Sample records for assyro-babylonian religious texts

  1. Iluminator of the wide earth; Unbribable judge; Strong weapon of the Gods: Intuitive ontology and divine epithets in Assyro-Babylonian religious texts

    Westh, Peter


    A characteristic feature of Assyro-Babylonian religion was the repeated use of conventionalized phrases to address and describe the gods. Often, religious texts such as prayers and ritual incantations consisted of little more than the heaping up of such epithets. If the gods were indeed culturall...

  2. «If a woman has a big head»: Physiognomy and female nature in an assyro-babylonian text

    Couto Ferreira, Érica


    Full Text Available In Mesopotamia, the human body was understood as an object for divination, that is, a system of signs, which carried messages about the individual, and whose meaning had to be decoded by means of observation and interpretation. Taking the physiognomic series Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («If a woman has a big head» as the main source of my article, I analyse, on the one hand, the processes that take part in the promotion of a particular perception of women based on a specific reading of the female body. On the other hand, I deal with the elements that characterize this female perception, basically, the image of the ideal woman centred on motherhood, and, in close relation to this, the dangers that threaten women’s life during pregnancy.

    El cuerpo humano en Mesopotamia era entendido como objeto adivinatorio: un sistema de signos, portador de mensajes sobre el propio individuo, cuyo significado debía decodificarse mediante la observación y la interpretación. Tomando como fuente principal de mi trabajo la serie fisionómica Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («Si una mujer tiene la cabeza grande», analizo, por una parte, los mecanismos por los que se promueve una determinada visión de las mujeres en la adivinación fisionómica a partir de la lectura sexuada de su cuerpo. Por otra, los elementos que caracterizan esta imagen femenina, en base a dos grandes ejes: la imagen de la mujer ideal encarnada en el rol de madre; y los peligros que amenazan la vida de las mujeres en calidad de procreadoras.

  3. ["If a woman has a big head": physiognomy and feminine nature in an Assyro-Babylonian text].

    Ferreira, Erica Couto


    In Mesopotamia, the human body was understood as an object for divination, that is, a system of signs, which carried messages about the individual, and whose meaning had to be decoded by means of observation and interpretation. Taking the physiognomic series "Summa sinnistu qaqqada rabât" ("If a woman has a big head") as the main source of my article, I analyse, on the one hand, the processes that take part in the promotion of a particular perception of women based on a specific reading of the female body. On the other hand, I deal with the elements that characterize this female perception, basically, the image of the ideal woman centred on motherhood, and, in close relation to this, the dangers that threaten women's life during pregnancy. PMID:19847966

  4. «If a woman has a big head»: Physiognomy and female nature in an assyro-babylonian text

    Couto Ferreira, Érica


    In Mesopotamia, the human body was understood as an object for divination, that is, a system of signs, which carried messages about the individual, and whose meaning had to be decoded by means of observation and interpretation. Taking the physiognomic series Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («If a woman has a big head») as the main source of my article, I analyse, on the one hand, the processes that take part in the promotion of a particular perception of women based on a speci...

  5. Religious Texts as Models of Exclusion

    Kastfelt, Niels

    The chapter analyses the connection between Biblical interpretation and the making of political communities in northern Nigeria in the 20th century. Generally, it studies the use of religious scriptures in developing models of society which can both include and exclude particular religious and...

  6. Personhood and religious change among the Saami: reviewing historical texts

    Kaikkonen, Konsta


    In my MA -thesis I focus on studying religious history of the Saami, particularly the role religious and cultural changes play in changing attitudes towards animals and nature. I review texts written in the 17th, 19th and early 20th centuries and thus attempt to paint a picture of the consequences of Christian missionary work in nature relations among the Saami. My focus is mainly in Finnish Lapland, but have included some complimentary sources from the Russian side as well as some works that...

  7. Realization of language tactics in the texts of religious-popular discourse

    Черхава, О. О.


    The article gives religious-popular discourse more precise definition in the field of variety differentiation of religious discourse; its working definition is provided; kernel criteria of religious-popular discourse identification are suggested; religious-popular texts according to their invariant religious-propaganda and religious-informative variant parameters are classified. The aim of the research is to establish the characteristics of English, German and Ukrainian texts which belong to ...

  8. Overcomming Misconceptions in Religious Education: The Effects of Text Structure and Topic Interest on Conceptual Change

    King, Seth J.


    The aim of this study was to quantitatively measure refutation text's power for conceptual change while qualitatively discovering students' preference of refutation or expository text structures. This study also sought to examine if religious interest levels predict conceptual change. Participants for this study were 9th, 10th-, 11th-, and 12th-grade seminary students from the private religious educational system of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). The study was conducte...

  9. Co-citation Network Analysis of Religious Texts

    Murai, Hajime; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    This paper introduces a method of representing in a network the thoughts of individual authors of dogmatic texts numerically and objectively by means of co-citation analysis and a method of distinguishing between the thoughts of various authors by clustering and analysis of clustered elements, generated by the clustering process. Using these methods, this paper creates and analyzes the co-citation networks for five authoritative Christian theologians through history (Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Jean Calvin, Karl Barth, John Paul II). These analyses were able to extract the core element of Christian thought (Jn 1:14, Ph 2:6, Ph 2:7, Ph 2:8, Ga 4:4), as well as distinctions between the individual theologians in terms of their sect (Catholic or Protestant) and era (thinking about the importance of God's creation and the necessity of spreading the Gospel). By supplementing conventional literary methods in areas such as philosophy and theology, with these numerical and objective methods, it should be possible to compare the characteristics of various doctrines. The ability to numerically and objectively represent the characteristics of various thoughts opens up the possibilities of utilizing new information technology, such as web ontology and the Artificial Intelligence, in order to process information about ideological thoughts in the future.

  10. Metaphorische Verwendung von Bezeichnungen religiöser Texte (anhand des Tschechischen)

    Kopecký, Jakub

    Hildesheim : Georg Olms, 2012 - (Nagórko, A.), s. 113-128 ISBN 978-3-487-14821-2. [Wortsemantik im Spannungsfeld zwischen Säkularisierung und (Re)Sakralisierung der öffentlichen Diskurse – Deutsch, Polnisch, Slowakisch, Tschechisch. Berlin (DE), 04.10.2011-07.10.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : metaphor * religious text * semantic feature Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  11. Theological Media Literacy Education and Hermeneutic Analysis of Soviet Audiovisual Anti-Religious Media Texts in Students' Classroom

    Fedorov, Alexander


    This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy and hermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religious audiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency/authors. The hermeneutic analysis…


    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.

  13. Theological Media Literacy Education and Hermeneutic Analysis of Soviet Audiovisual Anti-religious Media Texts in Students’ Classroom

    Alexander Fedorov


    Full Text Available This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy andhermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religiousaudiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency / authors. The hermeneutic analysis suggests media text comprehension through comparison with historical, cultural tradition and reality; penetration of its logic; through comparison of media images in historical and cultural context by combining analysis of the structural, plot, ethical, ideological, iconographic / visual, media stereotypes and analysis of media text characters. An analysis of such audiovisual media texts, in our opinion, is particularly important for media literacy education in the training of future historians, culture, art historians, sociologists, linguists, theologians, psychologists and educators.

  14. Theological Media Literacy Education and Hermeneutic Analysis of Soviet Audiovisual Anti-religious Media Texts in Students’ Classroom

    Alexander Fedorov


    This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy andhermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religiousaudiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency / authors. The hermeneutic analysis suggests media text comprehension through comparison with historical, cultural tradition and reality; penetration of its logic; through comparison of me...

  15. Der Körper als Text: Die Versprachlichung religiöser Erfahrung bei Meister Eckhart und Heinrich Seuse

    Beling, M. (Marcus)


    In der hochmittelalterlichen Mystik ist der Körper das Medium der Gotteserfahrung. Er bildet die Bedingung der Möglichkeit mystischer Spiritualität: Der Körper ist als Ort der Rahmen der Gotteserfahrung und bestimmt diese auch inhaltlich duch Sinnlichkeit. An ihm werden Muster der Versprachlichung kreiert. Dies schlägt sich in asketischer Praxis (Seuse), Sprache und Reflexion (Seuse+Eckhart) innerhalb eines teilliteralen Kontextes nieder. Die Deutung mystischer Texte geht dabei auf ihre Einbe...

  16. Language, gender and religion : an investigation into some genderspecific issues in religious texts and the impact of language on the role of woman injudaism, christianity and islam

    Mezit, Lelja


    The thesis begins by providing background information about the concept of gender within the linguistic, feminist and religious context. Possible definitions of the difference between sex and gender are offered and the position of gender issues in the realm of language is discussed. In continuation an introduction to religious feminism and its different types is given. Before the discussion of the core of the thesis, a presentation of the research investigation included in this work is giv...

  17. Religious Dogma without Religious Fundamentalism

    Erik D. Baldwin


    Full Text Available Problem statement: New Atheists and Anti-Theists (such as Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, Christopher Hutchins affirm that there is a strong connection between being a traditional theist and being a religious fundamentalist who advocates violence, terrorism, and war. They are especially critical of Islam. On the contrary, I argue that, when correctly understood, religious dogmatic belief, present in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, is progressive and open to internal and external criticism and revision. Moreover, acknowledging that human knowledge is finite and that humans are fallible and have much to learn, dogmatic religious believers accept that they ought to value and seek to acquire moral and intellectual virtues, including the virtues of temperance and reasonability. Conclusion/Recommendations: While some Muslims advocate violence, terrorism, and war, others accept the concept of dogma articulated here and even speak out against the very things that Dawkins et al abhor. The contentious claims of the New Atheists and Anti-Theists to the contrary, therefore, while popular and rhetorically forceful, are false and do not withstand careful scrutiny.

  18. Religious Education

    ÇEKİN, Abdulkadir


    In this encyclopedia article, having short introduction about problematic subjects of religious education in a pluralist society, firstly two different approaches (education in religion and education about religion) to religious education evaluated in terms of aim, content and acquisition. In the remaining of the article, informal different patterns of provision in religious education for supplementing to the religious education courses in schools and understandings and practices of six great...

  19. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Robert KUNZMAN


    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.

  20. Religious Tourism

    Alina Badulescu; Olimpia Ban


    The first part of the paper presents the past and present of the religious tourism in the world and in Romania and its implications on traveling. The second part describes the regions with religious tourism potential in Romania and the activities that could enhance and help the development of this kind of tourism in our country.

  1. Religious narrative

    Geertz, Armin W.


    Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...


    Adina Elena Coclici (Telescu)


    The purpose of this article is to investigate the specific languages of religious style, including the common and the newer ones. The religious style is the first special manifestation of the Romanian literary language; and the beginning of the written Romanian language is directly associated with the writing of religious texts. Being ignored for a long time, in the last decades, the religious style assumed new forms generated by the practices of religious rites, which are sometimes very dive...

  3. Pavel Florensky on Religious Experience and Religious Dogma

    Nikolay Pavlyuchenkov


    Full Text Available This article is centered on presenting Florensky’s thought regarding the close relationship between dogma and religious experience. The author begins by briefl y examining the idea of religion as a particular sense of consciousness (Schleiermacher in the realm of knowledge and thought (John Newman. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s theory of religious feeling and religious experience is also discussed. Western authors who wrote about the rapport between religious experience and religious tradition include William James and Rudolf Otto; Russians include Bulgakov, Berdyaev, Frank, Il’in, and Tareev. Florensky’s ideas on the subject are presented on the basis of his early works and of his Pillar and Foundation of Truth. The author remarks that Florensky understands religious dogma primarily as a means given to man which makes it possible for him to overcome rational reality and rise to higher levels of perception. The possibility of surmounting mundane reality is realized through religious experience in which dogma assumes the role of an anchor or point of orientation as well as a point of resistance. The objectivity of religious experience, according to Florensky is guaranteed by its participation in that same truth which reveals itself to man, which gives man the means to recognize itself as the objective and absolute truth, and which establishes man’s religious experience in a formulated dogmatic doctrine.

  4. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    P. J. Watson


    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  5. Adult Religious Education

    Elias, John L.


    Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of…

  6. A study on religious values

    Robabeh Poorjebelli


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate and to compare the adherence rate of religious values between the two ethnic groups of Turkish and Kurdish who live in West Azerbaijan province. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, low, medium and high, and distributes it among a sample of 200 people who live in these two regions. The result of our survey indicates that Azeri people were more religious than Kurdish people were. In addition, the study investigates the relationship between personal characteristics including age, gender and marital status and adherence rate of religious values and detects some meaningful relationships between these two items.

  7. Revelação ou entendimento: alguns apontamentos sobre a tradução de textos religiosos Revelation or understanding: some ideas about the translation of religious texts

    Lenita Maria Rimoli Esteves


    Full Text Available O trabalho sugere que existem pelo menos duas estratégias bastante distintas para abordar a tradução de textos religiosos: a primeira busca dar acesso ao leitor em termos de entendimento, aproximando o texto religioso da cultura para a qual ele está sendo traduzido. A segunda estratégia é nutrida por uma ênfase na iluminação, na revelação, numa clarividência que não necessariamente passa pelo raciocínio, mas que pode ser proporcionada pela transmissão de características da língua que não pertencem ao campo dos sentidos e têm a ver com a materialidade da língua: ritmo, assonâncias, aliterações. As duas estratégias, numa primeira análise, parecem não só se opor diametralmente, mas também reforçar uma dicotomia talvez tão ou mais antiga que os próprios textos em estudo: aquela que opõe espírito (ou conteúdo a letra (forma. No entanto, como já poderíamos suspeitar, as coisas não são tão simples assim... O trabalho apresentará algumas manifestações dessas duas tendências ao longo da história, problematizando a dicotomia e buscando delimitar que éticas informaram cada esforço de tradução.This paper suggests the existence of at least two very different strategies in the translation of religious texts: one is based on understanding and aims at accommodating the religious text to the culture into which it is translated. The second strategy is nourished by an emphasis on illumination, on revelation, on an insight that does not necessarily demand reasoning, but rather the transmission of certain linguistic characteristics not belonging to the realm of meaning: rhythm, assonances, alliterations. At first sight, the two strategies are radically different, stressing a dichotomy that is perhaps even older than the texts being studied " that opposing spirit to letter (or content to form. However, as one might expect, things are not so simple. The work will present some manifestations of these two tendencies along

  8. Religious appeals in the popular presentation of cosmology

    Guarino, Michael J.


    This thesis explores the use of religious language, metaphors, and images in the popular presentation of cosmology. Specifically looking at books written by cosmologists and intended for a lay audience, I argue that these religious appeals present a particular model, or picture, of cosmology to the public. Through the religious language, metaphors, and images, the texts create scientific-religious imagery which gives cosmology and cosmologists religious functions (e.g., ...

  9. Defending Religious Pluralism for Religious Education

    Davis, Andrew


    Religious exclusivism, or the idea that only one religion can be true, fuels hatred and conflict in the modern world. Certain objections to religious pluralism, together with associated defences of exclusivism are flawed. I defend a moderate religious pluralism, according to which the truth of one religion does not automatically imply the falsity…

  10. Resisting religious coercive control.

    Sharp, Shane


    Religious coercive control refers to the use of religious beliefs and doctrine as means to coercively control intimate partners. Scholars have shown that some abusive partners use the Christian doctrine of submission as a means of religious coercive control. I explore how victims who experience the doctrine of submission qua religious coercive control actively resist it. I argue that victims' successful resistance of the doctrine is contingent on their religious capital-that is, the knowledge and mastery that people have of a particular religious culture-and interpretive confidence-that is, people's subjective confidence in their interpretations of religious culture-related to the doctrine. PMID:25398370

  11. Religious diversity and pluralism

    Pedersen, René Dybdal


    Although religious pluralism is a key word for understanding contemporary religious life, it is only recently that in-depth studies of religious pluralism have appeared. This article presents major findings from the Danish Pluralism Project, a collective research project which was launched in 2002....... Both religious diversity and religious pluralism build on assumptions of stable relationships between religion and religious adherents and clear-cut boundaries between religious groups, assumptions which may be difficult to sustain in late modern societies. This article gives an overview of the Project...

  12. Entering the Mindset of Violent Religious Activists

    Mark Juergensmeyer


    Full Text Available How can one enter the mindset of religious activists whose worldview and values are different from one’s own? This is the challenge for analyzing contemporary violent religious movements and individuals around the world. This essay suggests guidelines, based on the author’s interview experience, for entering religious minds through informative encounters, relational knowledge, bracketing assumptions, and constructing a view of the whole.

  13. Religiousness in hospitals

    John Koutelekos


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to review the literature about religiousness within hospitals. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, in the "pubmed data base" which referred to the religiousness within hospitals. Results : According to the literature research an administrative institution, such as hospital does not include only one culture but on the contrary many different cultures that interact since health professionals have their own background. Hospital as a place of special care, that has its' own culture, is expected to fulfill patients' needs (family, social, occupational, health and disease. Faith is encouraged in hospitals where the icons and Christian churches are prevalent, while faith individuals express their deeper need for pray. The tendency of religious individuals to ask for an upper support mainly in difficult circumstances such as for recovery in the clinical environment is deeply rooted in its' soul and consists an element of its' nature. Conclusions: In contemporary Greek reality, medical science has always had at the practice a great charity: religion.

