Full Text Available The study was conducted on 35 primi para mothers admitted in Krishna hospital, K arad. A evaluative survey approach was considered. Study design was descriptive purposive sampling technique was used. The instrument used for data collection was a structured interview schedule. RESULTS: The present study found that 11 (31 . 42% having good knowledge, 22 (62.85% having average knowledge and 2 (5 . 71% having poor knowledge. Related to attitude of mothers majority of 20 (57 . 14% having average attitude of breast feeding and 19 (54 . 28% mothers were not using knowledge of practice for giving breast feeding to new born baby. CONCLUSION: M ajority of 60% mothers having good knowledge of breast feeding but they were not practicing the knowledge of breast feeding. Also there was no association found in - between knowledge, attitude, and practice with socio - demographic variable. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge, attitude and knowledge of practice regarding breast feeding. To find an association between knowledge, attitude an d knowledge of practice with demographic variable.
Mirfakhraei, M; Cheraghi, Z; A Doosti Irani; Cheraghi, P; J Poorolajal
Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine quest...
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min
Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Assessment of intentional abortion and women's knowledge about its causes and complications is an important priority for women's health, but because of the sensitivity, the investigations in this topic are rare. This study was performed for the first time in order to determine women's knowledge and attitude toward intentional abortion.Methods: Women referring to pre-marriage counseling centers in Mashhad, Iran, were selected with easy sampling method and accessed with knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Q-Square, T-Test and Pearson correlation. Results: Of 480 participants, 71% (CI95%=66.8-75.0 had opposed attitudes about the intentional abortion and 26.5% (CI95%=22.6-30.5 had appropriate knowledge. Between lower age and lower education, lack of interest to contraceptive use with low women's knowledge-attitude scores, there was a significant relationship (p<0.05. Conclusion: Most of the participants opposed attitudes to intentional abortion, but more than 70% of them had low knowledge about this topic. Inappropriate knowledge about causes and its adverse consequences, especially the beginning of marital life can lead to unwanted pregnancy, intentional and unsafe abortion that need attention.
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, studentsÃ¢Â€Â™ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.
Kavin Nishith Shroff; R J Gayakwad; Neha Bavarva; Fenil Patel; Patel, N B
Objective: The study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of emergency contraception among the college students. Methodology: Data was collected through self administered questionnaires, where by students were instructed what to do in introductory remark. All this was done first before being administered in the class. Then the filled questionnaires were collected. Results: Majority were not using ECP 56(46.7%) with a reason of never had need for it, followed by 29 (2...
Nagakura, Honey; Schneider, Gretchen; Morris, James; Lafferty, Katherine A; Palmer, Christina G S
Research suggests that when healthcare providers lack cultural competence, minority groups, including the Deaf community, are adversely affected. Although most genetic counseling programs incorporate cultural competency training into their curricula, the extent and impact of Deaf awareness training is unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess Deaf awareness training of recent graduates and its impact on knowledge of deafness and Deaf culture, and attitudes toward deaf people. Genetic counselors who graduated within the past 5 years were invited to participate in an anonymous, online survey. Of the 135 respondents, 26 % reported no Deaf awareness training and 51 % reported limited training (1-2 h) conducted primarily by program instructors. Nearly one-third felt their Deaf awareness training was insufficient. Respondents lacked knowledge regarding effects of cochlear implants on residual hearing, communication between deaf children and hearing parents, and working with sign language interpreters. However, scores on knowledge of deafness and Deaf culture items and scores on attitudes toward deaf people scale did not differ significantly between respondents who had Deaf awareness training and those who did not. These findings suggest that genetic counseling students may not receive adequate Deaf awareness training. Future efforts should focus on increasing Deaf awareness in genetic counseling students, and investigating whether this change improves genetic counseling experiences for Deaf individuals. PMID:25030269
Strong, Kristy L; Folse, Victoria N
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients experience barriers to health care that include fear of discrimination, as well as insensitivity and lack of knowledge about LGBT-specific health needs among providers. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to improve knowledge and attitudes of baccalaureate nursing students regarding LGBT patient care. Education focused on key terminology, health disparities, medical needs of transgender patients, and culturally sensitive communication skills for competent LGBT patient care. Knowledge level and attitudes were evaluated before and after the intervention using a survey based on a modified Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale and two assessment tools developed for this study. A statistically significant increase in positive attitudes and knowledge level was found immediately after the intervention. Findings from this study support the inclusion of education related to LGBT patient health care in undergraduate nursing curricula to promote cultural competence and sensitivity. PMID:25535762
Conclusions: The majority of nurses has good knowledge and attitude toward PV and understand the need for reporting in our study, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them. Training programs and continued medical education type of interventions periodically can improve the knowledge toward PV. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 1009-1012
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale, structure of matter, size-dependent properties, forces and interactions, tools and instrumentation, as well as science, technology, and society. After item analysis, 26 multiple-choice questions were selected for the PKNT test with a KR-20 reliability of 0.91. Twenty items were developed in the PANT questionnaire which can be classified as scales of trust in government and industry, trust in scientists, and perception of benefit and risk. Cronbach alpha for the PANT questionnaire was 0.70. In a pilot study, 209 citizens, varying in age, were selected to respond to the instruments. Results indicated that about 70 % of respondents did not understand most of the six major concepts involving nanotechnology. The public tended to distrust government and industry and their levels of trust showed no relationship to their levels of knowledge about nanotechnology. However, people perceived that nanotechnology provided high benefits and high risks. Their perceptions of the benefits and risks were positively related with their knowledge level of nanotechnology. People's trust showed a negative relationship to their risk perception. Implications for using these instruments in research are discussed in this paper.
Tazeen Saeed Ali; Khurshid Zulfiqar Ali Khowaja; Najma Khan
Objective: To measure the levels of nurse’s knowledge and attitude after the conduct of education session regarding chemotherapy administration and management. Methodology: This research study was conducted at two oncology units of tertiary Hospital Rawalpindi. A prepost test intervention study design was used on 35 nurses by using Verity’s tools. Results: The mean scores of knowledge were calculated by Cochran’s Q test showed that knowledge scores have significantly increased with ‘education...
Full Text Available Background: Health-care professionals are at a high risk of AIDS infection, among hospitalized HIV infectedpatients. Proper training and knowledge accompanied by necessary preventive measures are by all means, the mostsignificant factors which ensure low accident rates and furthermore lower contamination rates of the health-carepersonnel.Objective: Screening and assessment of knowledge and attitudes of newly-qualified doctors towards AIDSinfection.Methodology: We conducted a cohort study with a screening questionnaire, which included demographic data and16 questions associated with AIDS infection. 51 forms were filled in by specializing and rural doctors. Thestatistical analysis was conducted using the statistical program SPSS 13.Results: 25,5% (n=13 of the participants in this reserch have treated at least one patient for HIV infection, 19%(n=10, of them would willingly specialize in intense care of HIV patients and lastly 90.2%(n=46 believe that weshould preserve the medical confidential for HIV patients. 96.1% (n=49 of the participants doctors knew thatAIDS disease is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, 88.2%(n=45 is aware that HIV virus damagesthe immune system and finally 92% (n=47 recognize HIV symptomatology.The vast majority of the doctors(98%,n=50 is aware that HIV infection is spread through sexual intercourse, blood contact and by sharing needlesor syringes. Nevertheless, a percentage of 13.7% (n=7 believe that HIV transmission is feasible through kissingand 7.8% (n=15 through insects’ bites. At last 85-98% of the personnel refer that it’s familiar with the generalpreventive measures, which are usually applied to all HIV positive inpatients.Conclusions: Knowledge and attitude of new doctors towards AIDS infection is, in general terms satisfactory.Nevertheless, it’s imperative that we constantly inform and update newly-qualified doctors about AIDS infection,in order to minimize their inhibitions and compensate for the lack of knowledge, which is commonly observed innew doctors.
Kavin Nishith Shroff
Full Text Available Objective: The study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of emergency contraception among the college students. Methodology: Data was collected through self administered questionnaires, where by students were instructed what to do in introductory remark. All this was done first before being administered in the class. Then the filled questionnaires were collected. Results: Majority were not using ECP 56(46.7% with a reason of never had need for it, followed by 29 (24.2% and 28 (23.3%, with reasons of partner doesn't like it and religious reasons respectively. Cancer causation was chosen the least, 7 (5.8%. Only 23 individuals had ever used ECP in their life time, of these only 8 (34.8% followed by 6 (26.1% who had a failure in withdrawal. Only 136 individuals were able to respond to ECP using references, where by 75(55.1% said yes. Large number of individuals 114 (85.7% had never use ECP despite of sex exposure and only 19 (14.3% were able to use ECP. Majority of individuals out of 80, 66 (82.55% had a knowledge that ECP prevent pregnancy formation and few had a negative response, 7 (8.8% causes abortion, 5 (6.3% causes cancer. Conclusion: This study revealed that people in our country with much concern to bearing age group, have very little knowledge about emergency contraception. However, they are highly in need of getting it, and they are also in need of knowledge and dispensing units. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 142-144
Irene Hegeman Richard
Full Text Available Irene Hegeman Richard1, Kori A LaDonna1, Rosanne Hartman2, Carol Podgorski1, Roger Kurlan1, SAD-PD Study Group31University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3Please see Appendix for members of the SAD-PD Study GroupAbstract: We report results of a survey assessing patients’ knowledge about and attitudes towards depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD. 345 patients from 8 tertiary care centers responded (43% response rate. Overall, patients were relatively knowledgeable about depression and its occurrence in PD. However, many patients believed that depression is a normal reaction to the illness. While many respondents would be reluctant to initiate a discussion of depression during a clinical evaluation, most would feel comfortable talking about depression with their physician if he or she asked them questions about their mood. Based on the results of this survey, we recommend the following approach for physicians: (1 inform PD patients that, although a frequent occurrence, depression need not be accepted as a “normal reaction” to PD; and (2 routinely inquire about depressive symptoms rather than waiting for the patient to spontaneously report them.Keywords: depression, Parkinson’s disease, survey
Conclusions: The reasons for self-medication were similar among medical and non-medical students, but positive attitude and knowledge toward self-medication was more among the medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 988-994
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Despena Andrioti; Nikolaos Lemonakis; George Charalambous
Background: Continuing education is a fundamental aspect of health personnel professional life. These enable health professionals improve patient-centred care, stay current and provide quality services.Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitudes and competencies from the interprofessional training programme in public health held in cooperation with WHO/EURO.Methods: A structured questioner for self-ratings on perceived seminar usefulness and implementation was placed on the internet followed b...
Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis constitutes a diachronic problem of Public Health that in the past years received bigger epidemic dimensions, stirring interesting many researchers in all levels. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of students of Nursing departments in Applied University in Greece, towards the transmission and the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 275 students (12.1% male ??? 87,9% female of Nursing Departments. The anonymous questionnaire was used in order to collect our data. The study was conducted from May 19, 2008 to June 20, 2009. Each participant completed two questionnaires which included demographic data, questions regarding their knowledge to this infection and questions regarding their attitude toward it. The research took place at the Applied University of Athens, Lamia and Larissa. Statistical analyze was done with statistical methods SPSS version 15. Results: The founding of present study show that the 55,6% of the students had average knowledge concerning tuberculosis while only 2% of them had excellent knowledge, fact that affects indirectly in their attitude towards the disease. 59,1% of them knows the ways of transmission of disease but only the 52,2% the vaccine at tuberculosis. In case of a fellow student being infected from active tuberculosis 86% of the subjects would follow the advise and instructions of the Professional Health Bodies, while the 52,6% would ask medical advices if their fellow student suffered. 90.2 % of them could come into contact with patients while on clinical education placement but taking all personal precautions. Conclusions: The systematic teaching of preventing infectious diseases the evaluation of preventing programs as well as the concretisation of Educating Health Programs can contribute in overall complete education of students on issues in Public Health.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of the three long acting beta2-agonists (Salmeterol, Formoterol and Bambuterol in south Indian population. This prospective multi-centered study conducted in various hospitals on basis of block randomization method using St. George’s respiratory questionnaire and assess pulmonary function using spirometer. Out of 85 patients, 25 received Salmeterol, 35 received Formoterol and 25 received Bambuterol, showed variable improvement in the quality of life from baseline and clinical improvements. Change in overall scores from baseline was 56.33 units for Salmeterol, 61.91 units for Formoterol and 54.54 units for Bambuterol. Pulmonary function tests showed a better result for Salmeterol. Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients were improved at the end of the study and showed better compliance that had a good impact on the quality of life of the patients. Salmeterol has shown a better improvement and correlation in case of both quality of life and pulmonary function tests, when compared with others. Formoterol showed a better quality of life but a correlation with the pulmonary function tests was not seen like Salmeterol. The proportion of patients showed increase in knowledge, attitude and practice as well as the compliance by the end of the study.
Goutziana Georgia P; Syrogiannopoulos George A; Papastergiou Panagiotis; Papaevangelou Vassiliki; Theodoridou Maria N; Panagakou Sotiria G; Hadjichristodoulou Christos S
Abstract Background Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs) are common in children. The cause is usually viral, but parents' attitude often contributes to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective is to describe the process of developing a questionnaire to assess parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) concerning the role of antibiotics when children suffer from URIs, as well as to evaluate the response rates, the completeness and the reliabilit...
Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P
Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had...
Villafane-Garcia, Sachel M.
Students' retention in STEM-related careers is of great concern for educators and researchers, especially the retention of underrepresented groups such as females, Hispanics, and Blacks in these careers. Therefore it is important to study factors that could potentially influence students' decision to stay in STEM. The work described in this dissertation involved three research studies where assessments have been used in college chemistry courses to assess students' prior content knowledge, chemistry-self-efficacy, and attitude toward science. These three factors have been suggested to have an influence on students' performance in a course and could eventually be a retention factor. The first research study involved the development and use of an instrument to measure biochemistry prior knowledge of foundational concepts from chemistry and biology that are considered important for biochemistry learning. This instrument was developed with a parallel structure where three items were used to measure a concept and common incorrect ideas were used as distractors. The specific structure of this instrument allows the identification of common incorrect ideas that students have when entering biochemistry and that can hinder students' learning of biochemistry concepts. This instrument was given as pre/posttest to students enrolled in introductory biochemistry courses. The findings indicated that some incorrect ideas are persistent even after instruction, as is the case for bond energy and the structure of the alpha helix concepts. This study highlights the importance of measuring prior conceptual knowledge; so that instructors can plan interventions to help students overcome their incorrect ideas. For the second research study, students' chemistry self-efficacy was measured five times during a semester of preparatory college chemistry. Chemistry self-efficacy beliefs have been linked to students' achievement, and students with stronger self-efficacy are more likely to try challenging tasks and persist in them, which will help them to stay in STEM. Using multilevel modeling analysis to examine potential differences in students' self-efficacy beliefs by sex and race/ethnicity, it was found that there were some differences in the trends by race/ethnicity. In particular, we found that for Hispanic and Black males the trends were negative when compared with White males. This study highlights the importance of measuring self-efficacy at different time points in the semester and for instructors to be aware of potential differences in their students' confidence when working on a chemistry task. The third research study involves the use of the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) in an introductory chemistry course. A shortened version of the instrument that includes three scales, normality of scientists, attitude toward inquiry, and career interest in science was used. The first purpose of this study was to gather validity evidence for the internal structure of the instrument with college chemistry students. Using measurement invariance analysis by sex and race/ethnicity, it was found that the internal structure holds by sex, but it did not hold for Blacks in our sample. Further analysis revealed problems with the normality scales for Blacks. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between the scales of TOSRA, achievement in chemistry, and math prior knowledge. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) it was found that two of the TOSRA scales, attitude toward inquiry and career interest in science, have a small but significant influence on students' achievement in chemistry. This study highlights the importance of examining if the scores apply similarly for different group of students in a population, since the scores on these assessments could be used to make decisions that will affect student. The research studies presented in this work are a step forward with our intention to understand better the factors that can influence students' decisions to stay or leave STEM-related careers. Each study has provided psychometric evi
Pongracic Jacqueline A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ? 10; item reduction ? 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Haftom Gebrehiwot*, Berhane Gebrekidan, Haftu Berhe and Kalayou Kidanu
Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and...
Ayman S. Abdelhady
Full Text Available Introduction : Hypertension (HTN is a common serious health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates .At the same time ,HTN is widely prevalent all over the world including Egypt. For many people, the primary care physician is their first point of contact with the health care system, as well as their main source of preventive and essential care. Objective: Assessing knowledge, attitude and practices of primary health care physicians towards screening patients for hypertension in Cairo. Methodology:A cross-sectional study , conducted in the primary health care centres (PHCC in Nasr city, which was chosen randomly to represent Cairo city , where all doctors working in these centres were asked to complete a self administered structured and open ended questionnaire contained the relevant variables : Results: About 90% of the studied physicians were convinced with the importance of routine measuring blood pressure for risky patients and 79% stated that role of the PHC physician should be the early detection of HTN. As regards knowledge towards HTN items, only 23.5% knew the prevalence and 18.5% knew the most recent definition and grading. The practices of the doctors towards screening patients for HTN ,showed that only 63.9% of the doctors usually perform accurate and enough procedures to diagnose HTN patients and 46.2% routinely screen patients around forty years old while only 43.7% were regularly checking up the accuracy of the used sphygmomanometers . Conclusion: The participating physicians had poor knowledge towards some important items especially the prevalence and new classification of HTN. Their practices were not optimal as regards the accurate diagnosis of HTN and routine checkup and measuring blood pressure for people attending the PHC clinics. Recommendations to manage these defects were suggested.
Ahmed Fatuma A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency contraception (EC is a type of modern contraception which is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse when regular contraception is not in use. The importance of EC is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Therefore, EC need to be available and used appropriately as a backup in case regular contraception is not used, misused or failed. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University (AAU. This information will contribute substantially to interventions intended to combat maternal mortality. Methods A Cross-sectional quantitative study among 368 AAU undergraduate students was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 17. Results were presented using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and logistic regression. Results Among the total participants (n = 368, only 23.4% were sexually active. Majority (84.2% had heard of EC; 32.3% had a positive attitude towards it. The main source of information reported by the respondents was Media (69.3%. Among those who were sexually active, about 42% had unprotected sexual intercourse. Among those who had unprotected sexual intercourse, 75% had ever used EC. Sexually active participants had significantly better attitude towards EC than sexually inactive participants (crude OR 0.33(0.15-0.71; even after adjusting for possible confounders such as age, region, religion, ethnicity, marital status, department and family education and income (adj. OR 0.36(0.15-0.86. Conclusions The study showed high EC awareness and usage in contrast to other studies in the city, which could be due to the fact that university students are relatively in a better educational level. Therefore, it is highly recommended that interventions intended to combat maternal mortality through contraceptive usage need to be aware of such information specific to the target groups.
Priya Arora, Ram C Bajpai, Rajat Srivastava
Conclusion: Although the awareness about emergency contraceptive pills is quite high but the knowledge regarding the correct timing and usage is poor even among educated women. Apprehensions regarding the side-effects of these pills may limit their use by women. Information should be provided to women about the correct timing, side effects and precautions for using ECP.
Wole M. Olatokun; Isioma N. Elueze
Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was ca...
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Wachira, J; Otieno-Nyunya, B; Ballidawa, J; Braitstein, P
Guidelines for infant feeding options among HIV-positive mothers are changing with informative research. Cultural factors, socialisation processes, gender dimensions and socio-economic status within communities should be considered in recommending feasible and sustainable options. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to infant feeding in the context of HIV. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2003 and January 2004. The study was carried out in Kosirai Division, Nandi-North District, in western Kenya. The target population was community members aged 18 - 45 years and key informants aged 18 years and above. Structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Multistage and snowball sampling methods were used to identify study participants. Quantitative data were analysed using the SPSS statistical package for social scientists (Version 12). Cross-tabulations were calculated and Pearson's chi-square test used to test significance of relationships between categorical variables. Recorded qualitative data were transcribed and coded. Themes were developed and integrated. A generation of concepts was used to organise the presentation into summaries, interpretations and text. A total of 385 individuals participated in the survey, 50% of whom were women. There were 30 key informants. Farming was the main source of income but half of the women (49.7% ) had no income. Most of the respondents (85.5% ) knew of breastfeeding as a route of HIV transmission with sex (p=0.003) and age (p=0.000) being highly associated with this knowledge. Breastfeeding was the norm although exclusive breastfeeding was not practised. Cow's milk, the main breast milk substitute, was reported as being given to infants as early as two weeks. It was the most popular (93.5% ) infant feeding option in the context of HIV/AIDS. Heating expressed milk, wet nursing and milk banks were least preferred. Thus, the social, cultural and psychological complexity of infant feeding practices should be taken into account when advocating appropriate infant feeding options. Further research is required to determine the safety of using cow's milk as an infant feeding option. Community engagement, including education and awareness strategies, specific to the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding as a mechanism to reduce the risk of HIV transmission is urgently needed. PMID:20485852
Wole M. Olatokun
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
The World Health Organization and the International Association for Study of Pain cite the significance of pediatric pain as a significant global health issue. Developing countries may have increased needs compared with developed countries because of limited resources and lack of training. In Mongolia a paucity of data exist regarding nursing knowledge of pediatric pain management. The purpose of this project was to assess the current knowledge of pediatric pain and to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention on improving knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses working at a major children's hospital in Mongolia. Knowledge and attitudes of Mongolian nurses were evaluated before and after a 2-hour educational intervention. The translated Modified Mongolian Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Shriner's Revision survey was used as a pre- and postintervention assessment instrument with local nurses at a pediatric hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. One hundred sixty-seven nurses attended the conference, with 155 nurses completing the pre- and postsurveys. The mean score on the presurvey was 12.7 out of 35 (26.4% correct), whereas the mean score on the postsurvey score was 16.7 out of 35 (47.8% correct). A paired t test showed a significant statistical difference between scores (p management. The educational intervention was effective in improving pediatric pain knowledge and attitudes in Mongolian nurses. It is recommended to establish similar educational endeavors with nurses around the world to improve pain knowledge and attitudes. PMID:25439122
Jamshidi M. Mahin
Full Text Available Problem statement: As number of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs increases, caring for them is a new rising problem. The World Health Organization encourages caring these people at home. Patients themselves also prefer to stay at home than staying in hospital. Adequate knowledge and positive attitude are important factors in providing better care for a patient. Approach: This study was conducted to assess level of knowledge and describe attitudes existing between family members of PLWAs. A cross-sectional study was conducted on PLWAs to assess the basic level of knowledge and attitude regarding AIDS. One hundred family members of PLWAs were selected using simple random sampling. A three-part questionnaire was delivered to measure HIV/AIDS-related attitude and knowledge. Results: Mean score of participants were 10.69±2.05 of a maximum of 14 points in knowledge. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite high in the study group; Mean score was 25.42±6.05 from a maximum of 40 points in attitude. Female gender, higher income and education level were associated with a greater level of knowledge. Parents in comparison with other relatives and persons older than 60 usually had lower level of knowledge. Patients with higher income or education level also had more positive attitude toward patient. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that the family members of patients living with AIDS have a satisfactory level of essential knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Most of them have good attitudes toward person with HIV/AIDS. However, there are some misconceptions about the routes of transmission that can be problems on the way of providing homebased care.
Wole M. Olatokun
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in 2002. Although the epidemic is currently stable, HIV/AIDS remains a major development challenge for Ethiopia. The spread of HIV in any community is in part determined by the knowledge of attitude towards sexuality of its members and by their actual sexual practices. The aim of the study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS and STDs in Gondar, North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between February 1 to March 1, 2009 in preparatory high school students. Pre-tested questioner was used to generate the data and analysis was made by SPSS version 15. Chi -square value was calculated and p-value Results All the students had heard about AIDS before the interview. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite low in the study group. Only half of the students knew that at present, AIDs is incurable and that HIV infection can be acquired through sexual contact with a 'familiar' person. Knowledge about STI was also quite low, 39% knew that pus in the urine is a symptom of STI and 45.4% knew that acquisition of other STIs is increases the chance of HIV transmission following unsafe sex with known cases. 25% of the study group had previous sexual intercourse and exposed at least one risk behavior. About 34% of the respondents had negative attitude towards AIDS and STDs. Conclusion Awareness about STDs and methods of prevention of HIV and STDs was low. More risk behavior was observed in male and those with alcohol and drugs of abuse.
