taking into account the medium-dependent bag constant. Nucleon properties at finite temperatures as calculated here are found to be appreciably different from the value at T=0. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Neutron-Proton Mass Difference in Nuclear Matter and in Finite Nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly
Meißner, U.-G.; Rakhimov, A. M.; Wirzba, A.; Yakhshiev, U. T.
2010-04-01
The neutron-proton mass difference in (isospin asymmetric) nuclear matter and finite nuclei is studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The proposed effective Lagrangian incorporates both the medium influence of the surrounding nuclear environment on the single nucleon properties and an explicit isospin-breaking effect in the mesonic sector. Energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels are included as well. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it markedly decreases in neutron matter. Furthermore, the possible interplay between the effective nucleon mass in finite nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is discussed. In particular, we find that a correct description of the properties of mirror nuclei leads to a stringent restriction of possible modifications of the nucleon's effective mass in nuclei.
Neutron-Proton Mass Difference in Nuclear Matter and in Finite Nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly
Meißner, Ulf-G; Wirzba, A; Yakhshiev, U T
2009-01-01
The neutron-proton mass difference in (isospin asymmetric) nuclear matter and finite nuclei is studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The proposed effective Lagrangian incorporates both the medium influence of the surrounding nuclear environment on the single nucleon properties and an explicit isospin-breaking effect in the mesonic sector. Energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels are included as well. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it markedly decreases in neutron matter. Furthermore, the possible interplay between the effective nucleon mass in finite nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is discussed. In particular, we find that a correct description of the properties of mirror nuclei leads to a stringent restriction of possible modifications of the nucleon's effective mass in nuclei.
Pion absorption in excited nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The target dependence and azimuthal correlations of protons and plons are investigated for pA reactions at 4.9, 60 and 200 GeV. The experimental observations can be understood qualitatively under the assumption that pions are absorbed in excited target spectator matter. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margueron, J
2001-07-01
We study the elementary interactions between neutrinos and dense matter in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme, Gogny, Relativistic Lagrangians) are first discussed. Then, we characterize their stability in spin and isospin. We derive magnetic susceptibilities for all isospin asymmetry values as a function of Landau parameters G{sup {pi}}{sup {pi}}{sup '}{sub 0} (where {pi}, {pi}' = proton or neutron). From this work, we select a parametrization for each of the 3 effective forces: Sly230b,D1P,NL3. We calculate the pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter response functions with and without charge exchange, describing nuclear correlations in both approaches: non-relativistic (Hartree-Fock with Skyrme forces, then complete RPA) and relativistic (in the Hartree approximation). At the end, we calculate neutrino mean free paths neutral current and charged current reactions. Comparisons between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches allow us to identify relativistic effects in nuclear matter at densities as low as twice the saturation density. RPA correlations make the medium more transparent to neutrinos compared to free Fermi gas. The importance of the effective mass in mean free path calculations is also shown. (author)
Nuclear matter equation of state with effects of excluded volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phenomenological mean field models of nuclear interactions are generalized to the case where the mean fields depend not only on density but also on temperature. As an application of general formalism we extend the Walecka model to account for hard core nuclear repulsion. The effects of this modification on the phase boundary between the hadron matter and the quark-gluon plasma and on main thermodynamic functions are considered
Exponential enhancement of nuclear reactions in condensed matter environment
Kuchiev, M. Yu.; Altshuler, B. L.; Flambaum, V. V.
2003-01-01
A mechanism that uses the environment to enhance the probability of the nuclear reaction when a beam of accelerated nuclei collides with a target nucleus implanted in condensed matter is suggested. The effect considered is exponentially large for low collision energies. For t + p collision the mechanism becomes effective when the energy of the projectile tritium is below $\\sim$ 1 Kev per nucleon. The gain in probability of the nuclear reaction is due to a redistribution of e...
Sammarruca, Francesca
2010-01-01
The understanding of the interaction of nucleons in nuclear and neutron-rich matter at non-zero temperature is important for a variety of applications ranging from heavy-ion collisions to nuclear astrophysics. In this papre we apply the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method along with the Bonn B potential to predict single-particle properties in symmetric nuclear matter and neutron-rich matter at finite temperature. It is found that temperature effects are generally small but ...
The Modification of the Scalar Field in dense Nuclear Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ro?ynek J.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We show the possible evolution of the nuclear deep inelastic structure function with nuclear density ?. The nucleon deep inelastic structure function represents distribution of quarks as function of Björken variable x which measures the longitudinal fraction of momentum carried by them during the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS of electrons on nuclear targets. Starting with small density and negative pressure in Nuclear Matter (NM we have relatively large inter-nucleon distances and increasing role of nuclear interaction mediated by virtual mesons.When the density approaches the saturation point, ? = ?0, we have no longer separate mesons and nucleons but eventually modified nucleon Structure Function (SF in medium. The ratio of nuclear to nucleon SF measured at saturation point is well known as “EMC effect”. For larger density, ? > ?0, when the localization of quarks is smaller then 0.3 fm, the nucleons overlap. We argue that nucleon mass should start to decrease in order to satisfy the Momentum Sum Rule (MSR of DIS. These modifications of the nucleon Structure Function (SF are calculated in the frame of the nuclear Relativistic Mean Field (RMF convolution model. The correction to the Fermi energy from term proportional to the pressure is very important and its inclusion modifies the Equation of State (EoS for nuclear matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of nuclear matter and nuclear scattering reactions were studied from the same effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. In this project, we used CDM3Y and M3Y-Pn interaction version as the input to build the nuclear interaction potential (nuclear optical potential). After that, nuclear scattering reactions were studied by coupled channel formalism and folding model for scattering potential. The theoretical calculated cross sections of (alpha, nucleus) and (nucleon, nucleus) scattering system have been compared with the experimental values. Using the above interactions, the properties of nuclear matter: (i) biding energy, (ii) pressure and (iii) Compressibility were deduced in the Hartree-Fock calculation frame work. From the consistence between theory and experiment, the information of nuclear structure has been extracted. (author)
Strangeness and Charm in Nuclear Matter
Tolos, Laura; Cabrera, Daniel; Garcia-recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis
2012-01-01
The properties of strange ($K$, $\\bar K$ and $\\bar K^*$) and open-charm ($D$, $\\bar D$ and $D^*$) mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary approach in coupled channels for meson-baryon scattering. In the strangeness sector, the interaction with nucleons always comes through vector-meson exchange, which is evaluated by chiral and hidden gauge Lagrangians. For the interaction of charmed mesons with nucleons we extend the SU(3) Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian to incorpor...
Nuclear Spin in Direct Dark Matter Search
Bednyakov, V. A.; Simkovic, F.; Titkova, I. V.
2004-01-01
The Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are among the main candidates for the relic dark matter (DM). The idea of the direct DM detection relies on elastic in-dependent (SD) and spin-independent (SI) interaction of WIMPs with target nuclei. The importance of the SD WIMP-nucleus interaction for reliable DM detection is argued. The absolute lower bound for the detection rate can naturally be due to SD interaction. An experiment aimed at detecting DM with sensitivity h...
Wu, Chen; Su, Ru-keng
2008-01-01
A new improved quark mass density-dependent model including u, d quarks, $\\sigma$ mesons, $\\omega$ mesons and $\\rho$ mesons is presented. Employing this model, the properties of nuclear matter, neutron matter and neutron star are studied. We find that it can describe above properties successfully. The results given by the new improved quark mass density- dependent model and by the quark meson coupling model are compared.
Supernovae and high density nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJ? (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJ? in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJ?.
The coexistence curve of finite charged nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration and the EOS Collaboration are examined. Fisher's droplet formalism, modified to account for Coulomb energy, is used to determine the critical exponents ? and ?, the surface energy coefficient c0, the pressure-temperature-density coexistence curve of finite nuclear matter and the location of the critical point
Landau Ginzburg Theory and Nuclear Matter at Finite Temperature
Ritchie, R. A.; Miller, H. G.; Khanna, F. C.
1997-01-01
Based on recent studies of the temperature dependence of the energy and specific heat of liquid nuclear matter, a phase transition is suggested at a temperature $\\sim .8$ MeV. We apply Landau Ginzburg theory to this transition and determine the behaviour of the energy and specific heat close to the critical temperature in the condensed phase.
Tensor forces and collective excitations in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of the tensor quasiparticle interaction on the spin and spin-isospin waves in nuclear matter is studied. Numerical calculations are performed using a quasiparticle interaction derived from the Reid soft-core potential. The quasiparticle distribution matrix corresponding to the spin (spin-isospin) sound is found to be qualitatively different from that obtained for a purely central quasiparticle interaction. (orig.)
Phase transitions of nuclear matter beyond mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach is applied to study the phase transition of nuclear matter modeled by the four-nucleon interaction. It is shown that in the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) a first-order phase transition takes place at low temperature, whereas the phase transition is of second order at higher temperature
Low density clustering effects of Skyrme interactions in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An orthonormal set of single-nucleon orbital functions, explicitly satisfying the Hartree-Fock equations for occupied states, is introduced and shown to display, assuming several parameterizations of the Skyrme interaction, alpha-clustering effects at low densities in nuclear matter
Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian
2004-08-20
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.
Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at ?s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state
Relativistic Mean-Field Models and Nuclear Matter Constraints
Dutra, M; Carlson, B V; Delfino, A; Menezes, D P; Avancini, S S; Stone, J R; Providência, C; Typel, S
2013-01-01
This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear \\sigma^3+\\sigma^4 models, (iii) \\sigma^3+\\sigma^4+\\omega^4 models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields \\sigma and \\omega, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the \\sigma (\\omega) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the \\rho meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.
Nonlinear mean field theory for nuclear matter and surface properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuclear matter properties are studied in a nonlinear relativistic mean field theory. We determine the parameters of the model from bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter and a reasonable value of the effective mass. In this work, we stress the nonrelativistic limit of the theory which is essentially equivalent to a Skyrme hamiltonian, and we show that most of the results can be obtained, to a good approximation, analytically. The strength of the required parameters is determined from the binding energy and density of nuclear matter and the effective nucleon mass. For realistic values of the parameters, the nonrelativistic approximation turns out to be quite satisfactory. Using reasonable values of the parameters, we can account for other key properties of nuclei, such as the spin-orbit coupling, surface energy, and diffuseness of the nuclear surface. Also the energy dependence of the nucleon-nucleus optical model is accounted for reasonably well except near the Fermi surface. It is found, in agreement with empirical results, that the Landau parameter F0 is quite small in normal nuclear matter. Both density dependence and momentum dependence of the NN interaction, but especially the former, are important for nuclear saturation. The required scalar and vector coupling constants agree fairly well with those obtained from analyses of NN scattering phase shifts with one-boson-exchange models. The mean field theory provides a semiquantitative justification frovides a semiquantitative justification for the weak Skyrme interaction in odd states. The strength of the required nonlinear term is roughly consistent with that derived using a new version of the chiral mean field theory in which the vector mass as well as the nucleon mass is generated by the sigma-field. (orig.)
Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS
Ding, D; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Rios, A; Polls, A
2014-01-01
The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.
Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS
Ding, D.; Witte, S. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Dussan, H.; Rios, A.; Polls, A.
2014-10-01
The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the 3P2-3F2 coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the 3P2-3F2 coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.
Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the 3P2?3F2 coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the 3P2?3F2 coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ?30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64 C long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert J. Goldston
2010-03-03
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
From nuclei to nuclear matter - a statistical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The equation of state and the composition of hot hadronic matter is described by an ensemble of nuclei and interacting nucleons in nuclear statistical equilibrium. The nucleons are described with a relativistic mean field model and the masses of the nuclei are taken from nuclear structure calculations which are based on the same nuclear Lagrangian. For known nuclei experimental data is used directly. Excluded volume effects are implemented in a thermodynamic consistent way to be able to describe the transition to uniform nuclear matter. The resulting equation of state is presented and a good agreement with other commonly used models based on the single nucleus approximation is found. Regarding the composition the importance of a statistical treatment is illustrated and the role of the shell effects is investigated. Special emphasis is put on the light clusters which e.g. under certain conditions are only poorly represented by alpha particles. The important influence of the composition on the nucleosynthesis and on the neutrino dynamics and their spectra suggest the use of a grand canonical description of supernova matter. (author)
The ?? cloud contribution to the ? width in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The width of the ? meson in cold nuclear matter is computed in a hadronic many-body approach, focusing on a detailed treatment of the medium modifications of intermediate ?? states. The ? and ? propagators are dressed by their self-energies in nuclear matter taken from previously constrained many-body calculations. The pion self-energy includes Nh and ?h excitations with short-range correlations, while the ? self-energy incorporates the same dressing of its 2? cloud with a full 3-momentum dependence and vertex corrections, as well as direct resonance-hole excitations; both contributions were quantitatively fit to total photo-absorption spectra and ?N??N scattering. Our calculations account for in-medium decays of type ?N??N(?),??N(?), and 2-body absorptions ?NN?NN(?),?NN. This causes deviations of the in-medium ? width from a linear behavior in density, with important contributions from spacelike ? propagators. The ? width from the ?? cloud may reach up to 200 MeV at normal nuclear matter density, with a moderate 3-momentum dependence. This largely resolves the discrepancy of linear T–? approximations with the values deduced from nuclear photoproduction measurements
Nuclear matter descriptions including quark structure of the hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is nowadays well established that nucleons are composite objects made of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by Quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, because of the non-perturbative character of QCD at the energies of nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei starting from quarks and gluons is still not available. A possible alternative is to construct effective field theories based on hadronic degrees of freedom, in which the interaction is constrained by QCD. In this framework, we have constructed descriptions of infinite nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theories taking into account the quark structure of hadrons. In a first approach, the in medium modifications of mesons properties is dynamically obtained in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) quark model. This modification is taken into account in a relativistic mean field theory based on a meson exchange interaction between nucleons. The in-medium modification of mesons masses and the properties of infinite nuclear matter have been studied. In a second approach, the long and short range contributions to the in-medium modification of the nucleon are determined. The short range part is obtained in a NJL quark model of the nucleon. The long range part, related to pions exchanges between nucleons, has been determined in the framework of Chiral Perturbation theory. These modifications have been used to constrain the couplings of a point coupling relativistic mean field model. A realistic description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter is obtained. (author)
Review of the theory of infinite nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Given a two-body force, there seems to be two distinct starting points in the many-body perturbation-theoretic problem of computing the energy per nucleon of infinite (as well as finite) nuclear matter: ordinary Hartree-Fock theory and the Brueckner theory. The former theory, treated almost exclusively with plane-wave solutions, has long-ago fallen into disuse, to yield to the latter, apparently more sophisticated, theory. After a brief outline of many-fermion diagramatic techniques, the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone series expansion in terms of the density is discussed as a low density, non-ideal Fermi gas theory, whose convergence is analyzed. A calculation based on particle-hole Green's function techniques shows that a nucleon gas condenses to the liquid phase at about 3% of the empirical nuclear matter saturation density. The analogy between the BBG expansion and the virial expansion for a classical or quantum gas is studied with special emphasis on the apparent impossibility of analytical-continuing the latter gas theory to densities in the liquid regime, as first elucidated by Lee and Yang. It is finally argued that ordinary HF theory may provide a good starting point for the eventual understanding of nuclear matter as it gives (in the finite nuclear problem, at any rate) not only the basic liquid properties of a definite density and a surface but also provides independent-particle aspects, avoiding at the same time the idea of n-body clusters appropriate only for d of n-body clusters appropriate only for dilute gases. This program has to date not been carried out for infinite nuclear matter, mainly because of insufficient knowledge regarding low-energy, non-plane-wave solutions of the HF equations, in the thermodynamic limit
Matter in extremis: ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-nian
2004-01-01
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of $Au$ nuclei at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the str...
Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'Ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Bhom, J. H.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Csanád, M.; Csörg?, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gal, C.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harper, C.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Issah, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kamin, J.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Ruži?ka, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slune?ka, M.; Sodre, T.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.
2014-06-01
The PHENIX experiment has measured open heavy-flavor production via semileptonic decay over the transverse momentum range 1nucleon-nucleon collisions, a suppression is observed at forward rapidity (in the d-going direction) and an enhancement at backward rapidity (in the Au-going direction). Predictions using nuclear-modified-parton-distribution functions, even with additional nuclear-pT broadening, cannot simultaneously reproduce the data at both rapidity ranges, which implies that these models are incomplete and suggests the possible importance of final-state interactions in the asymmetric d +Au collision system. These results can be used to probe cold-nuclear-matter effects, which may significantly affect heavy-quark production, in addition to helping constrain the magnitude of charmonia-breakup effects in nuclear matter.
Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, D.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Dussan, H. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Witte, S. J. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rios, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Polls, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2014-10-15
The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the {sup 3}P{sub 2}?{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the {sup 3}P{sub 2}?{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.
Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints
Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Avancini, S. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.; Typel, S.; Stone, J. R.
2014-11-01
Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The first set (SET1) was the same as used in assessing the Skyrme parametrizations. The second and third sets (SET2a and SET2b) were more suitable for analysis of RMF and included, up-to-date theoretical, experimental and empirical information. Results: The sets of updated constraints (SET2a and SET2b) differed somewhat in the level of restriction but still yielded only 4 and 3 approved RMF models, respectively. A similarly small number of approved Skyrme parametrizations were found in the previous study with Skyrme models. An interesting feature of our analysis has been that the results change dramatically if the constraint on the volume part of the isospin incompressibility (K? ,v) is eliminated. In this case, we have 35 approved models in SET2a and 30 in SET2b. Conclusions: Our work provides a new insight into application of RMF models to properties of nuclear matter and brings into focus their problematic proliferation. The assessment performed in this work should be used in future applications of RMF models. Moreover, the most extensive set of refined constraints (including nuclear matter and finite-nuclei-related properties) should be used in future determinations of new parameter sets to provide models that can be used with more confidence in a wide range of applications. Pointing to reasons for the many failures, even of the frequently used models, should lead to their improvement and to the identification of possible missing physics not included in present energy density functionals.
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ?12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ?30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert J. Goldston
2011-04-28
Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing MT2 to Asymmetric Event Topologies
Konar, Partha; Matchev, Konstantin T; Park, Myeonghun
2009-01-01
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem MT2 variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different "children" particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint MT2max of the MT2 distribution now gives the mass Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)) of the parent particle as a function of two input children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum P(UTM) the corresponding function Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b),P(UTM)) is independent of P(UTM) at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 "kink" is now generalized to a "ridge" on the 2-dimensional surface Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)). As we show in sev...
Open charm tomography of cold nuclear matter
Vitev, I; Johnson, M B; Qiu, J W
2006-01-01
We study the relative contribution of partonic sub-processes to D meson production and D meson-triggered inclusive di-hadrons to lowest order in perturbative QCD. While gluon fusion dominates the creation of large angle DD-bar pairs, charm on light parton scattering determines the yield of single inclusive D mesons. The distinctly different non-perturbative fragmentation of c quarks into D mesons versus the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into light hadrons results in a strong transverse momentum dependence of anticharm content of the away-side charm-triggered jet. In p+A reactions, we calculate and resum the coherent nuclear-enhanced power corrections from the final state partonic scattering in the medium. We find that single and double inclusive open charm production can be suppressed as much as the yield of neutral pions from dynamical high-twist shadowing. Effects of energy loss in p+A collisions are also investigated phenomenologically and may lead to significantly weaker transverse momentum dependenc...
Phase structure in a chiral model of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase structure of symmetric nuclear matter in the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model is studied by means of the effective potential in the one-loop approximation. It is found that chiral symmetry gets restored at high nuclear density and a typical first-order phase transition of the liquid-gas transition occurs at zero temperature, T=0, which weakens as T grows and eventually ends up with a second-order critical point at T=20 MeV. This phase transition scenario is confirmed by investigating the evolution of the effective potential versus the effective nucleon mass and the equation of state.
Properties of nucleon in nuclear matter: once more
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azizi, K. [Dogus University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Er, N. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Bolu (Turkey)
2014-05-15
We calculate the mass and residue of the nucleon in nuclear matter in the frame work of QCD sum rules using the nucleon's interpolating current with an arbitrary mixing parameter. We evaluate the effects of the nuclear medium on these quantities and compare the results obtained with the existing theoretical predictions. The results are also compared with those obtained in vacuum to find the shifts in the quantities under consideration. Our calculations show that these shifts in the mass and residue are about 32 and 15%, respectively. (orig.)
Mondal, C; De, J N
2015-01-01
Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter as well as the neutron-skin thickness in $^{208}$Pb nucleus by $\\sim 50\\%$. The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.
The Coester line in relativistic mean field nuclear matter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
A., Delfino; M., Malheiro; V. S., Timóteo; J. S. Sá, Martins.
2005-03-01
Full Text Available The Walecka model contains essentially two parameters that are associated with the Lorentz scalar (S) and vector (V) interactions. These parameters are related to a two-body interaction consisting of S and V, imposing the condition that the two-body binding energy is fixed. We have obtained a set of [...] different values for the nuclear matter binding energies (B N) at equilibrium densities (rhoo). We investigated the existence of a linear correlation between B N and rhoo, claimed to be universal for nonrelativistic systems and usually known as the Coester line, and found an approximate linear correlation only if V - S remains constant. It is shown that the relativistic content of the model, which is related to the strength of V - S, is responsible for the shift of the Coester line to the empirical region of nuclear matter saturation.
Finite size effects in Neutron Star and Nuclear matter simulations
Molinelli, P A Giménez
2014-01-01
In this work we study molecular dynamics simulations of symmetric nuclear matter using a semi-classical nucleon interaction model. We show that, at sub-saturation densities and low temperatures, the solutions are non-homogeneous structures reminiscent of the ``nuclear pasta'' phases expected in Neutron Star Matter simulations, but shaped by artificial aspects of the simulations. We explore different geometries for the periodic boundary conditions imposed on the simulation cell: cube, hexagonal prism and truncated octahedron. We find that different cells may yield different solutions for the same physical conditions (i.e. density and temperature). The particular shape of the solution at a given density can be predicted analytically by energy minimization. We also show that even if this behavior is due to finite size effects, it does not mean that it vanishes for very large systems and it actually is independent of the system size: The system size sets the only characteristic length scale for the inhomogeneitie...
Strangeness in nuclear matter at DA{Phi}NE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gianotti, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)
1998-01-01
The low energy kaons from the {phi} meson produced at DA{Phi}NE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DA{Phi}NE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DA{Phi}NE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors.
Strangeness in nuclear matter at DA?NE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The low energy kaons from the ? meson produced at DA?NE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DA?NE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DA?NE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors
Phase transitions in a saturating chiral theory of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formalism of a relativistically covariant saturating chiral field theory of nuclear matter is developed in the mean approximation, and some of the properties are studied. The theory possesses the normal saturated state of nuclear matter. The finite temperature properties are examined. A normal gas-liquid phase equilibrium region exists below T roughly-equal 23 MeV. The maximum mass for a neutron star is calculated, and it lies well above the lower bound set by observation. In the high-temperature regime, there is a second minimum in the free energy, on which branch the effective baryon mass is very small. However, this branch is everywhere mechanically unstable, and so is not a realizable state of the theory. Above a certain critical temperature there is in fact no stable state at low baryon density. There is no density or temperature regime where chiral symmetry is restored
Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation : antiprotons vs. pions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Rowland, D.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Winchester, E.; Yennello, S. J.
1999-05-03
Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c {bar p} and {pi}{sup {minus}} beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z {approx_equal} 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code.
Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation: antiprotons vs. pions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c bar p and ?- beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z ? 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4? array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code
Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes
?NN correlations and the ?-particle binding in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ? particle energy in nuclear matter is calculated with separable S state ?N and NN potentials of Puff's type. By solving the Bethe-Faddeev equations, the three-body ?NN cluster energy Esub(?3) is calculated with the repulsive result Esub(?3) approximately equal to 3-4 MeV, which is less than 10% of the magnitude of the two-body ?N cluster energy. The result suggests a satisfactory convergence of the reaction matrix method of calculating Bsub(?). (author)
On the A binding energy in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The widely used low-order Brueckner (LOB) scheme for calculating the binding energy of the ? hyperon in nuclear matter, B? is discussed. Two corrections to B? are considered: the rearrangement energy and the effect of replacing the LOB spectrum of the single particle ? energies in the intermediate states of the reaction matrix equation by a continuous spectrum. It is shown that the two corrections approximately cancel. (author)
Properties of the ? meson in dense nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to reach a description of the ? meson, which is in accordance with the principles of the gauge invariance of the electromagnetic interaction, the vector-dominance hypothesis, and the unitarity a model for the ? meson in the vacuum is developed. Thereafter follows the calculation of the properties of the ? meson in nuclear matter. First the connection between the spectral function of the ? meson and the dilepton production rate for an equilibrium state is derived. Then the model for the pion in nuclear matter is described. Following approximations are applied: The description of the pion-baryon interaction pursues non-relativistically and both the width of the delta resonance and the short-range repulsive delta-nucleon interaction is neglected. The self-energy of the ? meson in nuclear matter following from this description is formally derived from the requirement to couple the ? meson to a conserved current. The corrections for the 3-point and 4-point vertex resulting from this are calculated and discussed. Thereafter the physical consequences of the changed self-energy of the ? meson in nuclear matter are considered. By means of the spectral function it is shown that up to the two-fold of the ground-state density the position of the resonance is nearly not changed. At still higher densities the resonances is a little shifted to higher energies. In the range of an invariant mass of about 400 meV a strong increasement concentrated on a small range results. This is caused by coupling to a naked delta-hole state and a pion. Finally the possibilities are discussed to apply the results of this thesis to the prediction of experimental data. Thereby it is proved to be necessary to base on a simulation of the heavy ion reaction. (orig./HSI)
Effect of meson mass decrease on superfluidity in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1S0 pairing in symmetric nuclear matter is studied by taking the hadron mass decrease into account via the 'In-Medium Bonn potential' which was recently proposed by Rapp et al. The resulting gap is significantly reduced in comparison with the one obtained with the original Bonn-B potential and we ascertain that the meson mass decrease is mainly responsible for this reduction. (author)
Radial densities of nuclear matter and charge via moment methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report I will discuss some initial efforts in our program to describe radial densities of nuclear matter and charge with the use of moment methods. A brief introduction to trace reduction formulas and computation problems along with proposed methods to overcome them will be given. This will be followed by a general discussion on computation of expectation values using moment methods with particular emphasis on formulation for the radial density applications
Probing the nuclear matter at the CERN super proton synchrotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text : A survey is given of signals probing the phase structure of nuclear matter created in the interactions of heavy atomic nuclei. The structures in the excitation functions of inclusive observables in 208Pb+208Pb collisions, measured by the NA49 experiment, are discussed. Seen in this light, the necessity for the differential study of event-by-event fluctuations in two dimensions is introduced. In this context, the dedicated program of the NA61/Shine experiment is discussed
Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect for nuclear matter in QCD
Levin, Eugene
1995-01-01
Soft photon and gluon radiation off a fast quark propagating through nuclear matter is discussed. The close anology between the Landau - Pomeranchuk - Migdal (LPM) effect in QED and the emission of soft gluons, suggested in ref. \\cite{BDPS} for ``hot" plasma, is confirmed and the relation between Mueller's approach and traditional calculations is established. It is shown that perturbative QCD can be applied to take into account the LPM coherent suppression both for photon an...
Isoscalar Giant Dipole Resonance and Nuclear Matter Incompressibility Coefficient
Shlomo, S.; Sanzhur, A. I.
2000-01-01
We present results of microscopic calculations of the strength function, S(E), and alpha-particle excitation cross sections sigma(E) for the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR). An accurate and a general method to eliminate the contributions of spurious state mixing is presented and used in the calculations. Our results provide a resolution to the long standing problem that the nuclear matter incompressibility coefficient, K, deduced from sigma(E) data for the ISGDR is ...
Binding energy per nucleon and hadron properties in nuclear matter
Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-chul
2010-01-01
We investigate the binding energy per nucleon and hadron properties in infinite and homogeneous nuclear matter within the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. We first consider the medium modifications of the single hadron properties by introducing the optical potential for pion fields into the original Lagrangian of the Skyrme model. The parameters of the optical potential are well fitted to the low-energy phenomenology of pion-nucleus scattering. Furthermore, ...
Infinite nuclear matter based for mass of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ground-state energy of an atomic nucleus with asymmetry ? is considered to be equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus a residual energy eta, called the local energy. Eta represents the energy due to shell, deformation, diffuseness and exchange Coulomb effects, etc. Using this picture and the generalised Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem of many-body theory, the previously proposed mass relation is derived in a transport way in which eta drops away in a very natural manner. The validity of this mass relation is studied globally using the latest mass table. The model is suitable for the extraction of the saturation properties of nuclear matter. The binding energy per nucleon and the saturation Fermi momentum of nuclear matter obtained through this model are 18.33 MeV and 1.48 fm-1 respectively. It is shown in several representative cases in the Periodic Table that the masses of nuclei in the far unknown region can be reliably predicted. (author)
Nuclear Transparency Effect in the Strongly Interacting Matter
Ajaz, M; Abdinov, O B; Zaman, Ali; Khan, K H; Wazir, Z; Khalilova, Sh
2012-01-01
We discuss that the results of study of the nuclear transparency effect in nuclear-nuclear collisions at relativistic and ultrarelativistic energies could help to extract the information on new phases of the strongly interacting matter as well as the QCD critical point. The results could provide further confirmation of the existence of the "horn" effect which had initially been obtained for the ratio of average values of K+ to pi+ -mesons' multiplicity as a function of the initial energies in the NA49 SPS CERN experiment. To observe the "horn" as a function of centrality, the new more enriched experimental data are required. The data which are expected from NICA/MPD JINR and CBM GSI setups could fulfill the requirement.