  14. Religious experience in context of academic interpretation pseudo religions

    Dyadushkin A. M.


    Full Text Available The methods of exposure of key sign are probed pseudo-religions. The methods of study of religious and mystic experience are examined. Еxamples are offered pseudo-religious organizations and social associations.

  15. The Effect of Brand Image and Religious Orientation on the Attitudes towards Religious Brand Names: A Study on Youth Consumers

    Ömer Torlak


    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of religious brand image and religious orientation on the attitudes towards religious brand names and the relationship between religious brand image and religious orientation. The study also investigated whether the participants’ attitudes towards religious brand names varied based on levels of religious orientation. The sample of this study consisted of university students residing in Eskisehir. Data were collected from a sample determined by convenience sampling method due to the constraints of time and cost as well as the difficulty in reaching an updated list of university students residing in Eskisehir. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and the drop-and-collect method after briefing the participants. The findings showed that religious brand image and religious orientation had a positive significant influence on the attitudes towards religious brand names and that in comparison with the participants with lower levels of religious orientation, the participants with higher levels of religious orientation held more positive attitudes towards religious brand names. Finally, a significant relationship was found between religious orientation and the brand image of religious brand names.

  16. Discussion Religious Experience : A Roman Catholic Perspective

    Deshi Ramadhani


    Full Text Available The point is that in the Roman Catholic tradition, faith life moves around Sacraments. Any religious experience will be evaluated whether it enhances the devotion to the Sacraments, or it derails the person from the Sacraments. The authenticity will be judged based on the inner direction that lows out as a result of  the religious experience.

  17. Origins of Religiousness

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding

    of religiousness, and to inclusion of country fixed effects, income, education, demographics, religious denominations, and other climatic and geographic features. The results hold within Christianity, Islam and Buddhism, and across continents. To eliminate bias from omitted variables and selection (perhaps...

  18. Religious Tourism - a Finnish Perspective

    Nieminen, Katri


    This thesis deals with religious tourism. The objectives of this study are firstly to understand what religious tourism is, who the tourists attracted to religious tourism are, what the destinations and motives for religious holidays are and what the future of religious tourism looks like. This study is limited to dealing with Christian religious tourism. There is a survey made to find out firstly how religious tourism is understood and what the important destinations for religious touri...

  19. Religious Choices and Preferences: North Carolina's Baskin Robbins Effect?

    Robert Wortham


    Full Text Available The marketing of religion has become a big business. Wortham examines the current religious scene and shows that Americans want religious plurality, rather than religious homogamy. Just like shopping for ice cream, Americans want 57 choices when shopping for religion

  20. Understanding religious behavior.

    Levin, S


    The attached (to mother) fetus-infant finds his religious expression in Buddhism. The attached (to group) juvenile finds his religious expression in Judaism and other tribalisms. The attached (to spouse) adult finds his religious expression in agnosticism and secularism. Attached phases are placid and of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The three detaching phases are hurtful and hence soteriological, and are also of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The toddler-young child finds his religious expression in Christianity, the adolescent in atheism and/or Marxism, and the aged, sick or dying plucks at any religious or secular aid. PMID:24318473

  1. The Influence of Implementation Religious Study on Students’ Religious Behaviour at Senior High Schools Under Religious Foundation in Kupang East Nusa Tenggara

    AM Wibowo


    Full Text Available This research aims to measure the effect of implementation of religious education at the high school under the religious foundations toward religious behavior student in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. There are five aspect of behaviour that measured include religiosity, honesty, tolerance, love peace and social concerns. Formulation of the problems in this study are (1 are  there any effect of the implementation of religious education for student of religious behavior (2 How is the implementation of religious education as ap- plied to schools under the Religious foundations. (3 how the implementation of the ideal model of religious education at the high school under thereligious foundations. By using the mixed methods  analysis this research found three findings: (1 there is  influence of religion on the behavior of  the implementation of religious education  for learners. (2 religious education at high school under the Religious foundations in Kupang East Nusa Tenggara have implemented five aspects measured in the subjects of religious education. (3 there are three models of a good education: an evaluation of  the  cognitive,  affective and psychomotor, strengthening the practice, and establising communication with inte- gral outsiders .


    Quadri Syed Javeed


    Full Text Available An objective of the study was to measure the personality characteristics among atheist and religious persons. Hypotheses: there is no significant difference between atheist and religious persons dimension on personality characteristics. Sample: For the present study 80 Sample were selected in Jalna city, among them 40 subjects were atheist persons (M = 22.36, SD = 3.41 and 40 subjects were religious persons (M = 23.89, SD = 4.58. The age range of subjects was 18-26 years. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was used. Tools: 1 NEOPI was constructed and standardize by Macraa and Costa. Results: 1 There was no significant difference between atheist and religious persons dimension on openness. 2 Religious persons have significantly high conscientiousness than the atheist persons. 3 Atheist persons have significantly high extraversion than the religious persons. 4 Religious persons have significantly high agreeableness than the atheist persons. 5 Atheist persons have significantly high neuroticism than the religious persons.

  3. Religious Tolerance in Malaysia: Problems and Challenges

    Nur Farhana Abdul Rahman


    Full Text Available Every religion is normally perceived from their own religion to tend toward exclusiveness by claiming that their religion is the only true religion, offering the true revelation and the true way of salvation. This exclusiveness started with desire to know the religious status or truth position among other religions. The question on which religion is the ideal religion and ultimately the truest one has always been raised and debated among people of religions. This polemic can be a seed of many conflicts and disagreements between religions in many parts of the world, including Malaysia as a multi-religious country. This is a preliminary study which attempts to explore issues and challenges pertaining to religious tolerance as practiced in Malaysia. This research is a qualitative research which data are gathered from various sources including books, journals, magazines, newspapers, articles and internet sources related to the topic as well as in depth interview with qualified persons. The data will then be analysed using document analysis method. The result shows that religious tolerance in this country is seen working under various and distinctive understanding. The main challenges to practising religious tolerance in Malaysia emerged from none guidance module to practising religious tolerance especially which stated the limitation and the rule in religious tolerance applicable in Malaysia context and lack of understanding of religious tolerance needed within adherents of religion which cause prejudices against the adherents of religions.

  4. Depressie en religie

    P. A. Botha


    Full Text Available Two contrasting roles regarding the mental health of man have been attributed to religion in the course of history. On the one hand, the presence of religion and faith in a person has been regarded as pathogenic, with the absence the reof as remedial On the other hand religion and faith in a person have been regarded as remedial, with the absence thereof as pathogenic. The most important finding is that depression is an experience of paradoxes. If the person cannot offer any solution for the paradox, he remains trapped in the vicious spiral of depression. Expressed differently, despair is then constituted. The religious individual attempts to offer a solution fo r the paradox through his interpretation of faith on the basis of his concept of God. Through a newly-discovered concept of God an interpretation of faith becomes possible by which the pe rso n discovers sense and meaning. Expressed differently, hope is then constituted.

  5. Pluralism and Religious Harmony in Religious Elites Perspectives in Malang City

    Umi Sumbulah


    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in  Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts  and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research  data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same as tolerance, mutual respect, the goal of all religions are the same, and recognize the fact that there are many religions in this world. Second, religiousharmony have meaning as a condition where there is no oppression and domination of one religion over other religions, awakening a deep awareness of diversity, respect for human rights, and the willingness to spread kindness and love for fellow human beings. Third, religious harmony can be achieved through internal efforts to strengthen the faith of each and build awareness to develop a positive attitude towards other religions. In external efforts to create harmony done through emancipatory dialogue and cooperation to resolve humanitarian issues. Fourth, positive attitude that supports the creation of harmony of religions is the willingness and awareness to understand each other and share experiences. Egoism, truth claims, fanaticism, and exclusivism is a negative attitude and expression recognized by the religious elite can interfere with the establishment of inter-religious harmony.

  6. Toward a Greater Discourse: Issues in Religious Archives

    Robert Presutti


    Full Text Available The topic of religious archives, a catalyst of much discussion in archival literature, has traditionally been overlooked within the discourse of the American Theological Library Association (ATLA. This essay provides a survey analysis of three pertinent issues in religious archives with the intention of generating a wider discussion on religious archives within ATLA. These issues include the role of graduate archival education, the effects of religious faith on both the archival record and the individual archivist, and the idea of a theology of archives. An extended review of the contributions of James O’Toole to the discussion of religious archives is utilized.

  7. Religious pluralism and education

    Jiménez de Madariaga, Celeste


    The Spanish Constitution (1978) and Law of Religious Freedom (1980) open the possibility of religious pluralism in Spain, a possibility that in principle will stagnate within the framework legislative without a projection in the social practice. The passage towards the exercise of the religious plurality, its institutionalization, is intensifying in the last years as result of the diversification of the religions and the increase foreign immigration. In this paper, the author dwells to analyz...


    Divya K. Wadi


    Full Text Available This research article will focus on the sacred Hindu religious Institutions of Vijayanagar Empire during (1336-1565 those existed in and around the Hampi, Lepakshi and Srangeri. The mathas and temples are the main pillers of the medieval times. They tried to spread the education and maintained peace in the society. They ment for maintaining the socio-religious and cultural hormony between the all castes of the Hindu religion. Therefore still the mathas and temples are worshiping by the people as religious centeres.

  9. The Religious Notion in Epistemology

    Loredana TEREC-VLAD


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight the issue of religiousness from the epistemological perspective. This involves, on the one hand, a scientific approach, and on the other hand the relation between science and religion as the basis of the spirituality of the entire existence, by approaching the religious exposure at social level. If at the scientific level religion occupies a secondary place in terms of the object of research, at the social and anthropological level it plays a vital role by approaching the divine-human relationship of all human expressions in relation to the creation and the Creator. Addressing this type of knowledge in such a sensitive field indicates the moment when the question surrounded by a whole plea that defines the relation between mystical and metaphysical knowledge is raised. We cannot not pretend to know religion as we know biology, but we also cannot say that we will know religion as we know mathematics, even if in they all lead to the same result. Since they are metaphysical or transcendental, religious sciences require a special approach regarding the object of research, because everything that is said or approved will permanently reflect uncertainty and ambiguity within not knowing, precisely by the very essence of the great mystery of the central point that gives vitality to the whole circle of religious knowledge. We shall systematically present the relation between the religious content and what can be perceived and known by using all our systems of understanding and exposure in order to provide a satisfactory answer both from the symbolic point of view as well as by indicating the type of knowledge applied for finding the epistemological relevance. Classification-JEL: A23

  10. Documentary Media and Religious Communities

    Marie-Therese Mäder


    Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.

  11. A religião do futuro

    Roberto Mangabeira Unger


    Full Text Available A segunda palestra, A Religião do Futuro, examina o conteúdo da religião transformada, em seu registro secular. O tema central é a necessidade e o potencial para uma revolução na nossa crença religiosa. Dois obstáculos dificultam pensar sobre a religião. O primeiro deles é o tabu contra a crítica religiosa da religião. As origens deste tabu encontram-se na privatização da religião e no fim das guerras religiosas do início do período moderno. O segundo obstáculo a ser superado é a atitude sentimental em relação à religião. Na prática, a atitude sentimental em relação à religião é útil para uma democracia social institucionalmente conservadora. Ela serve para manter as aparências: trata-se de um aprimoramento metafísico dos mesmos preconceitos morais frequentemente apoiados pelo humanismo secular predominante.

  12. Religious Activities and their Tourism Potential in Sukur Kingdom, Nigeria

    Emeka Okonkwo


    Full Text Available Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship, vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious travel for the primary purpose of sharing faith and fellowship together as they explore the various religious sites within Sukur and Adamawa State at large. Others still seek inspiration and desire to witness significant religious events while assisting others with humanitarian and spiritual needs. This paper examines the tourism potentials of religion/religious sites and belief systems in Sukur Kingdom with a view to harnessing them for sustainable tourism development. The study uses ethnographic methods to elicit information and analyze the data collected from respondents.

  13. Teaching for Religious Literacy

    Gallagher, Eugene V.


    Stephen Prothero's "Religious Literacy" makes a strong case that minimal religious literacy is an essential requirement for contemporary U. S. citizens. He argues further that high schools and colleges should offer required courses in the study of religion in order to help students reach that baseline literacy. Beyond the general recommendation…

  14. School religious education in a liberating perspective

    José Luis Meza Rueda


    Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.


    Eddy Rot


    Full Text Available Croatia has a rich sacral (tangible and intangible heritage, which undoubtedly has great cultural value, and part of the religious heritage has been included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The fact is, however, that, except when it comes to top attractions, churches as tourist facilities, are poorly attended and do not get almost no direct tourism income.. In this paper, after the introductory explanations of basic terms related to religious tourism and pilgrimage, we explore the basic features of religious tourism in Croatia, both on tourist attractions, as well as on the tourist demand. It also presents the results of empirical research on the socio-demographic profile of the author, the role of religion in the life of pilgrims and the satisfaction of the visitors to the Shrine of Mary of Bistrica in 2013 among 50 pilgrims in Marija Bistrica. The main objective is to determine how the pilgrims perceived the tourism offer in religious tourism.

  16. Religious Values In Song Lyrics Tingkilan

    Muhammad Sadli Mustafa


    Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.

  17. Chancen und Herausforderungen der religiösen Bildung im Lebensraum Schule aus muslimischer Perspektive

    Sule Dursun


    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert – mit dem Hinweis auf die zunehmende Präsenz der herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa – auf dem Argument, dass die islamisch-religiöse Bildung in den Schulen Europas überdacht werden muss und ihr eine entscheidende Rolle zukommt. Neben den herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa wird in diesem Beitrag die Bedeutung des islamischen Religionsunterrichts aus dem Blickwinkel des kontextualisierten Islams beleuchtet. Mittels Fallbeispielen zur religiösen Bildung am religiösen Markt (= religiöse Institutionen außerhalb des Schulraums wird in diesem Beitrag aufgezeigt, dass der islamische Religionsunterricht im Gegensatz zu den religiösen Institutionen keine Monopolkirche sein darf, in der vorwiegend eine Art Volksfrömmigkeit vermittelt wird. Opportunities and Challenges of Religious Education in Schools – A Muslim Perspective This contribution is based on the argument that the role of Islamic religious education at schools should be reconceived in relation to the growing presence of origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe. In addition to the origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe, this paper aims to present the importance of Islamic religious education from the perspective of contextualized Islam. Based on case studies for religious education in the religious market (outside the education area this paper shows that the Islamic religious education cannot offer Church`s monopoly and act like origin-oriented religious institutions to mediate popular piety.

  18. Pavel Florensky on Religious Experience and Religious Dogma

    Nikolay Pavlyuchenkov


    This article is centered on presenting Florensky’s thought regarding the close relationship between dogma and religious experience. The author begins by briefl y examining the idea of religion as a particular sense of consciousness (Schleiermacher) in the realm of knowledge and thought (John Newman). Hans-Georg Gadamer’s theory of religious feeling and religious experience is also discussed. Western authors who wrote about the rapport between religious experience and religious tradition includ...

  19. A crítica da religião

    Zilles, Urbano$$d1937


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o autor discute "a crítica da religião", abordando temas como ateísmo, fundamentalismo e fideísmo. Caracteriza a crítica da religião na Antiguidade grega, na Bíblia, na Patrística e na Idade Média, concluindo que parece ser a religião capaz de enfrentar novos desafios.

  20. Religious terrorism in America

    Brinsfield, Gregory S.; Ashby, Christopher B.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Religious terrorism, as most recently highlighted by the horrendous 9/11 attacks, is not a new phenomenon. It is not restricted to any one particular religion or belief system, nor is it reserved as a weapon against foreign lands. Domestic religious terrorism is just as prevalent throughout history and is brought about by certain converging factors at particularly susceptible times within the society, such as economic difficulties, ne...

  1. Iranian Women's ' Religious Tourism

    ASADIYAN, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Mehdi


    Abstract. Tourism is an identifier industry for varied areas and it has a particular and precise definition. Tourism is one of the most economical revenue activities in the world. Religion is an important and impressive element in man's moral .The most important purpose for the religious tourism in traditional way is doing cultural pilgrimage. Religious tourism is noteworthy because of it’s out of soul searching against souls searching. The holy Quran in different chapters refers to tourism c...




    Full Text Available Several of the new religious movements (NRMs of modern times have become global movements. Among these are the Soka Gakkai of Japan; the Brahma Kumaris, Sathya Sai Baba, and Hare Krishna of India; the Tzu Chi Buddhist Compassion and Relief Society of Taiwan; and Scientology, which began in the United States in the early 1950s. In order to become global movements, NRMs must often depend heavily on one particular ethnic group as they expand beyond their home base. On arrival in new cultural contexts, movements are most likely to appeal to first- or second-generation economic migrants from the same ethnic background as the missionaries who brought the movement to the region in the first place. While being themselves part of the process of ever-increasing globalization, NRMs also throw light on the dynamics and mechanics of this process, on how it plays itself out. This article discusses the globalization and “glocalization” of NRMs, as well as NRMs as vehicles of a new spirituality.