Ranjana Tiwari, Dhiraj Kumar Srivastava, Manoj Bansal, Parharam Adhikari, Shraddha Mishra
Conclusion: Such training programme should be regularly organized for the undergraduate student as these may not only increase the knowledge of the undergraduate students but also have a positive change in the attitude of students
N. Bilgel; G. Sadikoglu; H. Bilgel
In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant...
Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei
In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867
Ockene, J. K.; Chiriboga, D. E.; Zevallos, J. C.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of, attitudes towards, and knowledge about cigarette smoking in Ecuador in 1991. DESIGN: Survey using in-person interviews; stratified and multiple regression analyses. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Eight hundred people (> or = 18 years old) representative of the adult populations in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, reasons for smoking, desire to quit smoking, knowledge about...
The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…
Kirsten M. M. Beyer
Full Text Available Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children’s attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012–2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas.
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa; Melita Sheilini; Asha Nayak
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Mood...
Goutziana Georgia P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs are common in children. The cause is usually viral, but parents' attitude often contributes to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective is to describe the process of developing a questionnaire to assess parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP concerning the role of antibiotics when children suffer from URIs, as well as to evaluate the response rates, the completeness and the reliability (Cronbach of the questionnaires. Finally, to note any limitations of the study. Methods Literature review, along with pre – testing yielded a questionnaire designed to assess the parents' KAP – level. A postal survey was set, in a national sample of 200 schools stratified by geographical region. The participants consist of a multistage geographical cluster sample of 8000 parents. The influence of demographic characteristics (i.e. sex, age, education was analyzed. Cronbach index test and factor analysis were used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Results The response rate of the parents was 69%. Islands presented the lowest response rate while in Northern Greece the response rate was the highest. Sixty – eight point nine percent of the sample returned questionnaires fully completed, while 91.5% completed 95% of the questions. Three questions out of 70 were answered in a very low rate which was associated mostly with immigrant respondents. The section describing parents' attitude toward antibiotic use was not completed as much as the sections of knowledge or practices. The questions were factor analyzed and 10 out of the 21 extracted factors were finally evaluated, reducing the number of independent variables to 46. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.55. However, only items that increased the Cronbach when added were eventually included in the final scales raising the internal consistency to 0.68. Limitations of the study, such as the vocabulary and form of the questionnaire and the idiocycrancy of the respondents, emerged during the analysis. Conclusion The response rate and the completeness of the questionnaires were higher than expected, probably attributed to the involvement of the teachers. The study findings were satisfactory regarding the development of a reliable instrument capable to measure parents' KAP characteristics.
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Full Text Available Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9% had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%,whereas after education, the majority of them (100% had good knowledge(well done (66.7-100% score of 100%. And majority of units (96.9% before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%, whereas a majority of them (98.5% after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%. Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses? knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.
Mustafa, Ghulam; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Ali, Safdar; Ishaque, Muhammad; Hussain, Wajahat; Ahmed, Aftab; Munroe, Erik
This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female participants in three provinces of Pakistan. The findings reveal that the majority knew about some modern contraceptive methods, but the overall contraceptive use was very low. Knowledge and use of any contraceptive method were particularly low. Reasons for not using family planning and modern contraception included incomplete family size, negative perceptions, in-laws' disapproval, religious concerns, side-effects, and lack of access to quality services. The majority preferred private facilities over the government health facilities as the later were cited as derided. The study concluded the need for qualified female healthcare providers, especially for long term family planning services at health facilities instead of camps arranged occasionally. Addressing issues around access, affordability, availability, and sociocultural barriers about modern contraception as well as involving men will help to meet the needs and ensure that the women and couples fulfill their childbearing and reproductive health goals. PMID:26421316
Kiderlen, Til R; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan
The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) of employees in the private transport sector in Namibia and to compare companies with established HIV workplace program (WPPs) with those that have recently initiated the implementation of such programs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Between January and March 2011, the survey was conducted in the Namibian truck transport sector in six companies of different sizes. The participants were selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on a KAB questionnaire. The range of correct answers to the survey concerning the knowledge of HIV transmission was 67-95%. Twenty percent of the employees had never been tested for HIV. Additionally, risky sexual behaviors were quite prevalent and included having multiple concurrent partners and the use of sex for incentives. This study revealed that drivers and laborers were especially at risk for such behaviors. The employees of companies with established WPPs were tested for HIV more often than those of companies with new WPPs; however, aside from this difference, only minor differences were observed between the two groups. The findings of this study highlight the need for on-going HIV information and prevention campaigns that focus on the special needs of mobile and low-income workers. WPPs should be tailored accordingly and shift their focus to more practical approaches, such as voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), to increase their effectiveness. PMID:25805432
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lott...
Bhabani Pegu; Bhanu Pratap Singh Gaur; Nalini Sharma; Ahanthem Santa Singh
Background: Aim of current study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of contraceptives among married women of reproductive age group. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in obstetrics and gynaecology (obs. and gynae) out door patient department (OPD), North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Shillong, Meghalaya. 200 married women aged between 15-45 years were included in this study. Along with the socio-demographic ch...
Amara, Walid; Larsen, Torben B; Sciaraffia, Elena; Hernández Madrid, Antonio; Chen, Jian; Estner, Heidi; Todd, Derick; Bongiorni, Maria G; Potpara, Tatjana S; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sagnol, Pascal; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina
The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association survey was to assess the attitude, level of education, and knowledge concerning oral anticoagulants (OACs) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) or antiplatelets. A total of 1147 patients with AF [mean age 66 ± 13 years, 529 (45%) women] from 8 selected European countries responded to this survey. The overall use of OACs and antiplatelets was 77 and 15.3%, respect...
Ayla Yava; Hatice Çicek; Nuran Tosun; Celale Özcan; Dilek Yildiz; Berna Dizer
Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%, public swimming pools (21%, and public toilets (20% were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools.
M. Ahmady, M.Sc
Full Text Available Background and purpose: There are more than five million neonatal death around the world of which %19 was because of Asphyxia at birth time. In our country, there has been educational program in order to decrease the mortality caused by Asphyxia and to practice a scientific method for resuscitation. This study was conducted to determine the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice for every learner of neonatal resuscitation in the governmental hospitals of Mazandaran province in 2005(1384.Materials and Methods: current study was a descriptive cross sectional done on All Trainees who had professional direct contact with birth Asphyxia. We selected exactly 137 people who had attended Neonatal Resuscitation Workshop for three days.Results: The subjects under the study were %62/8 midwife and %89/8 women. Data show that % 44.5 had good knowledge and % 11.7 had very good knowledge on neonatal Resuscitation. The highest acknowledge was %93/4 and %89/1 on chest compression and breath stimulation way respectively. Data also suggested that totally % 96.34 of the subjects had good and very good attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation. The results show that only % 38.4 of the subjects under the study had a good level practice and their attitudes in terms of age were significantly different (P<0.01. Also, their practice on job showed a significant difference (P<0.017. In the study, there was a converse relation between age and professional experience which was r = 0.25 and r = 0.26, respectively.Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that the amount of knowledge and practice for the subjects under the study was average, but their attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation was good. There fore, according to the positive attitude of the subjects,there must be a trend to promote knowledge and practice.
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine
The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers. PMID:25761364
Moeller, Karen E; Woods, Barbara
Objective. To determine pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers' questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272
Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272
Amara, Walid; Larsen, Torben B
The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association survey was to assess the attitude, level of education, and knowledge concerning oral anticoagulants (OACs) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) or antiplatelets. A total of 1147 patients with AF [mean age 66 ± 13 years, 529 (45%) women] from 8 selected European countries responded to this survey. The overall use of OACs and antiplatelets was 77 and 15.3%, respectively. Of the patients taking OACs, 67% were on VKAs, 33% on NOACs, and 17.9% on a combination of OACs and antiplatelets. Among patients on VKAs, 91% correctly stated the target international normalized ratio (INR) level. The proportion of patients on VKA medication who were aware that monthly INR monitoring was required for this treatment and the proportion of patients on NOAC who knew that renal function monitoring at least annually was mandatory for NOACs was 76 and 21%, respectively. An indirect estimation of compliance indicated that 14.5% of patients temporarily discontinued the treatment, and 26.5% of patients reported having missed at least one dose. The survey shows that there is room for improvement regarding education and adherence of patients taking OACs, particularly regarding monitoring requirements for NOACs.
Background To provide quality care at the end of life or for chronically sick patients, nurses must have good knowledge, attitude and practice about palliative care (PC). In Ethiopia PC is new and very little is known about the type of services offered and the readiness of nurses to provide PC. Methods A cross sectional quantitative study design was carried out using 341 nurses working in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa from January 2012 to May 2012. Systematic random sampling was the method employed to select two governmental and two non-governmental hospitals. The researchers used triangulation in their study method making use of: Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) and practice questions. This led to enhanced validity of the data. EPI-INFO and SPSS software statistical packages were applied for data entry and analysis. Result Of the total 365 nurses selected, a response rate of 341 (94.2%) were registered. Out of the total study participants, 104 (30.5%) had good knowledge and 259 (76%) had favorable attitude towards PC. Medical and surgical wards as well as training on PC were positively associated with knowledge of nurses. Institution, individuals’ level of education, working in medical ward and the training they took part on PC were also significantly associated with the attitude the nurses had. Nurses working in Hayat Hospital (nongovernmental) had a 71.5% chance of having unfavorable attitude towards PC than those working in Black Lion Hospital (governmental). Regarding their knowledge aspect of practice, the majority of the respondents 260 (76.2%) had poor implementation, and nearly half of the respondents had reported that the diagnosis of patients was usually performed at the terminal stage. In line with this, spiritual and medical conditions were highly taken into consideration while dealing with terminally ill patients. Conclusion The nurses had poor knowledge and knowledge aspect of practice, but their attitude towards PC was favorable. Recommendations are that due attention should be given towards PC by the national health policy and needs to be incorporated in the national curriculum of nurse education. PMID:24593779
Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E
This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p?=?0.032), educational level (p?attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population. PMID:24890922
Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowledge and practice, and an adequate attitude. Regarding the female condom, knowledge, attitude and practice variables were unsatisfactory. Significant associations between knowledge/religious orientation and attitude/education regarding the male condom were observed. CONCLUSION A multidisciplinary team should be committed to the development of educational practices as care promotion tools in order to improve adherence of condom use.
Prachi Renjhen; Ashwini Kumar; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Afrin Sagir; Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: 98% (153/156) of the students had knowledge about family planning and ...
Madalina Cristina Tocan
The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century isevident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. Theauthors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the existen...
Passey Megan E; D'Este Catherine A; Sanson-Fisher Robert W
Abstract Background As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smokin...
Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam
Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897
Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating
Magarey Anthea M; Wilson Annabelle M; Mastersson Nadia
Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention pro...
Datta, C; Bandyopadhyay, D
Seventy-five senior nurses attending a workshop were surveyed with questionnaires and using two separate scales, their knowledge about transmission and precautionary measures, and their general attitude towards HIV/AIDS as well as willingness for patient-care were assessed. The nurses showed a satisfactory level of knowledge (mean percentage score 74.3), but misconceptions regarding disinfection and precautionary measures were present; 33% had overall negative attitudes and 24% unwilling to provide care for HIV-infected patients. Knowledge and attitude were positively correlated (r = .32). Knowledge deficits of some aspects of infection leading to fear of contagion and judgemental outlook towards HIV infection might lead to negative attitude impeding proper care. It is suggested that continuous in-service training be instituted to dispel misconceptions and to develop favourable and non-discriminatory attitude. PMID:9212574
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian
Health education has been recognised as a specific intervention tool for control of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis but evaluation of the efficacy of the tool remains. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a computer-based T. solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health – and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½ hours individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall knowledge on aspects of acquisition and transmission of T. solium infections (78%), porcine cysticercosis treatment (77%), human tapeworm in general (72%), neurocysticercosis in general (49%), and porcine cysticercosis diagnosis (48%). However, there was a lack of knowledge on acquisition of neurocysticercosis (15%), prevention of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (28%), and relation between porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, and taeniosis (32%). Overall, the study subject's knowledge was significantly improved both immediately after (p=0.001) and two weeks after (p<0.001) the health education and knowledge regarding specific aspects was significantly improved in most aspects immediately after and two weeks after the health education. The focus group discussions showed positive attitudes towards the program and the study subjects found ‘The Vicious Worm’ efficient, simple, and appealing. The study revealed a good effect of ‘The Vicious Worm’ suggesting that it could be a useful health education tool, which should be further assessed and thereafter integrated in T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis control.
We live in a time where there is an increasing emphasis on environmental attitudes and interest in the environment and organisms. Toads and other amphibians are animals which children consider to be some of the most disgusting animals. Before teachers can take measures to protect amphibians, they have to find out about the students' attitudes towards and knowledge of these animals. The purpose of our research was to find out how the attitudes towards toads and the knowledge of amphibians was...
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying; Bian, Jin-You; Zhang, Bo-Xue
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved...
Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.
Avasthi, Ajit K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Nehra, Ritu; Das, Karobi
A self-administered questionnaire (SKAQ) in simple Hindi was constructed and standardized for assessing the knowledge and attitude of a north Indian population towards sex. SKAQ is a 55- item questionnaire split into two parts: a 35-item knowledge-part with dichotomous choice of responses and a 20-item attitude-part scorable on 3-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated a better knowledge and a liberal attitude. Its test-retest reliability was established and discriminant validity demonstr...
Shiferaw Yitayal; Alemu Agersew; Girma Amanuel; Getahun Afera; Kassa Andarge; Gashaw Alemayehu; Alemu Abebe; Teklu Takele; Gelaw Baye
Abstract Background The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in 2002. Although the epidemic is currently stable, HIV/AIDS remains a major development challenge for Ethiopia. The spread of HIV in any community is in part determined by the knowledge of attitude towards sexuality of its members and by their actual sexual practices. T...
Gülden Uzer Ekin
Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of the high school students for HIV / AIDS and also to evaluate the sources from which the information has been received. Material and Methods: 74 male and 39 female high school students (n:113) have participated in the study. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented by UNICEF and it contained 22 questions assessing knowledge and attitudes. Survey interviewing method was applied to students. ...
Prashanth K and Umarani J
In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental ...
Kaczorowski J.; Hutchison B; Swanson JG; Skelly J
OBJECTIVE: To determine current knowledge, attitudes, and management of urinary incontinence among family physicians in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: Family physicians in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 1500 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-assessed knowledge, self-reported attitudes, and rating of various tests and treatments in the investigation and management of incontinence. RESULTS: The overall unadjuste...
Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Olujide O. Arije; Dada, Olumide O.; Olabisi A. Akinwande; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Ibidun A. Alonge
Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. R...
Naeema Badruddin; Abdul Basit; M. Zafar Iqbal Hydrie; Rubina Hakeem
All patients if given proper guidance and education regarding diabetes care would be able to make significant improvement in their life-style which is helpful for good glycemic control. Education to diabetic patients would be more effective if we know the level of knowledge, attitude and practices of our patients. Thus a study was conducted to assess the general characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of type 2 diabetic patients attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai I...
Darryn Knobel; Job Wasonga; Gamaliel Omondi; Eric Ogola; Peter Omemo
We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs) with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common...
Albano Luciana; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Sessa Alessandra; Angelillo Italo F
Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisep...
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don?t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150
Joaquín, González-Cabrera; María, Fernández-Prada; Humberto M., Trujillo Mendoza.
Full Text Available Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre hi [...] giene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada). Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Abstract in english Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals [...] and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain). The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p
Kaghaz kanani R.
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.
Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Amarpreet
Objectives: This study had twin objectives of assessing the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices and to assess the dental caries status and treatment needs among the orphan children of orphanages of Jodhpur city, Rajasthan, India.
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
The aim of the thesis was to find out if young adults’ attitudes and knowledge towards environment has to do with their travelling decision and behavior. The effect of attitudes and knowledge are both researched and explained in the theoretical part and implemented in the empirical part. The theoretical part clarifies what sustainable tourism is and what the tourist can do to be sustainable. The effect of different transportation to the environment is explored. Most relevant part of the theor...
Ryujin Lisa T; Sadler Georgia R; Ko Celine; Nguyen Emily
Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123) completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an important part of medical education. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research in a group of Pakistani medical students at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods It was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted among a group of Pakistani medical students. Through stratified random sampling, a pre-tested, structured and validated questionnaire was administered to 220 medical students. Knowledge and attitudes were recorded on a scale (graduated in percentages. Results Mean scores of students were 49.0% on knowledge scale and 53.7% on attitude scale. Both knowledge and attitudes improved significantly with increasing years of study in medical college [Regression coefficient 4.10 (p-value; 0.019 and 6.67 (p-value; Conclusion Medical students demonstrate moderate level of knowledge and attitude towards health research. Intensive training in this regard is associated with significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes of students towards health research.
Many studies have demonstrated that malnutrition is a significant problem amongst hospital patients, but little is known about what nurses actually do, and what factors influence this. This study aimed to explore the nutritional attitudes, knowledge base and nursing care of qualified nurses in an acute hospital. A survey of nurses' records for documented nutrition related activities was carried out for all (141) patients from five wards for two weeks, followed by a questionnaire, focused on nutrition-related attitudes, activities and knowledge, to all qualified nurses of these and a further four wards (110 nurses). Results revealed evidence of some knowledgeable and pro-active attitudes and nursing care; however, there was little association between knowledge, stated attitudes and behaviour and discrepancies were observed between questionnaire responses and documented activities. Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) theory relating beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behaviour was not supported although this might be attributed, in part at least, to nurses not regarding weighing patients as nutritional assessment. Behaviour appeared to have been influenced by a variety of factors and relationships between attitudes, knowledge and activities seemed far from straightforward. PMID:9559389
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Ernesto, Smyth; Francisco, Caamaño; Paula, Fernández-Riveiro.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between knowledge, attitudes and practice of oral health in 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to analyse the findings in terms of the conventional KAP health-education model and of the critical approach. Study design: This study has [...] a cross sectional design. The study participants were 1105 randomly selected 12-year-old children resident in the region of Galicia in Spain. For data collection, five teams of one dentist and one assistant were formed. The dentist carried out the physical examination and the assistant helped the subjects to answer the questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practice were assessed, as well as oral health indicators. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables affecting practice (as measured by extent of plaque). Results: The results of this study show how that there is an important association between oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice in 12-year-old schoolchildren in this region. However, the results also show that attitude is not totally explained by knowledge, so that attitude cannot be understood simply as an intermediate variable in a knowledge® practice causal chain. Specifically, the results indicate that sociocultural environment modifies the association knowledge, attitudes and practice. Conclusions: Within oral health education it is clearly important to increase public knowledge of the risk factors for dental disease. However, the efficacy of such education will be limited if health programs do not directly impinge on attitudes, and take into account factors related to the environment, education, social status and economic level of the targeted population.
Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani
This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…
Abbate, Rossella; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F
We asked Italian poultry workers about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding avian influenza. It was perceived to be a low occupational hazard, and wearing protective equipment and handwashing were not routine practices. Knowledge of transmission and preventive measures should be improved. Employers and health professionals should provide more effective information.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered. PMID:25558808
Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P; Mor, Siobhan M.
Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. We found generally high levels of knowledge about rabies. Participants recognized domestic dogs as the source and identified a range of appropriate preventive measures, including avoidance of bites and the need for dog confinement. Despite this reasonable level of knowledge, attitudes and pr...
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Background/Objective: The research is aimed to assess the differences between the knowledge and attitude about early marriage before and after being performed intervention, to assess the effect of peer education on knowledge and attitude of young women about early marriage. Method: The research used quasi-experimental study with the design of non-randomized control group with pre-post test. The sample consisted of 60 respondents aged 15-19 years old, live in Tallo sub district Makassar. Th...
Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R
The effectiveness of four commercial videotape presentations in changing AIDS knowledge and attitudes among 584 college students was evaluated in a pre-post design with control group and follow-up. AIDS knowledge and attitudes were measured prior to, immediately after, and 4 to 6 weeks following presentation of the informational videotapes. In addition, subjects rated each videotape on several specific dimensions, including overall quality. The effects of age, sex, prior exposure to AIDS information, and presence v absence of post-presentation discussion were measured as covariates. In general, there was a significant immediate increase in AIDS knowledge attributable to all four videotapes (p less than .001). These gains persisted until follow-up, with no erosion for three of the four tapes. With the exception of perceived effectiveness of AIDS prevention methods (p less than .001), attitudes toward AIDS showed no change as a result of exposure to any of the videotapes (p greater than .05). Viewer ratings showed two of the videotapes to be superior in terms of perceived overall quality (p less than .05). There were also differences in ratings of videos on other dimensions. Among the covariates, there was no relationship at time of follow-up between post-presentation discussion v no discussion and either knowledge gain or attitude change. Sex was related to one attitude component, with women perceiving the AIDS epidemic as more severe than men (p less than .001). PMID:2723258
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards research amongst a group of Post Graduate Medical Trainees (PGMTs' at Aga Khan University (AKU, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional health research survey was carried out on all PGMTs' at AKU Pakistan. AKU is a tertiary care health facility which offers residency in 28 specialties and fellowship in 16 programs. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to health research were assessed using a pretested, structured and validated questionnaire. Health research related practices of the residents were examined using questions graded on Likert scale. Results Mean percentage score ± SD on the knowledge scale was 36.9% ± 20.2 and 47.19% ± 25.18 on the attitude scale. Of 104(55.6% who had previously participated in research 28(26.9% had been involved in basic science research only, 62(59.6% in clinical research and 14(13.5% had participated in both clinical and basic science research projects. 88(47.1% planned to pursue a future research career. Those who planned to pursue a future research career had more positive health research attitudes p Conclusion PGMTs' demonstrate inadequate knowledge, while they have moderate attitudes towards health research. Residency training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by resident trainees.
Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating
Magarey Anthea M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Patterson, George T.
The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…
Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…
Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros
A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
Adrien, A; Cayemittes, M; Bergevin, Y
AIDS constitutes an important public health problem in Haiti, where it appears to be spread mainly through heterosexual encounters. The study reported here employed in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a national cross-sectional survey of 1,300 men and 1,300 women 15 to 49 years old to assess AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti. According to criteria established for the study, 38.1% of the 1,118 sexually active male survey respondents were found to engage in high-risk behavior. In general, the women were found to have better knowledge of AIDS than the men. Significant obstacles to condom use included the inability of women to choose whether condoms would be used and a belief that condom lubricant could cause health problems. The study also found a tendency to ostracize people with AIDS, especially in areas outside Port-au-Prince, and a belief that AIDS was imposed on people by fate--which could partially explain the tendency to persist in high-risk behavior. PMID:8220518
Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved
Jallinoja, P; Aro, A R
A survey was conducted (n = 1,216) to evaluate the level of knowledge about basic facts of genetics and attitudes toward gene tests among the Finnish population. Our results show that a majority of the Finnish population generally approved of gene tests. Well over half of the respondents believed that genetic testing will have positive consequences, but many also had worries related to the development of gene tests. We showed that there was an association between knowledge and attitudes, but bet...
Walrond Errol; Jonnalagadda Ramesh; Hariharan Seetharaman; Moseley Harley
Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Q...
Metzger, Mitchell M.
Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an...
Sharon S. Laing; Ilene F. Silver; Sally York; Phelan, Elizabeth A.
We assessed knowledge, attitude, and provision of recommended fall prevention (FP) practices by employees of senior-serving organization and participation in FP practices by at-risk elders. The Washington State Department of Health administered structured telephone surveys to 50 employees and 101 elders in Washington State. Only 38% of employees felt “very knowledgeable” about FP, and a majority of their organizations did not regularly offer FP services. Almost half (48%) of seniors sustained...
Prevention of high blood pressure is recognized as the controlling key to hypertension especially in developing countries. Identification of the level of knowledge and attitude of the population is however, an optimum steps to prevention. The purpose of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of women of child bearing age on preventive measures of high blood pressure. Quantitative descriptive method was used for the study. Hundred participants answered both closed and open ended qu...
Taraneh Movahhed; Hadi Ghasemi; Behjatalmolook Ajami; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri; Mahboobe Dehghani
Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemo...
Barnathan Julia A; Kim Jennifer S; Gupta Ruchi S; Amsden Laura B; Tummala Lakshmi S; Holl Jane L
Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus gro...