More about the B and D mesons in nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azizi, K. [Dogus University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Er, N. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Bolu (Turkey); Sundu, H. [Kocaeli University, Department of Physics, Izmit (Turkey)
2014-08-15
We calculate the shifts in decay constants of the pseudoscalar B and D mesons in nuclear medium in the frame work of QCD sum rules. We write those shifts in terms of the B - N and D - N scattering lengths and an extra phenomenological parameter entered to calculations. Computing an appreciate forward scattering correlation function, we derive the QCD sum rules for the B - N and D - N scattering lengths and the extra phenomenological parameter in terms of various operators in nuclear medium. We numerically find the values of the shifts in the decay constants compared to their vacuum values. Using the sum rules obtained, we also determine the shifts in the masses of these particles due to nuclear matter and compare the results obtained with the previous predictions in the literature. (orig.)
In-medium modified ?–?–? mesonic Lagrangian and properties of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter within the framework of an in-medium modified chiral solitonic model with ?, ? and ? mesons. We consider the modification of meson degrees of freedom in nuclear matter, based on phenomenology of pion–nucleus scattering and the empirical nuclear mass formula. We discuss the results of the density dependence of the volume term in the mass formula and the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, comparing them with relativistic mean-field models. The mass dropping of the ? meson in nuclear matter is also obtained and discussed
Relativistic mean-field models and nuclear matter constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutra, M.; Lourenco, O.; Carlson, B. V. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica-CTA, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Delfino, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-150, Boa Viagem, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Menezes, D. P.; Avancini, S. S. [Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, CP. 476, CEP 88.040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Stone, J. R. [Oxford Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU Oxford (United Kingdom) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Providencia, C. [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Typel, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Theorie, Planckstrasse 1,D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2013-05-06
This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4} models, (iii) {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4}+{omega}{sup 4} models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields {sigma} and {omega}, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the {sigma} ({omega}) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the {rho} meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.
Phase transitions in a saturating chiral theory of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formalism of a relatively covariant saturating chiral field theory of nuclear matter is developed in the mean field approximation, and some of the properties are studied. The theory possesses the normal saturated state of nuclear matter and is compatible with the data on neutron star masses. The finite temperature properties are examined. A normal gas-liquid phase equilibrium region exists below T approx. = 23 MeV. At all temperatures but low densities an abnormal phase exists which at zero temperature is an isolated point at zero baryon density. At finite temperature the abnormal phase, for which the baryon effective mass is vanishingly small, and in which there is an abundance of pairs, extends to finite density. The normal and abnormal phases are disconnected except at a single point where phase equilibrium occurs. Above a critical temperature the normal branch at low density disappears and the abnormal one is the only existing branch. The abnormal characteristic of small effective mass however is confined to low density. Chiral symmetry is restored in this sense as the temperature is increased, but only in matter of low baryon density
Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Bolonkin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Researcher offered a new nuclear generator which allowed to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with Einstein equation E = mc2. The method was based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH and Hawking radiation created by this MBH. Researcher did not meet the idea and its research in literature to develop the method for getting a cheap energy. Approach: As is well-known, vacuum continuously produced virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, photons and anti-photons. MBH event horizon allowed separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to MBH and be annihilated, decreasing mass of MBH, resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by Researcher as AB-generator utilized Hawking radiation and injected the matter into MBH and kept MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. Results: AB-generator can be produced gigantic energy outputs and should be cheaper than a conventional electric station by a factor of hundreds of times. One also may be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for many vehicles. Conclusion: Many scientists expect Large Hadron Collider at CERN may be produced one MBH every second. A technology to capture them may be developed; than they may be used for the AB-generator.
Nucleon scattering from nuclei with nuclear matter t-matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The presence of strong interactions between two free nucleons makes the usual perturbation theory unacceptable for attempting a microscopic description of nuclear structure and the scattering of nucleons from nuclei. In order to overcome this problem, it has been realized that the introduction of effective interactions, derived from a free internucleon force, is a first step towards achieving this goal. A discussion is presented of the calculation of effective forces to be used in the description of elastic and inelastic nucleon scattering. A first approximation to the true effective interaction in nuclei, t-matrix, which is generally complex in the scattering situation under study, is to evaluate it in nuclear matter within the framework of Brueckner's theory. The implicit hypothesis is that the true complex t-matrix, which would include any specific effects of the excitation spectrum for the particular nucleus considered, can be approximately replaced by the nuclear matter t-matrix at the local density and that this procedure includes excitation effects in an average way. (orig./AH)
Exact treatment of the Pauli exclusion operator in nuclear matter
Sammarruca, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; Meng, X.
2000-10-01
In an effort to explore systematically the spin-dependence of the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction in nuclei, we have studied proton-nucleus inelastic scattering to several discrete states.(F. Sammarruca, E.J. Stephenson, and K. Jiang, Phys. Rev. C 60), 064610 (1999); F. Sammarruca et al., Phys. Rev. C 61, 014309 (2000). Below 200 MeV, the most prominent (conventional) medium effect is Pauli blocking, which is typically treated within the angle-average approximation.(M.I. Haftel and F. Tabakin, Nucl. Phys. A158), 1 (1970). Problems with the effective tensor interaction in (p,p') transitions suggest that we re-examine this issue because of its likely impact on the non-spherical components in the nuclear force. We have performed a nuclear matter G-matrix calculation removing the angle-average from the treatment of the Pauli exclusion operator. This generates an effective interaction that depends on the projection quantum number M of the total relative angular momentum J. We find that this M-dependence is significant on the scale of typical medium effects (e.g., those arising from a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach to nuclear matter). The impact of this M-dependence on proton-nucleus inelastic scattering observables will be discussed.
Chiral relativistic model of nuclear matter including effects of confinement mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work aims at constructing a model for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter in a relativistic approach including effects from quantum chromodynamics, in particular chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider an assembly of nucleons interacting via meson exchange. The attraction is due to a chiral invariant scalar field associated with the fluctuations of the chiral condensate. The inclusion of scalar nucleonic effects due to the quark substructure of the nucleon ensures the saturation to occur. The parameters corresponding to the scalar sector of the interaction and to the quarks confinement in the nucleon are obtained from lattice calculations. The rest of the parameters are obtained as much as possible by hadron phenomenology. With such constrained inputs, the results are nevertheless very good: this constitutes the originality of this work. In one part, we chose to work at the mean-field level in the Hartree-Fock scheme. The propagation of the scalar field in the Hartree-Fock terms induce some rearrangement effects which play an essential role in the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem. We discuss also the role of the tensor part of the ? interaction in the symmetry energy and the isospin dependence of the Landau effective mass. Then, in the idea to enlarge this work to neutron stars, we give the equation of state predicted by our model. The last step corresponds to the introduction of effects after the mean-field including the correlation energy due to pion loops. An important ingredient is the Landau-Migdal parameter controlling short range interactions. The correlation energy enhances the description of the saturation point of nuclear matter. (author)
$D_S$ Mesons in Asymmetric Hot and Dense Hadronic Matter
Pathak, Divakar
2014-01-01
The in-medium properties of $D_S$ mesons are investigated within the framework of a chiral effective model. These are observed to experience net attractive interactions in a dense hadronic medium, hence reducing the masses of the $D_S^+$ and $D_S^-$ mesons from the vacuum values. While this conclusion holds in both nuclear and hyperonic media, the magnitude of the mass drop is observed to intensify with the inclusion of strangeness in the medium. Additionally, in hyperonic medium, the mass degeneracy of the $D_S$ mesons is observed to be broken, due to opposite signs of the Weinberg-Tomozawa interaction term in the Lagrangian density. Along with the magnitude of the mass drops, the mass splitting between $D_S^+$ and $D_S^-$ mesons is also observed to grow with an increase in baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. However, all medium effects analyzed are found to be weakly dependent on isospin asymmetry and temperature. We discuss the possible implications emanating from this analysis, which a...
Zhou, Zhengzhen; Guo, Laodong
2015-06-19
Colloidal retention characteristics, recovery and size distribution of model macromolecules and natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) were systematically examined using an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFlFFF) system under various membrane size cutoffs and carrier solutions. Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) standards with known molecular weights (MW) were used to determine their permeation and recovery rates by membranes with different nominal MW cutoffs (NMWCO) within the AFlFFF system. Based on a ?90% recovery rate for PSS standards by the AFlFFF system, the actual NMWCOs were determined to be 1.9kDa for the 0.3kDa membrane, 2.7kDa for the 1kDa membrane, and 33kDa for the 10kDa membrane, respectively. After membrane calibration, natural DOM samples were analyzed with the AFlFFF system to determine their colloidal size distribution and the influence from membrane NMWCOs and carrier solutions. Size partitioning of DOM samples showed a predominant colloidal size fraction in the system, as determined by UV-absorbance at 254nm, decreased significantly with increasing membrane NMWCO, from 45% by the 0.3kDa membrane to 2-3% by the 10kDa membrane. Since natural DOM is mostly composed of lower MW substances (system conditions are a prerequisite for quantifying colloidal size distribution using the flow field-flow fractionation technique. In addition, the coupling of AFlFFF with fluorescence EEMs could provide new insights into DOM heterogeneity in different colloidal size fractions. PMID:25958093
QCD Sum Rules and Vector Mesons in Nuclear Matter
Klingl, F.; Weise, W.
1997-01-01
Based on an effective Lagrangian which combines chiral SU(3) dynamics with vector meson dominance, we have developed a model for the s-wave vector meson-nucleon scattering amplitudes. We use this as an input for the low energy part of the current-current correlation function in nuclear matter. Its spectrum enters directly in the ``left hand side'' of QCD sum rules. For the isovector channel we find a significant enhancement of the in-medium spectral density below the $\\rho$ ...
Landau-Pomeranchuck-Migdal effect for nuclear matter in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soft photon and gluon radiation off a fast quark propagating through nuclear matter is discussed. The close analogy between the Landau-Pomeranchuk - Migdal (LPM) effect in QED and the emission of soft gluons, suggested in ref. [1] for hot plasma, is confirmed and the relation between Mueller's approach and traditional calculations is established. It is shown that perturbative QCD can be applied to take into account the LPM coherent suppression both and gluon induced radiation. The formulae for the photon and gluon radiation densities are presented. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs
Collective modes in a slab of interacting nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the properties of a slab of nuclear matter. The behaviour with the slab thickness of the particle density, kinetic energy density and surface tension are given in the non-interacting case, together with the slab free response to an external field. Next we introduce a zero-range isovector interaction among the nucleons and analyze the slab collective excitations. For moderate momenta hard and soft modes are found, which exhaust most of the excitation strength. Their position and splitting in energy favourably compares with the splitted giant dipole resonance experimentally seen in deformed nuclei. (orig.)
Final state interactions and hadron quenching in cold nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I examine the role of final state interactions in cold nuclear matter in modifying hadron production on nuclear targets with leptonic or hadronic beams. I demonstrate the extent to which available experimental data in electron-nucleus collisions can give direct information on final state effects in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. For hadron-nucleus collisions, a theoretical estimate based on a parton energy loss model tested in lepton-nucleus collisions shows a large effect on midrapidity hadrons at fixed target experiments. At energies currently available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the effect is large for negative rapidity hadrons but mild at midrapidity. This final state cold hadron quenching needs to be taken into account in jet tomographic analysis of the medium created in nucleus-nucleus collisions
Exponential enhancement of nuclear reactions in condensed matter environment
Kuchiev, M Yu; Flambaum, V V
2003-01-01
A mechanism that uses the environment to enhance the probability of the nuclear reaction when a beam of accelerated nuclei collides with a target nucleus implanted in condensed matter is suggested. The effect considered is exponentially large for low collision energies. For t + p collision the mechanism becomes effective when the energy of the projectile tritium is below $\\sim$ 1 Kev per nucleon. The gain in probability of the nuclear reaction is due to a redistribution of energy and momentum of the projectile in several ``preliminary'' elastic collisions with the target nucleus and the environmental nuclei in such a way that the final inelastic projectile-target collision takes place at a larger relative velocity, which is accompanied by a decrease of the center of mass energy. The gain of the relative velocity exponentially increases the penetration through the Coulomb barrier.
Relativistic quantum field approach to nuclear matter and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present survey, we discuss the nature and the size of relativistic mean field corrections which have recently been considered by various authors. The word approach in the title is meant to remind one that there does not yet exist a reliable relativistic quantum field theory of the many-body problem. In view of this, we shall find it instructive and useful to investigate first simplified dynamical models, and also to rely upon phenomenological approximations. Since nuclear theory essentially rests upon the shell model, most of our discussion will be devoted to relativistic corrections to the single-particle potential and wave functions. Here, the expression relativistic corrections refers to effects which directly or indirectly involve the small components of the Dirac spinor which represents the nucleon embedded in nuclear matter or in a nucleus. (orig./HSI)
Scattering of GeV electrons by nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cross section for inclusive electron scattering by nuclear matter is calculated at high momentum transfers using a microscopic spectral function, and compared with that extrapolated from data on laboratory nuclei. It is found that the cross section obtained with the plane-wave impulse approximation is close to the observed data at large values of the energy loss, but too small at low values. In this regime final-state interactions are important; after including their effects theory and data are in fair agreement. It is necessary to treat nucleon-nucleon correlations consistently in estimating the final-state interactions. The effects of possible time dependence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section, giving rise to nuclear transparency, are also investigated. The y scaling of the response function is discussed to further elucidate the role of final-state interactions
Scattering of GeV electrons by nuclear matter
Benhar, O.; Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.; Miller, G. A.; Pandharipande, V. R.; Sick, I.
1991-12-01
The cross section for inclusive electron scattering by nuclear matter is calculated at high momentum transfers using a microscopic spectral function, and compared with that extrapolated from data on laboratory nuclei. It is found that the cross section obtained with the plane-wave impulse approximation is close to the observed data at large values of the energy loss, but too small at low values. In this regime final-state interactions are important; after including their effects theory and data are in fair agreement. It is necessary to treat nucleon-nucleon correlations consistently in estimating the final-state interactions. The effects of possible time dependence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section, giving rise to nuclear transparency, are also investigated. The y scaling of the response function is discussed to further elucidate the role of final-state interactions.
Equation of state for nuclear matter based on density dependent effective interaction
Basu, D. N.
2003-01-01
An interesting method of obtaining equation of state for nuclear matter, from a density dependent M3Y interaction, by minimizing the energy per nucleon is described. The density dependence parameters of the interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The nuclear matter equation of state thus obtained is then used to calculate the pressure, the energy density, ...