  3. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Kirsti Suolinna


    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  4. Religious pluralism, human rights and democracy

    Cláudio de Oliveira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the results of a research on questions raised up by religious pluralism related to the promotion of human rights, and some aspects around the deepening of democracy. Methodologically, we first focused on the balance of some important questions for ecumenical theology of religions, because they raise new theological perspectives. Then, we highlighted (i some aspects of the contemporary tendency to privatize religious experiences, all of this as impediment to a good balance between religion and human rights. (ii We analyzed the relationship between ecumenical theology and human rights, in a dialogue with Boaventura de Souza Santo’s ‘counter-hegemonic globalization’ concept. In front of religious pluralism it is necessary to give special attention to the articulation between the capability of religious groups to dialogue and the challenges around the promotion of human rights. We also indicate that an ecumenical spirituality emerging from religious pluralism will have alterity as a central dimension, and this will have a direct impact in religious and social processes giving birth to utopian and democratic meaningful perspectives.

  5. The origins of religious disbelief.

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M


    Although most people are religious, there are hundreds of millions of religious disbelievers in the world. What is religious disbelief and how does it arise? Recent developments in the scientific study of religious beliefs and behaviors point to the conclusion that religious disbelief arises from multiple interacting pathways, traceable to cognitive, motivational, and cultural learning mechanisms. We identify four such pathways, leading to four distinct forms of atheism, which we term mindblind atheism, apatheism, inCREDulous atheism, and analytic atheism. Religious belief and disbelief share the same underlying pathways and can be explained within a single evolutionary framework that is grounded in both genetic and cultural evolution. PMID:23246230


    M. Mujiburrahman


    Full Text Available This article discusses how Indonesian state manages its religious diversity. The state policies on religious diversity cannot be understood without analyzing the history of how the founding fathers decided to choose Indonesia as neither secular nor Islamic country, but somewhere between the two. The author discusses three topics, namely the recognized religions, Muslim fear of Christianization, and dialogue and inter-religious harmony. Based on the Decree No.1/1965, Confucianism was one of six religions recognized by the state. However, in the Soeharto era, around 1979, this religion was dropped from the list, and only after his fall Confucianism has been rehabilitated, and even the Chinese New Year has been included as one of the national holidays in Indonesia. In terms of Muslim-Christian relations, there were tensions since 1960s, particularly dealt with the issue of the high number of Muslims who converted to Christianity. It was in this situation that in 1967 a newly built Methodist Church in Meulaboh, Aceh, was closed by Muslims, arguing that the Church was a concrete example of the aggressiveness of Christian missions because it was built in a Muslim majority area. Since the Meulaboh case, the Muslims consistently insisted the government to accommodate their four demands: (1 restriction on establishing new places of worship; (2 restriction onreligious propagation, and control of foreign aid for religious institutions; (4 Islamic religion classes should be given to Muslim students studying in Christian schools; (5 inter-religious marriage should not be allowed. Apart from these contested issues, the government and religious leaders have been trying to avoid conflict and to establish cooperation and peace among religious groups in the country through inter-religious dialogues, either organized by the government or sponsored by the leaders of religious groups themselves. The author argues that specific socio-political contexts should be

  7. Religious thought and behavior.

    Lawson, Ernest Thomas


    While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302707

  8. Homegrown religious radicalization

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community......It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper aims at exploring the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...

  9. Training Problems of Religious Studies in Independent Kazakhstan

    İlyas Erpay


    Full Text Available In the Republic of Kazakhstan training questions about religious studies still didn't receive enough attention since after statehood formation and before independence the Kazakhs endured a set of various historical events. Some of these events negatively affected people's consciousness. Seventy years of atheistic education changed people’s spiritual and cultural basis, as a result religious concepts partially lost the importance. After independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan started raise questions about teaching religious studies. However, heterogeneity in religious beliefs of the population to some extent negatively influences training in religious studies. Therefore study of the reasons for emergence of this problem turned into an actual problem. Within this article the genesis analysis of modern training problems in religious studies was carried out and ways of their decision were considered. Currently some religious studies teaching centers and preparation of the corresponding experts are formed. However, despite of the training standards are identical for all centers, ways of their implementation differ from each other. The reason for that – features of the outlook created under the influence of historical factors. These features cause necessity of teaching religious studies in high school. In article the questions on this problem was considered and necessary answers were given. The main method used in research work is the c omparative historical method. In summary it is necessary to specify that authors within article do the full analysis of questions of teaching of the subject "Religious studies" and offer solutions of these questions.

  10. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

    zahra khazaei


    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  11. China’s Religious Danwei

    Palmer, David A.


    This article is a study of the continuities and changes in the state-led institutionalisation of religion in the PRC from 1979 to 2009 and their effects on the structuring of China’s religious field. A normative discourse on religion is constituted by a network of Party leaders, officials, academics, and religious leaders. Official religious institutions have become hybrids of religious culture with the institutional habitus of work units ( danwei) in the socialist market economy. A wide rang...

  12. Religious Education : space of catechisms

    Sergio Rogerio Junqueira


    Full Text Available This article is the result of a qualitative historical documentary research on the construction of the discipline of Religious Education from textbooks. One of the strategies to understand the formation of the curriculum components in the school, being an institution of modernity that is closely related to the bourgeois urban-industrial society project, refers to the reflection of how their characters are built. The school has played the role of form and shape individual and collective standards of rationalization and bureaucratization of society. Although other social institutions carry out the same task, it is the school’s role to convey legitimated knowledge, essential requirement to meet the social demands. The curriculum components collaborate in such mediation.  Through Religious Education, among others, such  curriculum components is really perceived, especially embodied by textbooks, which through their texts and exercises express knowledge to be transmitted . We understand that through textbooks is possible to verify the development of this discipline, especially in its origin when it was called religion class, and wished to consolidate the project of the hegemonic religion through their catechisms as a teaching tool for countless generations.

  13. Inter-Religious Dialogue Models in Malaysia

    Wan Sabri Wan Yusof


    Full Text Available Over the years, many organizations have involved in the implementation of inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia. However, there are stillthose who doubt the role and purpose of interreligious dialogue. This might be due to lack of information and understanding regardingthe methodology of dialogue and also about different types that it may take. The present study is aimed at exploring a few models ofinter-religious dialogue that have been practised by some organizations that actively involved in dialogue. The study focuses on a review of selected organizational or institutional dialoguemodels such as Center for Civilizational Dialogue (CCD, Students Representative Council of Malaysia Science University (HealthCampus and Inter-faith Spiritual Fellowship (INSaF. This study provides information concerning the various designs of inter-religiousdialogue model in Malaysia and proposes that different designs of inter-religious dialogue rely on its different types and goals. It is found that, the commonly practiced type of dialogue in Malaysia is educational type which focuses on exploring inter-religious commonalities as well as differences which consequently willincrease understanding and foster meaningful engagement between people of different ethnic and religious background in Malaysia. Thistype of dialogue is distinguished from conflict resolution types of dialogue which aims at identifying issues and generating action plansto conflicts or disputes.

  14. Ideological conflicts in Slovenia over religious issues

    Flere Sergej


    Full Text Available Since attaining independence, Latin pattern (Martin, 1978 disputes and conflicts have characterized the Slovenian political scene, particularly as to relations between the state and religious communities. Slovenia adopted a law on the issue only in 2006, availing itself of the law from the 1970s. The 2007 Religious Freedom Act contained many privileges for the dominant Roman Catholic Church, including those of a symbolic nature and those of an economic one. The Constitutional Court declared the Act unconstitutional and void, departing from the European Convention of Human Rights and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. Thus, it set other beliefs at the same level with religious ones, did away with many privileges and obstacles 81 in recognition and registration of new religious communities. However, this decision has legislatively been implemented only in a small portion, remaining to be fully implemented. However, the absence of substantive agreements with the Holy See and the absence of religious instruction in public schools indicate a predominance of liberalism on the public scene.


    sema eryücel


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.

  16. Theological Scholarship as Religious Vocation

    Coakley, Sarah


    Theological studies as a discipline committed to religious practice has come increasingly under fire from both adherents of dispassionate "religious studies" and partisans of ecclesial communities. A false solution is on offer that also emphasizes religious practices; this move, however, reinscribes the problem it seeks to solve because of its…

  17. An Islamic Perspective in Managing Religious Diversity

    Hilal Wani


    Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of “diversity” as mentioned in the Qur’an and how commonalities in diverse religions may be used as a model for civilizational dialogue towards achieving harmony. This study reveals that religious and cultural diversity are laws of nature which cannot be changed while the concept of “identity” is a contested issue in modern discourse. Results also show that peace may be established among diverse religions through their commonalities and the best way to exploit these commonalities and to reduce the religious divide is through civilizational dialogue. The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR and other methods for changing the nature of religious differences and reaching a consensus—thus arriving at a peaceful co-existence—are also discussed. It was found that people are often misguided or divided in the name of religion and culture, despite the fact that the philosophy of every religion is based on peace and harmony.

  18. Religious Expression In The Growing Multicultural Workplace

    Garry Rollins


    Full Text Available The twentieth century saw incredible growth in the diversity of the American workplace as barriers, especially for women and minorities, were reduced.  In this twenty-first century the effects of globalization are adding to the company’s diversity.  Today, some companies reflect a microcosm of our world as the world’s workers come to America and technology connects organizations worldwide.  With this diverse workplace come not only the obvious differences of gender, race, and national origin, but also differences in religion and religious practices.  This research examines some trends in American workplace diversity, the historical and legal framework into which diverse religions can function in America, and corporate practices necessary to enable religious expression without significantly diminishing the organization’s efficiency.   The research concludes by reporting results of a survey on religious expression difficulties and solutions in the workplace.

  19. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    Kunzman, Robert


    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  20. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    KUNZMAN, Robert


    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith...

  1. Secular Religious Establishment

    Lægaard, Sune


    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  2. Religious Education and Socialization

    Vermeer, Paul


    This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…

  3. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F


    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  4. Dialogic Space and Religious Education

    Josephine Moate


    Full Text Available This review hopes to present an alternative model to confessional religious education and the kind of role religion can have in teaching and education. It is framed by the conceptualization of education as simultaneously being and becoming (van Manen 1991, 67. This dichotomous description underlines the challenging tension of balancing present realities with future anticipations, a tension which is perhaps the defining feature of education. In theoretical terms this review draws on sociocultural and dialogic educational research, particularly Rupert Wegerif’s notion of “dialogic space” (Wegerif 2007, 4, and a “Global Education: World Religions” -course recently run as part of the Summer School for Human Sciences at the University of Jyväskylä. The review opens by introducing the pedagogic orientation for the course and a simple cultural model developed within the course. Following this, the guidelines for the development of “dialogic space” are introduced with possible implications for Religious Education concluding the paper.

  5. A Critical Study of Modern Religious Poetry of pre –Islamic Revolution

    m akrami


    Full Text Available Religious verse is a kind of committed verse which has religious color with regard to semantic aspect and originates from religious teachings and Islamic history. Religious rituals, praising religious figures, paying attention to celestial issues and catharsis of man are in the center of it. Emergence of new religious verse in 40’s and 50’s should be considered as a major event in Persian literature. Undoubtedly, extensive entrance of religious forces to the scene of political and cultural fight was the origin of emergence of this branch of social verse. Because of some reasons, in most sources about the new Persian verse (free, blank, New Wave new religious verse has been neglected which, consequently, made a work like this one inevitable.

  6. Religious processes as intercultural interaction: Contours of a sociological discourse

    Lebedev Sergej


    Full Text Available During 'cyclic' historical periods it would be correct to interpret religious processes in terms of interaction of two essentially different, but substantially, structurally and functionally comparative types of integrating cultural complexes that, in historical perspective, compete with each other on the effect on individuals and society in general. Such complexes represent secular and religious culture. Contemporary socio-cultural situation can be defined as an asymmetric representativeness of both secular and religious cultures. In a modern secular society, dominance of a secular culture over a religious one can be manifested in three basic dimensions: substantial, regulative and subjective ones. Secular culture is adopted during the primary socialization process. However, religious culture is still adopted through conscious, voluntary selection in younger or more mature age. It may be possible to determine two basic attitudes of the contemporary ('secularized' man towards religion. The first attitude may be called 'reversive' and the other one 'conversive'.

  7. UNDERSTANDING RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDONESIA: Theological, Structural and Cultural Analyses

    Ahmad Salehudin


    Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.

  8. Revisiting Wittgenstein on the Nature of Religious Language

    Kevin Kimble


    Full Text Available In his Lectures on Religious Belief, Wittgenstein presents us with a view of the nature of religious discourse according to which religious claims are non-cognitive and not verifiable or assessable for correctness by means of evidence. I argue that, contrary to what is implied in LRB, these features do not follow from an analysis of the language game of religion, given that such an analysis is carried out on Wittgenstein’s own terms. A natural suggestion is that his assessment of the status of religious language is guided in part by implicit acceptance of a verification criterion of meaning held independently of any analysis of language games. While Wittgenstein could thereby combine his view of language games and his use theory of meaning with this verification condition in assessing the meaning of religious statements, such a move comes at considerable philosophical cost. 

  9. Current religious changes in Serbia and integration in Europe

    Blagojević Mirko V.


    Full Text Available In the last decade and a half the process of desecularization has been undoubtedly verified in Serbia. Not only that the changes have been verified in the religious complex in general, but in traditional religious groups in particular as well. The revival of religiousness and people’s attachment to religion and church have been clearly proved in all aspects of religious life: in the areas of religious identification, doctrinaire religious beliefs and ritual religious practices. It should also be noted that in times of extremely turbulent political and social changes in the Balkans, all traditional religious complexes, orthodox, catholic and Muslim, began forming close ties with political and state, public and binding domains, which was absolutely unthinkable of a decade and a half ago. Which leads us to the crucial question: can religion make a contribution to the process of integration coming form the surrounding countries as the imperative of foreign powers on one hand, and as the striving of the majority of population in all the post socialist countries in the Balkans on the other hand, or will it only cause damage and interfere with the process of integration of those societies into the European commonwealth of nations? This article discusses different opinions that view the traditional complexes of religion, language and nation as disruptive factors of modernization of the Balkan countries, as well as completely opposite opinions based on the experiences of traditional Islamic societies in which religion is not a factor that hinders their rapid modernization.

  10. Religious trends among the university population: a case study

    Pedro de Assis Ribeiro de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Religion continues to attract people's attention in the current Brazilian society. Pluralism and religious transit seem to be present in today's market for symbolic  values. Here live affection and disaffection to religious institutions. And specifically in the university environment, how religions are present? Mean something in their lives? This article analyzes the answers of 1446 undergraduate students of PUC-Minas to a questionnaire about their personal and academic life, with focus on the religious dimension of their life. The results are presented in two stages: an overview of religion among university students, and a comparative study of catholic and evangelical youth. Featured topics are: religious affiliation; cycle of religion in biography; education and religious participation; acquisition of knowledge; evaluation of beliefs, prescriptions and leaders; religious diversity and influence on personal and professional life. The analysis emphasyses the appreciation of religion even in secular environment of academia and points the trust in religious leaders as the main link between the students and the religious institution referred to their faith.

  11. Religious factors and hippocampal atrophy in late life.

    Amy D Owen

    Full Text Available Despite a growing interest in the ways spiritual beliefs and practices are reflected in brain activity, there have been relatively few studies using neuroimaging data to assess potential relationships between religious factors and structural neuroanatomy. This study examined prospective relationships between religious factors and hippocampal volume change using high-resolution MRI data of a sample of 268 older adults. Religious factors assessed included life-changing religious experiences, spiritual practices, and religious group membership. Hippocampal volumes were analyzed using the GRID program, which is based on a manual point-counting method and allows for semi-automated determination of region of interest volumes. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was observed for participants reporting a life-changing religious experience. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was also observed from baseline to final assessment among born-again Protestants, Catholics, and those with no religious affiliation, compared with Protestants not identifying as born-again. These associations were not explained by psychosocial or demographic factors, or baseline cerebral volume. Hippocampal volume has been linked to clinical outcomes, such as depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. The findings of this study indicate that hippocampal atrophy in late life may be uniquely influenced by certain types of religious factors.

  12. Relativism and Religious Diversity

    Baghramian, Maria


    Cultural diversity creates not only sociopolitical but also philosophical headaches. The Encyclopedia Britannica estimates that there are about ten thousand distinct religions, of which 150 have at least one million followers. According to other methods of individuation, there are nineteen major world religions subdivided into 270 large religious groups, and many smaller ones. These religions often profess conflicting articles of faith, metaphysical outlooks, ethical beliefs, and injunctions ...

  13. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    Aktor, Mikael


    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics in a...... inherited from the modernization of both religions in their transition to the Western world. How far a religiously engaged scholarship is acceptable or not is finally discussed at the institutional level....

  14. Migration and religious (intolerance: Contribution to the studies regarding the impact of international migration and the perception of religious diversity

    Olga Odgers Ortiz


    Full Text Available Mexicans migrating to the United Status confront a very different social space which forces them to re-elaborate multiple identity references, among which religious beliefs and practices stand out. A number of studies have shown that among those who migrate, some on occasion turn to practices of popular religiosity in order to create bridges and maintain links with their communities of origin, in other cases, the migratory experience favors the processes of religious conversion. The subject is reopened in this article in order to bring up a third expression of the impact of migration on religious conversion: the transformation of the idea of religious diversity among those who migrate and consequently, the modification of some attitudes of religious tolerance and intolerance.