Kheir N; Gad HY; Abu-Yousef SE
Nadir Kheir, Hoda Y Gad, Safae E Abu-Yousef College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha, Qatar Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitude of pharmacists in Qatar towards natural health products (NHPs). Methods: The quantitative component of this study consisted of an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge about NHPs among pharmacists in Qatar. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were conducted using Statistical Package of Social Scienc...
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone; Olesen, Frede
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge ...
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone; Olesen, Frede
BACKGROUND: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. RESULTS: More than 90% of the...
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone; Olesen, Frede
Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. Results: More than 90 %of the pre...
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and infor...
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge) and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs). We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction an...
Palaian S; Ibrahim MI; Mishra P
Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigi...
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Klima, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly; Chisolm, Deena; McBride, Kim L
Clinical genetic testing for specific isolated congenital heart defects (CHD) is becoming standard of care in pediatric cardiology practice. Both genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing are associated with an increased utilization of genetic testing, but these factors have not been evaluated in parents of children with CHD. We mailed a survey to measure the demographics, genetic knowledge, and attitudes towards genetic testing of parents of children with CHD who previously consented to participate in a separate research study of the genetic etiology of left ventricular outflow tract malformations (LVOT). Of the 378 eligible families, 190 (50%) returned surveys with both parents completing surveys in 97 (51%) families, resulting in 287 participants. Genetic knowledge was assessed on an adapted measure on which the mean percent correct was 73.8%. Educational attainment and household income were directly and significantly associated with genetic knowledge (P?employment (15.8%), or racial/social discrimination (up to 11.2%). Parents of younger children were less likely to endorse employment or racial/social discrimination. Genetic knowledge was not correlated with specific attitudes. Among parents of children with CHD, genetic knowledge was directly associated with household income and education, but additional research is necessary to determine what factors influence attitudes towards genetic testing. PMID:25256359
Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen
The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators. PMID:16169832
Sanskriti Khanal; Ramya Shenoy; Arathi Rao; Baranya Shrikrishna Suprabha
Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice) model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectio...
Rüsch, N; Müller, M. (Marcus); Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rodgers, S; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W.
Aims. To examine stigma- and knowledge-related barriers to help-seeking among members of the general population. Methods. In a representative survey of young to middle-aged Swiss adults (n = 8875), shame about a potential own mental illness, perceived knowledge about and satisfaction with one's mental health, psychiatric symptoms and attitudes towards help-seeking were assessed. Results. A latent profile analysis of all participants yielded two groups with different attitudes towards help-see...
J. Lwelamira; G. Mnyamagola; M.M. Msaki
This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study d...
Mohandas U; Chandan G
The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher?s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher?s attitude and the way they handle the i...
Veloso, Danyelle Lorrane Carneiro; Peres, Valéria Costa; Lopes, Juliane da Silveira Ortiz de Camargo; Salge, Ana Karina Marques; Guimarães, Janaína Valadares
This study aims to identify the knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception among nursing students from a public university in Goiás--a state in Brazil. A descriptive and analytical research methodology with a quantitative approach was used, applying, from February to May 2011 a questionnaire on the sexual knowledge and attitude of students regarding emergency contraception. 178 students participated in the study. Knowledge was confirmed through the high frequency of correct answers to the questions, especially those concerning the correct time and the instructions for use (between 86%-96%). Although many students use this method, there are still some doubts about the mechanism of action, side effects and access availability (frequency of correct answers lower than 50%). We noticed the need to develop educational policies that encourage the promotion of sex education in schools and universities. PMID:25158458
Al-Haqwi Ali; Tamim Hani; Asery Ali
Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Governance (CG is a systematic approach to the maintaining and improving the quality of provided services for patients in the health system. With regards to the implementation of clinical governance in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and the role of matrons in ensuring quality care, little is known about the relationship between matrons’ participation in this plan and hospital success in clinical governance fulfillment. Materials and Methods:This cross-sectional, analytic-descriptive study was conducted to investigate the relationship between matrons’ knowledge, attitude, and performance in clinical governance and Mashhad hospitals' fulfillment of clinical governance. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection on matrons’ knowledge, attitude, and performance. The standard checklist of the health ministry and observation were used to assess hospital clinical governance fulfillment. Data was analyzed at the hospital level by SPSS16. Results: The mean scores of matrons' knowledge, attitude, and performance were above average. Matrons' attitude towards clinical governance achieved the highest mark (4.46. There was no significant correlation between matrons' knowledge/attitude/performance and hospital scores for clinical governance fulfillment (P>0.05. Conclusion: While the levels of matrons' knowledge, attitude, and performance were satisfactory, there is still a need for improving matrons' knowledge. Absence of any statistically significant relationship between matrons' knowledge, attitude, performance and hospitals scores for clinical governance fulfillment may be due to the study small sample size.
Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan
Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (? = -0.28), unreliability (? = -0.19), and advantages of BN (? = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.
Hashizume, E; Murashima, S; Kawahara, N; Tanaka, H; Nagami, K; Mizutani, S; Morishita, T; Tomita, Y
In 1990, we conducted a questionnaire survey showing that many nurses had incorrect knowledge of AIDS resulting in inappropriate attitudes toward AIDS patients. Following the first survey conducted in 1990, nurses were given various forms of AIDS education. The effectiveness of the AIDS education requires assessment. Therefore a second questionnaire survey was performed in 1993 to assess changes in nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding AIDS. The same questionnaire as used in the first survey was sent to a random sample of nurses working at general hospitals in Mie Prefecture, Japan. The questionnaire covered knowledge of AIDS, psychological responses, attitudes and conduct around infected persons and measures against AIDS. Results of both questionnaire surveys showed that the majority of nurses acquired their knowledge predominantly from the mass media, and a large number of nurses worried that AIDS would spread in Japan. Almost half of the nurses were worried that they might be infected with AIDS. The second survey showed that nurses who acquired knowledge of AIDS from printed material, pamphlets and other educational resources, including lectures had increased. In 1993, many more nurses had accurate knowledge compared to the number in the first survey. In 1993 the number of nurses who discriminated against AIDS patients and HIV-infected persons had decreased. PMID:8835016
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Jenna T. Nakagawa
Full Text Available Background: The tendency for female sex workers to seek health care is highly influenced by physician attitudes and behavior. By identifying medical students' attitudes toward female sex workers and assessing their knowledge of barriers to seeking care, we can focus medical training and advocacy efforts to increase access to care and improve public health outcomes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students from various countries were invited to participate in an online survey with close-ended questions and Likert scale statements. Responses were quantified and knowledge and attitude scores were assigned based on knowledge of barriers to seeking care and agreement with positive and negative attitude statements. Results: A total of 292 medical students from 56 countries completed the survey, of whom 98.3% agreed that it will be their job to provide treatment to patients regardless of occupation. Self-identified religious students conveyed more negative attitudes toward female sex workers compared to those who did not identify themselves as religious (p<0.001. Students intending to practice in countries where prostitution is legal conveyed more positive attitudes compared to those intending to practice in countries where prostitution is illegal (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical students largely agreed on the importance of providing care to female sex workers as a vulnerable group. In addition to addressing knowledge gaps in medical education, more localized studies are needed to understand the religious and legal influences on attitudes toward female sex workers. Such information can help focus the efforts in both medical education and communication training to achieve the desired behavioral impacts, reconciling the future generations of health care providers with the needs of female sex workers.
Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.
This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…
Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios
In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
Objective was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the students of King Saud University. This study was a cross sectional survey among King Saud University students, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which took place on December 17-20, 2006. The data was collected from self-administered questionnaires prepared in Arabic. The questionnaires were distributed to all 15 colleges of the university. Out of a study sample of 2250 students, 31% did not have prior CPR information. Of those with previous knowledge, 85% feel that it is inadequate. The most common sources of information were television and movies. The 12.7% of individuals encountered a situation that required the use of CPR. However, 14% of them performed it. This was mostly due to lack of knowledge (42.8%). Eighty-eight percent of students would like to learn how to perform CPR. Out of all King Saud University students, 45% believe that CPR training should be a graduation requirement. It was found that overall attitude towards CPR was positive. However, the knowledge on the topic was insufficient. Thus, more focus should be placed on the improvement of CPR skills. In addition, more studies are needed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CPR in the community. (author)
Nimbalkar, Archana S; Dongara, Ashish R; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M
Neonates receiving care in intensive care units are highly likely to experience pain due to investigations and/or treatments carried out by the health care providers. Neonates are a vulnerable population because they are unable to vocalize their pain. Unaddressed and mismanaged pain can not only affect the child's comfort, but also may alter the development and cognitive abilities of the child in a later part of his/her life. Therefore it is entirely the caregiver's responsibility to accurately assess and manage neonatal pain. We assessed and compared the knowledge and attitudes regarding neonatal pain among the nurses posted in the various units of a pediatric department [pediatric ward, pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)]. An appropriately modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain questionnaire was consensually validated, pretested, and then administered to the nursing staff of the pediatric department at a department at a hospital in Gujarat. Data were entered in Epi-Info and analyzed with the use of SPSS 14.0. The questionnaire was administered to 41 nurses working in the Department of Pediatrics, and the response rate was 97.5%. Mean age of the nurses in the study sample was 25.75 years (SD 5.513). The mean total score of the participants was 8.75 out of 17 (SD 2.549), which was unsatisfactory. The mean correct answer rate was 49.67% among the staff of NICU and 48.67% among the pediatric ward and PICU staff. The attitudes among the nurses were assessed. It was concluded that the nurses lack knowledge and that their attitudes also were hindering pain management. One of the barriers identified by the nurses was that physicians do not prescribe analgesics for managing neonatal pain. So not only the nursing staff, but all of the caregivers involved in neonatal care may be lacking in knowledge and hold perceptions and attitudes that hamper neonatal pain management. PMID:24602426
Goel Deepak; Dhanai J; Agarwal Alka; Mehlotra V; Saxena V.
Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of epilepsy among 12 th -class students in Uttarakhand state. Secondly data of Uttarakhand was compared with KAP study from other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All 12 th - class students studying in six schools of randomly selected 36 villages in Chakrata block of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state were provided a printed questionnaire having answer as "yes or no". This questionnaire use...
Arzu Uzuner; Pemra Ünalan Cöbek; Hande Aliba?; ?rem K?l?ç; Murat Sar?; Elif Karakoç; Akbar Akbarov
Objective: Avian influenza cases have been detected in Turkey and human deaths have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of doctors concerning avian influenza.Method: A questionnaire was applied to a total of 172 doctors, 82 in the university, 46 in the state hospital and 44 in primary care clinics, in a district of Istanbul, in 2006.Results: The participant doctors were general practitioners(GPs) (27%), specialists(31%), and resident...
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Enkhtuya, Palam; Meyrowitsch, Dan W
The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-r...
This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of a cohort of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care indexes and drug therapy in female epileptic patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran (2011) and one hundred and twenty two community pharmacists were randomly selected using clustering method for sampling. A self-administered questionnaire which was originally made by a clinical pharmacy focus group was used. This questionnaire had 10 true/false questions for knowledge assessing (Spearman-Brown coefficient, 0.65) and 19 attitude statements (with Likert scale) about the intention of pharmacists for providing pharmaceutical care for epileptic females (Croanbach's alpha, 0.802). Face and content validity for both parts of the questionnaire were performed before the study. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between pharmacists' knowledge on pharmaceutical care for epileptic females and the time elapsed from their graduation date. Considering the minimum passing score of 5, 85% of pharmacists did not have enough knowledge. The range of pharmacists' attitude scores was 35 to 64 and its mean was 46.09. Regarding the minimum passing score of 45, 63.3% of pharmacists had positive attitude to AEDs in epileptic females. Conclusion: It seems that the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females is a missing part of Pharmacy education. It is highly recommended to pay special attention to this topic in continuing education programs for Iranian pharmacists. (author)
Low, W Y; Zulkifil, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalai, S; Aye, K W
Given the magnitude of drug addiction in Malaysia, the government has given top priority to this issue. It is timely that an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse and drug dependents among the general public be carried out. Thus, a nationwide survey was undertaken. A representative sample of 2,591 respondents aged 13 years and above from households were surveyed throughout the 11 states and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur in Peninsula Malaysia. The results revealed that the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on drug abuse, especially information pertaining to treatment, rehabilitation and aftercare services, including education to families against drug abuse. The public possess a negative attitude towards drug dependents. Majority felt that drug addicts do not have the will power to rid themselves of drugs and they also lack a supportive family network system. Many believe that the most vulnerable group are the adolescents. Respondents were aware of the type of drugs commonly abused, although they failed to realise their long-term effects. Respondents do not attribute low education, large family and marginal income to the background of drug dependents. The findings showed gaps and misconceptions in terms of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the public. Accurate knowledge on, and right attitudes and perceptions towards drug related issues would certainly benefit the public in timely prevention of drug abuse. PMID:9037810
Gyeong Mi Lee
Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.
Natalia De Sá, Policarpo; Moura, Jayne Ramos Araujo; Júnior, Eugênio Barbosa De Melo; De Almeida, Paulo César; De Macêdo, Suyanne Freire; Da Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca
The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos--PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%). On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot. PMID:25508617
Full Text Available Background: Alteration in pattern of sexuality is known to be impressed by couples’ believes about women’s physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of couples about sexual relations during pregnancy. Methods: In a descriptive study from February to April 2005, two hundred sixty six consecutive pregnant women referring to a university hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire containing questions their sexual status and some demographic data. In 122 cases the answers of the spouses was collected also. The answers were compared in divided groups according to age range, duration of marriage, parity and educational status. Results: Fifty five percent of men and fifty eight percent of women had a negative attitude about sexual relations during pregnancy, and 60% of men and 75% of women presented incorrect knowledge about sexuality during pregnancy. Main reasons for decreased sexual relations in pregnancy were mentioned to be dysparaunia, and the fear of trauma to the baby, abortion, membrane rapture, preterm labor and infection. Conclusion: As couples’ knowledge and attitudes about sexuality affect their general sexual behavior during pregnancy it is crucial to provide proper consultation regarding sexual relations in prenatal care services.
Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education
Full Text Available I shall examine Quine’s conception of logic, of propositional attitudes, and of the unity of knowledge in order to show that there are some tensions in Quine’s system. I first propose a conception of the use or application of logic, stating that logic strictly speaking applies to intentional phenomena or to things that presuppose the existence of intentional phenomena. Then, I consider briefly Quine’s philosophy of logic and discuss some issues. In Quine’s philosophy, logic stays at the very center of the web of our beliefs; it is central in science and ordinary knowledge as well. Then I examine Quine’s tendency to “quine” the mental, given his own maxim of minimum mutilation. Finally, I consider Quine’s thesis of the unity of knowledge, the thesis that there is continuity from ordinary to scientific knowledge. If I am right about the use of logic and the presence of the propositional attitude idiom in ordinary knowledge and social sciences and humanities, I think there is a problem of consistency in Quine’s system, and that Quine himself pointed to a part of the solution.
The paper presented by the author at the first IAEA Knowledge Management Conference (2004, Saclay, France) was dedicated to the main achievements of the Soviet Union and Russia in generation and systematization of nuclear knowledge and in providing human resources for their application. Nevertheless, some well-known nuclear professionals consider the breach of the normal knowledge transfer process, which occurred when nuclear power plants have been transferred from the half-military nuclear complex with its high level of discipline to the civil 'boiler power industry' (quite unprepared for that), as one of the relevant causes of the Chernobyl accident. The crises of 1980-90ies (Chernobyl accident, changed political system, collapse of the USSR) have stopped the development of nuclear power industry and gave a severe blow to the nuclear knowledge management system. In present conditions, which can be surely described in the terms of 'nuclear renaissance', it seems important to trace, how the preserved and developing knowledge management system is influenced by the attitude towards nuclear energy in the country and in its 'components' (governmental authorities, energy community, public), as well as to follow up the role of nuclear professionals in forming the above attitude
Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.
Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B
Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement "Tanned skin is healthy skin", this was not the case for "Tanning makes me look better". Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior. PMID:24802677
Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug
Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on designing and delivering services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient aspects of health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Only a few HTA agencies use and invest in scientific methods to generate knowledge and evidence about the patient aspects of a given technology. This raises questions about how knowledge is produced in HTA reports and what kind of knowledge is considered relevant...
Menorath Sing; Hansana Visanou; Phengsavanh Alongkon; Vanphanom Sychareun; Tomson Tanja
Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04) and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent...
Khan Sadaf; Khan Hassan; Iqbal Arshad
Abstract Background Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards research amongst a group of Post Graduate Medical Trainees (PGMTs') at Aga Khan University (AKU), Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional health research survey was carried out on all PGMTs' at AKU Pakistan. AKU is a tertiary care health facility which...
Mazen El-Hammadi; Bashar Hunien
This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST). Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that ...
Buregyeya, E.; Kulane, A.; Colebunders, R; Wajja, A.; Kiguli, J.; Mayanja, H; Musoke, P.; Pariyo, G; Mitchell, E. M.
OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis (TB) knowledge, attitudes and health-seeking behaviour to inform the design of communication and social mobilisation interventions. SETTING: Iganga/Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site, Uganda. DESIGN: Between June and July 2008, 18 focus group discussions and 12 key informant interviews were conducted, including parents of infants and adolescents and key informant interviews with community leaders, traditional healers and patients with TB. RESULTS: People v...
Dorah U. Ramathuba; Lunic B. Khoza; Mutshinyalo L. Netshikweta
Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP) services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling f...
Rauf Muhammad; Waheed Abdul; Khawaja Muhammad; Khan Hassan; Fatmi Zafar
Abstract Background Health research training is an important part of medical education. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research in a group of Pakistani medical students at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods It was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted among a group of Pakistani medical students. Through stratified random sampling, a pre-tested, structured and validated questionnaire was administered to 220 medical students. Knowle...
Thamir M. Alshammari; Adel A. Alrwisan; Majed I. Aljeraisy; Khaled W. Taher; Faisal M. Alissa; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Mohamad A. Hassali; Hisham S. Aljadhey
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) toward systems used in describing the safety of medications use during pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted in 4 tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and May 2012. The targeted HCPs were physicians and pharmacists. The survey was validated and contained 4 main sections. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses to the survey’s questions. Re...
Sunita Bamanikar; Liew Kok Kee
Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal chi...
A. S. BaHammam
OBJECTIVES Although sleep disorders are common, these are under-recognized and underestimated by many workers in the medical field due to lack of physician's education in sleep and sleep disorders. We conducted this survey to assess the general knowledge and attitude of Primary Health Care Physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia towards sleep disorders. METHODS A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all Primary Health Care physicians working in Primary Health Care cente...
Tackney, Charles T.; Strømgren, Ole; Sato, Toyoko
The Synopsis–Based Oral Examination (S–BOE) is described as deployed in international management education programs in a Danish business school. It assesses students in light of specified learning objectives through time–constrained presentation and dialogue. The format is premised on prior submission of a synopsis, although the synopsis has no bearing on grade assessment. Practitioner experience and student feedback suggest that students experience this type of examination as an important learn...
Full Text Available Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a question was considered about the respondent’s resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was 0.54±0.56 (full score: 3. Higher scores were significantly more prevalent in women, younger’s, people with more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7 (full score: 3. only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8. Dental flossing was more reported in more educated (OR = 2.27 and non smoker people (OR = 1.85. Dental visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34. The most important source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care center staff. As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.
Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.Results: It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9% had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60% had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50% had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1% as Rank 2 and injection (16.3% as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status(c2 = 47.14, p=0.001, occupation (c2 =15.81, p=0.044, family monthly income (c2 =6.473, p=0.039 and duration of marriage (c2=6.721, p=0.035. There was no association between attitude and the studied variables.Conclusion: The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude
Ortiz, Mario I.; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A.; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C.; O'Brien, Jessica P.; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A.
Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of epilepsy among 12 th -class students in Uttarakhand state. Secondly data of Uttarakhand was compared with KAP study from other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All 12 th - class students studying in six schools of randomly selected 36 villages in Chakrata block of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state were provided a printed questionnaire having answer as "yes or no". This questionnaire used was used previously by various authors and validated for KAP analysis. These filled questionnaires were collected by village health workers and medical officer. Results: This study conducted on 219, 12 th -class students revealed that epilepsy was heard by 98%, 74.9% thought epilepsy a mental disease and 4.8% believed that it is contagious. Negative attitude showed as nearly 2/3 rd students stated that epilepsy is hindrance in marriage and occupation. Nearly 41% would use onion or shoe for terminating seizure attack. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred over allopathic drugs. Conclusions: Study on 12 th -class students of Uttarakhand revealed poor knowledge, attitude and practice for epilepsy and needs special education program to dispel these misconceptions.
Chia, Patricia Ching Yen; Lian, Wee Bin
INTRODUCTION Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in children is rare but significant, with poor survival rates and high morbidity. Asystole is the most common dysrhythmia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is of great importance in such cases. We aimed to survey the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of parents in Singapore regarding infant basic life support (IBLS). METHODS A questionnaire survey was administered to parents of children managed at the Neonatal Department of Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between 1 September and 31 December 2008. The questionnaire consisted of three sections – section A collected demographic data, section B included questions on knowledge, and section C explored attitudes and perceptions. Knowledge T-scores were analysed for the entire cohort and subanalysed with respect to prior IBLS training. RESULTS In our study cohort (n = 375), the median Basic Knowledge (BK) T-score was 7 (range 1–9) and the pass rate was 55%. Median BK T-scores were significantly different between untrained (6; range 3 –9) and previously trained (8; range 3–9) participants. A majority of the trained participants obtained pass marks. Median Total Knowledge T-score, involving advanced questions, for previously trained participants was 11 (range 3–14), but pass rate was low (35.7%). Higher educational qualification was a significant factor impacting all scores. Untrained participants indicated interest in attending IBLS courses, while trained participants were interested in refresher courses. CONCLUSION IBLS training, as part of basic cardiac life support training, is important given that CPR can significantly alter the outcome in children with CPA. Our survey revealed knowledge gaps that could be bridged through formal training. Refresher courses to regularly update parents’ knowledge are recommended. PMID:24664380
Gulden Uzer Ekin
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of the high school students for HIV / AIDS and also to evaluate the sources from which the information has been received. Material and Methods 74 male and 39 female high school students (n113 have participated in the study. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented by UNICEF and it contained 22 questions assessing knowledge and attitudes. Survey interviewing method was applied to students. Results The average rate of correct answers to questions about the knowledge in male and female students were 71.8%10.9 73.49.2 respectively. The vast majority of the students (96.4% have knowledge about virus that causes the disease. 93% of the students have knowledge that the disease could been detected by a blood test but only 31% of them knows the name of the Elisa test. 42.4% of them have stated that it is an incurable disease. 49.1% of the students thought that a person with AIDS does not have the diseases. Majority of the students have stated that they have had knowledge about HIV/AIDS form conferences and TV. 20% of students had a negative attitude and refusal towards-the patient who were infected with HIV or has AIDS. Conclusion The students have a good level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS. The rate of information possessed resected insufficiently on attitudes and behaviors. Parents cooperation with the students is needed to obtain adequate information on this subject
Gülden Uzer Ekin
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of the high school students for HIV / AIDS and also to evaluate the sources from which the information has been received. Material and Methods: 74 male and 39 female high school students (n:113 have participated in the study. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented by UNICEF and it contained 22 questions assessing knowledge and attitudes. Survey interviewing method was applied to students. Results: The average rate of correct answers to questions about the knowledge, in male and female students were 71.8%10.9, 73.49.2% respectively. The vast majority of the students (96.4% have knowledge about virus that causes the disease. 93% of the students have knowledge that the disease could been detected by a blood test but only 31% of them knows the name of the Elisa test. 42.4% of them have stated that it is an incurable disease. 49.1% of the students’ thought that, a person with AIDS does not have the diseases. Majority of the students have stated that they have had knowledge about HIV/AIDS form conferences and TV. 20% of students had a negative attitude and refusal towards-the patient who were infected with HIV or has AIDS. Conclusion: The students have a good level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS. The rate of information possessed re?ected insufficiently on attitudes and behaviors. Parents’ cooperation with the students is needed to obtain adequate information on this subject
Barnathan Julia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.
A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.