Non-Abelian energy loss in cold nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use a formal recurrence relation approach to multiple parton scattering to find the complete solution to the problem of medium-induced gluon emission from partons propagating in cold nuclear matter. The differential bremsstrahlung spectrum, where Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal destructive interference effects are fully accounted for, is calculated for three different cases: (i) a generalization of the incoherent Bertsch-Gunion solution for asymptotic on-shell jets (ii) initial-state energy loss of incoming jets that undergo hard scattering, and (iii) final-state energy loss of jets that emerge out of a hard scatter. Our analytic solutions are given as an infinite opacity series, which represents a cluster expansion of the sequential multiple scattering. These new solutions allow, for the first time, direct comparison between initial- and final-state energy loss in cold nuclei. We demonstrate that, contrary to the naive assumption, energy loss in cold nuclear matter can be large. Numerical results to first order in opacity show that, in the limit of large jet energies, initial- and final-state energy losses exhibit different path length dependences, linear versus quadratic, in contrast to earlier findings. In addition, in this asymptotic limit, initial-state energy loss is considerably larger than final-state energy loss. These new results have significant implications for heavy-ion phenomenology in both p+A and A+A reactions
Nuclear matter calculations with a recent N-isobar potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of N33(1236) isobar in nuclei has been investigated in detail by Prof. A.M. Green and his group with a NN to NN33 transition potential used in a coupled channel calculation. The effect of this N33 virtual state is to decrease the binding in nuclear matter at normal density by 5-7 Mev/A. The coupled channel formalism is closely related to the two-pion exchange potential being a dynamic component of the intermediate state. It was shown by Durso et al (1977) that the transition potential employed before 1977 when twice iterated did not agree with the two-pion box diagram. Since then Green et al (1978) have given a new potential which is in better agreement with the dispersion theoretic two-pion potential. This new potential has been used with the Reid and the Tourreil-Rouben Sprung potential in a full nuclear matter calculation to show that the extra repulsion is now only about 2 Mev from virtual isobar states. This result is in agreement with a model for estimating the extra repulsion. (auth.)
Skyrme interaction to second order in nuclear matter
Kaiser, N
2015-01-01
Based on the phenomenological Skyrme interaction various density-dependent nuclear matter quantities are calculated up to second order in many-body perturbation theory. The spin-orbit term as well as two tensor terms contribute at second order to the energy per particle. The simultaneous calculation of the isotropic Fermi-liquid parameters provides a rigorous check through the validity of the Landau relations. It is found that published results for these second order contributions are incorrect in most cases. In particular, interference terms between $s$-wave and $p$-wave components of the interaction can contribute only to (isospin or spin) asymmetry energies. Even with nine adjustable parameters, one does not obtain a good description of the empirical nuclear matter saturation curve in the low density region $0<\\rho<2\\rho_0$. The reason for this feature is the too strong density-dependence $\\rho^{8/3}$ of several second-order contributions. The inclusion of the density-dependent term ${1\\over 6}t_3 \\r...
2010-01-29
...EA-09-147, NRC-2010- 0028] In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology (BGNR) (Licensee) is the holder of medical License No....
Short-range ? NN correlations and the ?-particle binding in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contribution of the short-range ? NN correlations to the binding energy of a ?-particle in nuclear matter, Bsub(?3), is calculated with the help of the simplified method applied originally by Moszkowski in the pure nuclear matter problem. For the recent phenomenological ?N potentials of Herndon and Tang, we obtain Bsub(?3) approximately equal to -4 MeV. (author)
The effect of an incipient pion condensate on the effective mass in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of soft spin-isospin density excitations of short wavelength (incipient pion condensate) on the effective mass in nuclear matter is investigated. The effective mass is found to decrease rapidly with density. This raises the threshold for pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter considerably. (Auth.)
Deuterization and the Mott density in nuclear matter at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theory of thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter at finite temperatures is formulated on the base of thermodynamic Green functions for a system of interacting nucleons. The influence of the surrounding matter on the two-nucleon system leads to attenuation of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, and near the Mott density which depends on the temperature as well as on the total momentum of the two-nucleon system the bound state vanishes. The association degree of deuterons and the phase diagram of nuclear matter is considered. The purpose of the present paper is to study the problem on two nucleons being under the influence of the surrounding nuclear matter
Quantum Vacuum in Hot Nuclear Matter A Nonperturbative Treatment
Mishra, A K; Greiner, W; Mishra, Amruta
2001-01-01
We derive the equation of state for hot nuclear matter using Walecka model in a nonperturbative formalism. We include here the vacuum polarisation effects arising from the nucleon and scalar mesons through a realignment of the vacuum. A ground state structure with baryon-antibaryon condensates yields the results obtained through the relativistic Hartree approximation (RHA) of summing baryonic tadpole diagrams. Generalization of such a state to include the quantum effects for the scalar meson fields through the $\\sigma$-meson condensates amounts to summing over a class of multiloop diagrams. The techniques of thermofield dynamics (TFD) method are used for the finite temperature and finite density calculations. The in-medium nucleon and sigma meson masses are also calculated in a self consistent manner. We examine the liquid-gas phase transition at low temperatures ($\\approx$ 20 MeV), as well as apply the formalism to high temperatures to examine for a possible chiral symmetry restoration phase transition.
Dynamics of hot and dense nuclear and partonic matter
Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.; Linnyk, O.; Konchakovski, V. P.; Voronyuk, V.; Ozvenchuk, V.
2012-06-01
The dynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter is discussed from the microscopic transport point of view. The basic concepts of the Hadron-String-Dynamical transport model (HSD)—derived from Kadanoff-Baym equations in phase phase—are presented as well as "highlights" of HSD results for different observables in heavy-ion collisions from 100 A MeV (SIS) to 21 A TeV(RHIC) energies. Furthermore, a novel extension of the HSD model for the description of the partonic phase—the Parton—Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD) approach—is introduced. PHSD includes a nontrivial partonic equation of state—in line with lattice QCD—as well as covariant transition rates from partonic to hadronic degrees of freedom. The sensitivity of hadronic observables to the partonic phase is demonstrated for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the FAIR/NICA up to the RHIC energy regime.
Resilience of nuclear matter in light ion induced reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavitation and heating of the target nucleus in the first instances of 3He-induced collisions in the GeV/u range are investigated in an intranuclear cascade model for the formation of this structure and a stochastic one-body dynamics calculation to study its evolution. The hard collisions having essentially ceased when the structure is fully developed, the latter model is particularly suited to study the possible break-up of the system. It is shown, however, that the target recovers a spherical shape rather rapidly, and has thus a good chance to decay by standard evaporation, justifying the use of a cascade + evaporation model to analyze the data. It is also shown that the system should be modified to break up into pieces instead of recovering a compact shape: in these reactions, it is thus expected that nuclear matter is resilient to shape deformation and thermal excitation. (author)
Neutrino mean free paths in cold symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The neutrino mean free paths (NMFP) for scattering and absorption in cold symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) are calculated using two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces using correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions and the one particle-hole (p-h) response functions are calculated using the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). For the densities ?=(1/2), 1 (3/2)?0, where ?0 is the equilibrium density of SNM, the strength of the response is shifted to higher energy transfers when compared to a noninteracting Fermi gas (FG). This and the weakness of effective operators compared to the bare operators, significantly reduces the cross sections, enhancing the NMFP by factors of ?2.5-3.5 at the densities considered. The NMFP at the equilibrium density ?0 are also calculated using the TDA and random phase approximation (RPA) using zero range Skyrme-like effective interactions with parameters chosen to reproduce the equation of state and spin-isospin susceptibilities of matter. Their results indicate that RPA corrections to correlated TDA may further increase the NMFP by ?25% to 3-4 times those in a noninteracting FG. Finally, the sums and the energy weighted sums of the Fermi and Gamow-Teller responses obtained from the correlated ground state are compared with those of the 1 p-h response functions to extrac1 p-h response functions to extract the sum and mean energies of multi p-h contributions to the weak response. The relatively large mean energy of the multi p-h excitations suggests that they may not contribute significantly to low energy NMFP
Particle clustering and Mott transitions in nuclear matter at finite temperature. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thermodynamic state of nuclear matter as regards dependence on density and temperature is considered. Expressions for the association degree are derived describing the ratio of nuclear matter which is clustered to bound states. The problem of two nucleons imbedded in the surrounding nuclear matter is considered with the help of the Bethe-Goldstone equation for thermodynamic Green functions. The two-particle energy shift due to the effective nuclear matter hamiltonian is considered in a Hartree-Fock approximation, and a Mott density is obtained so that for densities of nuclear matter higher than the Mott density bound states cannot exist. With a simplified effective two-nucleon interaction the association degree is calculated as a function of the nucleon density and the temperature. (orig.)
Sound waves and solitons in hot and dense nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assuming that nuclear matter can be treated as a perfect fluid, we study the propagation of perturbations in the baryon density. The equation of state is derived from a relativistic mean field model, which is a variant of the non-linear Walecka model. The expansion of the Euler and continuity equations of relativistic hydrodynamics around equilibrium configurations leads to differential equations for the density perturbation. We solve them numerically for linear and spherical perturbations and follow the propagation of the initial pulses. For linear perturbations we find single soliton solutions and solutions with one or more solitons followed by 'radiation'. Depending on the equation of state a strong damping may occur. We consider also the evolution of perturbations in a medium without dispersive effects. In this case we observe the formation and breaking of shock waves. We study all these equations also for matter at finite temperature. Our results may be relevant for the analysis of RHIC data. They suggest that the shock waves formed in the quark gluon plasma phase may survive and propagate in the hadronic phase
Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)
Study of the nuclear matter flow with the multidetector INDRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The work presented in this thesis relates to the study of the products which are not emitted by the statistical deexcitation of the projectile and target. The experiment on which this work is based on was performed at GANIL with the detector INDRA on two systems: 36 Ar + 58 Ni and 129 Xe + 119 Sn. A whole characterization (mass, composition, multiplicities and energy properties) of mid-rapidity emission has been done for the system 36 Ar + 58 Ni between 52 and 95 A.MeV. The amount of matter associated to this emission seems to be independent of the incident energy and directly linked with the centrality of the collision. The available energy per nucleon for the production of mid-rapidity products seems to be insensitive to the impact parameter. A systematic study of the nuclear matter in-plane flow has also been carried out. It has been established that the usual methods for reaction plane determination do not allow one to measure accurately the value of flow parameter at intermediate energies. Nevertheless, the inversion energy of the system 36 Ar + 58 Ni can be calculated for central collisions. This energy is independent of the nature of the products. Its value and the features of the mid-rapidity emission should allow one to extract in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section by comparison with theoretical results. (author)
Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Froemel, Frank
2007-06-15
In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)
Nuclear matter in relativistic non-linear models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have determined the equation of state of nuclear matter according to relativistic non-linear models. In particular, we are interested in regions of high density and/or high temperature, in which the thermodynamic functions have very different behaviours depending on which model one uses. The high-density behaviour is, for example, a fundamental ingredient for the determination of the maximum mass of neutron stars. As an application, we have studied the process of two-pion annihilation into e+e- pairs in dense and hot matter. Accordingly, we have determined the way in which the non-linear terms modify the meson propagators occurring in this process. Our results have been compared with those obtained for the meson propagators in free space. We have found models that give an enhancement of the dilepton production rate in the low invariant mass region. Such an enhancement is in good agreement with the invariant mass dependence of the data obtained in heavy ions collisions at CERN/SPS energies. (author)
Neutron-Proton Mass Difference in Nuclear Matter and in Finite Nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yakhshiev U.T.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The neutron-proton mass di?erence in (isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and ?nite nuclei is studied in the framework of a medium-modi?ed Skyrme model. The proposed e?ective Lagrangian incorporates both the medium in?uence of the surrounding nuclear environment on the single nucleon properties and an explicit isospin-breaking e?ect in the mesonic sector. Energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels are included as well. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass di?erence is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it markedly decreases in neutron matter. Furthermore, the possible interplay between the e?ective nucleon mass in ?nite nuclei and the Nolen-Schi?er anomaly is discussed. In particular, we ?nd that a correct description of the properties of mirror nuclei leads to a stringent restriction of possible modi?cations of the nucleon’s e?ective mass in nuclei.
The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density
Fukushima, Kenji; Sasaki, Chihiro
2013-01-01
We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase t...
Quantum Corrections on Relativistic Mean Field Theory for Nuclear Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a quantization procedure for the nucleon-scalar meson system, in which an arbitrary mean scalar meson field ? is introduced. The equivalence of this procedure with the usual one is proven for any given value of ?. By use of this procedure, the scalar meson field in the Walecka's MFA and in Chin's RHA are quantized around the mean held. Its corrections on these theories are considered by perturbation up to the second order. The arbitrariness of ? makes us free to fix it at any stage in the calculation. When we fix it in the way of Walecka's MFA, the quantum corrections are big, and the result does not converge. When we fix it in the way of Chin's RHA, the quantum correction is negligibly small, and the convergence is excellent. It shows that RHA covers the leading part of quantum field theory for nuclear systems and is an excellent zeroth order approximation for further quantum corrections, while the Walecka's MFA does not. We suggest to fix the parameter ? at the end of the whole calculation by minimizing the total energy per-nucleon for the nuclear matter or the total energy for the finite nucleus, to make the quantized relativistic mean field theory (QRMFT) a variational method. (general)
Study of the properties of dense nuclear matter and application to some astrophysical systems
Sahu, Pradip Kumar
1995-01-01
The highlights and main results of this work can be summarized as follows : (1) The energy per nucleon of cold nuclear matter, derived by us using chiral sigma model, is in good agreement with the preliminary estimates inferred from heavy-ion collision data in the density range between one to four times the nuclear saturation density. (2) For a system of high density nuclear matter, based on the chiral sigma model, we find that a strict first order phase transition to quark ...
Functional renormalization group approach to neutron matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Drews
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The chiral nucleon-meson model, previously applied to systems with equal number of neutrons and protons, is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter. Fluctuations are included in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The equation of state for pure neutron matter is studied and compared to recent advanced many-body calculations. The chiral condensate in neutron matter is computed as a function of baryon density. It is found that, once fluctuations are incorporated, the chiral restoration transition for pure neutron matter is shifted to high densities, much beyond three times the density of normal nuclear matter.
Multiplicity and cold-nuclear matter effects from Glauber-Gribov theory at LHC
Arsene, I. C.; Bravina, L.; Kaidalov, A B; Tywoniuk, K.; Zabrodin, E.
2007-01-01
We present predictions for nuclear modification factor in proton-lead collisions at LHC energy 5.5 TeV from Glauber-Gribov theory of nuclear shadowing. We have also made predictions for baseline cold-matter nuclear effects in lead-lead collisions at the same energy.
Correlations and pairing in nuclear matter within the Nozieres-Schmitt-Rink approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The influence of correlations on the critical temperature and density for the onset of superfluidity in nuclear matter is investigated within the scheme of Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink [1]. For symmetric nuclear matter a smooth transition from Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of deuteron-like bound states at low densities and low temperatures to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pairing at higher densities is described. Compared with the mean field approach a lowering of the critical temperature is obtained for symmetric nuclear matter as well as for pure neutron matter. The Mott transition in symmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Regions in the temperature-density plane are identified where correlated pairs give the main contribution to the composition of the system, so that approximations beyond the quasi-particle picture are requested. (orig.)