  15. The religious brain.

    Deeley, Peter Q


    This paper is a critical review of anthropology and cognitive science that proposes social, cognitive, and neural mechanisms that convert culturally transmitted ideas into beliefs, discussed in relation to Geertz's classic definition of religion ('Religion as a cultural system', 1966). Literal and analogical uses of language, and a capacity for mentalizing thought, allow the creation of systems of symbols that vary between groups, contributing to the systematic group-level differences that we refer to as 'culture'. A combination of social referencing, mentalizing, and emotion perception enables enculturation to occur by attention to stable, repetitive conjunctions of meanings and emotions in the social environment, promoting the formation of cognitive-affective schemata. In addition to informal enculturation in routine social interaction, cultural systems such as religions organize and protect transmission of valued knowledge. Religious rituals are culturally invented symbolic displays that transmit conceptions of the world and imbue them with emotional and motivational significance. Two kinds of ritual are distinguished: high frequency, low arousal rituals belonging to a 'doctrinal' religious mode, and low frequency, high arousal rituals belonging to an 'imagistic' religious mode ( Whitehouse 2000 ). 'Doctrinal' rituals allow the extraction of semantic memories and associated emotions through repeated participation and exposure. 'Imagistic' rituals are particularly associated with intense emotion, episodic memory formation, and the formation of social ties. Religious rituals, especially imagistic rituals, employ two major strategies to convey conceptions of the world and invest them with a heightened sense of reality and emotion: (1) a 'sensory' route evokes salient thought and experience by orchestrating multiple reinforcing social-emotional signals and other stimuli, engaging attention, emotion, and arousal; (2) a 'semantic' route uses enigmatic verbal and non

  16. Religious education and cultural identity

    Trifunović Vesna


    Full Text Available The paper stresses how important it is to adapt subject content in formal school (primary school, primarily to meet the needs of social and cultural development. Effective primary school teaching contributes to cultural development by spreading and accepting a cultural model and by strengthening the national and cultural identity. Following the logic of new political reality and new landmarks of social development, the Serbian society is trying to find the answers to the following questions: first, how to use tradition in transition process and change the quality of relationship to tradition; second, how to bridge the gap between national culture, on the one hand, and universal cultural patterns, on the other? Religious education can greatly contribute to strengthening the national and cultural identity, owing to particular values it carries. The paper stresses the possibility of creating identity (national and cultural in the conditions characterized by the crisis of identity in the globalzing society.


    Maria S. Petrushkevych


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the work is to determine the features of media culture that bind it with mass culture and mass communications and have the most significant effect on the general principles of the religious mass communication. In addition, the objective is to identify the skills system and traits of mass human that are necessary for using media culture. Methodology. The methodological basis is related to structuring, analytical analysis and synthesis of media features; highlighting phenomena that illustrate modern communicative situation; characteristics of media trends influence for the specific functioning of religious communication. Scientific novelty. Main part of the work is devoted to the analysis of the progressive media culture, mass-media and their main features, design of religious communication in this culture. Media gradually form the appearance of religious communication quietly, especially the mass one, they adapt the modern religious discourse to rates of transfer and perception of information. Modern believer gets a lot of different kinds of religious information, on any subject, any explanation of the religious question, with respect to any religion. Such volume of religious information and the speed with which a person receives it, does not usually make it religious or spiritually advanced, but only informed. Spiritual perfection and religious development, religious communication is possible only when the customer is aware of media culture and way of seeing the ultimate goal of such communications using the Mass Media. So far these mechanisms are perfectly designed in traditional religious communication. Phenomena, that reflects the dramatic changes in the communicative environment are: mediatization of body and mind, the new practice of processing / reading information, the phenomenon of simultaneous perception of a large number of information channels – similar or different. Features of media culture that connect it with

  18. La religión en Wittgenstein. Estudio de las "Clases sobre creencia religiosa"

    Daniel Wankun


    Full Text Available This paper ponders upon the religious phenomenon in Ludwig Wittgenstein's work. Reviewing his most important publications, it seems that it is not possible to speak about the religious domain. Nevertheless, the works belonging to the so-called "second Wittgenstein" not only speak about the nature of the religious, but are also the ones in which Wittgenstein most speaks about it. A glance at his 1938 lesson son religious belief, within the semantic spectrum of "language games", will enable us to focus on the legitimacy of speaking about God and religious experience.

  19. Religious beliefs and alcohol control policies: a Brazilian nationwide study

    Giancarlo Lucchetti


    Full Text Available Objective: The connection between lower alcohol use and religiousness has been extensively examined. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed how religion and religiousness influence public policies. The present study seeks to understand the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes toward alcohol use. Methods: A door-to-door, nationwide, multistage population-based survey was carried out. Self-reported religiousness, religious attendance, and attitudes toward use of alcohol policies (such as approval of public health interventions, attitudes about drinking and driving, and attitudes toward other alcohol problems and their harmful effects were examined. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounders and to assess explanatory variables. Results: The sample was composed of 3,007 participants; 57.3% were female and mean age was 35.7 years. Religiousness was generally associated with more negative attitudes toward alcohol, such as limiting hours of sale (p < 0.01, not having alcohol available in corner shops (p < 0.01, prohibiting alcohol advertisements on TV (p < 0.01, raising the legal drinking age (p < 0.01, and raising taxes on alcohol (p < 0.05. Higher religious attendance was associated with less alcohol problems (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.91, p = 0.017, and self-reported religiousness was associated with less harmful effects of drinking (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.009. Conclusions: Those with high levels of religiousness support more restrictive alcohol policies. These findings corroborate previous studies showing that religious people consume less alcohol and have fewer alcohol-related problems.

  20. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

    Karimollahi Mansoureh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  1. Religiousness and mental health: a review

    Moreira-Almeida Alexander


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  2. Technology. Theosophy. Theology: The Religious Character of UFO Movements

    Danijel Sinani


    Full Text Available This paper considers the most important factors that have played a role in the emergence and development of UFO religiosity and UFO alternative religious movements, from occult, spiritualist and theosophical teachings, to alternative ideas and debates on the origin of mankind. By analyzing the basic theological premises, the paper discusses the basic religious and culturological paradigms to be found in UFO movements. It also shows how a major part of their corpus can be recognized in existing "traditional" religious groups, and suggests that UFO religions represent just another variation on the numerous concepts that offer answers to key existential questions.


    Fatih Ozdemir


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict ambivalent sexism (including hostile sexism and benevolent sexism with religious orientation types as intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and quest religiosity. In addition, the effect of demographic variables (including age, gender, education on sexist attitudes was tested. 583 (N_female= 318; N_male= 265 university students who study in different universities of Ankara/Turkey (M_age= 22.10; SD = 2.33 completed Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, and Religious Orientation Scale. Findings indicated significant gender differences on study variables and significant associations between ambivalent sexism and religious orientation types within university students sample in Turkey.

  4. Economic Impact of Religious Tourism in Mardin, Turkey

    Istvan Egresi


    Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.

  5. Fearing religious satire

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...... legislations are Thus primarily founded on arguments concerning moral, social or public order. The article furthermore argues that although anti-censorship satire gradually weakened the legitimacy of censorship, the notion of religion as 'the social bond of society' is still operative in contemporary blasphemy...




    Several of the new religious movements (NRMs) of modern times have become global movements. Among these are the Soka Gakkai of Japan; the Brahma Kumaris, Sathya Sai Baba, and Hare Krishna of India; the Tzu Chi Buddhist Compassion and Relief Society of Taiwan; and Scientology, which began in the United States in the early 1950s. In order to become global movements, NRMs must often depend heavily on one particular ethnic group as they expand beyond their home base. On arrival in new cultural co...

  7. Religious ecstasy in classical Sufism

    Göran Ogén


    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on the phenomenon of religious ecstasy as met within Islamic mysticism and there particularly during its classical period. In this case, the expression "classical Sufism" refers to the period of Sufi history from about 850 A.D. until circa 1100 A.D. In the Sufi vocabulary there is even a rather differentiated terminology concerning these ecstatic experiences or states; whether different descriptions of one and the same experience are involved or whether the terms actually describe different experiences is a question that we must set aside for the present. There are, however, Sufis expressing the opinion that these different states of mind are based on one single experience in spite of the difference in terms. A generic term for these experiences or states is not to be found in the Sufi terminology however, so the problem of which of these phenomena must be present in order for ecstasy to be evidenced—or which of them would be sufficient— does not therefore arise for the Sufis. So instead of speaking of religious ecstasy in general, they either refer to the single specific terms in question or else use the plural of one of the words employed to designate one of the terms we include in "religious ecstasy". They thus speak of "ecstasies", mawagid from the singular form wagd—if one should at all attempt a translation of this plural. This plural is a genuine Sufi construction and does not otherwise seem to occur in the Arabic language, except as a later borrowing. Psalmody based on the Koranic vocabulary remains the main procedure for putting oneself in ecstasy. If we add 'and listening to psalmody', we then obtain a fairly satisfactory picture of the external conditions for the Sufis' ecstasy until the eleventh century, when various innovations begin to appear. As far as the darwiš-dance is concerned, it is not until the thirteenth century with Rumi that it becomes transformed from an expression

  8. Religious ideas and psychiatric disorders.

    Beit-Hallahmi, B; Argyle, M


    The evidence presented above points to the need for considering factors other than purely religious ones in determining the role of religious ideas in psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of religious ideas as part of the content of individual delusional systems in psychiatric patients can be explained on the basis of exposure to religious ideas through the social environment. It may be also related to the prominence of religion, vis-a-vis other belief systems, in the social envirnment. When considering psychopathological explanations for intense religious experiences, one has to be conscious again of the social factors involved. When an unusual experience having religious content becomes normative in a certain group (for whatever reasons), trying to explain its appearance on the basis of individual psychodynamics or psychopathology becomes very difficult. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the social nature of a religious experience and its psychopathological nature, i.e., there is more psychopathology in individuals reporting solitary religious experiences, or individual religious ideas. Thus the solitary experience seems to be more influenced by disturbed individual dynamics, but in other cases social factors seem to be crucial. Our overall conclusion is that a psychiatric analysis of the role of religious factors in psychopathology has to be first a social-psychiatric analysis. An individual presenting psychiatric symptoms and religious ideas has to be evaluated in light of his social background, since the specific content of psychiatric symptoms seems to be determined by social background factors. Individual psychodynamics determine the appearance of symptoms, but their particular form will be the result of these background factors, one of which is religion. PMID:863602

  9. Teologia, Ciência da Religião e Filosofia da Religião: definindo suas relações

    Dierken, Jörg


    Full Text Available Trata-se de revisitar o complexo fenômeno da religião, à luz das articulações e diferenciações entre teologia, filosofia da religião e ciência da religião, particularmente no contexto sociocultural da modernidade e suas categorias iluministas de racionalidade, liberdade e ciência, em grandes pensadores tais como Max Weber e Ernst Troeltsch

  10. The Roots of American Religious Liberty

    Charles C. Haynes


    Full Text Available From the colonial era to the present, religions and religious beliefs have played a significant role in the political life of the United States. Religion has been at the heart of some of the best and some of the worst movements in American history. The guiding principles that the framers intended to govern the relationship between religion and politics are set forth in Article VI of the Constitution and in the opening sixteen words of the First Amendment.


    Eduardo Andrés Sandoval Forero


    The text is related to the faith conversion among Mazahuas, an indigenous group from the State of Mexico. It also addresses conflicts resulting from 20 years of intolerance, with religious activities incompatible with the dominant Catholic tradition. Finally, it will mention tolerance process, recognition and coexistence of religious diversity in the Mazahua ethnic region. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the process of peaceful intercultural coexistence. As a further matter, ...


    B. Catanese


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the scale of practices of religious slaughter and to evaluate current methods practiced in Italy. Three different approaches have been used to obtain data. Stunning before sticking is performed in 5,9% of small ruminants slaughtered according to Halal ritual. Hypothesis of violation of Dlgs 333/98 are discussed in the light of an improvement of religious slaughter practices in Italy.

  13. Counterintuitive Religious Ideas and Metaphoric Thinking: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    Fondevila, Sabela; Aristei, Sabrina; Sommer, Werner; Jiménez-Ortega, Laura; Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel


    It has been shown that counterintuitive ideas from mythological and religious texts are more acceptable than other (non-religious) world knowledge violations. In the present experiment we explored whether this relates to the way they are interpreted (literal vs. metaphorical). Participants were presented with verification questions that referred to either the literal or a metaphorical meaning of the sentence previously read (counterintuitive religious, counterintuitive non-religious and intuitive), in a block-wise design. Both behavioral and electrophysiological results converged. At variance to the literal interpretation of the sentences, the induced metaphorical interpretation specifically facilitated the integration (N400 amplitude decrease) of religious counterintuitions, whereas the semantic processing of non-religious counterintuitions was not affected by the interpretation mode. We suggest that religious ideas tend to operate like other instances of figurative language, such as metaphors, facilitating their acceptability despite their counterintuitive nature. PMID:26146789

  14. Religious Distance Education Goes Online

    Frye, Steven B.


    Looking back on the use of distance education tools by religious groups, one word that stands out is change. The old adage "We've never done it that way before" will become less valid as religious bodies find themselves in the midst of a world inundated with online possibilities that call them to question how they interact with members and…

  15. Reviewing the Religious Education Review

    Barnes, L. Philip; Felderhof, Marius


    In 2012 a Review of RE in England was initiated by the Religious Education Council of England and Wales, in response to a perceived sense of crisis among the religious education (RE) community. Its recommendations, which include a new National Curriculum Framework for RE, were published in October, 2013. The fact that the proposed National…

  16. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

    Laura Yoffe


    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  17. Epistemologies of Religious Education

    Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina


    asked, examined and answered – if the study is done in history of religion, comparative religion, sociology of religion, theology, pedagogy of religion in a faculty of theology, sociology, communication studies, or psychology or in the educational sciences, and thus in e.g. sociology, history...... to the conference subtheme: Borders between research methods General subject didactics in the Nordic countries has developed in relation to teacher education and the need to bring questions about teaching and learning closer to specific subject-content areas. The discussions started at slightly...... different times in the different countries, for instance in the 1970s in Norway and in the 1980s in Sweden (Kroksmark 1989, Ongstad 2006). However, at that time religious education was already an academic field in the faculties of theology in many of the Nordic countries, namely as religionspedagogik[k] (e...

  18. Religious quest orientation: Rising against fundamentalism

    Reeshma Haji


    Full Text Available Quest, or a journey-oriented approach to religion, is one dimension of religiosity that has been consistently related to positive outgroup attitudes. The present research assessed the extent to which individual differences in quest religiosity moderated the effects of a religiosity prime on attitudes toward an outgroup religion. Christian identifying participants (N = 55 completed a scale measure of quest religiosity. They then read a vignette that primed quest religiosity or religious fundamentalism. Attitudes toward Muslims and Jews were assessed with evaluation thermometers. Quest religiosity interacted with the prime such that those high in quest appeared to react against the fundamentalism prime by expressing particularly positive outgroup attitudes. Trait quest religiosity appears to buffer against situational factors that are typically associated with negative outgroup attitudes. In addition, implications for research on intergroup relations of religious groups are discussed.

  19. Towards understanding (religious (intolerance in education

    Ferdinand J. Potgieter


    Full Text Available In recent years, schools and education authorities world wide have been paying increasing attention to issues surrounding diversity and religious (intolerance. The term ‘tolerance’ is, however, clouded by considerable confusion and vagueness. This article seeks to contribute to recent scholarly attempts at understanding (religious tolerance and the term that denotes it. After a brief semantic analysis of the term ‘tolerance’, arguments concerning the onticity of tolerance as phenomenon or entity are discussed. By examining its onticity we explore and explain some of the essential features of tolerance. The article ends with a brief discussion of some of the implications of our examination that we foresee for (religion education.

  20. Religious Identity in Iranian Society: A Systematic Review of Previous Studies (2001-2013


    Full Text Available Introduction   Religious identity is a prominent element of social cohesion. Religious identity involves a level of social identity that corresponds with "we" or religious community, and represents a sense of belonging and commitment to the religion and religious community. Religion essentially provides cognitive, ideological, sociological and spiritual resource for identity (Furrow et al 2004. Accordingly, religion locates mainly on the center of individual and group identity (Seul 1999. Religious communities and systems of meaning, are the resources for sense of interest (belonging to another and approval (as a basis of self-esteem, and in fact, encourage individual excellence and actuality. Religious groups are also considered an important factor in social relations and are responsible for vitality, happiness and general enthusiasm of their followers (Hajiani 2000. Certainly, religious identity is a certain kind of identity formation. It is defined by a sense of group membership to religion and its importance regard to the self-concept. Religious identity is not necessarily equated with religiousness and religiosity . Although these concepts have some overlaps, religiousness and religiosity point to the significance and value of belonging to religious groups and participating in religious events, but religious identity particularly indicates membership in a religious group without participation in religious activities (Arweck and Nesbitt 2010. Also, although religion is faith-based institution and religiosity is practice to its rituals, but religious identity refers to how people understand themselves as religious persons, who accept spiritual and religious values and beliefs within faith community. Therefore, religious identity is a collective identity, which includes membership in religious groups, acceptance of belief system, commitment to religious groups and values, and practices ally with religion. Although there is substantial

  1. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.