The purpose of the paper is to discuss the recent data analysis of a mail-in survey which investigated the attitudes of people having some knowledge of the nuclear industry. The survey contained 74 items which solicited 4 major types of information. Thirty-seven items investigated respondents' perception of risk concerning spent fuel transportation, 12 examined respondents' confidence in certain governing agencies' abilities of managing the safe transportation of spent fuel, 19 examined respondents' attitudes toward certain special precautionary actions for spent fuel transport, and 6 requested demographic data. The 637 people who responded to the survey were divided into 5 mutually exclusive groups for analysis. These included: safety professionals, government employees, employees of the nuclear industry, employees of environmental organizations, and Native Americans. The safety, government, and Native American groups were divided into subgroups for further analysis. Overall and group responses concerned with special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were examined. Native American, safety, and government subgroup responses to items which examined respondents' perceived risks, confidence in certain governing agencies, and attitudes concerning special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were also investigated. Additionally, risk perceptions of spent fuel transport was compared between people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided
Ryujin Lisa T
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.
Bahador Haji Mohammadi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food poisoning occurs under circumstances where proper action for protecting foods from microbial contamination and chemical toxins is not taken. In the Iranian society women have an important role in preparing food in the home. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of women living in Yazd, Iran regarding food poisoning. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Data were collected through interviewing 266 women living in Yazd, selected randomly by calling at their homes. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 18. The minimum and maximum accessible scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 0 and 15, 15 and 45 and 0 and 20, respectively.Results: The mean (± SD score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 11.13 ± 2.54, 39.98 ± 4.52 and 17.73 ± 1.96, respectively. Further analysis of the data showed that 63.2% of the women had no knowledge about safety of refrigerated cooked foods and 41.4% had an erroneous attitude about fruit and vegetable cleaning, believing that merely cleaning them would make them safe to eat. As regards practice, 68.8 % of the women prepared and ate semi-cooked eggs.Conclusion: Yazdi women lack a sound knowledge about (a. some agents of food poisoning such as, for example, Salmonella and (2. food cooking and preserving temperatures. It is recommended to plan and execute educational programs aiming at promoting knowledge and improving practice of women in these areas.
Amiegheme F.E; Adeyemo F.O
Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitud...
Gao Yi; Kulane Asli; Zhao Qi; Xu Biao
Abstract Background In China, with the urbanization, women migrated from rural to big cities presented much higher maternal mortality rates than local residents. Health knowledge is one of the key factors enabling women to be aware of their rights and health status in order to seek appropriate health services. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude on maternal health care and the contributing factors to being knowledgeable among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai. Methods ...
Adedze, Pascasie; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Witz, Klaus; Orr, Robin; Donovan, Sharon
This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about nutrition, physical activity, and health risks related to childhood overweight among Women, Infants, and Children participants. Most (n = 165) were knowledgeable about causes/health risks of overweight (90%). The belief that "some people are born big or thin . . . " varied by education level (P video games, with 10% white non-Hispanic and 21% of African-American reporting 4 hours or more (P < 0.05). Beliefs related to the risk of overweight and activity level of the children differed among ethnic groups. PMID:21881417
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87% had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.
I shall examine Quine’s conception of logic, of propositional attitudes, and of the unity of knowledge in order to show that there are some tensions in Quine’s system. I first propose a conception of the use or application of logic, stating that logic strictly speaking applies to intentional phenomena or to things that presuppose the existence of intentional phenomena. Then, I consider briefly Quine’s philosophy of logic and discuss some issues. In Quine’s philosophy, logic stays at the very ...
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
Hamissi, J; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; A Davalloo
"nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)
The purpose of this study was to assess the basic knowledge, attitudes and practices about viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C among young healthy adults. A total of 2038 young healthy adults belonging to central Punjab were included in the study. A closed structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the individuals. A total of 602(30.74%) of respondents knew that hepatitis B and C are viral diseases. Contaminated needles/syringes, blood transfusion and used blades were identified as a mode of transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses by 84.38%, 69.58%, 25.63 individuals. About 80% replied that even if they were found positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, they would not have further investigations/ treatment. TV was the leading source of information about these diseases. The attitudes and practices regarding exposure to risk factors were significantly poor from knowledge among young adults. A high level of public awareness, especially among the young, is critical to decrease the burden of these diseases in Pakistan in future. (author)
Full Text Available background: The aims of filariasis elimination was to reduce the number of microfilariae (microfilaria rate/Mf rate in district/city to <1% in 2020. One of the principal activities of the filariasis elimination program is the prevention of filariasis mass drug administration (MDA in districts/cities with Mf rate of >1%. Coverage of the population who need to take medication on filariasis MDA activity is >85% of the target population. The objective of this study was to improve the coverage mass treatment through the public health promotion activities. Methods:The study design was quasi-experimental, ie to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the population before and after filarisis health promotion activity. Number of people had interviewed were 117 respondents. results:The level of knowledge of respondents with a high category of filariasis increased after health promotion activity from 30.8% to 59.8%. The proportion of respondents with both categories attitude towards filariasis prevention activities increased after health promotion activity from 62.4% to 79.5%. The behavior of the respondents taking medication increased from 70.1% after health promotion to 88.9%. conclusions:Health promotion has proven to improve the knowledge, attitudes and compliance in the treatment of filariasis community (p < 0.05. recommendation: Conduct training to improve the knowledge of cadres & public about of filariasis through social activities.
Gholami, M; Pakdaman, A; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I
Determining what people know and believe about periodontal health and disease is important in order to establish prevention practices. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey in 2011 of 791 adults aged 18-50 years using a stratified, multistage sampling method. We recorded demographic characteristics including age, sex, education, marital status, employment and economic status (housing density). The lowest percentage of correct answers was related to the definition of dental plaque (11.6%) and the highest was for the role of the dental visit in prevention (92.8%). Female sex, university education and higher economic status were significantly associated with a higher mean score on periodontal health knowledge. The regression analysis showed that positive attitudes were associated with higher periodontal health knowledge and having university education. In this study positive attitudes towards prevention were related to better knowledge. PMID:24950078
Khosravanifard, B; Rakhshan, V; Sherafat, S; Najafi-Salehi, L
This study assessed factors that could predict dentists' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards hepatitis B virus (HBV). A total of 300 dentists in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran were surveyed and their demographic, educational and office characteristics were analysed in relation to their scores on knowledge about HBV, self-reported attitudes towards treating people infected with HBV and actual behaviour towards treating simulated HBV-positive patients. Having a Master's degree, faculty membership, taking ? 3 continuing education courses, wearing eye-shields, spending more time on preparing dental units and higher self-confidence about knowledge predicted better knowledge. A positive attitude was associated with having attended more courses and working in group practice. The number of courses and a shorter dental unit preparation time positively affected dentists' behaviour. PMID:25907193
Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537
Full Text Available Introduction: The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on oral health are well established. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dental patients about the effects of smoking on oral health and their cessation efforts.Methods and materials: In this descriptive analysis-cross sectional study, 905 patients from dental clinics in Kerman were selected. They were asked to complete a self- administered structured questionnaire on the effects of smoking on oral health. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic data, smoking status, patients' knowledge and attitude about the effects of smoking and cessation efforts of them. Finally, data was analyzed with SPSS program, t test and x2 test.Result: A total 905 patients (53% men and 47% women were studied. The mean age was 32.76 ± 9.509. The prevalence of smoking was 20.5%. The relationship between sex and education and smoking was significant (p value = 0.0001. Mean Knowledge score was 53.95%. Smoking patients and men were significantly less aware of the effects of smoking on oral health. In this study, 54.9% of smoking patients had tried to quit smoking. Only 12.2% had taken counselling. The attitude toward cigarettes was passive.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the knowledge about effects of smoking on oral health, especially oral cancer, was low. Therefore dentists have a key role for awarding their patients of such effects and are placed to be have a key role in tobacco prevention and cessation.Keywords: Cigarette, Oral manifestations, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Dental patients
Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.
Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
Full Text Available Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs. We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction and mediates theeffect of explanations about benefits on satisfaction. The results provide strong evidence that benefitsperceived to suit employee needs generate highest benefits satisfaction. Employees satisfied with theirbenefits are less likely to consider leaving the organization. The tested model is a starting point for futurestudies to apply the extended Theory of Reasoned Action  and incorporate perceived behaviouralcontrol and subjective norms (i.e., co-workers’ attitudes in forming benefits satisfaction. Understandingemployees’ affective and cognitive reactions to compensation, including benefits, can render betterpractices. Companies should use information campaigns to improve employee beliefs about benefits.Better attentiveness to individual needs and preferences can maximize the utility of a benefits plan andimprove its acceptance. We replicate and extend past research in a parsimonious model of benefitssatisfaction with a random sample of public sector employees.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.
Zafar, Mubashir; Nisar, Nighat; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Shafique, Kashif
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fis...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding breast self-examination (BSE in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12. Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68. The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.
Full Text Available Context: Due to expansion of chronic diseases and increase of health care costs, there is a need for planning and delivering hospice care for patients in their final stages of life in Iran. The aim of the present study is to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about delivering hospice care for End of Life (EOL patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 with a sample size of 200 nurses that were selected by convenient (available sampling. The data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire whose validity was approved by experts? opinions and its reliability was approved by test-retest method. Results : Among all participants of this study, 87% were female. The mean age of nurses was 32.00 ± 6.72. From all respondents 62% stated that they have no knowledge about hospice care and 80% declared that need for hospice care is increasing. Most of the participants felt that, appropriate services are not presented to patients in the final stages of their lives. About 80% believed that hospice care leads to reduction of health care costs, improvement of physical, mental and social health of patients and finally improvement of the quality of health care services. There was a significant relationship between age, employment history and level of education of nurses and their attitude and knowledge about how this service is provided. Conclusion : In view of the increase in chronic illnesses and the costs of caring, the need for provision of hospice care is felt more and more every day. However the awareness level of nurses about these services is low. Therefore the need for including these issues in nursing curriculum and holding scientific courses and seminars in this field is needed.
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical especially to control pests and diseases.
Iversen, M D; Friden, C
An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention program was evaluated. One hundred and thirteen female high school varsity and junior varsity basketball players and 12 coaches participated in an 8-week educational and skills program. Demographic and injury history data were collected. At pre-intervention and at the end of season, knowledge, attitudes, and practices about ACL risk and injury prevention were assessed via questionnaires, and frequency of two-footed landings were videotaped during games. Univariate statistics described the sample. Paired t-tests evaluated the program's impact. Cronbach's alpha, correlations, and kappa statistics assessed the validity and reliability of questionnaires and video analysis. Of the 113 players, 74 completed the study. The players' mean age was 16.25 years (SD=1.07; range=14.2-18.8). Baseline knowledge score was 57.2%, practice 58.4%, and attitude 73.5%. The mean baseline knowledge score of the 12 coaches (mean age=40.8 years; SD=10.3; range=26.9-56.3) was 68.7%. Players' knowledge about ACL injury prevention improved (t=2.57; P<0.01). No changes in attitudes toward injury prevention were found (t(diff)=1.88; P<0.06). Inter-rater reliability of two-footed landings observed was acceptable (kappa=0.72). Videotape analyses revealed a 5.5% increase in landing performance (t(diff)=9.6; P<0.0001). The program increased knowledge about ACL injury risk and improved player's landing skills. PMID:18627558
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol exposure in pregnancy is a common and modifiable risk factor for poor pregnancy and child outcomes. Alcohol exposure in pregnancy can cause a range of physical and neurodevelopmental problems in the child including the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD. In order to improve prevention strategies, we sought to describe the knowledge and attitudes of women of childbearing age regarding alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its effects on the fetus. Methods We conducted a national cross-sectional survey via computer assisted telephone interview of 1103 Australian women aged 18 to 45 years. Participants were randomly selected from the Electronic White Pages. Pregnant women were not eligible to participate. Quotas were set for age groups and a minimum of 100 participants per state to ensure a national sample reflecting the population. The questionnaire was based on a Health Canada survey with additional questions constructed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations with participants' knowledge and attitudes. Results Of women surveyed, 61.5% had heard about effects of alcohol on the fetus and 55.3% had heard of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Although 92.7% agreed alcohol can affect the unborn child, 16.2% did not agree that the disabilities could be lifelong. Most women agreed that pregnant women should not drink alcohol (80.2% and 79.2% reported having negative feelings towards pregnant women drinking alcohol. Women with higher education levels were more likely to know the effects of alcohol consumption in pregnancy (adjusted OR 5.62; 95% CI 3.20 to 9.87 but education level and knowledge were not associated with attitude. Conclusions There was a disjunction between knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol consumption in pregnancy. These findings will assist in developing effective health promotion campaigns to reduce fetal alcohol exposure and subsequent fetal damage.
Marta, Reis; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos.
Full Text Available O aumento da percentagem de gravidez na adolescência (Portugal regista 19/1000 na faixa etária dos 15 aos 19 anos), juntando-se a outros riscos ligados à actividade sexual, tornam os jovens um grupo vulnerável em termos de saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Esta investigação avaliou os conhecimentos e atit [...] udes sobre os métodos contraceptivos em jovens estudantes universitários. Administraram-se 436 questionários a 113 rapazes e 323 raparigas, entre os 18 e os 24 anos. Aplicaram-se medidas de conhecimento (CKI; Delcampo e Delcampo, 1976) e de atitudes (CAS; Kyes, 1987) acerca dos métodos contraceptivos. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a maioria tem pouco conhecimento acerca dos métodos contraceptivos mas revelou uma forte atitude preventiva face a uma gravidez indesejada. Encontraram-se diferenças estatistica mente signficativas entre indivíduos de sexo diferentes: as raparigas apresentam mais conhecimentos e preocupação preventiva face à contracepção. Abstract in english The increase in unplanned pregnancies (the rate in Portugal is 19/1000 in 15-19 year-olds), is responsible for ranking young people as an important target group in terms of sexual health prevention. This study tested knowledge and attitude towards contraceptive methods in 18-24 year old college stud [...] ents. Structured self-reported questionnaires were responded by 436 participants (113 college men and 323 college women). Questionnaires assessed knowledge (CKI; Delcampo e Delcampo, 1976) and attitude (CAS; Kyes, 1987) towards contraceptive methods. The findings show the majority has insufficient contraceptive knowledge although they have a strong preventive attitude towards unwanted pregnancy. The results reveal significant variation in responses by gender: college women demonstra ted better knowledge and preventive attitude in relation to contraception.
Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes,1 Maria Y Makuch,1 Ilza Monteiro,1 Victor Marin,2 Richard Lynen3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Central, Petróleos Mexicanos, México City, Mexico; 3Bayer HealthCare, Newark, NJ, USA Background: Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs, including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS, are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs.Methods: A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs.Results: Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0% to 205 (97.6%. Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS.Conclusion: Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals about IUCs are important in order to provide adequate counseling and to expand the use of IUCs. Keywords: contraception, Latin America, intrauterine contraceptives, health care professionals, knowledge, myths, attitudes
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio
Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a estudiantesde secundaria de dos colegios de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, en el periodocomprendido entre julio y diciembre de 2011.Resultados: el 10.8% de las adolescentes encuestadas respondió que conocía lacondilomatosis, enfermedad infecciosa de transmisión sexual causada por el VPH y el20,1% tiene conocimiento de la relación del cáncer de cuello uterino con la infecciónpor VPH.Conclusiones: se observa bajo conocimiento acerca de la infección por VPH y suasociación con el CACU, buenas actitudes con respecto a la utilización de métodosde prevención de la infección por VPH y de métodos de detección precoz de CACU yprácticas deficientes, principalmente en la cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281
Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in primary health care centres regarding Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Umraniye.Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-August 2008 in 18 primary healthcare centres in the Umraniye Provincial Health Directorate. The study sample was not selected and we approached 229 healthcare workers working in these primary health care centres; 144 participants (62.8% completed the study. Study data were collected using a three-part questionnaire including 35 questions. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and t-tests.Results: Of the participants (72.2% women, 68.7% thought they had sufficient knowledge about the disease. 99.3% knew the aetiological factor of CCHF is a virus, and 92.4% specified that people who go picnicking and camping without protection are a risk group. The mean CCHF knowledge points was 17.48±3.37; the mean score of doctors (18.31±3.24 was significantly higher that that of nurses (17.01±3.36, p<0.05. 72.2% thought caring for a CCHF patient was a high risk task. Conclusion: The knowledge level of healthcare workers was found to be low compared to other studies performed in Turkey. The knowledge level of doctors was higher than that of nurses. In general, the answers of healthcare workers on the attitude questions were negative.
Intervention to assess and improve the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals in brief counseling for smoking cessation: The B.O.A.T program (Brief Opportunistic Advice Training Program for smoking cessation
Full Text Available Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Health care professionals can contribute to controlling the epidemic of smoking by applying brief counseling for smoking cessation in clinical practice. Purpose: The program B.O.A.T was implemented to increase knowledge and enhance health professionals’ attitudes on the brief counseling for smoking cessation. The purpose of the intervention was to enforce participants' intention to implement counseling. Material and Method: The research project was a pretest-posttest equivalent groups design. The sample consisted of 33 health professionals of various specialties. The intervention consisted of a two-hour training course and distribution of printed material. Attitudes, subjective norm, perceived control and intention of health professionals were measured, regarding the counseling in smoking cessation. Results: Statistical analysis showed an increase of perceived control in the experimental group (p = 0.031 and increase of its intention to implement smoking cessation counseling compared to the comparison group (p = 0.003. There was no difference between and within groups before and after the intervention for the variables of attitudes and subjective norm. The evaluation also showed an increase of knowledge in the experimental group. Conclusion: This study reinforces the current literature which supports that training health professionals on smoking cessation counseling can be effective. The theoretical background turns out to be important. In the future more time and resources should be invested to increase effectiveness and efficiency of such programs.
DuBeau, Catherine E.; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Palmer, Mary H.
Purpose: We assessed nursing home staff and state nursing home surveyors regarding their knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence, its management, and the revised federal Tag F315 guidance for urinary incontinence. Design and Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey of a convenience sample of nursing home staff and state nursing home…
del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin
Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…
Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh
Background Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5th year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. Conclusion It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers. PMID:26436029
Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was to evaluate the knowledge about management of tooth avulsion among sports teachers inAhmednagar District. Methods: A sample of 60 sports teachers were interviewed from different schools.The data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing seven items which wasdistributed among the sports teacher from different schools. Results: we found that 90% of the sportsteachers were not having the first-aid knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed tooth andthe benefit of timely care. This demands an effort to properly educate sports teachers about first-aidmanagement and consequently change their attitude towards dental trauma.
This executive summary highlights the major findings of a nuclear power mail-out survey administered to a random sample of Washington State residents, a random sample of residents (nuclear neighbors) from the region around the Hanford Reservation, and a random sample of members of a Washington State environmental interest group. The purpose of the research was threefold. The first was to determine from what sources people have received their information about nuclear power, from what sources they would like to receive additional information, and what kinds of additional information they would like to receive. A second purpose was to determine how much respondents already knew about nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal. The third purpose was to determine how one's knowledge about nuclear power was related to one's attitude about building more nuclear power plants. The findings are presented in summary form
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Kress, Catherine M; Sharling, Lisa; Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Desalegn, Dawit; Blumberg, Henry M; Goedken, Jennifer
Background Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers. Methods Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type. Results Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of training (52%) and resources (53%); however the majority (97%) of providers indicated cervical cancer screening is an essential part of women’s health care. Conclusion There is a clear need among women’s health care providers for education regarding cervical cancer etiology, risk factors and for training in low-tech, low-cost screening methods. Meeting these needs and improving the infrastructure necessary to implement appropriate screening programs is essential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Ethiopia. PMID:26261427
Bengü Aksu Ataç
Full Text Available Problem Statement: A rapidly increasing interest has been observed in finding alternatives to traditional forms of assessment in education. For at least three decades, teachers, curriculum developers and program administrators have been studying hard to identify appropriate procedures to assess the knowledge and abilities of students. The term “authentic assessment” has emerged from this need in the field of education, and can be described as “the multiple forms of assessment that reflect student learning, achievement, motivation, and attitudes on instructionally-relevant classroom activities” (O’Malley and Valdez Pierce, 1996, p. 4. Given that the topic is a relatively new and challenging one, it has been observed that to examine language teachers’ perceptions and attitude toward authentic assessment is quite important.Purpose of Study: In this study, a questionnaire which aims to determine the ideas and opinions of English language instructors regarding the use of authentic assessment has been applied and the results of the study have been presented and discussed.Method: In order to find answers to the research question “What are the language teaching instructors’ ideas and attitude toward authentic assessment in language teaching classes?”, a questionnaire which is called “Authentic Assessment Inventory for Goal Setting”(O’Malley and Valdez; 1992 has been used in this study. This inventory has been applied to 37randomly-selected instructors from Atilim University Preparatory School of English. Theinventory consists of 15 questions that can be answered with three alternatives, mainly, 1 =not at all, 2 = somewhat, 3 = a great deal.Findings: Answers to the questions in the inventory where handled under two maincategories: at what point the instructors are now, and where they wish to be concerning the issue of authentic assessment.Conclusion and Recommendations: As a concluding remark for the study, it will bepedagogically useful to attach more importance to authentic assessment in curriculum andeducational programs of language teaching. Additionally, it is recommended that morescientific research be conducted about authentic assessment, in particular on goal-setting,educational planning and program development.
Lynette Smith; Shingairai Feresu
A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that had been translated into Nuer and Arabic. Women in this study had low levels of education, poor knowledge about HIV...
Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223
Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…
Huerta-Franco, Raquel; And Others
Studies family structure and function and their association with knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in student and adolescent factory workers. Finds female workers at higher risk for unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes included age, schooling…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…
Pe'er, Sara; Goldman, Daphne; Yavetz, Bela
The authors report the environmental attitudes and knowledge of 765 1st-year students in 3 teacher-training colleges in Israel and examine the relationship between these variables and background factors and their relationship to environmental behavior. Although the students' environmental knowledge was limited, their overall attitudes toward the…
Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan
International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…
Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn
Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…
Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management of individual sufferers. Because of their working relations and close link with CHWs, community nurses in primary health-care facilities need to recognise these beliefs and attitudes since these may differ from their own.
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: students are becoming aware of the availability and seeking of safe abortion services in their communities. However, unsafe abortion still remains globally major health problem especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is becoming one of the leading direct obstetric causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. In many low income countries lack of knowledge about the consequences of unsafe abortion and having negative attitude towards abortion service resulted in unsafe abortion practices. This study is important to identify area for improvement and encourage better communication with student clients who need safe abortion services. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude and factors associated with safe abortion among first year students in Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based-cross-sectional study design involving both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. The sample size was 772 and the sampling technique used was multistage cluster sampling technique. To proportionally allocate the sample size to each department, population proportion to size allocation was used. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Bivariate analysis was made to see the relations of independent variables with knowledge and attitude towards safe abortion. At bivariate logistic regression analysis, independent variables with cut off P-value<0.25 was included. In the multivariable binary logistic regression, P- value< 0.05 was used to declare the significance of the variables. Thematic analysis was used for the Qualitative method. Finally both qualitative and quantitative data was triangulated. The analyzed data was presented using figures, tables, graphs and texts. Result: Out of 752 students who heard about safe abortion, more than half 300 (55.9% have inadequate knowledge. Sex, (AOR= 1.7, 95% CI: 1.160-2.725, department (AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.169-0.809, family education level (AOR= 0.6, 95% 0.354-0.886 and income (AOR= 0.4, 95% 0.205-0.848 were factors has an association with knowledge of students towards safe abortion. Concerning attitude, out of 536, nearly half 283 (52.8% of the students have positive attitude towards safe abortion. Residence before joining university (AOR=0.689, 95%CI: 0.486 -0.977 has found to have an association with attitude towards safe abortion. Conclusion: The knowledge of the students has found to be inadequate towards safe abortion. Sex, department, family education, and income sent from family are likely to have association towards knowledge on safe abortion. Nearly half of the students have positive attitudes towards safe abortion. Only residence before joining university has significant association with attitude towards safe abortion. Forums and panel discussions on safe abortion among students, professionals, and relevant organizations, need to be undertaken at various levels to facilitate decision making on safe abortion practices.
Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte
The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed.
Abahussain, Nada A; Attia Z. Taha
OBJECTIVES To assess the knowledge and attitude of female students on medications in Al-Khobar city, the eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS The target population consisted of the third-grade intermediate, and all the 3 grades of secondary school female students in the Al-Khobar area, KSA. A multistage stratified sampling design was adopted at the end of 2001. At the first stage, 13 schools were selected, of which classes were selected in each level using a...