Relativistic description of BCS-BEC crossover in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study theoretically the di-neutron spatial correlations and the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in the 1S0 pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron pairs for both symmetric and neutron matter in the microscopic relativistic pairing theory. We take the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction Bonn-B in the particle-particle channel and the effective interaction PK1 of the relativistic mean-field approach in the particle-hole channel. It is found that the spatial structure of neutron Cooper pair wave function evolves continuously from BCS-type to BEC-type as density decreases. We see a strong concentration of the probability density revealed for the neutron pairs in the fairly small relative distance around 1.5 fm and the neutron Fermi momentum kFn element of [0.6,1.0] fm-1. However, from the effective chemical potential and the quasiparticle excitation spectrum, there is no evidence for the appearance of a true BEC state of neutron pairs at any density. The most BEC-like state may appear at kFn?0.2 fm-1 by examining the density correlation function. From the coherence length and the probability distribution of neutron Cooper pairs as well as the ratio between the neutron pairing gap and the kinetic energy at the Fermi surface, some features of the BCS-BEC crossover are seen in the density regions, 0.05 fm-1Fn-1, fob>Fn-1, for the symmetric nuclear (pure neutron) matter.
Two-pion exchange contributions to charge asymmetric and charge dependent nuclear forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a simple but systematic approach to the 2? exchange contributions to NN scattering graphs. When applied to s-wave NN scattering lengths, this scheme predicts a 2? contribution of magnitude Vertical Bara/sub n/nVertical Bar/sub 2pi/-Vertical Bara/sub p/pVertical Bar/sub 2pi/roughly-equal1/3 fm and Vertical Bara/sub p/nVertical Bar/sub 2pi/-Vertical Bara/sub n/nVertical Bar/sub 2pi/roughly-equal-1/6 fm. If we then combine this effect with simple ?+-,?0 and rho+-,rho0 pole graphs, the net charge asymmetric scattering length is Vertical Bara/sub n/nVertical Bar-Vertical Bara/sub p/pVertical Barroughly-equal1.2 fm while the net charge dependent result is Vertical Bara/sub p/nVertical Bar-Vertical Bara/sub n/nVertical Barroughly-equal2.7 fm. This compares favorably with the respective experimental values of approximately 1.5 and 5 fm
Nucleon mean free path in nuclear matter based on nuclear Schwinger-Dyson formalism
Mitsumori, T; Koide, K; Kouno, H; Hasegawa, A; Nakano, M; Mitsumori, Tomohiro; Noda, Nobuo; Koide, Kazuharu; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakano, Masahiro
1995-01-01
A mean free path of nucleon moving through nuclear matter with kinetic energy of more than 100MeV is formulated based on the bare vertex nuclear Schwinger-Dyson (BNSD) method in the Walecka model. The self-energy which is derived from the higher order diagrams more than the forth order includes the Feynman part of propagator of energetic nucleon and grows up rapidly as an increase of kinetic energy. To avoid too large growth of these diagrams, meson propagators are modified by introducing some form factors to take account of a internal structure of hadron. It is confirmed that the mean free path calculated by the BNSD method agrees good with experimental data if a reasonable form factor is chosen, i.e., a dipole (quadrupole) type of form factor with a cut-off parameter about 750 MeV \\sim 1000 MeV (1200 MeV \\sim 1500 MeV).
From nuclear reactions to compact stars: a unified approach
Basu, D N; Mishra, Abhishek
2014-01-01
An equation of state (EoS) for symmetric nuclear matter is constructed using the density dependent M3Y effective interaction and extended for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompressibility, symmetry energy and its slope agree well with experimentally extracted values. Folded microscopic potentials using this effective interaction, whose density dependence is determined from nuclear matter calculations, provide excellent descriptions for proton, alpha and cluster radioactivities, elastic and inelastic scattering. The nuclear deformation parameters extracted from inelastic scattering of protons agree well with other available results. The high density behavior of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter satisfies the constraints from the observed flow data of heavy-ion collisions. The neutron star properties studied using $\\beta$-equilibrated neutron star matter obtained from this effective interaction for pure hadronic m...
Effective interaction: From nuclear reactions to neutron stars
Basu, D N
2013-01-01
An equation of state (EoS) for symmetric nuclear matter is constructed using the density dependent M3Y effective interaction and extended for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompressibility, symmetry energy and its slope agree well with experimentally extracted values. Folded microscopic potentials using this effective interaction, whose density dependence is determined from nuclear matter calculations, provide excellent descriptions for proton, alpha and cluster radioactivities, elastic and inelastic scattering. The nuclear deformation parameters extracted from inelastic scattering of protons agree well with other available results. The high density behavior of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter satisfies the constraints from the observed flow data of heavy-ion collisions. The neutron star properties studied using $\\beta$-equilibrated neutron star matter obtained from this effective interaction reconcile with the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text : Large Hadron Collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research, Geneva Switzerland is the biggest Collider and Physics experiment in history. Over the last 30-35 years a lot of efforts have been made to search for QGP - new phases of matter under extreme conditions of high temperature and baryon density, as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics. In 2000 CERN announced some evidences for the existence of a new state of matter. In this article it is discussed some possibilities to identify the nuclear matter under extreme conditions of high temperature and baryon density -newly created matter in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions
Compression and speed of sound in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown how important is the choice of an equation of state and especially its compression modulus in the infinite symmetric nuclear matter. It is also exhibited the effect of the thermal energy determined here by the non relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot equation. All the calculations performed with a zero thermal energy give a speed of sound which overpass c at high density; when this thermal energy is taken into account this behaviour is conserved for the interactions giving a too high K value. However such a conclusion about this effect must be moderated since it is shown that it appears at very high densities. Such densities seem too high to be reached, the dispersive effects becoming very important when the incident energy increases. It is also obvious that a convenient equation of state at high density must take into account many other effects like hadronic resonances and pion production. To perform some calculations with a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot equation it is used an equation of state which includes relativistic effects. Attention is also focused about a general treatment at finite temperature of this problem derived from the Hartree-Fock calculations at finite temperature
Numerical comparison of three theories of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three independent evaluations of the ground-state energy of a simple model of nuclear matter are compared. The potential chosen is central, consisting of a state-independent hard core surrounded by a spin-dependent Serber square well with parameters adjusted to produce a fit of the low-energy two-nucleon data. A careful evaluation of the energy expectation value with respect to a Jastrow wave function is performed within the Fermi-hypernetted-chain scheme of Fantoni and Rosati. At the test point ksub(F)=1.56 fm-1, the variational result lies about 2 MeV above the best available Pade approximants to the R-matrix expansion for the energy. This may be regarded as excellent agreement, considering the state-independence of the assumed Jastrow correlations. An estimate of the correction to the variational result due to the state dependence of the realistic correlations is made within the framework of the method of correlated basis functions (CBF). Both theories, R-matrix-Pade and Jastrow-CBF, yield substantially more binding than lowest-order Brueckner theory based on the choice of a self-consistent hole potential and zero particle potential in intermediate states. (Auth.)
Resilience of nuclear matter in light ion induced reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavitation and heating of the target nucleus in the first instances of 3He-induced collisions in the GeV/nucleon range are investigated in an intranuclear cascade model for the formation of this structure and a stochastic one-body dynamics calculation to study its evolution. The hard collisions having essentially ceased when the structure is fully developed, the latter model is particularly suited to study the possible breakup of the system. It is shown, however, that the target recovers a spherical shape rather rapidly, and has thus a good chance to decay by standard evaporation, justifying the use of a cascade + evaporation model to analyze the data. It is also shown that the system has to be much more modified to break up into pieces instead of recovering a compact shape: in these reactions, it is thus expected that nuclear matter is resilient to shape deformation and thermal excitation. Arguments are given to explain that expansion of the system, not important in these reactions, is required to overcome this resilience. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Zero sound and the renormalization scale in relativistic nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we report a study on the poles of the propagators of ? and ? mesons in the space-like region. In this region a zero sound can appear (a collective mode having a dispersion relation analogue to that obtained in sound propagation, but appearing at zero temperature) when the nucleon-nucleon interaction used is sufficiently repulsive. We have determined this zero sound by using a relativistic Hartree approximation, a model in which the vacuum fluctuations depend on a renormalization scale. Two renormalization schemes, corresponding to two different values of this scheme are physically acceptable. The first one corresponds to the relativistic Hartree approximation usually utilized, which minimizes the three and four body vacuum interactions. This leads to an incompressibility module which is two times higher than its experimental value. The second procedure minimizes the tree and four body interactions in the medium at saturation density, thus permitting the correct reproduction of the nuclear matter compressibility. We have shown that the zero sound which appears near the saturation density with the pure Hartree approximation occurs now at a density which is two times higher than the saturation density when the second choice of renormalization scale is done
Phase diagram of nuclear "pasta" and its uncertainties in supernova cores
Sonoda, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu
2007-01-01
We examine the model dependence of the phase diagram of inhomogeneous nulcear matter in supernova cores using the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD). Inhomogeneous matter includes crystallized matter with nonspherical nuclei - "pasta" phases - and the liquid-gas phase separating nuclear matter. Major differences between the phase diagrams of the QMD models can be explained by the energy of pure neutron matter at low densities and the saturation density of asymmetric nuclear ma...
Pressure ensemble and dense nuclear matter with finite size nucleons at zero temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this study is to find the equations of state of dense nuclear matter near the phase transition to quark-gluon-plasma. The effect of finite particle volume on the equation of state is calculated for both a hard sphere and a variable size particle Fermi gas using the pressure ensemble formalism in statistical physics and the MIT bag model. It is found that for high baryon densities only the variable volume description of the nuclear gas yields physically sensible results in that P/? < 1/3. The equations of state of nuclear matter at several times normal nuclear density show properties similar to those found by other methods
Constraints on the equation of state of cold dense matter from nuclear physics and astrophysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fantina A. F.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The Brussels-Montreal equations of state of cold dense nuclear matter that have been recently developed are tested against various constraints coming from both nuclear physics and astrophysics. The nuclear physics constraints include the analysis of nuclear flow and kaon production in heavy-ion collision experiments, as well as recent microscopic many-body calculations of infinite homogeneous neutron matter. Astrophysical observations, especially recent neutron-star mass measurements, provide valuable constraints on the high-density part of the equation of state that is not accessible in laboratory experiments.
Effect of sound branch of pion on non-mesonic ? decay in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is studied the effect of the sound branch of pion on the non-mesonic decay width of the ? in nuclear matter. It is funded that its effect is sensitive to the energy release and the correlation parameter g'
Interplay between collision dynamics and nuclear matter properties from microscopic viewpoint
Ono Akira
2012-01-01
Nuclear matter properties have been explored through heavy-ion collisions. Studies with microscopic dynamical models, such as antisymmetrized molecular dynamics, are reviewed putting some emphasis on fragmentation and clusterization.
Sammarruca, F; Holt, J W; Itaco, N; Machleidt, R; Marcucci, L E
2014-01-01
We report on microscopic calculations of the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state at zero temperature obtained from NLO, N$^2$LO, and N$^3$LO (next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order) nucleon-nucleon forces derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. The leading N$^2$LO chiral three-nucleon force, with low-energy constants $c_D$ and $c_E$ fitted in the present work to reproduce the binding energies of $^3$H and $^3$He as well as the beta-decay lifetime of $^3$H, is also taken into account. The energy per particle of nuclear and neutron matter is then computed in the particle-particle ladder approximation up to densities several times that of saturated nuclear matter. We focus attention on the order-by-order convergence of the predicted nuclear and neutron matter equations of state, as well as the symmetry energy. Our study assesses the relevance of missing higher-order contributions in the chiral expansion that provide an important source of uncertainty not normally considered in nuc...
On the Manifestation of Chiral Symmetry in Nuclei and Dense Nuclear Matter
Brown, G.E.; Rho, Mannque
2001-01-01
This article reviews our view on how chiral symmetry, its pattern of breaking and restoration under extreme conditions manifest themselves in the nucleon, nuclei, nuclear matter and dense hadronic matter. Topics treated are nucleon structure in terms of chiral symmetry, "first-principle" (QCD) calculations of the properties of finite nuclei effectuated by embedding the ``standard nuclear physics approach" into the framework of effective field theories of nuclei with predicti...
Scaled variance, skewness, and kurtosis near the critical point of nuclear matter
Vovchenko, V.; Anchishkin, D. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Poberezhnyuk, R. V.
2015-01-01
The van der Waals (VDW) equation of state predicts the existence of a first-order liquid-gas phase transition and contains a critical point. The VDW equation with Fermi statistics is applied to a description of the nuclear matter. The nucleon number fluctuations near the critical point of nuclear matter are studied. The scaled variance, skewness, and kurtosis diverge at the critical point. It is found that the crossover region of the phase diagram is characterized by the lar...
Koide, Kazuharu; Kouno, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakano, Masahiro
1995-01-01
A method of cut-off regularization is proposed to evaluate vacuum corrections in nuclear matter in the framework of the Hartree approximation. Bulk properties of nuclear matter calculated by this method are a good agreement with results analyzed by empirical values. The vacuum effect is quantitatively evaluated through a cut-off parameter and its role for saturation property and compressional properties is clarified.
Do Skyrme forces that fit nuclear matter work well in finite nuclei?
Stevenson, P D; Stone, J R; Dutra, M
2012-01-01
A shortlist of Skyrme force parameterizations, recently found to have passed a series of constraints relating to nuclear matter properties is analyzed for their ability to reproduce data in finite nuclei. We analyse binding energies, isotope shifts and fission barriers. We find that the subset of forces have no common ability to reproduce (or otherwise) properties of finite nuclei, despite passing the extensive range of nuclear matter constraints.
Nuclear spin structure in dark matter search: The finite momentum transfer limit
Bednyakov, V. A.; Simkovic, F.
2006-01-01
Spin-dependent elastic scattering of weakly interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMP) off nuclei is reviewed. All available, within different nuclear models, structure functions S(q) for finite momentum transfer (q>0) are presented. These functions describe the recoil energy dependence of the differential event rate due to the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper, together with the previous paper ``Nuclear spin structure in dark matter search: The zero...
Equation of state for nuclear matter in core-collapse supernovae by the variational method
Togashi, H.; Takehara, Y.; Yamamuro, S.; Nakazato, K.; Suzuki, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Takano, M.
2014-12-01
We construct a new nuclear equation of state (EOS) for core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations using the variational many-body theory. For uniform nuclear matter, the EOS is constructed with the cluster variational method starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the Argonne v18 two-body potential and the Urbana IX three-body potential. The masses and radii of neutron stars calculated with the obtained EOS at zero temperature are consistent with recent observational data. For non-uniform nuclear matter, we construct the EOS in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In this approximation, we assume a functional form of the density distributions of protons, neutrons, and alpha-particles, and minimize the free energy density in a Wigner-Seitz cell with respect to the parameters included in the assumed density distribution functions. The phase diagram of hot nuclear matter at a typical temperature is reasonable as compared with that of the Shen EOS.