    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...

  2. Text Mining.

    Trybula, Walter J.


    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  3. Da veritas à caritas: a religião depois da religião

    Márcio Antônio de Paiva


    Full Text Available Este artigo visa abordar a passagem da veritas para a caritas, como possibilidade privilegiada da espiritualidade após a religião. No horizonte da filosofia da religião, o artigo discute os problemas de tal perspectiva e aponta sua contribuição para ler o fenômeno da espiritualidade dos sem religião. Tal objetivo será direcionado para o retorno da religião segundo o senso cultural comum, de um lado; e de outro, para a queda das razões filosóficas do ateísmo. Percorrendo as obras consideradas fundamentais, o texto se desenvolve a partir do horizonte maior do pensiero debole, mostrando a perspectiva hermenêutica da verdade – a verdade como abertura – até desembocar na concepção de caritas, como viés possível da experiência religiosa, após a morte de Deus e o fim da metafísica. Vattimo vê na passagem da veritas à caritas o itinerário do pensamento contemporâneo, definindo o cristianismo como ato de amor antes que revelação de verdades.

  4. Ludic role of religious rituals. The use of play for religious ceremony

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin


    Full Text Available This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity.

  5. Network Theory and Religious Innovation

    Collar, Anna

    Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge......Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge...

  6. Religion, Religious Diversity and Tourism

    Johan Fourie; Jaume Roselló; Maria Santana-gallego


    Religious beliefs influence many aspects of peoples’ daily lives, so it is plausible to argue that religion affects some of humanity’s most central endeavors, such as trade, migration, foreign investment and tourism. This paper investigates the role a country’s religious affiliation plays in destination choice for international tourism. To that end, a gravity model for international tourist arrivals is estimated by using a dataset of 164 countries for the period 1995-2010. Results provide evi...

  7. Religious Tourism in Batangas, Philippines

    Leonna Marrien U. Asi; Cassandra Joy B. Moneda; Mechelle D. Lumbera; Precious M. Lacorte; Romer C. Castillo; Chideth Liah S. Blanco


    This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for...

  8. Non-Religious Spiritualities: conceptual challenges

    Carlos Eduardo Brandão Calvani


    Full Text Available The article presupposes that the term “spirituality”, originally proper to the theological literature, no longer belongs only to this field, and is now widely used in different areas of knowledge. The essay also says that, even within the theological and religious studies, there has never been clarity as to the meaning of “spirituality”, which eventually became a vague and imprecise term, invoked in different situations and in need of a deeper theoretical reflection able to point its history, its development and multiple applications. The vagueness around this concept is increased when “spirituality” is used along with the expression “non-religious”, causing more difficulties of understanding even in the field of religious studies. After delving into these conceptual challenges, the article points to the need for a comprehensive review of the literature in order to identify similarities with other areas of knowledge in recent decades that have progressively absorbed this concept, particularly the fields of arts, psychology, business administration, organizational studies, neuroscience and health sciences. At the end, the article offers challenges and suggestions for the development of the studies around this theme among researches of Religious Sciences in Brazil that privilege interdisciplinary approaches in their research.

  9. Religious Renaissance in China Today

    Richard Madsen


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derived from C. K. Yang’s classic work in the 1960s came from structural functionalism, which served to unite research in the humanities and social sciences. However, structural functionalism has been abandoned by the new generation of scholars. In the humanities, the most popular paradigm derives from Michel Foucault, but there are also scholars who use neo-Durkheimian and neo-Weberian paradigms. In the social sciences, the dominant paradigms tend to focus on state-society relations. None of these paradigms fully captures the complexity of the transformations happening in China. We recommend greater dialogue between the humanities and social sciences in search of more adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding Chinese religions today.

  10. Rawls and religious paternalism.

    Shaw, David M; Busch, Jacob


    MacDougall has argued that Rawls's liberal social theory suggests that parents who hold certain religious convictions can legitimately refuse blood transfusion on their children's behalf. This paper argues that this is wrong for at least five reasons. First, MacDougall neglects the possibility that true freedom of conscience entails the right to choose one's own religion rather than have it dictated by one's parents. Second, he conveniently ignores the fact that children in such situations are much more likely to die than to survive without blood. Third, he relies on an ambiguous understanding of what is "rational" and treats children as mere extensions of their parents. Fourth, he neglects the fact that those in the original position would seek to protect themselves from persecution and enslavement and thus would not allow groups of children to be killed because of their parents' beliefs. Finally, Rawls makes it clear that we should choose for children as we would choose for ourselves in the original position, with no particular conception of the good (such as that held by Jehovah's Witnesses). PMID:22914539

  11. Relationship between Values and Religious Identity in Buddhist Adolescents

    Shorokhova V.A.,


    Full Text Available The paper describes results of a social psychological study on religious identity in Buddhist schoolchil- dren. The study involved 184 students of 9—10 classes of a school in the Aginskoye settlement (Aginsky Buryatsky Okrug, Zabaykalsky Krai. According to G. Allport’s concept and R. Gorsuch & S. McPherson measurements, religious identity is considered not only as practicing Buddhism, but as a complex social psychological formation with a four-factor structure base on the following scales: personal/social and in- trinsic/extrinsic. Different components of religious identity are explored in the context of their relation- ship with value orientations (as described by S. Schwartz and G. Hofstede. The following techniques were employed: the adapted version of D. Van Camp’s Individual/Social Religious Identity Measure, Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2, and Hofstede’s Values Survey Module. As it was revealed, al- most all values related to various components of religious identity of the Buddhist adolescents refer to the social focus. The paper concludes that religious identity in modern Buddhist young people has a distinctive social character.

  12. Divine Intersections: Hindu Ritual and the Incorporation of Religious Others

    Kathinka Frøystad


    Full Text Available This article throws the study of multireligious sociality in Western contexts into sharp relief by examining the case of India. Much of the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism tends to assume that religious beliefs, practices and spaces make the respective religious communities close entirely in upon themselves. While this assumption may hold true for most of the Western settings we study, it does not necessarily give an accurate description of the conditions for multireligious sociality in other parts of the world. In India, for instance, religious boundaries still display signs of malleability despite the religious politicization and occasional interreligious violence of the past decades. Drawing on recent anthropological research, this article shows that people of different religious denominations still visit Sufi shrines, that Hindus still incorporate ritual elements and divine beings from the religious traditions of their Others and that they exercise a wide personal choice in terms of spiritual activities, thus enabling spiritual paths that cross in and out of Hinduism. In a Hindu context rituals do not necessarily have an insulating effect; they may also provide points of intersection that open up toward the Other, thus fostering familiarity and recognition. Similar arguments have been made for Buddhist settings. The question is thus whether the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism may entail a certain monotheistic bias that needs to accounted for, something that is of particular importance when theorizing in ways that make universal claims.

  13. Cognitive dissonance between religious and secular social attitudes

    Marković Jelena


    Full Text Available The initial finding of the study, which served as the basis for the exploration of cognitive dissonance between religious and secular behavioral norms, was revealed in a tendency of the majority of religious students to accept behavioral norms, attitudes and believes (concerning interpersonal relationships and reproduction-related ethical issues which are not supported by Orthodox Christian Church viewpoint and teachings. However, certain cognitive and value system consistency appeared to exist: the intensity of religiousness was related to lower degrees of secular norms approval. It has been found that religious and nonreligious subjects differ significantly in their preference of the strategy used to maintain balance between dissonant religious and secular attitudes- in 3 out of 4 issues considered in the study. Religious subjects most frequently chose relativism strategy, claiming that some specific exceptions from a general rule or standpoint do not necessarily depreciate it, while nonreligious subjects most frequently chose dualistic viewpoint that principally separated and restricted domains of reasoning on spiritual and worldly issues, making them psychologically irrelevant to one another.

  14. The mediating role of coping in the relationships between religiousness and mental health

    Krok, Dariusz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between religiousness and mental health within the mediational perspective of religious coping. The existing empirical evidence indicates that specific aspects of religiousness are associated with mental health indices. Yet, less is known about the nature of these associations and mediating mechanisms between both factors. The theory of religious coping as a mediator was employed so as to explain how religiousness is linked with mental health and what mechanisms shape the associations. The results demonstrated that religious coping can be regarded as a me - diator between religiousness and mental health dimensions. Religious coping is expressed in two main forms: positive and negative that are linked to positive and negative mental health outcomes, respectively. People draw on these two religious coping methods in times of major life crises in order to make sense of trauma and loss, and to alleviate stress. The theoretical analyses showed that when religiousness contains structures of orientation and meaning, it enables individuals to attain positive functioning and wellbeing that reflects mental health.

  15. Pluralism and Religious Harmony in Religious Elites Perspectives in Malang City

    Umi Sumbulah


    This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in  Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts  and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research  data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same a...

  16. Redefining Religious Nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults

    Russell Jeung


    Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.

  17. Programs of religious/spiritual support in hospitals - five "Whies" and five "Hows".

    Saad, Marcelo; de Medeiros, Roberta


    A contemporary orientation of the hospital experience model must encompass the clients' religious-spiritual dimension. The objective of this paper is to share a previous experience, highlighting at least five reasons hospitals should invest in this direction, and an equal number of steps required to achieve it. In the first part, the text discourses about five reasons to invest in religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Religious-spiritual wellbeing is related to better health; 2. Religious-spiritual appreciation is a standard for hospital accreditation; 3. To undo religious-spiritual misunderstandings that can affect treatment; 4. Patients demand a religious-spiritual outlook from the institution; and 5. Costs may be reduced with religious-spiritual support. In the second part, the text suggests five steps to implement religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Deep institutional involvement; 2. Formal staff training; 3. Infrastructure and resources; 4. Adjustment of institutional politics; and 5. Agreement with religious-spiritual leaders. The authors hope the information compiled here can inspire hospitals to adopt actions toward optimization of the healing experience. PMID:27550215

  18. The Russian religious painting of the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries

    Mickу Natalya


    Full Text Available Development of religious art, namely – religious painting, its specifics, in Russia of the end XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, caused by system changes in the Russian society, on the example of painters – V. M. Vasnetsov, M. V. Nesterov, M. A. Vrubel is analyzed in article.

  19. Text Laws

    Hřebíček, Luděk

    Vol. 26. Ein internationales Handbuch/An International Handbook. Berlin-New York : Walter de Gruyter, 2005 - (Köhler, R.; Altmann, G.; Piotrowski, R.), s. 348-361 ISBN 978-3-11-015578-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Text structure * Quantitative linguistics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  20. Comparative Theology and Religious Studies in a Non-religious Environment

    Jacques Scheuer


    Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.

  1. Growing up the Religious Potential from Religious Community of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah Dawe Kudus

    Danusiri Danusiri


    Full Text Available This research focused on the congregation of the Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah in Piji, Dawe, Kudus, particularly on how they make any effort to make their potentials of religious observance can maximally grow. In order to find out their efforts, the writer applied participatory observation and was involved in their daily lives. The data were then organized in certain way according to the theme previously deter- mined. In order to achieve the maximum of religious observance which they call as wuṣūl dan wilāyah, the congregation of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah use a series of rituals namely baiat (allegiance, zikir (remembrance, khataman ratib (complet- ing ratib, muraqabah, khalwat (seclusion, fida’, manaqib, and performing pilgrim- age to the grave of wali (muslim saints.

  2. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  3. Religious Music Courses Teacher Qualifications For Religious Vocational High Schools (2012Rize/Çayeli Religious Music Seminar Impressions

    Demir, Arif


    In Religious Vocational High School Which is one of the most controversial institutions of our recent history music education and the course teachers importance and value are not required. Students who can not take adequate education on religious music for various reasons. Students immediately often after leaving scholar appointed the imam, müezzin and teacher of the Kuran and they are often forced in religious assistant on performance of religious music. There are some important reasons for ...

  4. ¿Religión sin Dios? XXI Conferencias Aranguren

    Fraijó, Manuel


    Full Text Available While faith in God seems to wane, interest in the many existing religions and religious movements grows. We are in front a new phenomenon. On the monotheistic field reigned the ancient assertion «no God, no religion ». Today, however, religion seems to walk alone. There are signs that religions, now independent of the old faith in God, have established by themselves. There is who think religions could even survive to God. The Conferences will discuss the alternations of God and the religion in power. Religion lived in the shadow of God until late modernity, but from that date on, it is God who lives in the shadow of religion. The lectures will also wonder what kind of religion will be in places of monotheistic tradition when God is dispensed.

    Mientras la fe en Dios parece decaer, crece el interés por las numerosas religiones y movimientos religiosos existentes. Estamos ante un fenómeno nuevo. En el ámbito monoteísta reinaba el antiguo aserto «ningún Dios, ninguna religión». Hoy, en cambio, la religión parece caminar sola. Hay signos de que las religiones, independizadas de la antigua fe en Dios, se han establecido por cuenta propia. Hay quien piensa incluso que podrían sobrevivir a Dios. Las Conferencias analizarán las alternancias de Dios y de la religión en el poder. Hasta bien entrada la modernidad, la religión vivió a la sombra de Dios; a partir de esa fecha, es Dios quien vive a la sombra de la religión. Las conferencias se preguntarán, además, qué clase de religión quedará en los lugares de tradición monoteísta cuando se prescinde de Dios.

  5. Religiøs refleksivitet

    Hansen, Martin T.; Mcghie, Steffen N.; Schink, Jacob


    Opgaven omhandler tilgangen til islam hos den progressive del af de religiøst bevidste unge muslimer i Danmark. Vi behandler den måde hvorpå påvirkningerne fra forskellige kulturer influerer de unge muslimers religiøse identitet, og hvordan islamudtrykket hos disse unge muslimer adskiller sig fra den ofte mere klassiske og traditionalistiske tilgang til religionen der ses hos de ældre generationer af muslimer. Vi har valgt at basere opgaven delvist på kvalitative interviews, med hhv. Sherin K...

  6. Perceived religious discrimination as predictor of work engagement, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion

    Freda van der Walt


    Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the

  7. A Scalar Comparison of Motivations and Expectations of Experience within the Religious Tourism Market

    Daniel H. Olsen


    Full Text Available Academic studies on tourism market segmentation have decreased in scale over time, with the focus on tourist segmentation changing from segmenting the market as a whole to segmenting specific tourism niche markets. This change in scale can also be seen in how academics have attempted to segment the religious tourism market moving from discussions related to the pilgrim-tourist dichotomy to segmenting visitors based on religious affiliation to world regions and countries to specific religious activities such as religious festivals and infrastructural amenities such as hotels. In this paper the author, following Wall’s (1997 discussion of the spatial characteristics of tourist attractions (i.e., points, lines, and areas, raises the question as to whether there is a scalar difference in the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of: people who travel to specific religious sites (points; those who travel along religiously - themed routes (lines and; those who travel to the Holy Land (area. To answer this question the author looks at and compares three case studies - Cathedrals in the United Kingdom (point, the Camino de Santiago de Compostela (line, and the Holy Land (area - and summarizes the academic literature pertaining to the characteristics, motivations and expectations of experience of visitors to these locations. Cursory findings show that there are differences regarding the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of people who travel to religious points versus religious lines and religious areas.

  8. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Gregg, Heather S.


    Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motiv...

  9. The Threat to Religious Liberties and the European Institutions

    Roger Kiska


    Full Text Available The following article analyzes the 3 chief threats facing religious liberty today in Europe, namely: (1 hate speech legislation; (2 anti-discrimination laws; (3 attacks on parental rights. Concrete examples are given of offenses to religious freedom. Additionally, the black letter law is set out in each section with suggested action points for national governments. The Article also discusses the Lautsi v. Italy judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, explaining its importance and using it as evidence to establish the political nature of the Strasbourg based court.

  10. Moral foundations predict religious orientations in New Zealand.

    Joseph Bulbulia

    Full Text Available The interplay between religion, morality, and community-making is a core theme across human experience, yet scholars have only recently begun to quantify these links. Drawing on a sample of 1512 self-identified religious - mainly Christian (86.0% - New Zealanders, we used structural equation modeling to test hypothesized associations between Religious Orientations (Quest, Intrinsic, Extrinsic Personal, Extrinsic Social and Moral Foundations (Care/Harm, Fairness/Cheating, Loyalty/Betrayal, Authority/Subversion, Sanctity/Degradation. Our results show, for the first time in a comprehensive model, how different ways of valuing communities are associated with different ways of valuing religion.