De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa
Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896
Dorah U., Ramathuba; Confidence T., Ratshirumbi; Tshilidzi M., Mashamba.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30-65 years residing in a rural South African community METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 [...] participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program RESULTS: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods CONCLUSION: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap
Mallela, Kiran Kumar; Walia, Rachit; TM, Chaitra Devi; Das, Maneesha; Sepolia, Shipra; Sethi, Priyank
Background: Research activities in dentistry are increased greatly in India during the recent decade, but there is limited of information about the knowledge and attitude of dental faculty for research ethics. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of dental faculty of North India regarding research ethics. Materials and Methods: Through convenience sampling, a questionnaire was sent either via printed copies or E-mails to 1240 dental faculty, while protecting confidentiality and anonymity of all the participants. Results: Our response rate was 76% (942). Majority (>90%) are aware of ethical committee but have poor knowledge (8-35%) about various ethical guidelines laid down at international level; however almost 20% believe that research ethics committees would delay research. A large number of researchers (78%) want some training in research ethics. There is fair knowledge about informed consent among researchers. Conclusions: We conclude that ethical norms should be strictly followed by giving due respect to confidentiality or privacy of research participants to achieve the goal of minimal risks and maximum benefits to patients and there is need of training to researchers and students to make them aware about various research principles.
Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess knowledge of, attitude toward and professional experience with emergency contraceptives (EC among doctors practicing in Sikkim, India. Methods: Between November 2012 to June 2013, a pre-designed, pretested, self-administered anonymous questionnaire was sent to the doctors practicing in different hospitals of Sikkim. The questionnaire included items on knowledge, attitude, and professional experience of doctors with EC. Results: Of the 285 doctors invited, 210 (73.7% returned the questionnaire. Although the entire participant responded that they were aware of EC, objective assessment revealed limited knowledge on various aspects of EC. Correct time frame of EC pills use was aware by 63%, while only 45% were aware of correct dosage regime of levonorgestrel pill. Actual level of knowledge was present only in 48.6% doctors. Misconceptions about EC were common, more than half of the doctors felt that easy availability and promotion might increase sexual promiscuity and discourage use of regular contraceptives. Twenty percent doctor used EC either for themselves or for their spouses. Only 42.4% doctors ever recommended or prescribed EC to their clients. Those who never recommended or prescribed EC, the common reasons offered were their concerns that EC may discourage use of regular contraceptives (63.6%, may increase sexual promiscuity (46.3% and their inadequate knowledge (43.8%. Conclusions: Knowledge and professional experience about emergency contraception among participant doctors was inadequate. EC should be included in continuing medical educational programmes, in workshops and seminars for doctors, which would be helpful in creating awareness and remove misconception about EC among doctors. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 913-918
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ? 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude towards menopause among postmenopausal women seeking gynecological treatment. Results: The mean age of respondents was 54.4 years. Fifty-two (74.3%) women knew about menopause, 39 (55.7%) were aware of symptomatology while only 7(10%) knew sequelae of menopause. Fifty-three (75.5%) women were satisfied with cessation of menstruation and only 17 (24.3%) desired to continue menstruation. Twenty-four (34.3%) respondents were unhappy with their menopausal status. Thirty-two (45.7%) women were content with their present sexual relations, 18 (25.7%) were dissatisfied and 20 (28.6%) had no sexual activity. Fifty-two (74.3%) women felt a need for health education on menopause in educational institutions. Thirty-three (47.1%) considered treatment of menopause necessary. Four (5.7%) were aware of any treatment of menopause and 55 (78.6%) desired to learn more about menopause. Conclusion: Women have different views about menopause, few see it as a medical condition requiring treatment, whereas majority consider it is a natural transition. There was breath of knowledge regarding significance of menopause. (author)
Nielsen, Jimmi; Dahm, M
Clozapine is, in most countries, underutilized and the initiation of clozapine is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the delay and the underutilization of clozapine. One hundred psychiatrists were interviewed by phone. The interview was a structured interview with questions regarding attitude to, knowledge of and experiences with clozapine. Forty-eight (48%) psychiatrists had treatment responsibility of fewer than five patients treated with clozapine and 31 of the interviewed psychiatrists (31%) had started clozapine within the last 3 months. Seven psychiatrists (7%) had never prescribed clozapine despite the fact that they had been working more than five years in general psychiatry. Sixty-four psychiatrists (64%) would rather combine two antipsychotics than use clozapine. Sixty-six psychiatrists (66%) believed that patients treated with clozapine were less satisfied with their treatment when compared with those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. Many psychiatrists are reluctant to use clozapine and this might be due to less experience and knowledge of clozapine. A reason for the low awareness of clozapine's properties might be that clozapine is now a generic drug, and therefore, the marketing and education in using the drug is sparse.
Lin Jin-Mann S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the DocStyles (probability sample more than 80% of physicians correctly identified CFS symptoms. Physicians reported professional journals, the Internet, and continuing education programs as the top 3 sources from which they obtain CFS information. Conclusions Findings from these combined samples fill a gap in the evidence-base of U.S. healthcare providers' and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning CFS. Importantly, respondents in both samples expressed similar knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. Awareness was high and negative attitudes were low. The primary areas for future education should address diagnosis and management of CFS and should be delivered through those venues providers indicated they primarily use. Data from this study provide a benchmark for evaluation the success of these future efforts.
Kumar Senthil; Jim Anand; Sisodia Vaishali
Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic insti...
Gedeon Jino Bahemuka; Cyprien Munyanshongore; Francine Birungi
This study aims at determining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban refugee women regarding the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in order to promote its practice among this group of population and increase the number of women who adhere to it for achieving a better development of their children. The specific objectives of the study are to determine the urban refugee women’s knowledge regarding EBF, to identify their source of information about EBF, to assess their attitudes towards EB...
Full Text Available Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5% used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 % were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 % were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07% of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. ?Easy availability? and ?relief from tension? were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5% and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In developing countries like India, shortage of orga n donors is a fundamental public health problem with medical and legal implications. Improvin g the awareness, medico-legal knowledge and attitude among medical students who a re considered as the future health care providers of the community could help to promote organ donation. The objective of the present study was to assess the level of medico-legal knowl edge and attitude of second year medical students on eye donation. One hundred and twenty tw o medical students participated in the study. The awareness and medico-legal knowledge whi ch included procedure on eye donation, time factor, valid consent, place of contact and the reasons for willingness and unwillingness to donate eyes were assessed through pretested structur ed questionnaire. 99% of the medical students were aware of eye donation.59% of the part icipants responded that the eyes should be removed within 6 hours of death and 81.9% responded that the donor should be consented. However, only 18.03% responded that a valid consent should be obtained from the relatives or legal heirs after the death of the donor. 89.3% of the students were willing to donate the eyes and only 10% were unwilling. Nobility (64% was the main motivational factor for eye donation and those who were unwilling attributed it to relig ious (84.6% and cosmetic (15.4% factors. Second-year medical students have a good knowledge regarding eye donation but their knowledge on valid consent of legal heir and relati ves and the knowledge on newer legislation like presumed consent and required request needs to be improved which can play a significant role in eye donation movement in the country.
Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Results: Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. Conclusion: We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum.
Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women in developing countries, its awareness is essential. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women regarding the basic screening test for detection of cancer cervix. Settings and Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional prospective study was conducted. Information from consenting participants (450 was collected using structured questionnaire. Answers were described in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice and their respective adequacy with respect to Papanicolaou (Pap test, the most common test used for early detection of cervical cancer. Adequacy was compared between the categories of socio demographic and clinical variables. Statistical Analysis: The data collected was analyzed using statistical package (SPSS version 18.0. Adequacy was compared between the categories of the control variables by ?2 test with a 5% significance level. Results: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Pap test were adequate in 32.7%, 18.2% and 7.3% of women respectively. Major impediment to adequate practice was lack of request by physician. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were found to increase significantly with increasing age and education. Conclusion: Effective information, education and communication strategies are required to improve the level of awareness of public. Health-care professional should be proactive in imparting knowledge at every opportunity.
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study ...
Rohaan, EJ (Ellen); Taconis, R.; Jochems, WMG (Wim)
This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher nowledge is essential for stimulating a positive attitude towards technology in pupils. Particularly, teachers' enhanced Pedagogical Content Knowledge is found ...
Dunst, Carl J.
Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB) puppet shows onelementary school students’ knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities aredescribed. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and changeattitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both studies indicated that KOB performanceshad positive effects on both the knowledge and attitudes of second, third, and fourth grade students.Study 1 sh...
Beauvais, Audrey; Foito, Kim; Pearlin, Nina; Yost, Eileen
Relatively few nursing students choose to specialize in geriatric nursing. While increased clinical exposure and improved knowledge of the elderly have been proposed to manage this staffing dilemma, successful strategies have not been identified. This study examined nursing students' attitudes and knowledge about the elderly, before and after service learning experiences in Senior Citizen Centers. Through these interventions, students had significantly improved attitudes and knowledge about the elderly. PMID:25997154
Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary
Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857
Petersen, P E; Danila, I; Samoila, A
In Romania an increasing level of dental caries in children has been observed. The present study was undertaken to describe the oral health behavior of schoolchildren in the first grade, to assess the level of oral health knowledge and attitudes among the mothers, and to describe oral knowledge and attitudes to prevention among the schoolteachers. A total of 322 mothers of grade-1 children (response, 89%) and 97 schoolteachers (response, 86%) participated in the study. Data on mothers and children were collected through personal interviews, whereas the teachers responded to self-administered questionnaires. A significant proportion of the mothers knew about the causal factors in dental caries; however, relatively few were aware of the harmful effect of hidden sugar. Most of the mothers were aware of the importance of toothbrushing, but 33% also recommended the use of salt for prevention of periodontal disease. Of the children, 37% brushed their teeth at least twice a day; 26% had their teeth cleaned by their mothers every day. Sugar was mostly consumed in terms of milk with sugar, sugary breakfast cereals, biscuits, and sweets. The schoolteachers knew about the poor dental conditions in children and wanted to become involved in oral health education. Training of teachers should aim at improving their level of knowledge on oral health. The establishment of school-based oral health promotion programs in Romania is urgently needed. PMID:8849869
Full Text Available Introduction: Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The healthy lifestyle of medical students could facilitate the formation of healthy physicians who is more likely to give effective preventive counseling to their patients. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and pattern of the physical activity among the medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 161 eligible sixth semester medical undergraduate students. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. The data were fed and coded in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and Epi Info software of World Health Organization. Results: Knowledge regarding different types of exercise and anthropometric variables was fairly low among the study participants. Only 9.3% of the students were aware of the recommended level of the physical activity but nearly all (96.27% were aware of the benefits of it. The attitude of the participants toward the physical activity was favorable, yet only one-third (32.3% subjects adhered to recommended guidelines. Boys (39.8% were found to be significantly more active than girls (20.6% (P = 0.01. Conclusion: The knowledge and practices regarding the physical activity was found to be low amongst the medical students. There is a need to provide an enabling environment for promoting the physical activity amongst them so that can inculcate the same in their patients.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.
Lean Keng Soon
Full Text Available Background: Nursing students must be able to ensure that patients understand important health screening information. However, studies have reported a deficit in nursing students’ knowledge of genetics and genetic disorders. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate nursing students’ knowledge of, and attitudes to prenatal genetic screening. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted with final year undergraduate nursing students recruited from a tertiary teaching hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia. Thirty-four of the 37 students returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate=97% that assessed knowledge of, and attitudes to, prenatal genetic screening. Findings: The majority of the respondents demonstrated an adequate level of knowledge regarding prenatal genetic screening (65%, and 62% were more supportive than others of screening. Approximately one third (35% had limited knowledge. Simple linear regression analysis uncovered a significant linear relationship between the attitude score and the knowledge score (R2=0.48, P<0.05, 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: These findings suggest the need to improve and upgrade the nursing education strategy concerning genetics. The deficit in nursing students’ knowledge of prenatal genetic screening may result in inappropriate counselling, health teaching and referrals, which can have serious repercussions.
Full Text Available Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE; 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ?heard of cancer warning signal? were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8% felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6% insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.
Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Full Text Available Background: Diabetic neuropathy (DN can affect any part of the nervous system and should be suspected in all patients who have had diabetes for more than 5 years. Family physicians (FPs can play an important role with the care and education of people with diabetes. They can augment the knowledge and motivate the diabetics to acquire a healthy life style, which would further lead to a good glycemic control providing protection from the chronic complications. Lack of compliance with the guidelines on the part of the diabetic subjects, indicates deficiencies in the FPs' knowledge, implementation techniques, and attitude problems. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess FPs' knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding DN for further educational interventions that will improve their quality of care for diabetic patients in family practice centers. Materials and Methods: The study population was 60 FPs working in family practice centers affiliated to Suez Canal University Hospitals. The questionnaire composed of three groups of questions to collect data for evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice; two written patient problems to assess their practice and two questions to assess barriers and recommendations of physicians. To pass the evaluation; 50, 80, and 60% were the cut off points to pass the evaluation for knowledge, attitude, and practice, respectively. Results: 48.3, 66.7, and 43.3% of the evaluated FPs passed the knowledge, attitude, and practice assessment, respectively. Eighty-five percent of physicians felt that they need more knowledge and training in DN management. Physicians' qualification (P = 0.037 was a significant variable in passing the knowledge test, but qualification and experience years (P = 0.007 and 0.035, respectively were significant variables in passing the practice test. There was a positive significant (P = 0.021 correlation between practice and knowledge score. Postgraduate knowledge accounts the majority (78.3% as a source of information about DN. Providing physicians with standardized guidelines (81.7%, continuous medical education seminars (76.7% and training courses (76.7% came at the top of physician's recommendations to improve DN care by FPs. Conclusion: This study has identified the need for improvement in family medicine physician practices for treating and educating diabetics and recommended that awareness and educational programs are necessary to update the FPs on screening, effective treatment of diabetes and prevention of DN.
Barbara J. Ganley; Dianne I. Rosario
Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S.) try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm), and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1) determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2) identify reasons for smoking; 3) determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4...
Schouten, B C; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J; den Dekker, J
The introduction of the 'Medical Treatment Contract Act' in the Netherlands 5 years ago, established some major rights and duties of both patients and members of the medical profession. The aim of this study was to assess Dutch dentists' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy with regard to several topics of this act. A questionnaire was sent to 806 dental practitioners; 41.6% of them responded. Results show that dentists are well informed about some of the most important topics of this law, such as the requirement to obtain the patient's consent to major dental treatments. The results concerning their attitude and self-efficacy, however, are less positive. A majority of the respondents believe that the principle of informed consent will lead to a commercialization of the dentist-patient relation. Also, fear for legal procedures and difficulty with what patients must be informed about appears present. It is concluded that improvement of the implementation of the requirements of this legislation in dental practice requires both a change in attitude and an enhancement of the communicative skills of dentists. PMID:11118784
Ali Akbar ASADI-POOYA
Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study investigates the awareness and perception on “epilepsy” amongst biology teachers in Fars province, Iran.Materials & MethodsA sample of high school biology teachers in Fars province, Iran, filled out an investigator designed questionnaire including questions about their knowledge and attitude concerning “epilepsy”. There were 17 questions in the questionnaire. Nine questions addressed the knowledge and the rest were about attitude and perception.ResultsForty two teachers completed the questionnaires. More than two-thirds of the participants had a fairly desirable awareness about the definition; whereas, only approximately 40% knew something about the etiology and treatment of epilepsy. More than two-thirds of the participants had a positive attitude towards epilepsy; however, misconceptions and negative attitudes were observed.ConclusionEducational programs for biology teachers and also other teachers are necessary to improve their knowledge, attitude and perception about epilepsy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Alshammari, Thamir M; Alamri, Khaled K; Ghawa, Yazeed A; Alohali, Noura F; Abualkol, Shaza A; Aljadhey, Hisham S
Background Drug safety has major implications for patients' lives. However, this concept is still considered new to some healthcare professionals. Objective This study aims to investigate the knowledge and awareness of Saudi healthcare professionals to pharmacovigilance (PV). Setting Governmental and private hospitals at three main cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam). Methods A cross-sectional survey among healthcare professionals (pharmacists, physicians, and nurses) within 12 Saudi hospitals was conducted between November and December 2012. The questionnaire consisted of 18 questions assessing the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards science and the concept of PV. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS 9.3). Main outcome measure Knowledge, attitude and practice of HCPs toward pharmacovigilance. Results Three-hundred and thirty-two healthcare professionals completed the survey (response rate 72 %), 110 (34 %) physicians, 106 (33 %) pharmacists, and 104 (32 %) nurses. More than half of the participants (55 %) did not know the correct definition of PV. Two-thirds of the respondents, 207 (65.5 %), had knowledge of the aim of post-marketing surveillance, yet only 113 (36.9 %) were aware that the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center is the official body for monitoring adverse drug reaction in Saudi Arabia. In addition, 34.7 % agreed that lack of time could be a major barrier for reporting. The majority of the respondents (78.4 %) believed that reporting was a professional obligation and hospitals should have a drug safety department. Conclusions There was a limited knowledge of pharmacovigilance that could have affected reporting incidence. Educational intervention and a practical training program need to be applied by the drug regulatory body as well as health authorities to enhance the pharmacovigilance and drug safety culture in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26216270
Fan?ovi?ová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.
Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.
Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Full Text Available Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Registered Nurses (RNs towards Community Psychiatric services. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used for this study. A systematic random sampling method was used to select one hundred and fifty respondents. The research instrument for this study was self- developed structured questionnaire design in line with the variables to be measured. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, independent t–test and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis were used to analyze all data. Results: The study revealed that RNs with positive attitude have a higher mean value than Registered Nurses with negative attitude towards Community Psychiatric services. There is also a significant relationship between the knowledge and attitude of RNs and their participation in community psychiatric services. Conclusion: RNs disseminate information and care for mentally ill people and their relations, signifying a need for a positive knowledge and attitude that will enable the RNs to enter a personal relationship with the patient which is necessary for rehabilitation.
Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.
This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is…
...of knowledge regarding payments for ecosystem services, and attitudes and interest toward a payment for ecosystem services intended to benefit jaguar...their understanding of payments for ecosystem services. The survey will...
Tikka, Paivi M.; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Tynys, Salla M.
Establishes whether students in a variety of educational environments differ in their attitudes toward nature and the environment. Identifies students' nature and environment-related activities and knowledge. (Author/CCM)
Joffe, Lynn; Foxman, Derek
From the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) in Britain, illustrative comments of 11- and 15-year-olds concerning mathematics are presented. Sex differences in attitudes and in test performance are also given. (MNS)
Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595
Holley, J L; Nespor, S; Rault, R
Forty-three chronic in-center hemodialysis patients were asked about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards advance directives. The survey collected patient demographic data and assessed attitudes, knowledge, and behavior towards advance directives by agreement or disagreement with statements. Sixty-six percent of patients did not know what a health care proxy was, and 42% did not know the legal status of a living will. However, 90% of older patients (> or = 60 yr of age) understood living wills. Although 77% of the patients had discussed their wishes about life-sustaining care with someone close to them, only 17% had had such discussions with their doctor. Twenty-one percent had completed an advance directive. Fifty percent of patients agreed with the statement that a potential problem with advance directives was that patients could change their minds about heroic treatments; 51% agreed that advance directives might interfere with a doctor's judgment. Only 26% agreed that a dialysis unit's promotion of the use of advance directives might lead to undertreatment. Patient age, race, marital status, and time on dialysis did not affect responses. A prior failed transplant and the educational level completed by the patient influenced some specific responses. Despite some concern, 79% of patients agreed that a dialysis unit policy asking patients whether they had completed an advance directive was a good idea. PMID:8439652
M.d. Wahid Murad; Chamhuri Siwar
This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude...
Jason O. Molina
The study determined the relationships between food safety knowledge and practices of hospital food handlers in Davao City and also between their attitudes and practices regarding food safety. Questionnaire patterned after the Key Food Safety Guidelines of Pacific Northwest Publications was administered to 51 food handlers to generate the data. It was found that hospital food handlers in Davao City are highly knowledgeable and have favorable attitudes in food safety. The extent of food sa...
Tang Jie; Gao Xiaohui; Yu Yizhen; Ahmed Niman; Zhu Huiping; Wang Jiaji; Du Yukai
Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behavio...
DELUCCHI, KEVIN L.; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
This report describes the development and measurement characteristics of a new measure of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) among treatment providers. Data are based on survey responses from 336 paid staff working in one of three drug abuse treatment or HIV care settings. Exploratory factor analysis, used to examine the factor structure, pointed towards five underlying factors: a single “knowledge” factor, three “attitude” factors (‘treatment barriers,’ ‘counselor self-facto...
G BROMAND-FAR; A Yousefi; M TABATABAIE
Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information...
Rose Begani; Bob Tombe; Tuka Andew; Orathinkal Jose; Alphonse Begani; Keri Totona
This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48%) males and 832 (52%) females (9 respondents no mention of gender), from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and health...
Crnica, Vanja; Mujki?, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A...
Farahnaz Joukar; Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei; Fatemeh Soati; Panah Meskinkhoda
AIM: To study knowledge levels and attitudes of health care providers toward patients with hepatitis C virus infection in Guilan, a northern province of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 239 health care professionals from the Razi Hospital, including doctors, nurses, and operating room technicians. The questionnaires consisted of questions on demographic characteristics, knowledge levels, and attitudes toward hepatitis C patients. The questionnaire was tested in a pil...
Park, Seon-Cheol; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; Lee, Dong-Woo; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yeo-Ju; Choi, Jae Sung; Lee, Ho-Sung; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Jung, Sung Won; Shim, Se-Hoon; Choi, Joonho; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kwon, Young-Joon
Our study aimed to examine the knowledge and attitude of nursing personnel toward depression in general hospitals of Korea. A total of 851 nursing personnel enrolled at four university-affiliated general hospitals completed self-report questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge and attitude of registered or assistant nurses toward depression. In addition, binary logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for the following confounders: age-group and workplace. Reg...
Bihari, James; White, Arthur
Pre and posttests were given over a three year period to students in an introductory university physics course, a two-quarter, hands-on, laboratory-based, science literacy course with a focus on energy. Attitude items on the tests related to student anxiety and efficacy, discovery, relevance, enjoyment, and interest. Knowledge items on the tests related to course subject matter. Quantitative analysis was used to study relationships between attitude variables, age, gender, subject matter knowledge, and performance in the course.
Violet N Pinto
Full Text Available Aims: 1 To assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes regarding biomedical waste (BMW management in specialists, resident doctors, new medical interns, and final year nursing students. 2 To assess the effectiveness of a training program in changing the knowledge and attitudes regarding BMW management. Study Design: Stage 1-descriptive, Stage 2-quasi-experimental. Participants: Specialists, resident doctors, new medical interns, and final year nursing students. Setting: Tertiary hospital with attached medical college in Navi Mumbai. Data Collection tool: Pretested, precoded self-administered questionnaire. Intervention: Educational training program on BMW management, Period of Study: December 2010-March 2011. Statistical Analysis: Using software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20, chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc, and Z tests applied. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the knowledge scores between the groups as determined by a one-way ANOVA test (F (3,226 = 11.098, P < 0.001. A Tukey's post hoc test revealed that the specialists (20.82 ± 5.121 knowledge scores were significantly higher as compared to resident doctors (16.96 ± 5.268, medical interns (18.44 ± 4.293, and nursing group (15.33 ± 5.144. The positive attitude towards safe management of BMW was not found to be significant. After the training program in the medical interns' a statistically significant increase in their knowledge on BMW management was seen. Conclusion: The knowledge and attitudes between the groups of healthcare personnel varied and was not found to be satisfactory. Training programs with periodical sensitization sessions on BMW management are recommended, especially focusing at the junior level.
Owoeye I.O.G; Ibrahim I.A
Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical screening is rudimentary or non- existent. Aim: This study seeks to assess the knowledge, level of perception and the attitude of female staff and students of Niger Delta...