The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density
Fukushima, Kenji
2013-01-01
We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third reg...
On the possible existence of magnetic charges in nuclear matter and finite nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the Walecka-Serot theory of nuclei and the Ginzburg-Landau theory of critical phenomena it is shown that the nucleon pairing correlation of superconductivity type certainly leads to the existence of magnetic charges in nuclear matter and finite nuclei. The neutron pairing correlation yields the topological vortices in neutron matter and neutron stars. (author). 8 refs
Quasi-stationary nonlinear waves in nuclear matter close to pion condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nuclear hydrodynamic model is extended to include the fluctuating spin-isospin density and its interaction with the nuclear matter density. Using the TDHF equations, it is shown that the dynamics of these densities interacting with the pion field can be expressed in terms of the generalized pressures derivable from the generalized nuclear matter equation of state. A phenomenological Skyrme interaction model is used to obtain these pressures. A theory of pion-like spin-isospin quasi-stationary nonlinear waves is formulated from the generalized hydroequations describing the dynamics of a coupled pion nuclear matter system. In the lowest order of nonlinearity, it is proved that the amplitude of the spin-isospin sound wave satisfies a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The solution of these equations is the amplitude modulated pion-like solitary waves in nuclear matter. When this matter is near the pion condensate, the speed of these nonlinear waves is much smaller than that of the ordinary sound waves. An implication of the solitary waves excited in such nuclear matter produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed. The characteristic signature of breaking of such waves, produced in a heavy ion central collision, is the emission of a delayed component of correlated nucleons (possibly also with pion) peaked in the forward direction. It may be that the lighter nuclei 3He and 3H are produced through such a mechanism. (orig.)hanism. (orig.)
Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörg?, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ruži?ka, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slune?ka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M
2014-06-27
The PHENIX experiment has measured open heavy-flavor production via semileptonic decay over the transverse momentum range 1 < p(T) < 6??GeV/c at forward and backward rapidity (1.4 < |y| < 2.0) in d+Au and p + p collisions at ?sNN = 200??GeV. In central d+Au collisions, relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, a suppression is observed at forward rapidity (in the d-going direction) and an enhancement at backward rapidity (in the Au-going direction). Predictions using nuclear-modified-parton-distribution functions, even with additional nuclear-p(T) broadening, cannot simultaneously reproduce the data at both rapidity ranges, which implies that these models are incomplete and suggests the possible importance of final-state interactions in the asymmetric d + Au collision system. These results can be used to probe cold-nuclear-matter effects, which may significantly affect heavy-quark production, in addition to helping constrain the magnitude of charmonia-breakup effects in nuclear matter. PMID:25014805
Quark matter and nuclear collisions a brief history of strong interaction thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The past 50 years have seen the emergence of a new field of research in physics, the study of matter at extreme temperatures and densities. The theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), predicts that in this limit, matter will become a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons — the medium which made up the early universe in the first 10 microseconds after the Big Bang. High energy nuclear collisions are expected to produce short-lived bubbles of such a medium in the laboratory. I survey the merger of statistical QCD and nuclear collision studies for the analysis of strongly interacting matter in theory and experiment. (author)
Comparative study of three-nucleon force models in nuclear matter
Logoteta, Domenico; Vidaña, Isaac; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro
2015-06-01
We calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter using the microscopic many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach and employing the Argonne V18 (AV18) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential supplemented with two different three-nucleon force models recently constructed to reproduce the binding energy of 3H,3He, and 4He nuclei as well as the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. We find that none of these new three-nucleon force models is able to reproduce simultaneously the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and the properties of three- and four-nucleon systems.
Quark Matter and Nuclear Collisions: A Brief History of Strong Interaction Thermodynamics
Satz, Helmut
2012-01-01
The past fifty years have seen the emergence of a new field of research in physics, the study of matter at extreme temperatures and densities. The theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), predicts that in this limit, matter will become a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons -- the medium which made up the early universe in the first 10 microseconds after the big bang. High energy nuclear collisions are expected to produce short-lived bubbles of such a medium in the laboratory. I survey the merger of statistical QCD and nuclear collision studies for the analysis of strongly interacting matter in theory and experiment.
Bock, D.; Kahlau, R.; Pötzschner, B.; Körber, T.; Wagner, E.; Rössler, E. A.
2014-03-01
Various 2H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene-d3 (PS) over the full concentration range. The results are quantitatively compared to those of a dielectric spectroscopy (DS) study on the same system previously published [R. Kahlau, D. Bock, B. Schmidtke, and E. A. Rössler, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044509 (2014)]. While the PS dynamics does not significantly change in the mixtures compared to that of neat PS, two fractions of TPP molecules are identified, one joining the glass transition of PS in the mixture (?1-process), the second reorienting isotropically (?2-process) even in the rigid matrix of PS, although at low concentration resembling a secondary process regarding its manifestation in the DS spectra. Pronounced dynamical heterogeneities are found for the TPP ?2-process, showing up in extremely stretched, quasi-logarithmic stimulated echo decays. While the time window of NMR is insufficient for recording the full correlation functions, DS results, covering a larger dynamical range, provide a satisfactory interpolation of the NMR data. Two-dimensional 31P NMR spectra prove exchange within the broadly distributed ?2-process. As demonstrated by 2H NMR, the PS matrix reflects the faster ?2-process of TPP by performing a spatially highly hindered motion on the same timescale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Various 2H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene-d3 (PS) over the full concentration range. The results are quantitatively compared to those of a dielectric spectroscopy (DS) study on the same system previously published [R. Kahlau, D. Bock, B. Schmidtke, and E. A. Rössler, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044509 (2014)]. While the PS dynamics does not significantly change in the mixtures compared to that of neat PS, two fractions of TPP molecules are identified, one joining the glass transition of PS in the mixture (?1-process), the second reorienting isotropically (?2-process) even in the rigid matrix of PS, although at low concentration resembling a secondary process regarding its manifestation in the DS spectra. Pronounced dynamical heterogeneities are found for the TPP ?2-process, showing up in extremely stretched, quasi-logarithmic stimulated echo decays. While the time window of NMR is insufficient for recording the full correlation functions, DS results, covering a larger dynamical range, provide a satisfactory interpolation of the NMR data. Two-dimensional 31P NMR spectra prove exchange within the broadly distributed ?2-process. As demonstrated by 2H NMR, the PS matrix reflects the faster ?2-process of TPP by performing a spatially highly hindered motion on the same timescale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bock, D.; Kahlau, R.; Pötzschner, B.; Körber, T.; Wagner, E.; Rössler, E. A., E-mail: ernst.roessler@uni-bayreuth.de [Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)
2014-03-07
Various {sup 2}H and {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene-d{sub 3} (PS) over the full concentration range. The results are quantitatively compared to those of a dielectric spectroscopy (DS) study on the same system previously published [R. Kahlau, D. Bock, B. Schmidtke, and E. A. Rössler, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044509 (2014)]. While the PS dynamics does not significantly change in the mixtures compared to that of neat PS, two fractions of TPP molecules are identified, one joining the glass transition of PS in the mixture (?{sub 1}-process), the second reorienting isotropically (?{sub 2}-process) even in the rigid matrix of PS, although at low concentration resembling a secondary process regarding its manifestation in the DS spectra. Pronounced dynamical heterogeneities are found for the TPP ?{sub 2}-process, showing up in extremely stretched, quasi-logarithmic stimulated echo decays. While the time window of NMR is insufficient for recording the full correlation functions, DS results, covering a larger dynamical range, provide a satisfactory interpolation of the NMR data. Two-dimensional {sup 31}P NMR spectra prove exchange within the broadly distributed ?{sub 2}-process. As demonstrated by {sup 2}H NMR, the PS matrix reflects the faster ?{sub 2}-process of TPP by performing a spatially highly hindered motion on the same timescale.
Electron-positron pair production in nuclear matter - first data from HADES.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tlustý, Pavel; Kugler, Andrej; Pleska?, Radek; Wagner, Vladimír; Suk, M.; Hlavá?, S.; Žovinec, D.
Plze? : Západo?eská universita, 2002, s. 133-149l ISBN 80-7082-907-9. [Konference ?eských a slovenských fyzik? /14./. Plze? (CZ), 09.09.2002-12.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/00/1668 Keywords : electron positron pair * nuclear matter Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders
Nuclear matter with three-body forces from self-consistent spectral calculations
Soma, Vittorio; Bozek, Piotr
2007-01-01
We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter in the self-consistent T-matrix scheme including three-body nuclear interactions. We study the effect of the three-body force on the self-energies and spectral functions of nucleons in medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dielectric spectroscopy as well as 2H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene (PS/PS-d3) in the full concentration (cTPP) range. In addition, depolarized light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry experiments are performed. Two glass transition temperatures are found: Tg1(cTPP) reflects PS dynamics and shows a monotonic plasticizer effect, while the lower Tg2(cTPP) exhibits a maximum and is attributed to (faster) TPP dynamics, occurring in a slowly moving or immobilized PS matrix. Dielectric spectroscopy probing solely TPP identifies two different time scales, which are attributed to two sub-ensembles. One of them, again, shows fast TPP dynamics (?2-process), the other (?1-process) displays time constants identical with those of the slow PS matrix. Upon heating the ?1-fraction of TPP decreases until above some temperature Tc only a single ?2-population exists. Inversely, below Tc a fraction of the TPP molecules is trapped by the PS matrix. At low cTPP the ?2-relaxation does not follow frequency-temperature superposition (FTS), instead it is governed by a temperature independent distribution of activation energies leading to correlation times which follow Arrhenius laws, i.e., the ?2-relaxation resembles a secondary process. Yet, 31P NMR demonstrates that it involves isotropic reorientations of TPP molecules within a slowly moving or rigid matrix of PS. At high cTPP the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of ?2(T), as well as FTS are recovered, known as typical of the glass transition in neat systems
Kahlau, R.; Bock, D.; Schmidtke, B.; Rössler, E. A.
2014-01-01
Dielectric spectroscopy as well as 2H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene (PS/PS-d3) in the full concentration (cTPP) range. In addition, depolarized light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry experiments are performed. Two glass transition temperatures are found: Tg1(cTPP) reflects PS dynamics and shows a monotonic plasticizer effect, while the lower Tg2(cTPP) exhibits a maximum and is attributed to (faster) TPP dynamics, occurring in a slowly moving or immobilized PS matrix. Dielectric spectroscopy probing solely TPP identifies two different time scales, which are attributed to two sub-ensembles. One of them, again, shows fast TPP dynamics (?2-process), the other (?1-process) displays time constants identical with those of the slow PS matrix. Upon heating the ?1-fraction of TPP decreases until above some temperature Tc only a single ?2-population exists. Inversely, below Tc a fraction of the TPP molecules is trapped by the PS matrix. At low cTPP the ?2-relaxation does not follow frequency-temperature superposition (FTS), instead it is governed by a temperature independent distribution of activation energies leading to correlation times which follow Arrhenius laws, i.e., the ?2-relaxation resembles a secondary process. Yet, 31P NMR demonstrates that it involves isotropic reorientations of TPP molecules within a slowly moving or rigid matrix of PS. At high cTPP the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of ?2(T), as well as FTS are recovered, known as typical of the glass transition in neat systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahlau, R.; Bock, D.; Schmidtke, B.; Rössler, E. A., E-mail: ernst.roessler@uni-bayreuth.de [Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)
2014-01-28
Dielectric spectroscopy as well as {sup 2}H and {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene (PS/PS-d{sub 3}) in the full concentration (c{sub TPP}) range. In addition, depolarized light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry experiments are performed. Two glass transition temperatures are found: T{sub g1}(c{sub TPP}) reflects PS dynamics and shows a monotonic plasticizer effect, while the lower T{sub g2}(c{sub TPP}) exhibits a maximum and is attributed to (faster) TPP dynamics, occurring in a slowly moving or immobilized PS matrix. Dielectric spectroscopy probing solely TPP identifies two different time scales, which are attributed to two sub-ensembles. One of them, again, shows fast TPP dynamics (?{sub 2}-process), the other (?{sub 1}-process) displays time constants identical with those of the slow PS matrix. Upon heating the ?{sub 1}-fraction of TPP decreases until above some temperature T{sub c} only a single ?{sub 2}-population exists. Inversely, below T{sub c} a fraction of the TPP molecules is trapped by the PS matrix. At low c{sub TPP} the ?{sub 2}-relaxation does not follow frequency-temperature superposition (FTS), instead it is governed by a temperature independent distribution of activation energies leading to correlation times which follow Arrhenius laws, i.e., the ?{sub 2}-relaxation resembles a secondary process. Yet, {sup 31}P NMR demonstrates that it involves isotropic reorientations of TPP molecules within a slowly moving or rigid matrix of PS. At high c{sub TPP} the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of ?{sub 2}(T), as well as FTS are recovered, known as typical of the glass transition in neat systems.
Study of the nuclear matter distribution of exotic Be and B nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exotic nuclei close to the drip-lines have revealed an interesting type of nuclear structure with a widely extended matter distribution of loosely bound valence nucleons(halo) surrounding a compact core. In the present work the differential cross sections for small-angle proton elastic scattering on the 12,14Be and 8B isotopes were analyzed. The experiment was performed at energies near 700 MeV/u in inverse kinematics using the active target detector IKAR at GSI, Darmstadt. The measured cross sections were analyzed with the aid of the Glauber multiple-scattering theory. Nuclear matter radii and radial matter distributions have been deduced. The nuclear matter distribution for 14Be exhibits a pronounced neutron halo structure while for 8B a proton halo is observed. The obtained data allow for a test of various theoretical model calculations of the structure of the studied isotopes
Systematic analysis of the incoming quark energy loss in cold nuclear matter
Song, Li-hua; Duan, Chun-Gui; LIU, Na
2012-01-01
The investigation into the fast parton energy loss in cold nuclear matter is crucial for a good understanding of the parton propagation in hot-dense medium. By means of four typical sets of nuclear parton distributions and three parametrizations of quark energy loss, the parameter values in quark energy loss expressions are determined from a leading order statistical analysis of the existing experimental data on nuclear Drell-Yan differential cross section ratio as a functio...
Normand, A. E.; Smith, A. N.; Long, J. R.; Reddy, K. R.
2014-12-01
13C magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) has become an essential tool for discerning the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the technique is limited due to the inherent insensitivity of NMR resulting in long acquisition times, especially for low carbon (C) soil. The pursuits of higher magnetic fields or concentrating C with hydrofluoric acid are limited solutions for signal improvement. Recent advances in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) have addressed the insensitivity of NMR. DNP utilizes the greater polarization of an unpaired electron in a given magnetic field and transfers that polarization to an NMR active nucleus of interest via microwave irradiation. Signal enhancements of up to a few orders of magnitude have been achieved for various DNP experiments. In this novel study, we conduct DNP 13C cross-polarization (CP) MAS ssNMR experiments of SOM varying in soil C content and chemical composition. DNP signal enhancements reduce the experiment run time allowing samples with low C to be analyzed in hours rather than days. We compare 13C CP MAS ssNMR of SOM with multiple magnetic field strengths, hydrofluoric acid treatment, and novel DNP approaches. We also explore DNP surface enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (SENP) to determine the surface chemistry of SOM. The presented results and future DNP MAS ssNMR advances will lead to further understanding of the nature and processes of SOM.