  11. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Shenefelt PD


    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  12. Ancient Ephesus: Processions as Media of Religious and Secular Propaganda

    Lilian Portefaix


    Full Text Available The significance of religious rituals often reaches beyond their strict religious intentions. Specifically a procession, performed in front of the public, is a most effective instrument of disseminating a message to the crowds. Consequently, this ritual, as is well known, has often been used not only in religious but also in secular contexts; a procession under the cloak of religion can even become a politically useful medium to avoid popular disturbances on peaceful terms. This was the case in ancient Ephesus, where Roman power conflicted with Greek culture from the middle of the first century B.C. onwards. In the beginning of the second century A.D. the public religious life in the city of Ephesus was to a great extent characterized by processions relating to the cult of Artemis Ephesia. The one traditionally performed on the birthday of the goddess called to mind the Greek origin of the city; it was strictly associated with the religious sphere bringing about a close relationship between the goddess and her adherents. The other, artificially created by a Roman, was entirely secular, and spread its message every fortnight in the streets of Ephesus. It referred to the political field of action and intended to strengthen the Roman rule over the city. The Greek origin of Ephesian culture was later included in the message of the procession, reminding the Greeks not to rebel against Roman rule.

  13. A Relational Approach to the Study of Religious Survival Units

    Reeh, Niels


    The article departs from the finding that religious texts and actors relate to other religions as for instance The Old Testament relates to Canaanites, the New Testament to Jews, Pagans etc. A consequence of this inter-relatedness of religion is that religion can be studied as a relational...

  14. Women’s Voice and Religious Utterances in Ancient Greece

    Manuela Giordano


    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of women and religion through a particular looking glass: religious utterances such as curses, supplication, and prayer, as reflected in some passages from ancient Greek epic and tragedy—pivotal literary genres in the ideological discourse of the Greek polis.


    Zverev V. P.


    Full Text Available The article examines the lyrical beginning of P. P. Yershov's poetry and his religious feelings. The whole of his world outlook and creativity gives particular harmony to poetical works and allows the author to embrace the world in all its diverse divine beauty.

  16. The material variance of the Dead Sea Scrolls: On texts and artefacts

    Eibert Tigchelaar


    Full Text Available What does a sacred text look like? Are religious books materially different from other books? Does materiality matter? This article deals with three different aspects of material variance attested amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, Ancient Jewish religious text fragments, of which were found in the Judean Desert. I suggest that the substitution of the ancient Hebrew script by the everyday Aramaic script, also for Torah and other religious texts, was intentional and programmatic: it enabled the broader diffusion of scriptures in Hellenistic and Roman Judea. The preponderant use of parchment for religious texts rather than papyrus may be a marker of identity. The many small scrolls which contained only small parts of specific religious books (Genesis, Psalms may have been produced as religious artefacts which express identity in the period when Judaism developed into a religion of the book. Keywords: Dead Sea Scrolls; Judaism; Manuscripts

  17. Therapist Spiritual and Religious Values in Psychotherapy.

    Grimm, Donald W.


    Examines nature of therapist spiritual and religious values and impact of these values on psychotherapy practice. Suggests that integration of therapist spiritual and religious values with therapist epistemic values to accommodate spiritual and religious needs of both client and counselor should be goal of effective treatment. Includes 28…

  18. How Can Music Education Be Religious?

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.


    This essay examines Alfred North Whitehead's claim that education should be construed as religious, and by extension, that music education should be religious. The analysis of questions relating to Whitehead's understanding of the notion of "religious," the defensibility of his claim, and its implications for notions of spirituality and music…

  19. Religión, educación y subjetividades

    Juan Illicachi Guzñay


    Full Text Available El trabajo examina el papel de la religión en la educación y en la sociedad, y la relación entre religión, educación y la producción de subjetividades en los grupos subalternos, particularmente en los indígenas y la población estudiantil, pero antes justifica la vigencia del presente tema en el escenario geopolítico de Riobamba. Para abordar lo planteado, las preguntas que guían el desarrollo del presente artículo son: ¿cuál es el rol de la religión en la sociedad y, específicamente, en la educación? ¿Existen incidencias del “campo” religioso en el “campo” educativo? ¿Qué tipo de subjetividad construye tanto el campo educativo como el religioso?

  20. Conceptualization and Linguistic Expression: Using Religious Poetry in ELT

    Amrita Sharma


    Full Text Available Religious poetry is, a heightened and impregnated form of expression. There is a marriage of form and sense. Linguistically speaking, religious poetry has a conceptual interface between syntax and semantics; a strong relationship between language and thought; universality and cultural specificity; the discourse context and the psychological environment of linguistic performance. This papers, tries to investigate how this unique genre of religious poetry be used to teach and understand the mode of conceptualization? Which language items can be taught? How does language synergize itself to open its door to create such innumerous possibilities? An attempt to answer these aforesaid questions is done by structuring this paper into three sections viz. Language and Conceptualization, The Domain of Conceptualization, Teaching English Language Items.


    Stephen E. Lile


    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing market shares of major Texas religious groups during this century. Market shares are computed by dividing membership by Texas population. Results show that certain religious groups (firms have performed much better in terms of market share than others. The better performers are the more conservative Protestant denominations along with the Roman Catholic Church. Groups losing market share tendto be the more liberal Protestant denominations. This finding would appear to be consistent with Niebuhr’s church-sect theory which, among other things, predicts that religious groups (sects characterized by a high degree of tension with society grow whereas groups (churches characterized by alow degree of tension with society tend to decline.

  2. Women Religious Leaders and Stress.

    Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others

    This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…

  3. Religious Music in the School.

    Music Educators Journal, 1984


    It is the position of the Music Educators National Conference that the study of religious music is a vital and appropriate part of the total music experience. To omit sacred music from education would present an incorrect and incomplete concept of the comprehensive nature of the art. (RM)

  4. Teachers and the religious socialization of adolescents: facilitation of meaningful religious identity formation processes.

    Cohen-Malayev, Maya; Schachter, Elli P; Rich, Yisrael


    This study investigated the effects of religious education on student religious identity over and above parent religiosity by examining student perceptions of two aspects of teacher functioning: teacher caring and teacher as role-model. We posited that effects of these variables on students' religious identity are mediated by student perceptions that the school provides a non-alienating religious atmosphere and meaningful religious studies. Participants were 2691 male and female students (grades 9-12) in 152 classes of 25 schools from the Jewish public-religious sector in Israel. Results indicate that in addition to their parents' religiosity, adolescents' perceptions of their teachers as role models and their religious studies as meaningful are important variables affecting their religious identity. Moreover, this research suggests that religious identity formation processes flourish in an educational environment which students perceive as accommodating religious exploration. PMID:24439626

  5. The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative religious groups

    Stephan P. Pretorius


    Full Text Available The positive impact that religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. However, it cannot be assumed that religion always contributes to the well-being of believers. Religious systems can be misused, resulting in people being spiritually and even physically hurt and harmed. This study investigates certain aspects of some alternative religious group in order to determine the impact it has on the well-being of the members of these groups. It was found that people are drawn to these groups because of the challenges they present, the display of true love amongst members and the ‘message’ of an authoritative charismatic leader that resonates with them and convinces them to become part. As time pass, members were challenged with questionable aspects that appear in the activities and teaching of these groups. Obtaining clarity on these concerns was strongly discouraged by the culture and other members of the group, resulting in members suppressing doubts and emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of peer pressure and out of fear instead of true conviction. The study concludes that most of the respondents in the study reported that their experience in these groups did not contribute to their well-being, and emotionally, they struggled to adapt to society and other religious groups after leaving the group.

  6. Imagined Religious Communities and the “Culture of Bible-Readers”: Hinduism’s Challenge to European Religious Studies

    Helton Christopher Jason


    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the challenges posed by modern conceptions of Hinduism - in particular Heinrich von Stietencron’s conception of a “collection of religions” and Romila Thapar’s application of Benedict Anderson’s theory of “imagined communities” to Hinduism-to the European style of religious studies, particularly at the undergraduate level.

  7. Religious Diversity and Islam in America

    Jalal Uddin Khan


    Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!

  8. Ethical Issues between Workforce and Religious Conviction

    Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding Tawheed, the fundamentals of faith, based on Al-Quran and Hadith. Manifestations in life of the practice which accounts for worship and morality need to be implemented. Results: Islamic moral character requires the emphasize that following five key parameters of Islamic behavior which is justice, trust, righteousness, the struggle towards self-improvement and keeping promises. Conclusion: The properties of trust at work, honesty, responsibility and integrity should be established in each of the Muslims. Each institution needs to be continued in the religious education and level of consciousness must be nurtured and enhanced.

  9. When ingroups aren't "In": perceived political belief similarity moderates religious ingroup favoritism.

    Carlee Beth Hawkins

    Full Text Available Motivated thinking leads people to perceive similarity between the self and ingroups, but under some conditions, people may recognize that personal beliefs are misaligned with the beliefs of ingroups. In two focal experiments and two replications, we find evidence that perceived belief similarity moderates ingroup favoritism. As part of a charity donation task, participants donated money to a community charity or a religious charity. Compared to non-religious people, Christians favored religious charities, but within Christians, conservative Christians favored religious charities more than liberal Christians did. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the perceived political beliefs of the charity accounted for the differences in ingroup favoritism between liberal and conservative Christians. While reporting little awareness of the influence of ideology, Christian conservatives favored religious charities because they perceived them as conservative and liberal Christians favored the community charity because they perceived it as liberal.

  10. Investments in Religious Capital: An explorative case study of Australian Buddhists

    Michelle Barker


    Full Text Available Since Buddhism became Australia’s fastest growing religion in 1996, the number of adherents has continued to increase dramatically. While there is much acceptance of this in Australia’s multicultural milieu, the effects of this growth are unclear. The concept of religious capital is now being used to understand some effects of religious practice, and is developed further as a way of understanding the broader societal effects of a religion. Expressions of Buddhist religious capital in Australia are documented and placed within a framework that identifies different types of religious capital to improve understanding of both the concept of religious capital and the effects of the ongoing growth of Buddhism in Australia.

  11. Theoretical Views in Inter-religious Dialog in Iran

    Majid Jafarian


    Full Text Available   It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are:   · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action    The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach­ assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it

  12. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Qiu Yonghui


    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  13. Religious culture as a barrier?

    Agergaard, Sine


    Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... barrier to participation in sports among Muslim girls and women. This article aims to provide a counter-narrative by focusing on young Muslim girls who simultaneously practice their religion and sports. The main research question was: How do young Danish Muslim girls align participation in sports with...... their religious and cultural frames of reference? The study uses a case study approach with interviews of ten 13–17-year-old Danish Muslim girls, as well as explorative observations in two football clubs and interviews with five coaches and club leaders. In further developing an analytical model for...

  14. The Relationship between Religious Attitudes, Locus of Control and Tendency to Substace Abuse in University Students

    Farhad Asghari


    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was the study of relationship between religious attitudes, locus of control and tendency to substance abuse among students of Guilan University. Method: The research design was correlational design. For this purpose, 340 university students of Guilan University selected through Morgan table by cluster randome sampling. Allport religious orientation, Ratter locus of control and addiction potential scale administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed significant relationship between religious attitude, locus of control and tendency to substance abuse. That is religious attitude, locus of control entered in regression model as significant predictors. Also there was significant relationship between religious attitude, and locus of control. Altogheder, results showed that people with internal religious attitude have internal locus of control and lower tendency to substance abuse. Also, people with external religious attitude have external locus of control and higher tendency to substance abuse. Conclusion: According to the results, we can conclude that religious attitude and locus of control play important role on tendency to substance abuse.

  15. Religiøsitet blant unge muslimer og kristne i Oslo

    Ronald Mayora Synnes


    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen sammenligner unge muslimer og kristnes forståelseav sin religiøsitet. Artikkelen bygger på kvalitative intervjuer av åtte unge muslimer og kristne i Oslo. Individualisering er ofte sett som et nøkkelbegrep i forståelsen av ungdoms mentalitet og religiøsitet. Hovedspørsmålet i denne artikkelen er hvordan ungdommene begrunner sine religiøse valg. Analysen viser at det er mange likheter mellom de muslimske og kristne informantene. Både unge muslimer og kristne ønsker å markere et skille i ungdomstiden, der deres religiøsitet går fra åvære en del av foreldrenes religiøsitet til å bli deres egenvalgtetro og overbevisning. Dette skjer på tross av at alle informanteneender opp med en religiøsitet som ligger nært opp til detde forteller om foreldrenes religiøsitet. Forskjellen mellom demuslimske og kristne informantene er at mens muslimer fortellerom et spenningsfylt møte med storsamfunnet, og at deresetniske og kulturelle opprinnelse står sentralt i deres religiøsediskurs, er dette ikke tema for de kristne informantene.

  16. Inter-religious Dialogue in Malaysia:Past Experience, Present Scenario and Future Challenges

    Wan Sabri Wan Yusof


    Full Text Available Inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia has taken place more than a century ago either in the form of ‘dialogue of life’ or in the form of intellectual discourse. ‘Dialogue of life’ normally occurs in a superficial ways of interaction such as ‘open house’ during festive seasons and daily interaction in market places, offices or schools while dialogue in the form of intellectual discourse occurs in official events such as forum, seminar and public lecture. Earliest endeavours of inter-religious dialogue were championed by non-Muslim organizations with the aim to protect their rights that was allegedly threatened with the execution of Islamization policy in 1980s. The involvement of Muslim’s organizations could only be seen until 1990s with a pioneering attempt by Center for Civilizational Dialogue (University of Malaya in 1995 that aimed to generate greater inter-religious understanding. The implementation of inter-religious dialogue in the form of intellectual discourse however is still limited due to its nature which is apparently more appealing to the intellectuals’ community. On top of that, inter-religious dialogue also facing constant objections by some critics due to misunderstanding of the actual goals of inter-religious dialogue. Therefore, correct understanding about the concept of inter-religious dialogue must be nurtured among the masses prior to commencing any inter-religious dialogue program.

  17. Religious and Ethnic Discrimination: Differential Implications for Social Support Engagement, Civic Involvement, and Political Consciousness

    Renate Ysseldyk


    Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.

  18. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    Gina Andrade Abdala


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults.METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE. The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components. The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve = 0.91.RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.

  19. Digital literacy in religious studies

    Sinclair, Stefanie


    This article considers the relevance of the concept of ‘digital literacy’ within the context of the discipline of religious studies in higher education and reflects on its potential impact on notions of ‘graduateness’. It contemplates how digital technology can be integrated most effectively in learning design and reflects on the skills students need to be equipped with to recognise the challenges and opportunities of digital technology and understand its impact and role within the study of r...

  20. Religious organizations debate nuclear energy

    This paper reviews the history of the religious debate on nuclear energy over the last thirty years. In the 1950s, religious statements recognized the peaceful uses of atomic energy as a blessing from God and called upon world leaders to promote its use. Nuclear energy programmes were launched in this decade. In the 1960s, there was still religious approval of nuclear energy, but questions about ethics arose. It was not until the 1970s, after the oil crisis, that serious questioning and criticism of nuclear energy emerged. This was particularly true in the United States, where the majority of statements originated - especially in 1979, the year of the Three Mile Island accident. Around this time, the World Council of Churches developed the concept of the just, participatory and sustainable society. The meaning and use of these terms in the nuclear energy debate is examined. This paper also compares the balanced debate of the World Council with the case against the plutonium economy prepared by the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Three religious statements from the 1980s are examined. A United Church of Canada resolution, critical of nuclear energy, is compared with a favourable report from the Methodist Church in England. Both use similar values: in one case, justice, participation and sustainability; in the other case, concern for others, participation and stewardship. There are not many Catholic statements on nuclear energy. One which is cautious and favourable is examined in detail. It is concluded that the use of concepts of justice, participation and sustainability (or their equivalents) has not clarified the nuclear debate

  1. Religious renaissance in China today

    Richard Madsen


    Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derive...

  2. Dialogic skills for religious education

    Mike Castelli


    In the field of religious education, pedagogies have featured regularly as teachers strive for the most effective methodology to promote pupils’ learning but their current success rate has been called into question by two critical Subject Reports in 2010 and 2013 from the English Government’s Office for Standards in Education (OfSTED). This paper reports on a piece of action research that sets Bloom’s taxonomy within a framework of classroom dialogue skills with the intention of addressing th...

  3. Mating Competitors Increase Religious Beliefs

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Cohen, Adam B; Weeden, Jason; KENRICK, DOUGLAS T.


    It has been presumed that religiosity has an influence on mating behavior, but here we experimentally investigate the possibility that mating behavior might also influence religiosity. In Experiment 1, people reported higher religiosity after looking at mating pools consisting of attractive people of their own sex compared to attractive opposite sex targets. Experiment 2 replicated the effect with an added control group, and suggested that both men and women become more religious when seeing ...

  4. Religious desecration and ethnic violence

    Ravindran, Rajan.


    Desecration of religious places has drawn the attention of the world media, academics and policymakers on a number of occasions. The desecration of the Church of the Nativity, the cross-desecration by both Orthodox and Muslims of the Balkans, the desecration of the Sikh Golden Temple, the destruction of the Bamiyan Buddha Monolith by the Taliban in Afghanistan and many others have attracted world condemnation. However, there has been little or no cross-sectional research or academic enquir...

  5. Imaging Religious Identity: Intertextual Play among Postmodern Christian Bloggers

    Teusner, Paul


    In the fledgling but rapidly growing academic discipline of religion, media and culture, much attention has been paid to the use of new media to create and develop individual religious identities, build connections and foster group identities. Yet to date most research has focussed on exchanges of literal text between users, and little has considered the importance of visual text (either still images or videos) in the communication of meaning in online environments. In this presentation, I wo...