Hayes, Brenda D.; Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Wade, Bruce H.; Trawick, Cynthia; Hodge, Michael; Caplan, Lee; Younge, Sinead; Quarshie, Alexander; Satcher, David
There is limited information about African American students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the areas of health behavior, health knowledge, and attitudes. To fill this gap, a comprehensive examination of first-year students was undertaken at a consortium of HBCUs. A non-random sample of 1,115 freshmen were administered a survey that assessed several domains including: (1) demographics, (2) general health, (3) smoking habits, (4) disease risk, (5) weight perc...
Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications are very common all over the world as well as in India. Although pharmacological measures are very useful, nonpharmacological measures can give promising results in its management. Objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of nonpharmacological measures to control symptoms in patients with GERD. Materials and Methods: An interview of total 100 patients suffering from GERD not on pharmacologic...
Aziz Sulaiman Ismael; Jwan M. Sabir Zangana
Background and Objectives: Globally, condom is an important method of family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted infections especially human immune deficiency virus HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS. Family planning saves lives of women and children and improves the quality of life. This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices in addition to socio-demographic factors of condom use among males in Erbil governorate. Subjects and method: A cross s...
Karimi, Narges; Heidari, Mohammad
Background: Epilepsy comprised the highest proportion of neurological problem of childhood stage, which observed mostly in the first decade of life. The dramatic effect of having a seizure in the classroom can be very traumatic for any child. The knowledge and attitude of teachers toward epilepsy have a direct impact on the life of students with epilepsy. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in Kermanshah (West of Iran). 305 teachers from 25 public schools were randomly participated in this study. The questionnaire included 39 items and three sections (demographic information, knowledge, and attitude about epilepsy). Results: In this study, 97% participants had heard or read about epilepsy. Attitude and knowledge about epilepsy was positive in weighted sum of the item responses, but there were deficits in individual items and first-aid management of seizure attacks. There was no meaningful relationship between attitude scores and demographic items, but higher level of education, female gender, and marital status had a positive influence on teachers’ knowledge toward children with epilepsy. Conclusion: The main findings indicated a good knowledge and positive attitude about epilepsy among school’s teachers. Nevertheless, there is still a need to improve certain aspects of knowledge and attitude and first aid management of an epileptic attack among teachers.
Avaliação do nível de conhecimento e de atitudes preventivas da população sobre a leishmaniose visceral em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Assessment of knowledge and preventive attitudes concerning visceral leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Bárbara Kellen Antunes Borges
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o nível de conhecimento e algumas atitudes preventivas em relação à leishmaniose visceral em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2006. Foi feito um estudo de caso-controle, com visitas domiciliares e questionário semi-estrurado. Comparou-se dois grupos: (1 82 casos humanos de leishmaniose visceral ocorridos em 2004 e (2 164 controles, constituídos por vizinhos dos casos. A leishmaniose visceral acometeu mais em crianças, com aumento do risco de contrair leishmaniose visceral de 109,77 vezes para menores de dez anos. O homem demonstrou ter 2,57 vezes mais chances de adoecer que a mulher. A escolaridade da população mostrou-se baixa (68,3% não completaram o ensino médio. Cinqüenta por cento dos casos desconheciam-na quando foram infectados e apenas 1,2% conhecia o vetor. Conhecer algo sobre a leishmaniose visceral minimizou o risco de adoecer em 2,24 vezes. Quanto às atitudes de proteção, o risco de se contrair leishmaniose visceral diminui em 1,94 vez para pessoas que mantêm limpos os domicílios ou que levam o cão ao veterinário. Em Belo Horizonte, o conhecimento da população perante a leishmaniose visceral é superficial e as atitudes preventivas inespecíficas.The main objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis and attitudes used to prevent the disease in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2006. A case-control study was conducted, with home visits and a questionnaire. The odds ratio was calculated, comparing 82 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis in 2004 and 164 controls (neighbors of cases. The disease was more frequent in children (OR = 109.77. Visceral leishmaniasis was 2.57 times more likely in males than in females. Overall schooling level was low (68.3% of subjects had not completed secondary school. Half of the cases did not know what visceral leishmaniasis was, and only 1.2% could identify the vector. Having basic knowledge of visceral leishmaniasis reduced the odds of acquiring the disease by 2.24 times. Keeping the house clean and taking pet dogs to the veterinarian reduced the risk by 1.94 times. In Belo Horizonte, the population's level of knowledge on visceral leishmaniasis is superficial, and preventive attitudes are inaccurate.
Avaliação do nível de conhecimento e de atitudes preventivas da população sobre a leishmaniose visceral em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil / Assessment of knowledge and preventive attitudes concerning visceral leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Bárbara Kellen Antunes, Borges; José Ailton da, Silva; João Paulo Amaral, Haddad; Élvio Carlos, Moreira; Danielle Ferreira de, Magalhães; Letícia Mendonça Lopes, Ribeiro; Vanessa de Oliveira Pires, Fiúza.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o nível de conhecimento e algumas atitudes preventivas em relação à leishmaniose visceral em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2006. Foi feito um estudo de caso-controle, com visitas domiciliares e questionário semi-estrurado. Comparou-se dois grupos: (1) 82 casos humanos [...] de leishmaniose visceral ocorridos em 2004 e (2) 164 controles, constituídos por vizinhos dos casos. A leishmaniose visceral acometeu mais em crianças, com aumento do risco de contrair leishmaniose visceral de 109,77 vezes para menores de dez anos. O homem demonstrou ter 2,57 vezes mais chances de adoecer que a mulher. A escolaridade da população mostrou-se baixa (68,3% não completaram o ensino médio). Cinqüenta por cento dos casos desconheciam-na quando foram infectados e apenas 1,2% conhecia o vetor. Conhecer algo sobre a leishmaniose visceral minimizou o risco de adoecer em 2,24 vezes. Quanto às atitudes de proteção, o risco de se contrair leishmaniose visceral diminui em 1,94 vez para pessoas que mantêm limpos os domicílios ou que levam o cão ao veterinário. Em Belo Horizonte, o conhecimento da população perante a leishmaniose visceral é superficial e as atitudes preventivas inespecíficas. Abstract in english The main objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis and attitudes used to prevent the disease in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2006. A case-control study was conducted, with home visits and a questionnaire. The odds ratio was calculated, comp [...] aring 82 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis in 2004 and 164 controls (neighbors of cases). The disease was more frequent in children (OR = 109.77). Visceral leishmaniasis was 2.57 times more likely in males than in females. Overall schooling level was low (68.3% of subjects had not completed secondary school). Half of the cases did not know what visceral leishmaniasis was, and only 1.2% could identify the vector. Having basic knowledge of visceral leishmaniasis reduced the odds of acquiring the disease by 2.24 times. Keeping the house clean and taking pet dogs to the veterinarian reduced the risk by 1.94 times. In Belo Horizonte, the population's level of knowledge on visceral leishmaniasis is superficial, and preventive attitudes are inaccurate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 6–12 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98, and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78. Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.
Langalibalele H. Mabuza
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortion and the increase in HIV infection have become major concerns in sub-Saharan Africa and understanding adolescent sexual behaviour remains a challenge. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the practice of illegal abortions is prevalent among school-going adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies. Assessing their attitude and knowledge on the subject could be a starting point from which to address the problem.
Objectives: To determine the knowledge of schoolgirls in Goma, DRC about the health consequences of illegal abortions and to assess their attitude towards these abortions.
Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected sample of 328 high school girls aged 16 to 20 years. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Nine out of 55 (11 public and 44 private secondary schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The Epi-Info 2000 computer program was used for data capturing and analysis.
Results: The different sources of information were the radio (66.2%, 217, friends (31.7%, 104, parents (1.5%, 5, and the church (0.5%, 2. The health consequences of illegal abortion mentioned were death, infertility, infection and bleeding. Of the participants, 9.8% (32 had committed an abortion before and 46% (151 knew where to obtain it; 76.2% (250 of participants were against illegal abortion, while 23.8% (78 supported it.
Conclusion: Girls in secondary school in Goma had good knowledge of the illegal abortion practice and its consequences. A fifth of them were in support of the procedure. The DRC government may need to consider legalising abortion to secure a healthy future for affected girls.
How to cite this article: Paluku LJ, Mabuza LH, Maduna PMH, Ndimande JV. Knowledge and attitude of schoolgirls about illegal abortions in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(1, Art. #78, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.78
Full Text Available The efficacy of opioids for cancer pain has been proven and the World Health Organization (WHO three-step ladder has been recommended for cancer pain relief. However, undertreatment of cancer pain has still been reported in Thailand. Identification of barriers to opioid use by the physicians and policy makers/regulators, and their level of knowledge and attitudes concerning its use are influential factors for cancer pain management (CPM. This study was performed to assess the knowledge and attitudes physicians and policy makers/regulators have regarding use of opioids for CPM. Barriers to opioid availability were also studied. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 300 physicians and distributed to 58 policy makers/regulators from September to October 2011. A total of 219 physicians and 47 policy makers/ regulators completed the questionnaire. Of the physicians 62.1% had inadequate knowledge and 33.8% had negative attitudes. Physicians who did not know the WHO three-step ladder were more likely to have less knowledge than those having used the WHO three-step ladder (OR = 13.0, p < 0.001. Policy makers/regulators also had inadequate knowledge (74.5% and negative attitudes (66.0%. Policy makers/ regulators who never had CPM training were likely to have more negative attitudes than those having had training within less than one year (OR = 35.0, p = 0.005. Lack of training opportunities and periodic shortages of opioids were the greatest barriers to opioid availability for physicians and policy makers/ regulators, respectively. The strengthening of ongoing educational programs regarding opioid use for CPM, and cooperation among key groups are needed.
Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy
Conclusion: Though the awareness regarding blood donation was high, the practice of voluntary blood donation was remarkably low. Education and motivation through various media is recommended to eliminate misbelieves and to reinforce positive attitudes towards blood donation."
Hanauer, David I; Bauerle, Cynthia
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education reform efforts have called for widespread adoption of evidence-based teaching in which faculty members attend to student outcomes through assessment practice. Awareness about the importance of assessment has illuminated the need to understand what faculty members know and how they engage with assessment knowledge and practice. The Faculty Self-Reported Assessment Survey (FRAS) is a new instrument for evaluating science faculty assessment knowledge and experience. Instrument validation was composed of two distinct studies: an empirical evaluation of the psychometric properties of the FRAS and a comparative known-groups validation to explore the ability of the FRAS to differentiate levels of faculty assessment experience. The FRAS was found to be highly reliable (? = 0.96). The dimensionality of the instrument enabled distinction of assessment knowledge into categories of program design, instrumentation, and validation. In the known-groups validation, the FRAS distinguished between faculty groups with differing levels of assessment experience. Faculty members with formal assessment experience self-reported higher levels of familiarity with assessment terms, higher frequencies of assessment activity, increased confidence in conducting assessment, and more positive attitudes toward assessment than faculty members who were novices in assessment. These results suggest that the FRAS can reliably and validly differentiate levels of expertise in faculty knowledge of assessment. PMID:25976653
Sümer, Zeynep Hatipo?lu
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and there is an alarming trend in the rise in childhood obesity. In the majority it is caused by an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise in children. With more fast-food restaurants appearing on every street corner it gives children an easy way to eat more unhealthy food. Children are also happier when they sit for hours in front of television or play on their play station. Studies show that in India, nearly 15 to 20% of children are overweight and 30% are in the risk of falling in this category. Although much importance has been given to under-nutrition in our country, obesity is slowly emerging as the future-killer. Hence this study is a small endeavour to know the knowledge and attitude of school children studying in government and private schools in Khammam regarding dietary habits. MATERIALS & METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out to study the Knowledge, attitude and dietary practices of secondary school students in Khammam town over a period of two months. List of schools was obtained from Secondary Education Board. Among the total available schools 128 (includes 38 Government, 90 Private schools, 12 schools were included in the study (6 schools from Government &6 schools from Private strata were selected conveniently. Pre tested, pre designed questionnaire was given to Students that included questions on their eating habits and physical activity and their body mass index (BMI was calculated using Quetelets index. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS version 21.0. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a randomly selected government and private urban schools in Khammam. To assess the Knowledge, attitude regarding dietary practices of secondary school students of Khammam town. RESULTS: Among total number of students selected for study (847 55.85% were male and 44.15% were female. Majority (96.58% of the children belong to 13-16 years of age. Almost 50.06% are from government and 49.94% are from private school. The overall prevalence of overweight was 1.77% and obesity was 1.18%
Purushottam A Giri
Full Text Available Background: The major part of demand for blood in India is met through voluntary blood donations. Students consists a large and healthy group who are able to provide a large number of blood donation. However, there is a paucity of studies on knowledge and attitude among undergraduate students from medical and paramedical branches. Objectives: A present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among undergraduate medical science university students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year undergraduate students from medical, dental, nursing, and physiotherapy disciplines in a Pravara institute of Medical Sciences University campus of central India during the period of May- August 2011. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good; however, majority (52.5% of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among medical students (53.1% and lowest among physiotherapy students (20.7%. Non-consideration, forgetfulness, and lack of time were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campus to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the level of knowledge and attitudes about the transmission and prevention of tuberculosis in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, compared by sex and education level, and specify the main sources of information about tuberculosis. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. We studied 70 patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in treatment during 2009, from five health centers, DISA V Lima-Ciudad, which were chosen by consulting experts. Variables were grouped into three categories: 1. general information (age, sex, marital status, education level, occupation, current diagnosis, primary means of acquiring information and time of the acquisition of knowledge, 2. knowledge about the transmission and preventive measures on tuberculosis and 3. attitudes towards their disease. We used a survey to collect the necessary information. Results: The mean age was 32.10±12.92 years, 55.7% and 44.3% were male and female respectively. 82.9% of patients achieved an adequate knowledge about TB transmission, 51.4% had adequate knowledge on prevention and 60% were classified as having a proper attitude towards their disease. The distribution by sex and educational level was not significantly different in any of the categories of knowledge and attitudes (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Most patients had an adequate level of knowledge about transmission of tuberculosis, there was an understatement of this knowledge. Nevertheless, we found an overestimation of knowledge about preventive measures, and only about half of the patients had an adequate level of this knowledge. The patient’s attitude regarding their disease was adequate in most cases. There was not significant difference in the level of knowledge and patients attitudes by sex nor educational level. The main source of information was the local health center.
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi in February 2007. All mothers having less than one year old child were interviewed through a semi structured questionnaire regarding immunization knowledge attitude and practices. The data collected through a questionnaire entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 15. Majority of the mothers were illiterate, belonging to low-income group and not aware about the name of diseases in EPI Program. Majority (70%) of women started routine immunization of the child. The reasons for missing vaccination schedule were lack of understanding of next appointment, non availability of health staff, mild flu and others reasons like household work. About thirty one percent mothers quit immunization after missing one dose. Health care staff was the main source of information. A positive attitude was reflected from both the parents towards immunization. A significant number stated that vaccination is contraindicated in mild illness of child. The knowledge of our mothers about vaccination was found inadequate with strong positive attitude and limited practices. (author)
Full Text Available This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-known ICT types among teachers are the Internet, e-mail and word processing, and teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet are generally positive. It was also found that their attitudes vary with their years of experience and levels of knowledge.
Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania
Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills. PMID:25250548
Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L; Wagle, Madhu; Dogaru, Beatrice C; Manolescu, B
The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of an extended model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intention to improve oral health behaviors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 153 first-year medical students (mean age 20.16, 50 males and 103 females) who completed a questionnaire assessing intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, and current oral hygiene behaviors. Attitudes toward oral health beh...
Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N
This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls is a baseline for further TB awareness-raising among the Gezira population.
Wijesiri, Hapuarachchige Sewvandi Maliga Sampath Kumari; Suresh, Thusharie Sugandhika
Knowledge of and attitudes towards dysmenorrhea among adolescent school girls were assessed in this study. A descriptive study was conducted among 200 Year 12 girls at a school in the Nugegoda Educational Division in the district of Colombo. Data collection was done by using non-probability convenience sampling. The results indicated that 84% of the study population had dysmenorrhea. Paracetamol was the drug of choice for pain relief. There was a statistically-significant (P?mental health status (66%) of the adolescent girls, but there was no significant association between pain and poor physical health (P?=?0.887) and poor social health status (P?=?0.395). Bathing was found to affect pain, as reported by 95% of the students. Dysmenorrhea was common among adolescent girls in our study population, and was found to affect their mental status. Health-education sessions are important to raise awareness among students of dysmenorrhea. PMID:23194013
Aida Malek Mahdavi
Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.
Full Text Available Sarah Shrader1,2, Ann M Rodden1, Lisa Carroll3, Lars E Peterson11Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Family Medicine, Charleston, SC, USA; 2South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, Charleston, SC, USA; 3Spartanburg Regional Family Medicine Residency Program, Department of Family Medicine, Spartanburg, SC, USABackground: Emergency contraception (EC may reduce unintended pregnancies if patients are informed and have access. A great deal of medical education occurs during medical and pharmacy training community clerkships. This study concurrently assesses knowledge and attitudes about EC between community physician and pharmacist preceptors who prescribe/dispense EC.Study design: Electronic survey of demographic information, knowledge-based, and attitude questions related to EC was completed by 182 (36.6% response rate South Carolina community physicians and pharmacists who precept students. Comparisons were performed using chi-square or Fischer’s exact test.Results: In the study population, approximately 62% of pharmacists dispense EC while only 28% of physicians prescribe it. More physicians than pharmacists believe repetitive use is not harmful (48.3% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010, while more pharmacists believe it causes birth defects (22.6% vs 7.9%, P = 0.008.Conclusion: Overall, both physicians and pharmacists have poor knowledge about EC. Further education for both groups may be needed so future physicians and pharmacists are not taught incorrectly during their training and so patient access is not hampered by prescriber misunderstanding.Keywords: emergency contraception, levonorgestrel, pharmacist, physician
Shouman, A E; Fotouh, A A
There is a phobia about nursing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This work was carried out to study the impact of health education on the knowledge and attitude of nurses, representing a stratum of health care team, about modes of transmission and prevention of occupational HIV infection. The studied population were students of the High Institute of Nursing, they were subjected to a health education program (HE), and assessment was carried out before and after this intervention. The results revealed that health education is a successful tool in improving the knowledge of the nurses and in minimizing their phobia from occupational HIV infection. PMID:17214199
Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study using a structured, self-administered questionnaires to evaluate the knowledge, attitude & perception (KAP regarding Halal pharmaceuticals, among general public of Penang state of Malaysia, from September 2012 to November 2012. Study was conducted on a sample of 458. Any Muslim having age 18 years or above and able to read and understand Malay language was included. Study settings included different shopping malls, bus stations, food courts and markets of Penang state. Data was collected through trained data collectors. Results revealed that public have a good knowledge and positive attitude & perception about Halal pharmaceuticals. Mean knowledge score out of maximum possible 9 score was 6.41 ± 1.35, while mean attitude and perception score out of maximum possible score of 35 each were 25.86±4.03 and 30.71±4.47 respectively. Mean overall KAP score out of maximum possible score of 79 was found to be 62.74±7.65. There was a significant positive but weak (0-0.25 correlation between knowledge and attitude (r=0.099, p=0.035 & attitude and perception (r=0.156, p=0.001. But a positive, significant and fair (0.25-0.5 correlation was found between knowledge and perception (r=.440, p=.036.This shows that better knowledge the respondents have on Halal pharmaceuticals, better their perception is towards Halal pharmaceuticals. P value of .05 or less was taken as statistically significant.
Rao, P V Ranganadha; Rao, S L Narasimha; Vijayakrishnan, B; Chaudhary, A B; Peril, S; Reddy, B Pratap; Reddy, G Swamy
In India, MDT was implemented through vertical programme staff of the National Leprosy Eradication Programme till the year 2001, when it was integrated into general health services (GHS). Human resource development of GHS is a vital, preparatory action for successful integration of leprosy into GHS. District Technical Support Teams (DTST) have been formed with responsibility for building the capacity of medical and paramedical staff of urban health posts (UHPs). In this context, it is necessary to know the current levels of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) about leprosy prevailing among health staff at a given point in time, so that required knowledge and skills can be imparted, if need be. The present study is an attempt in this direction for assessing the KAP status of health staff working in Hyderabad city. 402 staff members (352 females and 50 males) working in urban health posts, the Employees State Insurance Corporation and the Central Government Health Services dispensaries in Hyderabad urban district in Andhra Pradesh were included in the study carried out in 2004 in order to assess KAP, and some operational parameters. A questionnaire was used to elicit responses of 110 medical officers in urban Hyderabad and the data were analysed and discussed. Medical officers have shown consistent higher knowledge on leprosy, followed by nursing staff as compared to other paramedical workers Only 40% of the medical officers had the opportunity of seeing at least 1 case of leprosy in their practice. Medical Officers who received training in leprosy and possessed reference material on leprosy have shown higher knowledge and practice. More than half of the study subjects did not have specific training in leprosy. Two major operational problems expressed by the medical officers were managing big crowds in OPD and time lost in meetings. 96 (87.3%) of 110 medical officers felt integration of leprosy services into general health services can be effectively implemented. 78 (71%) expressed that a leprosy patient with severe reaction needed priority attention at the out-patient department indicating good understanding of reactions in leprosy and a positive attitude towards such patients. There is a need to organize training at regular intervals to cover new persons as well as reinforcing and updating the knowledge of those already trained. PMID:17578266
Full Text Available Nadir Kheir, Hoda Y Gad, Safae E Abu-Yousef College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha, Qatar Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitude of pharmacists in Qatar towards natural health products (NHPs. Methods: The quantitative component of this study consisted of an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge about NHPs among pharmacists in Qatar. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were conducted using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®. Means and standard deviation were used to analyze descriptive data, and statistical significance was expressed as P-value, where P?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Associations between variables were measured using Pearson correlation. The qualitative component utilized focus group (FG meetings with a purposive sample of community pharmacists. Meetings were conducted until a point of saturation was reached. FG discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a framework approach to sort the data according to emerging themes. Results: The majority of participants had average to poor knowledge about NHPs while only around 7% had good knowledge. In the FG meetings, participants considered the media, medical representatives, and old systems of natural health as major source of their knowledge. They criticized undergraduate pharmacy courses (for inadequately preparing pharmacists to deal with NHPs and the pharmacy regulations (for being irrelevant. A perception of NHPs as being “safe” still exists among pharmacists. Conclusions: Pharmacists’ ability to provide effective services associated with NHPs is limited by poor access to evidence-based information and poor knowledge. A perception of NHPs and CAM as 'safe' still exists among pharmacists, and regulations related to NHPs require addressing to follow best practice and ensure patient safety. Keywords: Qatar, focus group, complimentary alternative medicine
Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.
This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…
Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.
Entering ("n"?=?475) and graduating ("n"?=?454) students at 3 master's of social work programs in the northeast were compared regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning working with substance abusing clients. In comparison to entering students, graduating students demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge,…
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; And Others
Cognitive development, egocentrism, and self-esteem were examined in relation to contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior for 300 high school and first-year college students. Adolescents with higher cognitive development and self-esteem scores had more knowledge about sexuality and contraception and were more likely to use contraceptives.…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.
We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
... About Jaguar Habitat Conservation in Southern Arizona AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward jaguar habitat, the level of knowledge regarding... intended to benefit jaguar habitat. This survey is necessary because there is currently no...
Okonofua Friday E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4% knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE was low; only 432 participants (43.2% admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1% had clinical breast examination (CBE in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines that will enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of information about breast cancer to all women in Nigeria.
Ta?k?n, Özgür; Indiana University, School of Education, Science & Environmental Education Department
The aim of this paper is to reevaluate the previously prepared environmental attitude and knowledgescales and to fill the gaps in the area of environmental education that has resulted from the disseminationand interpretation of findings. This study consists of four sections. These are different interpretations ofenvironmentalism, theoretical frameworks and interpretations of findings, pathways of test development,and research methodologies.
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST. Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, ?-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.
Adegbesan-Omilabu, M. A.; Okunade, K. S.; Gbadegesin, A.
Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EPI Info 2008. Results. Knowledge of fibroids was reported in 98.6% of the respondents and the information on uterine fibroids was obtained from radio, parents/relatives, health workers, and television in 29%, 27.3%, 18.7%, and 18.3%, respectively, by the respondents. Most of the women believed that being black, being nulliparous, or having positive family history predisposes women to having uterine fibroids. Up to 69.0% of the respondents believed that fibroid is a spiritual problem and many thought it requires spiritual healing. Fear of complications of surgery keeps most sufferers away from the hospital until fibroids become advanced or associated with complications. Conclusion. Awareness of uterine fibroids is high, but correct knowledge on aetiology and proper treatment is low. Intensive enlightenment of the populace using the mass media by trained personnel is recommended. PMID:24757580
Full Text Available Background: Alternative or complementary medicine includes models for treatment or prevention of disease, which are different in method or efficacy from current biologic medicine. Interest in alternative and complementary medical practices have increased in recent years. This study has been conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of the general physicians about complementary and alternative medicine.Materials and method: This descriptive study was done on all general physicians of Rafsanjan city (n=80 in a census method. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, which included three parts; demographic, knowledge and attitude questions about complementary and alternative medicine. After collecting, the questionnaires, data were collected and entered in SPSS-16 software and were analyzed statistically by means of descriptive statistics (charts and tables and analytical statistics (Chi-squared and Fisher statistical tests.Results: The findings of this study (n=80 showed 53.8% (n=43 had a good knowledge and 5% (n=4 had a positive attitude about complementary and alternative medicine. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, knowledge and positive attitude of general physicians of Rafsanjan about complementary and alternative medicine is low. For promotion of their knowledge, continuous education is needed for proper attitude to be developed
Venu Shan; Nimisha D. Shethwala; D. V. Bala
Background: HIV/AIDS had profoundly affected every aspect of the health sector. Most importantly doctor’s attitude of avoiding treatment of HIV patients is mainly due to their apprehensions caused by their lack of understanding of the disease and its modes of transmission. Aims and objective: To investigate a group of dental students’ knowledge about HIV infection, attitudes towards treating HIV/AIDS patients and behaviour practices. Materials and methods: study ...
Tajul Arifin Muhamad; Hasnah Toran; Mohd Hanafi Mohd Yasin; Mohd Mokhtar Tahar; Nur Hazwani Hamzah
AbstractNegative attitudes towards people with disabilities (PWD) form barriers for them to participate fully in society. This study investigated the level of knowledge of students in a local institute of higher education about PWD and to study students’ perceptions and attitudes towards their peers with disabilities. There were 120 respondents from 12 faculties for this research who were selected through a tiered random sampling method. Data was collected through questionnaires and later ana...
Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J. V.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding co...
Emir Yüzbasioglu; Duygu Saraç; Sevgi Canbaz; Y. Sinasi Saraç; Seda Cengiz
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Turkish dentists in Samsun City regarding cross-infection control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about procedures used for the prevention of cross-infection in dental practices and determine the attitudes and perceptions of respondent dental practitioners to their procedures. The study population included all dentists in the city of Samsun, Turkey, in ...
Su-ching Lin; Hsin-Yi Kung
This study is interested in understanding curriculum as an international text and evaluating the connections between junior high school students’ global knowledge and attitudes and the required national curriculum in Taiwan. The study also examines whether the global knowledge and attitudes vary by demographic variables. By using the Global Knowledge Scale and Global Attitudes Scale, data were collected from 1,017 students in central Taiwan and analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square a...
Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes,1 Josefina Lira-Plasencia,2 Ricardo Martin,3 Victor Marin,4 Maria Y Makuch1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, México, DF, México; 3Hospital Universitario, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; 4Hospital Central, Petróleos Mexicanos, México, DF, México Background: Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives: To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC use. Methods: A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results: A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion: The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks of COCs. To adequately counsel their patients regarding COC intake, OBGYNs must be updated regarding all aspects of COC use. Keywords: contraception, unintended pregnancy, benefits of oral contraceptives
Full Text Available "nBackground: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evidence exists in Turkey, which reveals the awareness and practices of the country's adult population regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visiting tertiary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey."nMethods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' relatives or guardians who admitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The questionnaire was composed of 25 questions."nResults: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate people. Television and radio were considered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease."nConclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of success against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of community. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agriculture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF. "n Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Public knowledge, Survey, Turkey
Full Text Available Abstract Background The philosophy of evidence-based medicine (EBM was introduced in the early 90s as a new approach to the practice of medicine, using the best available evidence to make decisions about health care. Despite ongoing controversy, EBM has developed enormously and physicians' attitude towards it is generally positive. Nevertheless, in Spain little is known about this topic. We will therefore undertake a study to explore perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about EBM among primary care physicians. Methods and design A mixed-method study combining qualitative and quantitative designs will target family practitioners in Spain with the objective of evaluating current attitudes and perceptions about evidence-based medicine. The project will consist of two phases: a first phase running focus groups to identify perceptions and attitudes of participants, and a second phase assessing their attitudes and knowledge about EBM by means of a survey. Both phases will explore these issues in three different subgroups: family practitioners, with or without previous formal education in EBM; members of working groups that formulate healthcare recommendations; and physicians in charge of training family practice residents. Additionally, we will undertake a systematic review to identify and synthesize the available evidence on this topic. Discussion The study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers to the practice of evidence-based medicine among general practitioners in Spain. The project will also evaluate the main knowledge gaps and training needs, and explore how evidence-based medicine is being taught to family medicine residents, the medical practitioners of the future. Our results will aid researchers and health care planners in developing strategies to improve the practice of evidence-based medicine in our country.
Marlena A. Bednarska; Olszewski, Marcin
The success of tacit knowledge management lies in firms’ capabilities to attract and retain employees possessing unique knowledge. The purpose of the paper is to investigate students’ attitudes towards career in tourism in the context of tacit knowledge management. The study was conducted on the group of 345 undergraduates and graduates enrolled in tourism and hospitality studies in Poznan. Research revealed that majority of students plan short-term career in tourism, which entails tacit know...
Mahendra Adhi Nugroho
Knowledge sharing is one of sub issues in knowledge management. This research aims to investigate the relationship among informal knowledge sharing, attitude to avoid sharing risk and Trust. The data collected from 439 respondents. Statistical power analysis was run to reject type 1 and type 2 statistical errors and to get practical significations on hypotheses test results. Instrument validity of this research tested using discriminant validity and convergent validity. Instrument of this res...
Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)
Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003 the NIH perceived a need to strengthen teaching about tuberculosis (TB to health professions students. The National Tuberculosis Curriculum Consortium (NTCC was funded to meet this need. The purpose of this study was to survey students enrolled in NTCC schools prior to NTCC-developed educational materials being made available to faculty. Methods A self-administered survey for students in NTCC schools to establish a baseline level of knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about tuberculosis. Results 1480/2965 (50% students in 28 programs in 20 NTCC schools completed the survey. If public health students are eliminated from totals (only 61 respondents of 765 public health students, the overall response proportion for the seven clinically-related disciplines was 64.5%. The majority (74% were in schools of medicine (MD/DO, undergraduate nursing (BSN, and pharmacy (PharmD; others were in programs for physician assistants (PA, advanced practice nursing (NP/APN, respiratory therapy (RT, clinical laboratory sciences (MT/CLS, and public health (MPH. Almost 90% had attended at least one lecture about TB. Although 91.4% knew TB was transmitted via aerosols, about one-third did not know the method for administering tuberculin, or that Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccine was not a contraindication to TB skin testing. Fewer than two-thirds knew that about 10% of people in the U.S.A. who have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI and a normal immune system will develop TB disease, or that BCG is not part of the routine vaccination program in the U.S.A. because it complicates surveillance for new TB infection. Conclusion There is room for improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about TB by health professions students surveyed. The NTCC-developed educational products may be used by faculty to improve student performance to be assessed with future surveys.
Salih A. Abdulla
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of primary school managers regarding epilepsy among school children in Erbil City, Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools between 18 June and 18 August 2013. A total of 80 primary school managers were selected to answer a questionnaire covering three domains: socio-demographical characteristics, knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes towards epilepsy. Results: More than half of the participants (55% had spent less than 10 years in school administration. More than one-third (37.5% of the participants believed that epilepsy was an infectious disease, and over half of the respondents (53.75% stated that epilepsy cannot be treated or prevented. Conclusion: Although the respondents’ attitudes towards pupils with epilepsy were generally positive, their knowledge of epilepsy was imperfect; thus, an epilepsy education campaign is required. This should focus on the causes of epilepsy and its management.
Bettencourt, L A; Gwinner, K P; Meuter, M L
Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs. PMID:11302230
Chauncey, Penny Denyse
No Child Left Behind mandates utilizing summative assessment to measure schools' effectiveness. The problem is that summative assessment measures students' knowledge without depth of understanding. The goal of public education, however, is to prepare students to think critically at higher levels. The purpose of this study was to examine any difference between formative assessment incorporated in instruction as opposed to the usual, more summative methods in terms of attitudes and academic achievement of middle-school science students. Maslow's theory emphasizes that individuals must have basic needs met before they can advance to higher levels. Formative assessment enables students to master one level at a time. The research questions focused on whether statistically significant differences existed between classrooms using these two types of assessments on academic tests and an attitude survey. Using a quantitative quasi-experimental control-group design, data were obtained from a sample of 430 middle-school science students in 6 classes. One control and 2 experimental classes were assigned to each teacher. Results of the independent t tests revealed academic achievement was significantly greater for groups that utilized formative assessment. No significant difference in attitudes was noted. Recommendations include incorporating formative assessment results with the summative results. Findings from this study could contribute to positive social change by prompting educational stakeholders to examine local and state policies on curriculum as well as funding based on summative scores alone. Use of formative assessment can lead to improved academic success.
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents? source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.
Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A
Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ? 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031
Lappe, M. D.
The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) is a national nonprofit that delivers an in-school multi-media assembly presentation to high school students about climate science and solutions. In two years of operation, ACE has reached 870,000 students in over 1400 schools. Throughout spring 2011 and fall 2012, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) will survey approximately 2000 high school students in 100 classrooms at 20 schools before and after its assembly to assess impact on knowledge, attitude and behavior related to global warming and climate science. The survey instrument has been designed in partnership with experts at the Yale School of the Environment and Stanford University's Precourt Energy Center. The knowledge section of the survey queries students' factual understanding of basic climate science. The behavior section asks students about basic climate-related habits related to waste, transportation and energy consumption. The attitude section is comprised of a 15-question subset of the national survey reported in Global Warming's Six Americas. Preliminary results from approximately 200 pre and post-presentation surveys suggest that after viewing the ACE Assembly, climate friendly behaviors increase slightly; correct answers to climate knowledge questions increase by 8%; and attitudes shift away from "Disengaged, Doubtful and Dismissive" toward "Alarmed, Concerned and Cautious."
José Carlos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of "+Contigo" training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care.METHOD: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training.RESULTS: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior.CONCLUSION: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention.
H Sanaei Nasab; Tavakoli, R; Ghofranipour, F; Kazemnejad, A; Khavanin, A
"nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Ma...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher?s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher?s attitude and the way they handle the injuries. The sample consisted 580 teachers from 700 selected schools in Bangalore city. Chi-square test was applied to test the significance between trained and untrained teachers. Among the population 70% were males physical education teachers 30% were females. 95% of the teachers had physical education training and 5% did not have the training. 95% of the population had first aid component and 5% did not have. Only 25% of trained physical education teachers had correct knowledge about tooth identification and 17% among untrained teachers. 81% of trained teachers answered correctly regarding management of fractured anterior teeth against 27.5% of untrained teachers (P< 0.0002. The present report indicates that there is lack of knowledge and practice among physical education teachers in Bangalore city regarding emergency management of dental trauma. Educational programs to improve the knowledge and awareness among the teachers have to be implemented.
Thomas-Hemak, Linda; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Gollamudi, Lakshmi Rani; Sheth, Jignesh; Ebersole, Brian; Gardner, Katlyn J.; Nardella, Julie; Ruddy, Meaghan P.; Meade, Lauren
Purpose. The effect of patient centered medical home (PCMH) curriculum interventions on residents’ self-reported and demonstrated knowledge, skills and attitudes in PCMH competency arenas (KSA) is lacking in the literature. This study aimed to assess the impact of PCMH curricular innovations on the KSA of Internal Medicine residents.
Ergene, Tuncay; Cok, Figen; Tumer, Aygen; Unal, Serhat
The goal of this study was to assess the impact of peer education and single-session educational lectures on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude change among university students (n = 157 male, n = 230 female; mean age = 20) on the campuses of two metropolitan state universities in Ankara, Turkey. The students were randomly selected to participate in…
Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…
Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies in humans is highly fatal and ends in an extremely painful and tortuous death. Unfortunately we still have highest number of deaths due to rabies, ironically a disease preventable by modern prophylactic measures. The post-exposure prophylaxis is a life saving treatment in a definite rabid animal bite. General Practitioners (GP’s act as first line care-givers for the treatment of dog bite and they are also easily approachable by the victim for the treatment to prevent rabies. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding rabies among general practitioners. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was carried out from July – August 2011 in Belgaum city among 100 general practitioners using a pre tested questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 18 trial version. Frequencies were tabulated for demographic variables and association between variables was tested using Chi-square test. Results: Out of the total 100 general practitioners interviewed, 93 were males and 7 were females. The mean age of GP’s was 42.89 years. The mean duration of practice for MBBS doctors was 19 years and for other doctors (BAMS, BHMS, RMP’s was 11 years. Knowledge about various aspects of rabies was comparatively better among MBBS doctors. The knowledge regarding vaccine was very poor among the general practitioners. Conclusion: The major issue was lack of hands on training or updating the knowledge of general practitioners regarding the newer vaccines and their administration. We recommend continued medical education for general practitioners, both (MBBS and non MBBS on prevention of Rabies.
Full Text Available Objective To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. Findings The response rate was 83.4% (386/463. Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8% declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386 recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8% and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%. Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386 of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386 welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383 preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Conclusion Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control.
Dorah U. Ramathuba
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Dorah U., Ramathuba; Lunic B., Khoza; Mutshinyalo L., Netshikweta.
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP) services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary sch [...] ool girls towards Contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Dow, M G; Knox, M D
Mental health and substance abuse treatment staff completed a set of measures assessing their attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs concerning AIDS. Results indicated that while most staff were aware of basic information about the disease, approximately one-third were not aware of the neuropsychological and psycho-behavioural concomitants of the disorder. Those surveyed were aware of the main transmission routes, but overgeneralized their concern to casual contact. Most staff indicated willingness to work with HIV-infected individuals, although 29% stated they would try to avoid working with them. Interestingly, mental health staff expressed greater hesitancy than substance abuse staff. These and other results are interpreted to suggest that some desensitization of concern may have already occurred among those who have worked with HIV-positive clients. Individuals who had worked with an HIV-positive client had greater knowledge, less discomfort, and were less likely to want to avoid those who are HIV-positive. Questions attempting to identify sources of discomfort in working with AIDS or HIV-positive clients suggested that fear of contagion may be the primary concern, followed by discomfort of working with the terminally ill, and then discomfort with IV drug users and homosexuals. The implications of these results for continuing education activities and staff readiness are discussed. PMID:1854817
Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan
Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.
Seyed Ali Bahreini Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism is a worldwide problem and has been the focus of attention during recent decades. There is no precise information on the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Iranian Red Crescent volunteers in dealing with bioterrorism. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned parameters in Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the knowledge of 120 volunteers was evaluated and rated as poor, moderate, and good. In addition, attitude of the volunteers and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society was rated as inappropriate and appropriate using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years (62.5% male. 2 (1.7% volunteers had good knowledge while 94 (78.3% had no knowledge regarding bioterrorist attack management. Only 1 (0.8% volunteer had appropriate attitude and 6 (5.0% stated their preparedness for being sent out to the crisis zone. 116 volunteers (96.7% indicated that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter bioterrorist attacks. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in encountering probable bioterrorist attacks. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society of this town had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of bioterrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of herbal remedies (HRs in infertile patients. This was a cross sectional study in a referral infertility care center. Three hundred and six outpatients, both women and men, presenting for the first time with complaint of infertility at Arash hospital, were recruited. Verbal consent for participation was received. A self administered questionnaire was used. Main outcome measure was knowledge, attitude and practice of patients toward herbal medications. 47.3% of participants were knowledgeable of HRs with female gender and lower educational background being the associated factors in knowledge. 43.4% of patients with significant female dominancy had positive attitude toward HRs. 31% of participants were using HRs. Only 3.2% of those using HRs informed their physician. The most common health condition promoting herbal use was psychological (33.3% and gastrointestinal (30.8% disorders. 3.5% of participants used HRs as fertility treatment which was significantly observed in women and those with lower levels of formal education. A considerable proportion of our population had used HRs without sufficient knowledge and had positive attitude toward HRs. More importantly, patients did not disclose their use of HRs to physicians. Therefore, physicians should inquire about the use of alternative remedies and provide patients with appropriate information
How can you improve and focus on the knowledge produced through a design project by design students? The range of skills and competencies in design education is not limited to the ability to handle different types of projects themes. In an overall perspective a master education at a university is also about acquiring skills and competencies in adapting, producing and reflecting on knowledge in a design process. Using learning theory in a number of cases this paper will unfold the principles, ...
Sanjay Kumar Gupta; Purty, Anil J.; Zile Singh; J Bazroy; Cherian, J.
Research question: What is the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV/AIDS in a general population? Objectives: (1) To assess the knowledge about mode of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. (2) To study the socio demographic pattern, myths and misconceptions. Study design: Community based cross sectional study. Setting: Chunampett Village, Tamilnadu. Duration: March to May 2007. Participants: 845 both males and females above the age of 18 years interviewed at hom...
Tripti Chauhan; Ashok K. Bhardwaj; Anupam Parashar; Anil K. Kanga
Background: In India, low knowledge of HIV/AIDS and low utilization of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), is a problem especially in the rural areas. Aims: To assess the knowledge, attitude, behaviour and practices (KABP) of HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative clients attending Integrated and testing centre (ICTC) in a tertiary hospital of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: A total of 525 attendees, in the age group of 15 to < 50...
Andrews, Richard L.
In 1977, a longitudinal study was undertaken to determine the effects of health curricula on children's knowledge level; their attitudes toward good health practices; and their smoking, drinking, and drug-use behavior. Knowledge and attitude tests and a student survey were administered to students who entered kindergarten in 1977. These children…
Boyle, Morgan; And Others
Reports a study that examined how knowledgeable certified athletic trainers were about HIV/AIDS and that investigated their attitudes toward treating the injuries of HIV-positive athletes. Surveys indicated that they were moderately knowledgeable and had constructive attitudes. Their major concern was fear of HIV transmission. (SM)
Bekta?, H A; Kulakaç, O
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of nursing students in Turkey. HIV/AIDS has become one of the most serious health problems in the world. It is important to understand nursing students' knowledge and attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) because the educational preparation of nurses has been known to affect the attitudes of the nurse and the effectiveness of the care provided to PLHIV. The study was conducted with 227 nursing students from the School of Health in Antalya, Turkey during the calendar year 2005/2006. Qualitative and quantitative methods were both used to collect data for the study. Analysis of variance, t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis and inductive methods were used in data analysis. The majority of nursing students in this study had a moderate level of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Students correctly answered 64.4% of HIV/AIDS-related questions in the questionnaire (Mean 28.99; SD 7.03 out of 45 points). Scores increased parallel with student grade (F=26.925; p=0.000) and age (chi2 (K-W)=35.117; p=0.000). Fear of being infected and feelings of pity and empathy were the feelings most commonly indicated by the students. Students who had previous experience in caring for an AIDS patient and had known someone with HIV/AIDS were willing to care for PLHIV. Results underline the need to strengthen education on all aspects of HIV/AIDS. To improve nursing students willingness to care for PLHIV, particular emphasis should be placed on the training of nursing students as skilled nursing staff with humane attitudes towards PLHIV. PMID:17712692
Shrestha Mohan; Chidi Buddhi Bal
Background: Tobacco is a major public health threat the world has ever faced. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world. Without the effective implementation of tobacco regulation policy, the risk itself cannot be minimized. The aim of this study is to provide the adolescents knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking, and knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco control measures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive type of study was cond...
Qu, Bo; Guo, Haiqiang; Sun, Gao; Zuo, Tianming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Brandon Y.
The objective of the study was to describe HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, risk behaviors, and sources of information among construction workers in China. A cross-sectional survey of 458 construction workers was conducted among 4 construction sites in Shenyang city in 2006. All 458 participants were individually interviewed in a private setting by a trained team of medical researchers using a structured questionnaire, which included questions on general personal information and the knowledge, ...
Stephens, Lindsey L.; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Seloilwe, Esther; Gungqisa, Nontombi; Mmelesi, Mpho; Bussmann, Hermann; Marlink, Richard G.; Wester, C. William
Students at the University of Botswana, an at-risk group, have previously been shown to have high levels of risky sexual behavior despite widespread knowledge that these behaviors might lead to HIV-1 infection. As there have recently been considerable efforts focused on HIV-1 prevention in Botswana through nationwide media education campaigns and the opening of voluntary counselling and testing centers, re-evaluation of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among students is needed....
Parmar R; Sahu D; Bavdekar S
CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS...
Jane E. Ellery; Carol A. Friesen; Grete R. Hornstrom; Kimberli Pike
The number of women participating in softball at the collegiate level continues to rise, yet little is known about collegiate softball players' knowledge about sport nutrition. The purpose of this study was to collect information from Mid-American Conference softball players to determine their current knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to sport nutrition and to identify their preferred sources for obtaining sport nutrition information.
Stull Jason W; Peregrine Andrew S; Sargeant Jan M; Weese J
Abstract Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in so...
Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett
The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation in non-formal and informal education venues improved environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior models, providing evidence for the value and need for non-formal and informal environmental adult education venues.
Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.
The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…
Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country?s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.
Ata, Abe W.
The main objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, education and attitudes of Chinese, Indian and Arab speaking students in Australia towards the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test. A questionnaire was administered to 200 students at six university language centers to investigate their overall response towards…
Sharma, Ajitha; Adiga, Shalini; M, Ashok
Objectives: Little is known about supplement users and their dietary behavior in India. This study was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To determine the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students. 2. To determine their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding micronutrients.
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl
Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…
Mifsud, Mark C.
Not much is known about the environmental knowledge, attitudes and actions of young people in the Maltese islands. The main actors that are responsible for the acquisition and development of environmental perspectives of young people in Malta are also not well known. There is as yet, little understanding of the extent to which these actors are…
Mifsud, Mark C.
There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…
He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc
The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted
Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…
Kehoe, John; Echols, Jr., Frank
This study reveals that Canadian secondary school students' knowledge of civil liberties and human rights laws is inadequate and that their attitudes are negative and inconsistent. Items on the survey include freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; right to counsel; access to a public facility; right of employment; and rental accommodation.…
Johnson, Nancy L.
The focus of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between generalized multicultural awareness and knowledge as measured by the "Attitudes toward Multicultural Children Scale" ("AMCS") and the "Multicultural Counseling Vignette" ("MCV"). How race, gender, education, and years of experience as a counselor affect measures of…
Balajadia, Ronald G.; Wenzel, Lari; Huh, Jimi; Sweningson, Jamie; Hubbell, F Allan
Condensed Abstract: Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Chamorros, the indigenous population of Guam, yet little has been published about cancer control needs of this population. This paper provides important data about Chamorro’s knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors that can help to guide a comprehensive cancer control program on Guam.
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…
Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.
Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…
Heppner, Mary J.; And Others
Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…
McGovern, Marguerita; Barry, Margaret M.
Surveyed the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of 119 Irish parents and 142 primary school teachers concerning children's grief and the concept of death education. Found high levels of understanding of the nature of children's grief, strong support for discussing death with children before they encounter it, and general support for inclusion…
This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun
This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…
Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian; Bhattacharya, Devarati; Varma, Keisha
This study explores in-service teachers' attitudes and knowledge about a pressing environmental issue, "global climate change" (GCC), and how these may relate to their classroom teaching. In this work, nineteen teachers from Native American communities attended a professional development workshop that focused on enhancing their…
Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert
This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…
Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.
Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…
Pebdani, Roxanna N.