The particle-hole interaction and pion condensation in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Following a general introduction in chapter one, the second chapter describes the calculation of the pion p-wave self-energy in nuclear matter. This quantity represents the amount of binding a pion gains by interacting with the medium. The third chapter exploits the formalism developed to work out a simple conclusion which can be drawn from the general notion of the divergence of a series of diagrams. Clearly, if the pion propagator in the medium develops a pole at some density, this implies that the one-pion-exchange NN interaction in the medium will be drastically modified. In Chapter four, the contribution to the binding energy of nuclear matter is calculated for a special set of diagrams - ring diagrams. Finally, in chapter five the low and intermediate momentum components of the nuclear matter G matrix which are relevant for nuclear structure, are studied. (Auth.)
In-medium effective chiral lagrangians and the pion mass in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We argue that the effective pion mass in nuclear matter obtained from chiral effective lagrangians is unique and does not depend on off-mass-shell extensions of the pion fields as e.g. the PCAC choice. The effective pion mass in isospin symmetric nuclear matter is predicted to increase slightly with increasing nuclear density, whereas the effective time-like pion decay constant and the magnitude of the density-dependent quark condensate decrease appreciably. The in-medium Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation as well as other in-medium identities are studied in addition. Finally, several constraints on effective lagrangians for the description of the pion propagation in isospin symmetric, isotropic and homogeneous nuclear matter are discussed. (orig.)
A beyond-mean-field example with zero–range effective interactions in infinite nuclear matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colò G.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Zero–range effective interactions are commonly used in nuclear physics to describe a many-body system in the mean-field framework. If they are employed in beyond-mean-field models, an artificial ultraviolet divergence is generated by the zero-range of the interaction. We analyze this problem in symmetric nuclear matter with the t0 – t3 Skyrme model. In this case, the second-order energy correction diverges linearly with the momentum cutoff ?. After that, we extend the work to the case of nuclear matter with the full Skyrme interaction. A strong divergence (? ?5 related to the velocity-dependent terms of the interaction is obtained. Moreover, a global fit can be simultaneously performed for both symmetric and nuclear matter with different neutron-to-proton ratios. These results pave the way for applications to finite nuclei in the framework of beyond mean-field theories.
Sammarruca, Francesca
2009-01-01
The understanding of the interaction of nucleons in nuclear and neutron-rich matter at non-zero temperature is important for a variety of applications ranging from heavy-ion collisions to nuclear astrophysics. In this paper we apply the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method along with the Bonn B nucleon-nucleon potential to predict single-particle properties in symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter at finite temperature. It is found that temperature effects are gene...
Clusterized nuclear matter in the (proto-)neutron star crust and the symmetry energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raduta, A.R. [IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Aymard, F.; Gulminelli, F. [CNRS, UMR6534, LPC, Caen (France); ENSICAEN, UMR6534, LPC, Caen (France)
2014-02-15
Though generally agreed that the symmetry energy plays a dramatic role in determining the structure of neutron stars and the evolution of core-collapsing supernovae, little is known in what concerns its value away from normal nuclear matter density and, even more important, the correct definition of this quantity in the case of unhomogeneous matter. Indeed, nuclear matter traditionally addressed by mean-field models is uniform while clusters are known to exist in the dilute baryonic matter which constitutes the main component of compact objects outer shells. In the present work we investigate the meaning of symmetry energy in the case of clusterized systems and the sensitivity of the proto-neutron star composition and equation of state to the effective interaction. To this aim an improved Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium (NSE) model is developed, where the same effective interaction is consistently used to determine the clusters and unbound particles energy functionals in the self-consistent mean-field approximation. In the same framework, in-medium modifications to the cluster energies due to the presence of the nuclear gas are evaluated. We show that the excluded volume effect does not exhaust the in-medium effects and an extra isospin and density-dependent energy shift has to be considered to consistently determine the composition of subsaturation stellar matter. The symmetry energy of diluted matter is seen to depend on the isovector properties of the effective interaction, but its behavior with density and its quantitative value are strongly modified by clusterization. (orig.)
Clusterized nuclear matter in the (proto-)neutron star crust and the symmetry energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Though generally agreed that the symmetry energy plays a dramatic role in determining the structure of neutron stars and the evolution of core-collapsing supernovae, little is known in what concerns its value away from normal nuclear matter density and, even more important, the correct definition of this quantity in the case of unhomogeneous matter. Indeed, nuclear matter traditionally addressed by mean-field models is uniform while clusters are known to exist in the dilute baryonic matter which constitutes the main component of compact objects outer shells. In the present work we investigate the meaning of symmetry energy in the case of clusterized systems and the sensitivity of the proto-neutron star composition and equation of state to the effective interaction. To this aim an improved Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium (NSE) model is developed, where the same effective interaction is consistently used to determine the clusters and unbound particles energy functionals in the self-consistent mean-field approximation. In the same framework, in-medium modifications to the cluster energies due to the presence of the nuclear gas are evaluated. We show that the excluded volume effect does not exhaust the in-medium effects and an extra isospin and density-dependent energy shift has to be considered to consistently determine the composition of subsaturation stellar matter. The symmetry energy of diluted matter is seen to depend on the isovector properties of the effective interaction, but its behavior with density and its quantitative value are strongly modified by clusterization. (orig.)
Dense Cold Nuclear Matter Study with Cumulative Trigger. Proposal
Denisovskaya, O; Polozov, P; Prokudin, M; Sharkov, G; Stavinsky, A; Stolin, V; Tolochek, R; Tolstoukhov, S
2009-01-01
Experimental program for the study of dense cold matter is proposed. Droplets of such a matter are expected to be created in light ion collisions at the initial energy range of future facilities FAIR and NICA with extremely small but measurable cross section. Meson (or photon) production at high $p_t$ and central rapidity region (double cumulative processes domain) is proposed as possible effective trigger (selection criteria) for such study.
Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
F. Sammarruca
2004-04-18
This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.
Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins
Nuclear matter near the critical point of pion condensation at nonzero temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Near the critical point of pion condensation we investigate at different temperatures the nucleon and ? isobar self-energy in nuclear matter due to interaction with the pion field. It is shown that the closeness of the pion field to instability leads to divergence of these quantities, as the result of which the properties of nuclear matter change fundamentally, in particular, no one-quasiparticle states exist in nuclear matter. Physical consequences of the results and possibilities of their experimental observation are discussed. It is shown that the change of the properties of the nucleons and ? isobars influences the pion field and this in its turn leads to a significant change of the properties of the pion field, in particular, a zero frequency of the pion mode is not allowed at any density and temperature
Phase transition patterns of nuclear matter based on extended linear sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study systematically various types of phase transitions in nuclear matter at finite temperature T and baryon chemical potential ? based on the extended linear sigma model with nucleon degrees of freedom. It is shown that there are three types of phase transitions in nuclear matter: the chiral symmetry nonrestoration (SNR) at high temperature, the well-known liquid–gas (LG) phase transition at sub-saturation density and the Lifshitz phase transition (LPT) from the fully-gapped state to the state with Fermi surface. Their phase diagrams are established in the (T, ?)-plane and their physical properties are investigated in detail. The relationship between the chiral phase transition and the LG phase transition in nuclear matter is discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The empirical determination of the incompressibility K? of infinite nuclear matter by means of data relative to breathing modes of the finite nuclei (isoscalar monopole resonance) resulted in controversy even in the symmetrical case, i.e. the case of equal numbers of protons and neutrons. Uncertainty is even greater in the case of nuclear matter very rich in neutrons which is found in the collapsing stellar core. In an attempt to extent the range of values of the incompressibility, K?, of symmetric nuclear matter, for which the fits to the measured breathing-mode energies are possible, we investigated generalized Skyrme-type forces with a term that is both density- and momentum-dependent. Acceptable fits are found to be possible only for values of K? in the range 215 ± 15 MeV
LOCV calculation of nuclear matter with phenomenological two-nucleon interaction operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bordbar, G.H.; Modarres, M. [Physics Department, Amir-Kabir University, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Centre for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, AEOI, PO Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
1997-11-01
The lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV) method is developed for the wide range of phenomenological two-nucleon interaction operators such as V{sub 8}, V{sub 12} and UV{sub 14} potentials. The calculation is performed for both nuclear and neutron matter with the state-dependent correlation operators. The validity of our lowest-order approximation is tested by calculating the three-body cluster energy with the state-averaged correlation functions. It is shown that while the three-body cluster energy improves the nuclear matter saturation density, the LOCV method still overbinds nuclear matter with the above potentials. Finally, we find that our LOCV results are similar to those calculations which have been performed by using more sophisticated many-body techniques. (author)
Quark Matter and Nuclear Collisions: A Brief History of Strong Interaction Thermodynamics
Satz, Helmut(Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Germany)
2012-01-01
The past fifty years have seen the emergence of a new field of research in physics, the study of matter at extreme temperatures and densities. The theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), predicts that in this limit, matter will become a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons -- the medium which made up the early universe in the first 10 microseconds after the big bang. High energy nuclear collisions are expected to produce short-lived bubbles of such a m...
The future of the nuclear industry: a matter of communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the very first successes achieved by the early scientists the infant nuclear industry was plagued by an atmosphere of uncertainty, conflict, anxiety and expectations. After the initial euphoria the Chernobyl accident shocked public opinion and perspectives changed. Nuclear energy is experience by the public in three dimensions. Firstly there are the technical realities of the reactor and its fantastically reduced source of power. Secondly, there is a psychological and political meaning, including the association of modern technology with authority, government, and control. The third dimension is the product of old myths about 'divine secrets', mad scientists dreadful pollution and cosmic apocalypse. To a large extent the nuclear industry is at fault for these emotional connotations. An early lapse in the communication process can be blamed for many of the misconceptions. The nuclear industry lost an opportunity by sticking to 'vagueness'. Recent trends show that a pattern of conditional acceptance is present in public opinion with regard to the nuclear industry. Possible solutions, including better communication, aggressive marketing, and the training of scientists to become communicators, are discussed. A study was done of community attitudes around Koeberg, and it is concluded that the public must be convinced of the fact that nuclear power is clean, safe, cheap and accepted as such by the industrially developed word. 62 refs., 13 figs
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
A., Delfino; M., Malheiro; T., Frederico.
2001-09-01
Full Text Available The link between non-linear chiral effective Lagrangians and the Walecka model description of bulk nuclear matter is questioned. This fact is by itself due to the Mean Field Approximation (MFA) which innuclear mater makes the picture of a nucleon-nucleon interaction based on scalar (vector) meson ex [...] change equivalent to the description of a nuclear matter based on attractive and repulsive contact interactions. We present a linear chiral model where this link between the Walecka model and an underlying to chiral symmetry realization still holds, due to MFA.
Polarized nuclear matter using a modified density dependent Seyler-Blanchard potential
Mansour, H. M. M.; Ramadan, Kh. A.
1998-04-01
The binding energy of polarized nuclear matter with excess of neutrons, spin-up neutrons, and spin-up protons contains three symmetry energies: the spin symmetry energy, the isospin symmetry energy, and the spin-isospin symmetry energy. The potential used here for polarized nuclear matter is a modified density-dependent Seyler-Blanchard potential with an explicit dependence on the density of protons with spin-up and -down ?p? and ?p?, also on the neutron density with spin-up and -down ?n? and ?n?. It is found that the binding energy per particle, pressure, velocity of sound, and entropy agree very well with previous theoretical estimates.
Single-particle response and ground-state properties of the infinite nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Hartree-Fock and a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theories of infinite nuclear matter are presented. In both cases a simple two-body interaction, which, however, holds the essential features of the bare nucleon-nucleon force, is used. The parameters of such a potential are fixed by requiring the correct binding energy per particle and compression modulus at the right saturation density. The motivation of the paper is to explore if both the ground-state properties and the single-particle response of the infinite nuclear matter (as far as one knows it from the deep inelastic electron scattering on heavy nuclei) can be simultaneously accounted for. (author)
Update on the crisis in nuclear-matter theory: a summary of the Trieste conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The turbulent recent history of the nulcear-matter problem, involving large discrepancies between Brueckner-Bethe and variational calculations, is sketched, and the conference is reviewed with the resolution of these discrepancies as an underlying theme. The development and testing of advanced variational methods are recounted, and the extension of these methods to realistic treatment of realistic problems such as liquid 4He, liquid 3He and the electron gas is described. Some new opportunities for variational theory are indicated. The calculational schemes for handling state-dependent correlations in nuclear matter are discussed, and the current status of the nuclear saturation problem is assessed. (Auth.)
Fundamentals and Elementary Outline of the Many-Body Theory of Nuclear Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1. Introduction; 2. Nuclear matter; 3. Fermi gas; 4. Perturbation theory; 5. Second quantization; 6. Calculation of ?E with the help of Wick’s theorem; 7. Diagrams; 8. Linked-cluster theorem; 9. Momentum representation. Time integration; 10. Low-density approximation; 11. Hole self-energies; 12. Solution of the K-matrix equation; 13. The Brueckner-Gammel calculation; 14. The Q = 1 approximation; 15. Convergence of the theory; 16. Bethe's treatment of the three-body energy; 17. Review of nuclear-matter calculations. (author)
BCS-BEC crossover and liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of nucleon-nucleon correlations in symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature is studied beyond BCS theory. We calculate the critical temperature for a BEC superfluid of deuterons, of a BCS superfluid of nucleons, and in the crossover between these limits. The effect of the correlations on the liquid-gas phase transition is discussed. Our results show that nucleon-nucleon correlations beyond BCS play an important role for the properties of nuclear matter, especially in the low-density region.
The equation of state for the nuclear matter and the properties of the neutron star
Liu, Chang-Geng; Sun, Bao-Xi
2007-01-01
The equation of state for the beta stable nuclear matter is calculated numerically, and then the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for the structure of the neutron star is solved in the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. It shows the mass and radius of the neutron star are functions of the central density of the neutron star and a maximum mass of 1.932 solar masses with a corresponding radius of 9.340km is obtained. Considering the equation of state of the nuclear matter m...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constraint Molecular dynamics CoMD calculations have been performed for symmetric nuclear matter (NM) by using a simple effective interactions of the Skyrme type. The set of parameter values reproducing common accepted saturation properties of nuclear matter have been obtained for different degree of stiffness characterizing the iso-vectorial potential density dependence. A comparison with results obtained in the limit of the Semi-Classical Mean Field approximation performed using the same kind of interaction put in evidence the role played by the many-body correlations present in the model explaining also the noticeable differences obtained in the parameter values in the two cases.