  6. Kind en religie

    F. van der Stoep


    Full Text Available ’n Tematisering oor die godsdiens is net so oud soos die mens seii. As oopdekking van die verhouding mens tot God, vorm dit die tema van die gesprek tussen God en Adam na die sondeval. Sederldien was dit nog nooit afwesig in elke vorm van nalatenskap wat ons by die mens aantref nie, omdat die iioeke na sinvolheid en betekenis nog altyd ’n strewe openbaar om die harmonieuse verhouding met God te herstel, al ontken die mens dit ook en al soek hy die kxag van die herstel in homself. Ook die hedendaagse lewensgang is nie anders nie. Voordat die tweede dekade van hierdie eeu afgeloop was, het die groot Switserse pedagoog Foerster reeds gekla dat hoewel ons trots daarop is dat ons meer as ooit die buitewêreld aan ons wil onderwerp het, ons opgehou het om te besef dat in werklikheid die buitewêreld meer as ooit mag gekry het oor die innerlike mens. Sy formulering was miskien minder aan- grypend as die klag van Léon Bloy, wat reeds met die wente- ling van die eeu uitgespreek is: God is afwesig! God is af­ wesig in die stede, in die velde, in die berge en op die vlakte. Hy is afwesig in die wet en in die wetenskap, in die politiek, in die opvoeding en in die sedes. Hy is selfs afwesig in die lewens van gelowiges, want hulle wat nog as sy vriende bekend wil staan, het geen behoefte aan sy aanwesigheid nie. God is afwesig soos nog nooit te vore nie. Afwesigheid het een van die eienskappe van God geword.

  7. A Psicologia da Religião Ocidental e Oriental: a influência do círculo de Eranos no atendimento da religião na perspectiva de Carl Gustav Jung

    Luiz Henrique Lemos


    Full Text Available LEMOS, Luiz Henrique. A Psicologia da religião Ocidental e Oriental: a influência do círculo de Eranos no atendimento da religião na perspectiva de Carl Gustav Jung. 2013. 127f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências da Religião – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.


    B. Catanese


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.

  9. Ciências da Religião numa sociedade multicultural

    Wolfgang Gruen


    Full Text Available Texto originalmente apresentado como aula inaugural do Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião da PUC Minas. Trata da epistemologia e dos desafios da investigação em Ciências da Religião. Partindo do problema de base da religiosidade na Educação, do fenômeno religioso e sua dimensão profunda, o artigo segue uma densa investigação sobre os limites e horizontes das Ciências da Religião.Palavras-chave: Ciências da Religião; Religião; Religiosidade; Educação; Ensino religioso.ABSTRACTThis text was originally presented as the opening class of the Postgraduate Programme in Sciences of Religion of PUC Minas. It concerns the epistemology and challenges of investigation in Sciences of Religion. Starting from the fundamental question of religiosity in Education, of the religious phenomenon and its deep dimension, the article embarks on a close investigation into the limits and horizons of the Sciences of Religion.Key words: Sciences of religions; Religion; Religiosity; Education; Religious teaching.

  10. Entering the Mindset of Violent Religious Activists

    Mark Juergensmeyer


    How can one enter the mindset of religious activists whose worldview and values are different from one’s own? This is the challenge for analyzing contemporary violent religious movements and individuals around the world. This essay suggests guidelines, based on the author’s interview experience, for entering religious minds through informative encounters, relational knowledge, bracketing assumptions, and constructing a view of the whole.

  11. On Three Ways to Justify Religious Beliefs

    Brümmer, V.


    This paper compares the ways in which revealed theology, natural theology and philosophical theology justify religious belief. Revealed theology does so with an appeal to revelation and natural theology with an appeal to reason and perception. It is argued that both are inadequate. Philosophical theology analyses the meaning rather than proving the truth of religious belief. In doing so it does show how truth claims are entailed by a religious tradition and how the whole heritage of a traditi...

  12. The Linguistic Roots of Religious Studies

    G. Tselkovsky


    The author discusses how linguistics influenced the formation of the methodology and the theory of religious studies. Changes in religious paradigms were connected with the following new theories in linguistics: comparative methodology, structuralism, and cognitive linguistics. It was these three branches of linguistic studies which were most influential for the formation and later development of religious studies. The author asks precisely why it was that linguistics constituted the source of ...

  13. Application of Economic Concepts on Religious Behavior

    Esa Mangeloja


    This survey gathers the current state of research activity on the emerging economic sub-area Economics of Religion. The religious beliefs and activities are analyzed from the viewpoint of economic theory and behavior. The advanced statistical tools and theoretical formulations of economic science can be applied to various problems of religious activity, dogma and social context. Analysis of interrelationship between economic and religious behavior increases our understanding of the nature and...

  14. Religious tourism: devotion or business opportunity?

    Carvalho, Aida


    Religious tourism can be understood as an activity in which people travel either for worshipping purposes or to participate in events of religious significance. It can be seen as an alternative to mass tourism activities, aiming for specific targets. Portugal has a significant and rich religious heritage which can help to revitalize traditionally neglected rural areas. The active participation of the Church is of utmost importance as far as the visitors are concerned. On one hand it sh...

  15. Insuring Consumption and Happiness Through Religious Organizations


    This paper examines whether involvement with religious organizations insures an individual's stream of consumption and of happiness. Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX), we examine whether households who contribute to a religious organization are able to insure their consumption stream against income shocks and find strong insurance effects for whites. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), we examine whether individuals who attend religious services ar...

  16. Attitudes toward Religious Diversity among American Exemplars of Christian Virtue

    Kennedy, Paul; Reid, Malcolm


    An important concern within contemporary Western societies is how religious adherents view and engage religious diversity. This study attempts to further understandings regarding religious diversity in contemporary society through the accounts of American Christian religious exemplars whose religious identification spans the conservative…

  17. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    Todd Matthews


    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.


    Alexius Andang L. Binawan


    Full Text Available One of controversial issues in Indonesia regarding human rights is concerning religious freedom. There were two contradict opinions on the issue, i.e. those who preferred Indonesia as an Islamic state, with a consequence that there is only very limited religious freedom and those who preferred secular state with a wider religious freedom. Though finally Indonesia adopted Pancasila (five pillars as the state ideology, as a mid-way between the two, final agreement on the problem is from being finalised as debates are still carried out. This paper is aimed at analysing how and where the ‘pendulum’ is swinging between two contrasting views since Indonesia has signed both the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and also the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights. I argue that during the New Order Indonesia, the pendulum on religious freedom swung closer to Islamic view. [Salah satu isu terkait Hak Asasi Manusia di Indonesia adalah mengenai kebebasan agama. Setidaknya ada dua cara pandang yang saling bertentangan, yaitu (1 yang menghendaki bentuk negara Islam, konsekuensinya adalah kebebasan agama sangatlah terbatas, dan (2 yang menginginkan negara sekuler yang mengindikasikan kebebasan agama lebih luas. Indonesia mengadopsi Pancasila sebagai ideologi negara dan sebagai jalan tengah antara kubu negara Islam dan sekuler, namun perdebatan mengenai bentuk negara tersebut terus saja bergulir. Artikel ini menganalisis bagaimana dan ke mana ‘pendulum’ bergerak di antara dua pandangan yang saling bertentangan di atas. Semasa Orde Baru, pendulum tersebut condong ke kubu Islam.

  19. The emergence of philosophy in Scottish secondary school Religious Education

    Graeme Nixon


    Full Text Available This article considers changes in the subject Religious Education (RE within the context of Scottish secondary schools, charting a development towards the increasing use of philosophical skills and content. Before considering the nature, extent and timing of this development this article provides a broader context within which to understand educational change in Scotland. The emergent hypothesis is that Religious Education has become more philosophical as a result of changes in society (particularly secularisation, changes in education (particularly the move to reflective pedagogy, and also as a result of the close epistemological relationship between philosophy and religious education. This article adopts an interpretative research paradigm and considers quantitative and qualitative data drawn from a survey of 126 secondary schools and seventeen key informant interviews. Taken alongside existing reviews of policy and research literature this data demonstrate that three interlinked hypothetical strands have been at the heart of the move towards more philosophical Religious Education, although other possibilities are also raised and considered. This study also suggests areas for further research based on the above findings.

  20. Teaching Religious Pluralism and Study of Religious Cultural Heritage in Bulgarian Universities

    Georgeta Nazarska; Svetla Shapkalova


    The article aims to present good practices in academic religious education in Bulgaria. The paper provides an overview of religious education in Bulgarian universities, stating that it is currently mono-confessional both in private and in public universities. Non-confessional religious education is carried out only in the State University of Library Studies and IT (SULSIT) in Sofia. The introduced innovative training courses, teaching methods in the field of religious education, and new publi...

  1. The Role of Religious Leaders in Curbing the spread of HIV/Aids in Nigeria

    O Oluduro


    Full Text Available The tragic impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Nigeria and its rate of escalation despite increasing access to health services have been alarming and terrifying. Nigerian people are very religious, yet the impact of the pandemic leaves nothing untouched. The article examines the response of the Nigerian religious leaders to the challenges of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It discusses some of the challenges facing religious leaders as they grapple with the consequences of this pandemic and explores ways in which they can make a real difference in halting its spread.

  2. The significance of the use of ganja as a religious ritual in the Rastafari movement

    SP Pretorius


    Full Text Available In 2000, the South African Constitutional Court ruled that religious freedom, including the exercise of religious rituals, may not contradict the laws of the country. This ruling came as a result of the Western Cape Law Society�s refusal to admit a Rastafarian as lawyer because of his habit of smoking marijuana. He appealed to the Constitutional Court and claimed that the ruling infringed upon his right to religious freedom. The Constitutional Court upheld the decision that no exception may be made for one religion.�

  3. Religious Beliefs, Possession States, and Spirits: Three Case Studies from Sri Lanka

    Raveen Hanwella


    Full Text Available We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded.


    Abbas NASERI


    Full Text Available A review of the literature on religion and advertisement led to the identification of three lines of studies examining the influence of religion on advertising. These three lines of studies focused on attitude toward advertising of controversial products, presence of religious values in advertisements executions, and the consumers’ reactions to advertisement containing religious cues or symbols. The latter line has been followed modestly in Christian context but not in Islamic context of advertising. Hijab as a significant religious cue might peripherally generates a favorable attitude toward advertisement among Muslims. It is suggested that information processing theories like Elaboration Likelihood Model provides a pertinent theoretical framework to examine this effect empirically.

  5. Is ethnic and cultural-religious heterogeneity a barrier to economic development

    Nikolić Goran


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the influence of heterogeneity of religious-ethnic structure on economic growth. Most studies show that extraordinary national-religious diversification has a negative impact on economic performance of countries. However, the institutional arrangements that involve a significant degree of decentralization may be a factor of relaxation of ethnic and religious, i.e. political animosity. Positive economic experiences of some institutional and ethnically complex countries show that the single economic policy is possible and that strong the national heterogeneity is not necessarily a negative factor for economic development if there are viable democratic institutions.

  6. Immigration and the New Religious Pluralism. A Comparison between the European Union and the United States

    José Casanova


    Full Text Available This text compares the fit of migration processes and the emergence of religious pluralism in the European Union and the United States. The main thesis of the author is that the social contexts of the reception of this new immigration are marked by the way in which both societies define the presence of religion in their public spaces. Nevertheless, the differentiated fit of some immigrant groups in accordance with their religious affiliation suggests that both societies react in a different way in front of different groups. Thus, with regard to Islam, the European societies construct the image of the “religious other”, perceiving their social fit as being problematic. In the United States, the incorporation of Islam adopts other parameters from the moment in which religious affiliation is recognised as being a valid element for its social fit.

  7. Religious and Cultural Dress at School: A Comparative Perspective

    E de Waal,


    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US, as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionally entrenched right to all of the different religions and cultures. The crisis of values in education arises from the disparity between the value system espoused by the school and the community, and that expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees learners' fundamental rights, including those of freedom of religion, culture, expression and human dignity. On the one hand, the South African Schools Act requires of School Governing Bodies to develop and implement a Code of Conduct for learners, and on the other, that they strictly adhere to the Constitution of the country when drawing up their dress codes. The right of a religious group to practise its religion or of a cultural group to respect and sustain its culture must be consistent with the provisions of the Bill of Rights (which is entrenched in the Constitution and this implies that other rights may not infringe on the right to freedom of religion and culture. In the US, although there is no legislation that protects learners' freedom of religion and culture at schools, their First Amendment guides the way. Their Supreme Court respects the religious values of all citizens provided that they are manifested off public school premises. While we acknowledge the existence of religious and cultural diversity at South African schools, this paper focuses on the tension among and on the existence of different approaches towards the human rights of learners from different

  8. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality.

    Kramp, Joseph M


    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism. PMID:20607410

  9. General health and religious coping strategies in patients suffering from asthma

    Seyyed Hassan Adeli


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.

  10. Religiousness, well-being and ageing – selected explanations of positive relationships

    Woźniak Barbara


    Full Text Available According to research that have been conducted in the field of gerontology, sociology and psychology of ageing, there is a relationship between the level of religious involvement and health status/ well-being/quality of life in older age. How does religiousness influence aging process and health status? The aim of the article is to review explanations of a positive relationship between religiousness and health that are discussed in the literature. Those explanations may be grouped in three broad categories reflecting three functions of religion that play a role for well-being in older age. Those functions are: (1 religiousness as a source of coherence and the role of religious coping and provision of meaning in dealing with stressful life events (including ageing losses (2 religiousness as a source of positive self-perception and a sense of personal control, (3 provision of social resources (i.e. social ties and social support within religious community and emphasis on interpersonal relations (with special focus on forgiveness as a norm in interpersonal relations. Those functions of religion are discussed in the context of their potential role in successful ageing, as determined by - among others - active engagement in life.

  11. Religiousness and perceived social support as predictive factors for mental health outcomes

    Krok, Dariusz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study: The study is to investigate predictive values of the religious meaning system, the centrality of religiosity and social support for mental health outcomes. Although there is some evidence about associations of religiousness and social support with mental health, insufficient data exists to explain which dimensions of religiousness and social support are related to mental health outcomes. Material and methods: Participants were 206 people (108 women and 98 men randomly recruited in southern parts of Poland. Their ages ranged from 18 to 78 years, with a mean age of 38.6 years (SD =16.44. All participants filled in the four questionnaires: The Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, The Centrality of Religiosity Scale, The Berlin Social Support Scales, and The General Health Questionnaire-28. Results: Both religiousness and social support are associated with mental health outcomes, but the character of these associations depends on particular dimensions. The religious meaning system and the centrality of religiosity showed negative links with the dimension of mental health called somatic symptoms. Actually received support was associated with better mental health, whereas need for support and protective buffering support were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. Discussion and conclusions: The findings support the hypotheses that religiousness and social support are predictive factors for mental health outcomes, though their effects are rather moderate or weak. Both religion and social support can influence mental health by imbuing life with a sense of meaning and significance, and offering fellowship in times of stress and suffering.

  12. Belief into Action Scale: A Comprehensive and Sensitive Measure of Religious Involvement

    Harold G. Koenig


    Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.

  13. New Religious Movements and the Study of Folklore: The Russian Case

    Alexander Panchenko


    Full Text Available The present article deals with the question of emergence of new religious movements in contemporary Russia. Although sociological approach to the study of new religious movements proceeds usually from the theories of secularization, the author claims that the appearance of these movements should be viewed also in various contexts of national and historical peculiarities of different cultures. He stresses the importance of new urban mythology and semi-Orthodox mysticism as a basis for autochthonous Russian new religious movements emerged in the 1990s. The collapse of the Soviet ideology evidently resulted in the symbolic vacuum, which was to be filled with diverse social, political, religious and ideological patterns. Proceeding from the study of religious practices and personal narratives by the followers of “The Last Testament Church” (also known as “the sect of Vissarionovtsy”, the author argues that indigenous Russian new religious movements appear to be typical “crisis cults” comparable to so-called “cargo-cults” and other messianic and prophetic movements of this kind. This particular case demonstrates that the rise and functioning of new religious movements are often more complicated and probably depend not only on the secularization.

  14. State Response to Religious Revivalism in Post-Soviet Central Asia

    Eren Tatari


    Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev's Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments' push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.

  15. State Response to Religious Revivalism in Post-Soviet Central Asia

    Eren Tatari


    Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev’s Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments’ push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.

  16. Teaching Darwinian Evolution: Learning from Religious Education

    Stolberg, Tonie L.