Papa, Massimo
2012-01-01
Constraint Molecular dynamics CoMD calculations have been performed for symmetric nuclear matter (NM) by using a simple effective interactions of the Skyrme type. The set of parameter values reproducing common accepted saturation properties of nuclear matter have been obtained for different degree of stiffness characterizing the iso-vectorial potential density dependence. A comparison with results obtained in the limit of the Semi-Classical Mean Field approximation performed using the same kind of interaction put in evidence the role played by the many-body correlations present in the model explaining also the noticeable differences obtained in the parameter values in the two cases
Vacuum Effects and Compressional Properties of Nuclear Matter in Cutoff Field Theory
Kouno, H; Iwasaki, Y; Noda, N; Mitsumori, T; Koide, K; Hasegawa, A; Nakano, M; Kouno, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Katsuaki; Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Noda, Nobuo; Mitsumori, Tomohiro; Koide, Kazuharu; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakano, Masahiro
1997-01-01
Including the vacuum effects, the compressional properties of nuclear matter are studied in the cutoff field theory. Under the Hartree approximation, the low-energy effective Lagrangian is derived in the framework of the renormalization group methods. The coefficients are determined in a way where the physical results hardly depend on the value of the cutoff which is conveniently introduced into the theory. It is shown that, to reproduce the empirical data of the nucleus incompressibility, the compressibility of the nuclear matter is favorable to be 250$\\sim$350MeV.
BCS-BEC crossover and liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin Meng [Institute of Particle Physics and Physical Department, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 4300079 (China); Urban, Michael [Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire -Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, F-91406 Orsay (France); Schuck, Peter, E-mail: jinm@iopp.ccnu.edu.cn [Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses,CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France)
2011-09-16
The effect of nucleon-nucleon correlations in symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature is studied beyond BCS theory. We calculate the critical temperature for a BEC superfluid of deuterons, of a BCS superfluid of nucleons, and in the crossover between these limits. The effect of the correlations on the liquid-gas phase transition is discussed. Our results show that nucleon-nucleon correlations beyond BCS play an important role for the properties of nuclear matter, especially in the low-density region.
Clustered low density nuclear matter in near Fermi energy collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Current research on clustering in low density matter formed in near Fermi energy heavy ion collisions is discussed. Temperature and density dependent symmetry free energies derived from isoscaling analyses of the yields of nuclei with A ? 4 are far above those obtained in common effective interaction calculations, reflecting cluster formation, primarily of alpha particles, not included in such calculations. (author)
Appearance of the single gyroid network phase in "nuclear pasta" matter
Schuetrumpf, B.; Klatt, M. A.; Iida, K.; Schröder-Turk, G. E.; Maruhn, J. A.; Mecke, K.; Reinhard, P.-G.
2015-02-01
Nuclear matter under the conditions of a supernova explosion unfolds into a rich variety of spatially structured phases, called nuclear pasta. We investigate the role of periodic networklike structures with negatively curved interfaces in nuclear pasta structures, by static and dynamic Hartree-Fock simulations in periodic lattices. As the most prominent result, we identify for the first time the single gyroid network structure of cubic chiral I 4123 symmetry, a well-known configuration in nanostructured soft-matter systems, both as a dynamical state and as a cooled static solution. Single gyroid structures form spontaneously in the course of the dynamical simulations. Most of them are isomeric states. The very small energy differences from the ground state indicate its relevance for structures in nuclear pasta.
Evaluation of the curvature-correction term from the equation of state of nuclear matter
Cherevko, K. V.; Bulavin, L. A.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Sysoev, V. M.; Zhang, F. -s
2014-01-01
Based on the nuclear equation of state, the curvature correction term to the surface tension coefficient is calculated. Tolman $\\delta$ correction is shown to be sensitive to the Skyrme force parametrization. The temperature dependence of the Tolman length, important in heavy ion collisions experiments, is derived. In suggested approach the curvature term is related to the bulk properties of the nuclear matter through the equation of state. The obtained results are compared ...
Investigation of compressed and highly excited nuclear matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gross properties of nuclear matter at high densities and temperatures and the significance of the nuclear equation of state for high energy nuclear collisions are investigated within the nuclear fluid dynamical model. The hydrdynamical description and the properties of the nuclear fluid are extensively discussed. It is shown that at bombarding energies of 1-4 GeV/n compressions of 3-6 psub(o) and temperatures T approx. 100 MeV can be reached. At medium energies we compare the nuclear fluid dynamical model and the time-dependent Hartree-Fock model. The importance of isobaric resonance - and pion production at higher energies is discussed, which for an exponentially increasing hadronic mass spectrum leads to a limiting temperature Tsup(Max). (orig.)
Probing the Nuclear Symmetry Energy with Heavy-Ion Reactions Induced by Neutron-Rich Nuclei
Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan
2007-01-01
Heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei provide a unique means to investigate the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter, especially the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, recent analyses of the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion reactions have already put a stringent constraint on the nuclear symmetry energy around the nuclear matter saturation density. We review this exciting result and discuss its implications on ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper derives all 36 analytical solutions of the energy eigenvalues for nuclear electric quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian and equivalent rigid asymmetric rotor for polynomial degrees 1 through 4 using classical algebraic theory. By the use of double-parameterization the full general solution sets are illustrated in a compact, symmetric, structural, and usable form that is valid for asymmetry parameter ? is an element of (- ?, + ?). These results are useful for code developers in the area of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC), Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) and rotational spectroscopy who want to offer exact solutions whenever possible, rather that resorting to numerical solutions. In addition, by using standard linear algebra methods, the characteristic equations of all integer and half-integer spins I from 0 to 15, inclusive are represented in a compact and naturally parameterized form that illustrates structure and symmetries. This extends Nielson’s listing of characteristic equations for integer spins out to I?=?15, inclusive.
Proton impurity in the neutron matter: a nuclear polaron problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study interactions of a proton impurity with density oscillations of the neutron matter in a Debye approximation. The proton-phonon coupling is of the deformation-potential type at long wavelengths. It is weak at low density and increases with the neutron matter density. We calculate the proton's effective mass perturbatively for a weak coupling, and use a canonical transformation technique for stronger couplings. The proton's effective mass grows significantly with density, and at higher densities the proton impurity can be localized. This behaviour is similar to that of the polaron in solids. We obtain properties of the localized proton in the strong coupling regime from variational calculations, treating the neutron in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. (author). 14 refs, 8 figs
Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter including strangeness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to study the properties of strange hadronic matter at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition is studied as a function of the strangeness fraction. The pressure of the system cannot remain constant during the phase transition, since there are two independent conserved charges (baryon and strangeness number). In a range of temperatures around 15 MeV (precise values depending on the model used) the equation of state exhibits multiple bifurcates. The difference in the strangeness fraction fs between the liquid and gas phases is small when they coexist. The critical temperature of strange matter turns out to be a nontrivial function of the strangeness fraction
Fermionic condensation in ultracold atoms, nuclear matter and neutron stars
Salasnich, Luca
2013-01-01
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in three different superfluid systems: ultracold and dilute atomic gases, bulk neutron matter, and neutron stars. In the case of dilute gases made of fermionic atoms the average distance between atoms is much larger than the effective radius of the inter-atomic potential. Here the condensation of fermionic pairs is analyzed as a function of the s-wave scattering length, which can be tuned in experiments by usin...
Neutrino Bremsstrahlung in Neutron Matter from Effective Nuclear Interactions
Schwenk, A.; Jaikumar, P.; Gale, C.
2003-01-01
We revisit the emissivity from neutrino pair bremsstrahlung in neutron-neutron scattering, nn -> nn nu nubar, which was calculated from the one-pion exchange potential including correlation effects by Friman and Maxwell. Starting from the free-space low-momentum nucleon-nucleon interaction V_{low k}, we include tensor, spin-orbit and second-order medium-induced non-central contributions to the scattering amplitude in neutron matter. We find that the screening of the nucleon-...
Critical temperature of antikaon condensation in nuclear matter
Banik, Sarmistha; Greiner, Walter, 1935-; Bandyopadhyay, Debades
2008-01-01
We investigate the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of $K^-$ mesons in neutron star matter. This is studied within the framework of relativistic field theoretical models at finite temperature where nucleon-nucleon and (anti)kaon-nucleon interactions are mediated by the exchange of mesons. The melting of the antikaon condensate is studied for different values of antikaon optical potential depths. We find that the critical temperature of antikaon condensation...
Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts
Krivoruchenko, M I; Rasinkova, T L; Simonov, Yu A; Trusov, M A; Yudin, A V
2010-01-01
Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partial-wave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of $P$-matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G-matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on th...
Study of the properties of dense nuclear matter and application to some astrophysical systems
Sahu, P K
1995-01-01
The highlights and main results of this work can be summarized as follows : (1) The energy per nucleon of cold nuclear matter, derived by us using chiral sigma model, is in good agreement with the preliminary estimates inferred from heavy-ion collision data in the density range between one to four times the nuclear saturation density. (2) For a system of high density nuclear matter, based on the chiral sigma model, we find that a strict first order phase transition to quark matter is not favoured. This does not, of course, preclude a phase transition of second order. However, we have not investigated the latter problem. (3) The mass formulae for finite lumps of strange quark matter with u,~d and s quarks and non-strange quark matter are derived in a non-relativistic approach, taking into account the finite size effects such as surface and curvature. We find that there is a good possibility for the formation of metastable strangelets of large mass detectable in experiment. (4) The maximum mass for stable neutr...
Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter from realistic many-body approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The existence of a liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear systems at subsaturation densities is a well-established prediction of finite-temperature nuclear many-body theory. In this paper, we discuss for the first time the properties of such a phase transition for homogeneous nuclear matter within the self-consistent Green's function approach. We find a substantial decrease of the critical temperature with respect to the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Even within the same approximation, the use of two different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions gives rise to large differences in the properties of the critical point
A study of hyperons in nuclear matter based on chiral effective field theory
Haidenbauer, J.; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2015-04-01
The in-medium properties of a hyperon-nucleon potential, derived within chiral effective field theory and fitted to ?N and ?N scattering data, are investigated. Results for the single-particle potentials of the ? and ? hyperons in nuclear matter are reported, based on a conventional G-matrix calculation. The ?-nuclear potential is found to be repulsive, in agreement with phenomenological information. A weak ?-nuclear spin-orbit interaction can be achieved by an appropriate adjustment of a low-energy constant corresponding to an antisymmetric ?N-?N spin-orbit interaction that arises at next-to-leading order in the effective field theory approach.
Menge, Wiro Michael Petrus Bernardus,
1989-01-01
Several theories of asymmetric autocatalysis have been developed in the last decades. The major goal of these studies was not to elucidate the exact mechanism of asymmetric autocatalysis but to survey various autocatalytic systems for their capacity to bifurcate into one predominate family of enantiomers. This would offer an explanation for the homochirality of amino acids and sugars now found in Nature. The aim of the present study is to obtain insight into the factors that influence asymmet...
Packard, Norman; Shaw, Rob
2004-01-01
Diffusion rates through a membrane can be asymmetric, if the diffusing particles are spatially extended and the pores in the membrane have asymmetric structure. This phenomenon is demonstrated here via a deterministic simulation of a two-species hard-disk gas, and via simulations of two species in Brownian motion, diffusing through a membrane that is permeable to one species but not the other. In its extreme form, this effect will rapidly seal off flow in one direction throu...
On the absorptive potential and the mean free path of a nucleon in nuclear matter 009>S
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple expression for the nuclear absorptive potential W in nuclear matter in terms of free NN cross section is derived from the Brueckner theory and tested against ''exact'' results. It is a modification of the semiclassical expression, which takes into account the Pauli blocking and dispersive effects. It is used to calculate W and the nucleon mean free path ? in nuclear matter for nucleon energies up to ? 200 MeV. Results obtained with non-locality corrections agree reasonably well with experiment. The dependence of W and ? on the temperature of nuclear matter is also discussed. 29 refs., 9 figs. (author)
Heavy-quark expansion for D and B mesons in nuclear matter
Buchheim, Thomas; Kampfer, Burkhard
2014-01-01
The planned experiments at FAIR enable the study of medium modifications of $D$ and $B$ mesons in (dense) nuclear matter. Evaluating QCD sum rules as a theoretical prerequisite for such investigations encounters heavy-light four-quark condensates. We utilize an extended heavy-quark expansion to cope with the condensation of heavy quarks.
A quark model for nuclear matter and the Coulomb sum rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quark correlation function g(r), of nuclear matter is calculated in a simple model with many of the essential composite features of nucleons. From g the Coulomb sum rule is calculated and found not to go to unity because there is substantial overlap of momentum scales describing NN correlations and nucleon substructure. (orig.)
The imaginary part of the nucleon optical potential in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the energy dependence of the real part of the optical potential, or equivalently the effective mass of nucleons in nuclear matter, gives significant corrections to the imaginary part calculated with either impulse approximation or Brueckner's theory. These corrections greatly reduce the difference between theroretical and empirical strengths of the imaginary potential. (orig.)
Extension of Hartree-Fock theory including tensor correlation in nuclear matter
Hu, Jinniu; Toki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoko
2013-10-01
We study the properties of nuclear matter in the extension of Hartree-Fock theory including tensor correlation using a realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. The nuclear wave function consists of the Hartree-Fock and two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) states, following the concept of the tensor-optimized shell model (TOSM) for light nuclei. The short range repulsion and strong tensor force of realistic NN interaction provide high momentum components, which are taken into account in a many-body framework by introducing 2p-2h states. Single particle states are determined by the variational principle of the total energy with respect to 2p-2h amplitudes and Hartree-Fock (HF) single-particle states. The resulting differential equation is almost identical with that of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) theory by taking two-body scattering terms only. We calculate the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter in this framework with the Bonn potential as a realistic NN interaction. We found similar results to BHF theory with slightly repulsive effects in the total energy. The relativistic effect is discussed for the EOSs of nuclear matter in both non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks. The momentum distribution has large components at high momenta due to 2p-2h excitations. We also obtain the EOSs of pure neutron matter, where the tensor effect is small in the iso-vector channel.
Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishimura, Suguru [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takano, Masatoshi [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan and Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2014-05-02
We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.
Finite Temperature Study of Nuclear Matter in SU(2) Chiral Sigma Model
Jena, P K
2003-01-01
We study here the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures using a modified SU(2) Chiral Sigma model. The effect of temperature on effective mass, entropy and binding energy is also studied. The liquid-gas phase transition is investigated and the critical values of temperature, density and pressure are calculated.
Computational methods for the nuclear and neutron matter problems. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A brief report is given of progress on the development of Monte Carlo methods for the treatment of both simplified and realistic models of extensive neutron and nuclear matter and, eventually, of finite nuclei. A wide class of algorithms that may allow the efficient sampling of the integrands required in calculating the energy expectations with useful trial wave functions was devised