    This article examines what science education might be able to learn from phenomenological religious education's attempts to teach classes where students hold a plurality of religious beliefs. Recent statements as to how best to accomplish the central pedagogical concept of "learning from religion" as a vehicle for human transformation are…

  17. Awakening the Erotic in Religious Education.

    Siejk, Cate


    Focuses on exploring and understanding the epistemological significance of eros and the place of the erotic in contemporary religious education. Shows, through concrete examples, how a fully human epistemology makes possible an authentic religious education that promotes both personal and communal transformation. (CAJ)

  18. Patriarchy in Secular and Religious Varieties

    Vivienne Wee


    Vivienne Wee argues that patriarchy is alive and well in secular as well as religious hierarchies. She suggests instead of talking about religious fundamentalisms we need to talk about equality versus hierarchy. Development (2006) 49, 89–91. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100211

  19. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas;

    hypothesize that the target group will have a higher pain threshold and pain tolerance during religious practice compared to a non-religious control group, and the fMRI experiments are expected to show reduced neural activity (BOLD) in areas of the brain correlating with pain experience during personal prayer...

  20. Challenging Christianity: Leo Tolstoy and Religious Education

    Moulin, Dan


    The religious thought of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy is a well documented but often overlooked example of unorthodox Christianity. This paper uses the example of Tolstoy's religious thinking to question the integrity of the current representation of Christianity in UK schools. It also uses Tolstoy's criticism of orthodox Christianity to suggest a…

  1. Using Religious Capital to Alleviate Poverty? - A Case Study of Cross-Border Migration in South-China (abstract

    Sam Wong


    Full Text Available Laurence Iannaccone’s notion of religious capital highlights the capability of individuals to draw on resources from religious- or faith-based practices, and then convert religious capital into human, social and financial capital. The processes of capital accumulation and conversion have significant implications for poverty reduction. However, in its examination of the cross-border experiences of poor female Chinese migrants in South China, this chapter finds that religious capital is severely inequitably distributed within migrant communities. Religious involvement is both time- and resource- demanding, and the very poor face considerable constraints in negotiating access to religious capital. Empirical evidence indicates that while some migrants are successful in improving their material conditions and experience upward social mobility, the failure to address broader, deep-rooted causes of poverty, such as social discrimination, has stymied more systemic change. Worse still, members of the ruling class use religious symbols and rituals to reinforce their domination. This chapter calls for placing greater emphasis on the distributional effect of religious capital, with the aim of offering poor people better support for their religious participation.

  2. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    Lane, Justin E


    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors. PMID:25851082

  3. Religious Coping Strategies and Mental Health Among Religious Jewish Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki


    The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men. PMID:26324183

  4. A "Religião" do jornalismo

    Jorge Claudio Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a ocorrência cotidiana, nas redações de jornal, de inúmeras manifestações “laicas” da religiosidade (na concepção simmeliana, é uma capacidade humana que engloba a totalidade da existência e lhe confere sentido. O autor trabalhou, durante cinco anos, nas redações dos jornais Folha de S. Paulo e O Estado de S. Paulo. das observações, anotadas num diário de campo, entrevistas e levantamento de dados, resultou uma “repor-tese” – uma reportagem que virou doutorado. Não há no jornalismo um componente religioso formal. Mas, por predisposição pessoal, ethos da profissão ou tradição, a religiosidade do jornalista secreta um sentido de promoção da verdade e da justiça. A empresa jornalística exerce uma peculiar onipotência ao selecionar acontecimentos que considera dignos de ser publicados. A ancoragem da imprensa no tempo lhe confere certa eternidade, pois a sucessão ininterrupta de edições configura um retorno ao eterno presente. Conclui-se que a característica “religiosa” do jornalismo se manifesta sob forma de rituais de lugar e tempo, de pessoas e falas e também como mística da vocação, da missão e do sofrimento. Essas condições também podem ser usadas como um disfarce “heróico” na exploração do trabalhador. Palavras-chave: Jornalismo; Fenômeno religioso; Ritual; Mística. Abstract This article analyses the daily occurrence of multiple secular manifestations of religiousness in newspapers editorial rooms (according to Georg Simmel, it is a human capacity that involves the whole existence and endows it with sense. The author worked for newspapers Folha de S. Paulo and O Estado de S. Paulo for five years. From his observations, written down in a diary, interviews and collected data, he wrote a “reporthesis” – a newspaper report that turned into a doctorate thesis. There is not a formal religious component in journalism. But, due to a personal disposition

  5. Religious Coping and Psychological Distress in Military Veteran Cancer Survivors

    Archambault, Elizabeth; Schuster, Jennifer; Richardson, Peter; Moye, Jennifer


    Research on the relationship between religious coping and psychological well-being in cancer survivors is limited. Forty-eight veteran cancer survivors completed measures of psychological distress, posttraumatic growth, and positive and negative religious coping. Negative religious coping was associated with greater distress and growth. Positive religious coping was associated with greater growth. Gender, race, and religious affiliation were significant predictors of positive and negative religious coping. Veteran cancer survivors who utilize negative religious coping may benefit from referral to clergy or a mental health professional. Assessment of religious coping may be particularly important for female, non-White, and Christian cancer survivors. PMID:21822744

  6. Salvation and Eternal Life in an Alternative Religious Movement – The Raëlian Book of the Cloned

    Danijel Sinani


    Full Text Available The paper examines the conceptualization of salvation and eternal life within the Raëlian movement. After a brief overview of this alternative religious movement, we will give an analysis of certain aspects of the movement’s religious teachings relevant for our paper. Based on a specific biblical exegesis and latter developments of the basic teachings, the founder of the movement and his disciples bring a wholly new interpretation of these, perhaps most important religious themes. By positioning intelligence and science into the focus of their eschatology, Raelians introduce the idea of cloning as a path to eternal life. However, even with the attempts made by the founder to represent the Raelian belief system as a total break from the “primitive” understanding and practices of religion, the holy texts of this movement do contain old religious ideas as well as other familiar mechanisms of engaging the religious commitment of its members.

  7. Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.

    Jean M Twenge

    Full Text Available In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million, American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013, 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013, and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014. Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.

  8. The Influence of Implementation Religious Study on Students’ Religious Behaviour at Senior High Schools Under Religious Foundation in Kupang East Nusa Tenggara

    AM Wibowo


    This research aims to measure the effect of implementation of religious education at the high school under the religious foundations toward religious behavior student in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. There are five aspect of behaviour that measured include religiosity, honesty, tolerance, love peace and social concerns. Formulation of the problems in this study are (1) are  there any effect of the implementation of religious education for student of religious behavior (2) How is the im...

  9. The construction of the religious space in post-socialist Romania

    Sorin Gog


    Full Text Available Some of the post-socialist countries of Europe experienced after the fall of communism what some called a religious revival. Anthropologists and sociologists alike were sure that they discovered serious evidence against the case of secularization theory. What unfortunately most of them failed to observe was the particular shape and form of this religious growth and the structural changes of the religious mentalities occurred in the process of transition from a closed, ideologically monopolized society, to a pluralistic one. After more than half of a century of atheistic ideologization of the public sphere, Romania remains one of the most religious countries of both Eastern and Western Europe. The thesis of this article is that this fact is due to the lack of modernization of the Romanian social system both before and during the post-socialist period.

  10. The metaphysical mind in its physical environment: Religious implications of neuroscience

    C.W. du Toit


    Full Text Available This article introduces ideas originating from different sciences of mind and the challenge they present to religion. In spite of overcoming the mind-body dualism, it seems that the mind-brain dualism still prevails. The mind-brain relation is discussed in the light of some models. Special attention is given to supervenient theories of mind. In light of this information the article investigates how the impact of these theories on religious experience. D’Aquili and Newberg’s explanation of extraordinary religious experience is discussed. It is concluded that the phenomenon of religion and religious experience are more than mere brain functions. The place of religion and the continued importance of religion and religious experience are confirmed.

  11. Totem and taboo in the grocery store: quasi-religious foodways in North America

    Benjamin E. Zeller


    Full Text Available This article focuses on food proscriptions such as veganism and gluten-free eating, and prescriptions such as the Paleolithic diet, focusing on the North American context. These quasi-religious foodways serve as means for individuals to engage in discourses of community, personal and group identity, and boundary-marking. Through the daily practice of eating, those who follow quasi-religious foodways mark their identities, literally consuming who they are. These quasi-religious foodways therefore function to allow contemporary consumer-oriented individualistic Americans to engage in discourses of community, identity, and meaning in a highly vernacular manner, that of the marketplace. They also point to the manner in which identity and community have expanded well outside of religious categories.

  12. RELIGIOUS ANTHROPOCENTRISM: The Discourse of Islamic Psychology among Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals

    Nur Hamim


    Full Text Available Ideas in psychology are often criticized as being dominated by the spirit and the model of secular and liberal Western thinking. They are frequently deemed to bring bias when applied to analyze the psychological problems of human beings in the context of other cultures, especially in the context of Islamic culture. This paper investigates Indonesian Muslim scientists’ offer of an alternative of grand theory in psychology formulated from a more balanced paradigm called religious anthropocentric psychology. Indonesian Muslim scientists develop this paradigm as an attempt to construct spiritual-religious psychology or Islamic psychology. The paper describes an increasing awareness among those Muslim scientists to develop theories of humanistic psychology with spiritual and religious values. This kind of psychological theory seems to be the basis for so-called Islamic psychology. Furthermore, in addition to its reference toward the anthropocentric paradigm, this kind of psychology also refers to the religious-Islamic values, theo-centric or God-centric.


    Caleb O. Ogunkunle


    Full Text Available The call for rebranding the society at the national level confirms the level of moral decay in Nigeria. The multi-dimensional moral problems and crises are seen in every sector of the nation. This has accounted for various forms of evil being committed by people in the nation. Unfortunately, those in the religious sector are not immune to these evils. In fact, some of these atrocities are directly or indirectly connected with religious leaders. Therefore, this paper examines the Biblical Josiah and his reforms as a model for religious and political rebranding in Nigeria. This is with a view to highlighting some principles that would help us as a nation in our rebranding campaign. A historical method is adopted. Thus, Josiah’s model of rebranding remains a yardstick for all religious and political leaders in Nigeria if the rebranding project will yield fruit.

  14. A social work study on measuring adherence to religious values

    Mahsa Allahyari


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, including gender, marital status, level of education and age on adherence to religious values among young people in city of Shahin Dezh and Takab, located in province of West Azerbaijan, Iran in 2014. The study has accomplished between two groups of Turk and Kurd with the population of 85,000 and 89,000, respectively. The study uses a sample of 20 and 30 people from Turkish and Kurdish tribes, respectively, and uses t-student test as well as regression analysis to examine different hypotheses of the survey. The results show that there was a meaningful difference among various variables of gender, marital status, education level and age in adherence to religious values among the youth who live in this city.

  15. Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates

    Joaquín García-Alandete


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.

  16. Is religious fundamentalism our default spirituality?: Implications for teacher education

    Ferdinand J. Potgieter


    Full Text Available Using experiential interpretivism as underpinning methodology, this article investigates whether religious fundamentalism is the default spirituality of human beings. Our research is based on a hermeneutic reconstructive interpretation of religion, fundamentalism, radicalism, extremism, spirituality, life- and worldview, and the role of education in bringing about peaceful coexistence amongst people. We concluded that the natural religious-fundamentalist inclination of the human being tends to be (and needs to be counterbalanced by the education – that is, socialisation – that he or she receives from the moment of birth, the important first six or seven years of life, and throughout his or her life. Based on this conclusion, the article ends with the articulation of ten implications for teacher education.

  17. Not a lonely crowd? Social connectedness, religious service attendance, and the spiritual but not religious.

    Hastings, Orestes P


    Using the 2006-2014 General Social Survey and 2006-2012 Portraits of American Life Study, I find that on three dimensions of social connectedness: social interaction frequency, core discussion network size, and number of close ties, that religious service attenders are more connected than religious non-attenders and then either spiritual nor religious, but there are few differences between attenders and the spiritual but not religious. Difference-in-differences and fixed-effects models show little evidence that switches between categories are associated with changes in connectedness, and additional models show that prior social connectedness explains only a small amount of future switches. This paper challenges assumptions that the non-religious are a homogenous group lacking the benefits provided though the social networks of religious congregations and has implications for research on what it means to be spiritual, measuring religion and spirituality, and understanding the role of formal organizations in social life. PMID:26973032

  18. 28 CFR 548.18 - Observance of religious holy days.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of religious holy days. 548.18 Section 548.18 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.18 Observance of religious holy days. Consistent...

  19. Meta-Concepts, Thinking Skills and Religious Education

    Vermeer, Paul


    This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education is understood as closely related to education…

  20. 42 CFR 54.5 - Religious character and independence.


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Religious character and independence. 54.5 Section... independence. A religious organization that participates in an applicable program will retain its independence... organization's name, select its board members on a religious basis, and include religious references in...

  1. Meta-concepts, thinking skills and religious education

    Vermeer, P.


    This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education i

  2. Vouchers for Religious Schools and the Development of Democratic Values

    Giersch, Jason


    Federal courts have permitted tax credits for tuition at religious schools. Does a religious mission inhibit a school's ability or willingness to teach civic values, such as tolerance for political and religious differences? This essay examines relevant empirical research to find that religious schools, overall, do no worse than public…

  3. Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: Religion and Religious Diversity

    Subedi, Binaya


    Discussions about religious aspects of diversity are often absent from research. Similarly, topics such as religious forms of prejudice and religious dimensions of identities have not been fully explored in the context of teacher education. Too often, in the schooling context, what religion is and what constitutes an authentic religious identity…

  4. Work-Family Conflict: The Effects of Religious Context on Married Women’s Participation in the Labor Force

    Jenna Griebel Rogers


    Full Text Available Past work shows religion’s effect on women’s career decisions, particularly when these decisions involve work-family conflict. This study argues that the religious context of a geographic area also influences women’s solutions to work-family conflict through more or less pervasive normative expectations within the community regarding women’s roles and responsibilities to the family. We use the American Community Survey linked with community-level religious proportions to test the relationship between religious contexts and women’s participation in the labor force in the contiguous United States–2054 census geographic areas. Using spatial analysis, we find that community religious concentration is related to the proportion of women who choose not to work. Communities with a higher proportion of the population belonging to conservative religious traditions also have a greater proportion of married women choosing not to work outside the home.

  5. The Relationship between Religious Commitment, Religious Involvement and Empathy with Aggression Among High School Students

    M. Farhanfar; M. A. Nadi; Molavi, H.


    The present study has been done to determine the effect of religious commitment and religious involvement with aggression and as a mediator variable empathy was considered. This is a descriptive - correlational study and the population was all high school students of Isfahan. The sample consisted of 321 high school students that were selected by cluster random multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected using Aggression Questionnaire (Rhine, 2006), Worthington Religious Commitment (2003)...

  6. Religious Heritage Tourism and Creative Economy in Cirebon: The Diversity of Religious, Cultures and Culinary

    Jaelani, Aan; SETYAWAN, Edy; HASYIM, Nursyamsudin


    Abstract. Cirebon has an element of completeness in tourism management. Religious, heritage and tourism is a combination of three industry from the perspective of economics that play a role in the development of tourism and has the potential to encourage people's creativity in the economic sector. With a qualitative approach, this study confirms the religious heritage and the creative economy tourism the icon for Cirebon in developing the tourism industry, including travel and religious cultu...

  7. The role of religious affiliation in Christian and unaffiliated bereaved emerging adults' use of religious coping.

    Collison, Elizabeth A; Gramling, Sandra E; Lord, Benjamin D


    Though research on bereavement has grown, few studies have focused on emerging adults. To add to the literature, the authors administered the RCOPE to a sample of bereaved college students (analyzed sample N = 748) and explored the relationship between self-reported religious affiliation and religious coping strategies used and endorsed as "most helpful." Results highlight the rich topography of bereavement previously unexamined in understudied populations (i.e., emerging adults, religiously unaffiliated). Specifically, the Christians/affiliated used "negative" religious coping strategies most often, yet identified "positive" strategies as "most helpful," whereas the unaffiliated instead used "positive" strategies most often and identified "negative" strategies as "most helpful." PMID:26313501

  8. The association between religious homogamy and reproduction.

    Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne


    Individuals more strongly affiliated to religion have on average more children than less religious ones. Here, based on census data of 3 658 650 women aged 46-60 years from 32 countries provided by IPUMS International and data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 2400 women, aged 53-57 years), we show that religious homogamy is also associated with higher reproduction in terms of a higher number of children and a lower chance of remaining childless. We argue that, together with the relationship between general religious intensity and number of children, religious homogamy has reproductive consequences. These may impact future demographic developments and could have also played a role in the biological evolution of humans. PMID:27412283

  9. Ethnic and religious polarization and social conflict

    ESTEBAN, Joan; Mayoral, Laura


    In this paper we examine the link between ethnic and religious polariza- tion and conflict using interpersonal distances for ethnic and religious attitudes obtained from the World Values Survey. We use the Duclos et al (2004) polar- ization index. We measure conflict by means on an index of social unrest, as well as by the standard conflict onset or incidence based on a threshold number of deaths. Our results show that taking distances into account significantly improves the quality of the fi...

  10. Religious freedom and the German circumcision debate

    Marianne Heimbach-Steins


    In May 2012, a German court in Cologne ruled that circumcising young boys represents grievous bodily harm. This decision, which touched upon the questions of freedom of religious practice, identity and children’s rights, was condemned by Jewish and Muslim representatives in Germany, but it was also widely and controversially debated by civil society and politicians. The German Parliament recently passed legislation protecting circumcision as a religious practice, but the debate is likely to c...