This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…
Naquin, Millie; Cole, Diane; Bowers, Ashley; Walkwitz, Ed
The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental health knowledge, attitudes and practices of children enrolled in grades four through eight at a university laboratory school in southeast Louisiana, U.S.A. Quantitative and qualitative questions were completed through an online survey. The children's written responses to the survey…
Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; SØndergaard, Helle Alsted
A key organizational barrier related to the implementation of open innovation strategies refers to the unwillingness of employees to undertake extra-organizational knowledge transactions. Negative attitudes against the utilization of external knowledge (i.e. the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome), as well as against the external commercialization of knowledge assets, for example, via licensing (i.e. the Not-sold-here (NSH) syndrome), may create resistance to these activities and, consequently, a misalignment between the intentions of top management and the attitudes of involved employees (Katz and Allen, 1982; Lichtenthaler et al., 2010). In this paper, we examine the extent to which these attitudes impact the actual adoption of both the inbound and the outbound approaches to open innovation. We posit that these attitudes have a negative influence, since they create unfavourable perceptions of the value of outside competencies and know-how, supporting only internal development and application of ideas and technologies. We test two hypotheses concerning the consequences of the NIH- and NSH-syndromes with cross-sectional survey data from 355 Danish firms. The population consists of firms in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine developmental changes in metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading during early adolescence (from 10 to 14 years, taking gender into account. A secondary aim was also to test a model of the relationships among gender, attitudes toward reading, metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies, and reading comprehension. The sample for this longitudinal study consisted of 175 students. The first data collection took place when the students were enrolled in grade 4 (10 years old, and the follow-up measurements were conducted in grades 6 and 8. At each measurement point, measures of metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading were applied in addition to text comprehension tasks. The obtained results indicated that metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies continuously improved during early adolescence, while attitudes toward recreational reading showed continuous decline from the fourth to the eighth grade, and attitudes toward academic reading dropped significantly between sixth and eighth grades. Girls consistently demonstrated better metacognitive knowledge, as well as more positive attitudes toward both recreational and academic reading when compared to boys. The model that included only attitudes toward recreational reading fitted the data better than the model comprising both academic and recreational reading attitudes. The findings of the path analysis indicated that gender had an effect on recreational reading attitudes that consistently predicted text comprehension directly and indirectly through metacognitive knowledge during early adolescence. The model fitted the data better as students got older.
Hoke, Mary M; Robbins, Leslie K
Numerous training and education programs have evolved to address culturally competent health care delivery. This article describes an exemplar educational approach used to teach cultural competency to beginning graduate psychiatric mental health nursing students. Using interactive strategies delivered within the 4 phases of the curriculum, the approach has been shown to facilitate students' ongoing journey to cultural competence. Building on baccalaureate nursing competencies, the course addresses attitudes, knowledge, skills, and cultural humility to strengthen cultural self-assessment, cross-cultural clinical practice expertise, and the use of culturally appropriate research for graduate students. PMID:21501731
Najafi-Sharjabad, Fatemeh; Hajivandi, Abdollah; Rayani, Mohammad
Emergency Contraception (EC) is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women's contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women's contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (peducational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program. PMID:24373264
Abdi, Ibrahim Ali; Ereg, Deria; Ali, Mahdi; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle I
This study aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge concerning HIV transmission and the attitudes towards AIDS among a rural semi-nomadic community in Somaliland. Cross-sectional survey. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted via a household survey in Sharmake, a village in the Hargeisa district, Somaliland. 141 adults living within 7 km of the village center were asked to complete the survey. Questions about HIV transmission as well as attitudes towards those afflicted were included. The majority of respondents (91 %) had heard of AIDS. Most respondents demonstrated a low to moderate understanding of HIV transmission. Less than half of the respondents (n = 61; 43.6 %) were able to identify 4 means of transmission correctly out of 6 possibilities. Degree of knowledge was unrelated to age or gender. There was a significant positive correlation between an accepting attitude of HIV and knowledge concerning HIV transmission. Stigma against HIV was found among the participants. More than half (58 %) of respondents expressed a desire to be tested, most of whom were deemed to have a high level of knowledge. Knowledge is a significant factor in the prevention of HIV infection. Therefore, information about AIDS and its prevention needs to be disseminated among the rural population immediately. Radio campaigns should focus on increasing public knowledge concerning HIV transmission and reducing stigma against HIV. It is also vital that HIV tests be made available to the remote population. PMID:23014800
Jabulani Ray Gumbo
Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%, but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%.The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%. Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding medical law and ethics among doctors of a medical unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Methodology: A three part self - administered structured questionnaire designed to test the knowledge and practices regarding medical law and ethics was distributed among doctors in a medical unit in Mayo Hospital, Lahore during September - October, 2012. Results: The 52 respondent doctors included in the study comprised of 20 (38.5%) house officers, 22 (42.3%) postgraduate residents and 10 (19.2%) consultants. In keeping with the Pakistan Medical and Den-tal Council code of ethics, the correct responses of house officers, postgraduate residents and consultants regarding knowledge of medical law and ethics were respectively 50%, 27.3% and 10% for patient's autonomy, 40%, 36.4% and 10% for adhering to patient's wishes, 10%, 63.6% and 50% for breaching confidentiality, 35%, 36.4% and 0% for informed consent, 10%, 22.7% and 10% for doing best regardless of patient's opinion, 5%, 31.8% and 10% for informing patient's relatives, 15%, 4.5% and 0% for treating violent patients. The practical application part of the questionnaire was a general reflection of the knowledge and attitudes. Conclusion: Most of the doctors were poorly acquainted with PMDC code of ethics. (author)
Allendorff, Sibylle; And Others
The Chicago Heart Health Curriculum Program (CHHCP) is a cardiovascular disease risk reduction program designed for students and families. Results of a study of CHHCP suggest that future programs conveying heart health knowledge should consider student learning in the context of self-esteem, independence of peers, and teacher humanism. (Author/MT)
Piccolo-Torsky, Judith; Waishwell, Lynn
To evaluate teachers' knowledge about attention deficit disorders (ADHD), a questionnaire was distributed to 180 elementary teachers in a New Jersey district. Of 154 respondents, 128 (83%) indicated they had received negligible formal training in ADHD as undergraduates; only 3.9% had extensive training. A majority had recently taught at least six…
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may inform policy guidelines.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may inform policy guidelines.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados (a tertiary care teaching hospital during April and May 2003. Results The paper analyses 159 responses from doctors and nurses comprising junior doctors, consultants, staff nurses and sisters-in-charge. The frequency with which the respondents encountered ethical or legal problems varied widely from 'daily' to 'yearly'. 52% of senior medical staff and 20% of senior nursing staff knew little of the law pertinent to their work. 11% of the doctors did not know the contents of the Hippocratic Oath whilst a quarter of nurses did not know the Nurses Code. Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Code were known only to a few individuals. 29% of doctors and 37% of nurses had no knowledge of an existing hospital ethics committee. Physicians had a stronger opinion than nurses regarding practice of ethics such as adherence to patients' wishes, confidentiality, paternalism, consent for procedures and treating violent/non-compliant patients (p = 0.01 Conclusion The study highlights the need to identify professionals in the workforce who appear to be indifferent to ethical and legal issues, to devise means to sensitize them to these issues and appropriately training them.
Roche, S M; Jones-Bitton, A; Meehan, M; Von Massow, M; Kelton, D F
This study evaluated a participatory-based, experiential learning program, Ontario Focus Farms (FF), which aimed to change dairy producer behavior to control Johne's disease (JD) in Ontario, Canada. The goals were to (1) assess the effect of FF on participating dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to JD control; (2) compare changes in these factors among FF participants to changes among a group of nonparticipating dairy producers; and (3) describe the characteristics of producers who made at least one on-farm management change. Pre- and post-FF intervention questionnaires collected data on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, herd production, and demographic information; before and after JD-risk assessments were used to assess respondents' on-farm risk of JD transmission. Overall, 176 dairy producers participated in the FF process; 39.8% (70/176) of FF and 14.6% (52/357) of control participants responded to both the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Upon comparison, FF respondents were more likely to be younger, have larger herds, and have higher management scores. The proportion of FF participants who reported making at least one on-farm change (81%) was significantly higher than that of control respondents (38%). Overall, FF respondents significantly changed their risk score in 4 out of 5 risk areas and had an average reduction of 13 points in their overall risk score between before and after risk assessments. Control respondents' risk assessment scores did not significantly change during the study period. In a JD knowledge assessment, FF and control respondents exhibited a moderate knowledge score before the intervention period, with median scores of 75.9% (22/29) in each group. The FF respondents significantly increased their score at the postintervention assessment, with a median of 82.8% (24/29); control-respondent scores did not significantly change. Both FF and control respondents held strong positive attitudes toward JD control and felt a moderate amount of social pressure from veterinarians and industry organizations to make on-farm changes. However, they questioned their ability to effectively control JD on the farm. Last, participating in FF, having a moderate herd management score, having a positive perception about the practicality of on-farm recommendations, and having a singular learning preference were associated with increased odds of making an on-farm change. Overall, the FF process appears to be effective at influencing producer behavior toward implementing on-farm management practices for JD control. Future JD control programs should consider implementing peer-learning extension processes, such as FF, in combination with other extension approaches, to influence producer behavior. PMID:26074233
Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.
Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and 32–41% of the variance in sex-related behaviors. Media variables explained 13–24% of the variance in sexual knowledge, 3–13% in premarital sexual permissiveness and 3–13% in sex-related behaviors, which was comparable to that of family, peer and school variables. These associations differed by city and gender. Conclusion Access to and use of mass media and the messages it presents are influential factors on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of unmarried Asian adolescents and young adults, and should be considered in future research and intervention programs attempting to improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:22340853
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Full Text Available Background Dental practitioners can be exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV during routine work. Objectives In this study, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the dentists in Zahedan were examined on patients with HIV, HBV, and HCV infections. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 dentists in Zahedan in 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and performance of the dentists toward the infectious diseases of HIV, hepatitis B and C was distributed to all dentists who worked in Zahedan. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent sample t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The mean score of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the dentists were 51.45 ± 3.16 out of 63, 20.22 ± 3.74 out of 39 and 64.41 ± 4.49 out of 72, respectively. Most of the participants (95% believed that the fear and concern of the transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV infections are among the reasons of refusing the infected patients. The relationship between demographic variables and the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of dentists was not statistically significant. Conclusions Although the dentists had a proper knowledge in the field of transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections, fear and concern of being infected make them to refuse these patients. Therefore, training dentists to improve their attitudes toward treatment of these patients is necessary.
Senthil P Kumar
Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants? written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.
M. Talaei; S ROOHI; B SABET; A.M BAGHAEI; P BAHMAN ZIARI
Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research....
McIntyre James A; Robertson Gavin; Skhosana Nokuthula; de Bruyn Guy; Gray Glenda E
Abstract Background To explore adolescent HIV risk perception, HIV vaccine knowledge, willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine clinical trials, and the factors that influence willingness to participate among high school students in Soweto, South Africa, we recruited school-going youth through randomly selected local high schools. All pupils within the selected schools from whom parental consent and child assent could be obtained were eligible for participation. A self-administered, fa...
FARHEEN USTAD; MOHD INAYATULLAH KHAN; PRIYAYANKA BHUSHAN; FAREEDI MUKRAM ALI
Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was t...
Nisha Relwani, Ajeet Saoji, N.B.Kasturwar, Jaydeep.Nayse, Mohd.Junaid, Poonam Dhatrak
Full Text Available Background: The major factor limiting the use of EC may be inadequate information about their effectiveness and availability or unfavourable opinions about their safety due to misinformation. So the study was carried to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC among engineering college girls. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an engineering college. All girls from a field were included in the study. Data was collected by a predesigned, pre-tested, self-administered multiple response questionnaires. Results: A total of 8(5.7% reported that they had previously used ECPs. An association was found between users and their level of knowledge. Users had Average/Good knowledge as compared to non–users (OR-12.51. A strong association was found between source of information and level of knowledge. In other words, respondent receiving information from the Health Personnel (OR 21.49 and Audio-Visual Media (OR 10.2 were more likely to have good or average knowledge as compared to family and friends (OR 6. Conclusion: Knowledge of emergency contraception by students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical sources, which have been found to be reliable and associated with good knowledge on emergency contraception.
One area in which many environmental education programs are deficient is in reaching and involving the adult population. For senior adults in particular, the disconnect from environmental centers and other settings represents a missed opportunity for strengthening relationships, utilizing community resources and promoting civic engagement. In this sense, "intergenerational programming" could serve as an effective strategy for broadening the public's awareness and participation in environmental activities. Although the concept of involving older adults and young people in joint environmental education experiences is compelling on several fronts, there is no body of evidence to draw upon; nor is there a blueprint to guide efforts to translate this general goal into practice. This research was therefore designed to: (1) assess the effectiveness of an intergeneration outdoor education program in enhancing participants' environmental knowledge and positive attitudes, (2) explore other program impacts on the participants and the environmental centers, and (3) learn about environmental educators' experiences and opinions in regard to utilizing senior adults in their programs. This study was conducted in two phases in order to address the research purposes: (1) a nonequivalent-control-group quasi-experimental research incorporated with the Outdoor School program at the Shaver's Creek Environmental Center, and (2) a statewide mail-in survey with environmental educators in Pennsylvania. According to the quantitative data, both intergenerational groups obtained higher mean scores for environmental attitudes than the monogenerational groups, although the difference in scores was not statistically significant than one of the two monogenerational groups. The qualitative data showed that senior adults have certain characteristics that allowed them to make a substantial contribution toward enriching children's awareness and appreciation of the natural environment. Although the environmental knowledge level held by students in the intergenerational groups was not tested to be significantly higher than that of the monogenerational groups, this may due to the test itself. Qualitative data suggested that senior adults did indeed make a contribution. Both the quantitative and qualitative data of the experimental research indicated that the inclusion of senior volunteers in an environmental education program has positive impacts on children's attitudes toward older adults. The results also showed many positive program impacts on participating senior adults. The survey of Pennsylvania environmental educators revealed the educators' affirmation of the need to utilize senior volunteers in environmental centers. The recommendations for further research are to (1) assess the correlations between program effectiveness and facilitation styles, (2) assess the correlations between program effectiveness and roles of senior volunteers, (3) determine whether actively involving adult volunteers in environmental centers or classrooms will facilitate greater learning about the environment and other generations than using students to educate adults at home, and (4) to evaluate the impacts of an intergenerational environmental education program on multiple levels, including impact on the participating organizations, and the surrounding community. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Sarkari, Bahador; Qasem, Asgari; Shafaf, Mohammad Reza
Objective To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents' attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants' contribution in control program of CL in this area. PMID:25183278
Full Text Available This study analyses knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the area of different waste management approaches of pupils in Romania. Examining school students’ knowledge about waste management options and finding out the reasons that prevent them from participating in environmentally sound disposal options is essential for teachers and legislators. For this purpose, questionnaires were designed and distributed in two schools in Romania.The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in Romania regarding the potential of recycling, while the concepts of waste management technologies are far less known about and understood. Landfill is seen as a problem for human health and the environment. However, recycling behaviour is low - partly as a result of limited possibilities. In general, the treatment hierarchy that is recommended in the "European waste hierarchy" is only partly reflected in students’ attitudes towards waste management options.
Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm
Full Text Available Objectives: The following questions were addressed; to what extent is sugar consumption, tooth brushing, and oral health related attitudes and knowledge subject to change following a combined atraumatic restorative treatment (ART /oral health education (OHE program? Are changes in intended sugar avoidance associated with changes in cognitions as specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB? Are changes in oral health related knowledge associated with changes in attitudes and oral health behaviour?Method: A total of 1306 (follow-up prevalence 73.8% primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania completed interviews before and after a combined ART/OHE program. Post intervention at 6 months follow-up assessed changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Complete baseline and follow-up interviews were obtained from 221 and 1085 students who received ART/OHE and OHE only at schools, respectively.Results: Improvement was obtained with attitudes towards sugar avoidance, knowledge, and tooth brushing (effect sizes in the range 0.1-0.3. Within individual changes did not differ significantly between students receiving ART/ OHE and OHE only. Change scores of intended sugar avoidance associated in the expected direction with changes in sugar consumption. Attitudes and norms with respect to sugar avoidance deteriorated and improved among subjects who respectively decreased and increased intended sugar avoidance. Tooth brushing increased in students who improved oral knowledge.Conclusion: School based ART/OHE improved pupils’ tooth brushing, knowledge, and attitudes, but had no effect on sugar consumption. This study provided support for the validity of the TPB in predicting changes in intended sugar avoidance and reported sugar intake.
Abdi, Ismail H.; Affognon, Hippolyte D.; Wanjoya, Anthony K.; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary
Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis, have previously been associated with unusually heavy rainfall and extensive flooding. The disease is a serious public health problem in Africa and the Middle East, and is a potential global health threat. In Kenya, outbreaks of the disease have disproportionately affected impoverished pastoralist communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding RVF among the pastoralists of North Eastern Kenya, and to establish the determinants of KAP on RVF. A cross-sectional study involving 392 pastoralists living in Ijara district (Masalani and Ijara wards) was carried out using an interview questionnaire. All respondents interviewed (100%) had heard about RVF disease. They recognized that the disease is dangerous (99%), and had a positive attitude towards vaccination of animals (77%). However, few respondents knew that abortion (11%) and high mortality of young animals (10%) were key signs of RVF in animals. Very few (4%) use any form of protection when handling sick animals to avoid infection. Significant factors associated with knowledge were being in a household with a history of RVF infection (OR = 1.262, 95% CI = 1.099–1.447), having more livestock (OR = 1.285, 95% CI = 1.175–1.404) and the place of residence, Masalani (OR = 0.526, 95% CI = 0.480–0.576). Overall knowledge score on RVF was found to be a significant predictor of good preventive practice of the disease (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 1.047–1.101). Despite the positive attitude that pastoralist communities have towards the prevention of RVF, there exist gaps in knowledge and good practices on the disease. Therefore there is need for public health education to address these gaps, and to identify and facilitate the removal of barriers to behavioural change related to the prevention of RVF. PMID:26566218
Abdi, Ismail H; Affognon, Hippolyte D; Wanjoya, Anthony K; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary
Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis, have previously been associated with unusually heavy rainfall and extensive flooding. The disease is a serious public health problem in Africa and the Middle East, and is a potential global health threat. In Kenya, outbreaks of the disease have disproportionately affected impoverished pastoralist communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding RVF among the pastoralists of North Eastern Kenya, and to establish the determinants of KAP on RVF. A cross-sectional study involving 392 pastoralists living in Ijara district (Masalani and Ijara wards) was carried out using an interview questionnaire. All respondents interviewed (100%) had heard about RVF disease. They recognized that the disease is dangerous (99%), and had a positive attitude towards vaccination of animals (77%). However, few respondents knew that abortion (11%) and high mortality of young animals (10%) were key signs of RVF in animals. Very few (4%) use any form of protection when handling sick animals to avoid infection. Significant factors associated with knowledge were being in a household with a history of RVF infection (OR = 1.262, 95% CI = 1.099-1.447), having more livestock (OR = 1.285, 95% CI = 1.175-1.404) and the place of residence, Masalani (OR = 0.526, 95% CI = 0.480-0.576). Overall knowledge score on RVF was found to be a significant predictor of good preventive practice of the disease (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 1.047-1.101). Despite the positive attitude that pastoralist communities have towards the prevention of RVF, there exist gaps in knowledge and good practices on the disease. Therefore there is need for public health education to address these gaps, and to identify and facilitate the removal of barriers to behavioural change related to the prevention of RVF. PMID:26566218
The present study compared AIDS knowledge, attitude and sources of information of 1724 students in three different high schools (academic, vocational and religious) in Holon. Forty-two percent of the students are anxious concerning the possibility of AIDS contamination; they expressed a willingness to be tested for HIV and AIDS. Pupils attending the academic school proved to have the highest knowledge concerning AIDS topics; those in the vocational school placed second; and those in the religious school came last. The knowledge increased with age (p ways of exposure; symptomatology; and prognosis. Their intolerant attitudes reflect social anxiety and vulnerability to AIDS. The most liberal and comprehensive attitudes toward AIDS patients were presented by pupils attending the academic school and after that came pupils from the vocational school, while pupils in the religious school presented the most conservative and intolerant attitudes. The sources of pupils' information primarily included: the media--TV (92.3%): newspapers (87.6%); and school (66.1%) occupied the third place. It is remarkable that physicians and nurses at school and outside clinics were placed in the seventh (and last) place, as only 25.3% mentioned them at all. Only one third of the pupils agreed to participate as volunteers in medical and rehabilitation centers which help AIDS patients. PMID:14528562
Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.701, p?GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions. PMID:25519248
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 448 women attended primary care facilities in Kelantan were included in this study. Twostage sampling process was used to select clinics in all districts in Kelantan followed by female participants from selected clinics attendance lists. Recruited were non illiterate young adult women up to 65 years of age and without psychotic symptoms. Consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire that should be completed within 15 minutes. Findings: The respondents’ mean age was about 40 years with majority of them having secondary educational level and coming from low socio-economic group. Among them, 56.8% involved in tobacco products and 41.3% reported as having CVD related medical illnesses, especially obesity (23.7% and hypertension (17.6%. About 56.2% had family history of CVD risk. Only 26.8% of them obtained the CVD information from health care workers. The good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% accordingly. There were significant association between attitude and knowledge, practice and knowledge and practice and attitude which were found to be strong (0.10, 0.20, (0.10, 0.18 and (0.26, 0.40 95% CI, respectively and is independent with socio-demographic and personal disease characteristic. Conclusion: Positive relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice will encourage primary care doctors to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle.
Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.
Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
Solange Laurentino dos Santos
Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
Ali A. Ammouri
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on a one to seven rating scale. Barriers to EBP were measured on a five-point Likert scale using two subscales. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 414 nurses were included in the study. The greatest barriers to developing EBP among nurses were insufficient time for research (3.51 ± 0.97 and insufficient resources to change practices (3.64 ± 0.99. Nurses with more years of experience reported increased use of EBP (P <0.01, more positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001 and fewer barriers to research (P <0.01. Significant positive correlations were found between years of experience and practice (r = 0.16 and attitudes (r = 0.20. Nurses with a baccalaureate degree reported fewer barriers to research than those qualified at a diploma level (P <0.001. Nurses who perceived more barriers to research reported less use of EBP (P <0.001, less positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001 and limited EBP knowledge/skills (P <0.001. Conclusion: These findings provide a basis for enhancing nursing practices, knowledge and skills. Continuing education for nurses and minimising barriers is crucial to increasing the use of EBP in Oman.
Betz, Marian E.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Manton, Anne P.; Espinola, Janice A.; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.
Background We sought to examine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of emergency department (ED) providers concerning suicidal patient care and to identify characteristics associated with screening for suicidal ideation (SI). Methods 631 providers at eight EDs completed a voluntary, anonymous survey (79% response rate). Results The median participant age was 35 (interquartile range: 30-44) years and 57% were female. Half (48%) were nurses and half were attending (22%) or resident (30%) physicians. More expressed confidence in SI screening skills (81-91%) than in skills to assess risk severity (64-70%), counsel patients (46-56%) or create safety plans (23-40%), with some differences between providers. Few thought mental health provider staffing was almost always sufficient (6-20%) or that suicidal patient treatment was almost always a top ED priority (15-21%). More nurses (37%, 95%Confidence Interval [CI] 31-42%) than physicians (7%, 95%CI 4-10%) reported screening most or all patients for SI; this difference persisted after multivariable adjustment. In multivariable analysis, other factors associated with screening most or all patients for SI were self-confidence in skills, (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.17-2.18), feeling that suicidal patient care was a top ED priority (OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.11-2.69) and 5+ post-graduate years of clinical experience (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.03-4.13). Conclusions ED providers reported confidence in suicide screening skills but gaps in further assessment, counseling or referral skills. Efforts to promote better identification of suicidal patients should be accompanied by a commensurate effort to improve risk assessment and management skills, along with improved access to mental health specialists. PMID:23426881
Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E
Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco's impact on the environment. PMID:26295244
Gao, Qian; Liu, Guangcong; Liu, Yang
To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the health effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and sun exposure among medical university students in Northeast China, 385 subjects were investigated on October 2013 using a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire. Most of the subjects knew the effects of UVR on skin cancer (95.6%) and sunburn (92.2%), but fewer knew of the eye damage that can result from UVR (27.8% cataract and 3.1% pterygium). Correspondingly, the main purpose of adopting sun protection was considered to be 'preventing sunburn' (55.4%), but 'preventing eye damage' was the least (1.8%). In actual behaviour, the eyes received the least protection as well. Although knowing the effects of UVR on vitamin D synthesis (87.3%), 66.8% of participants never or seldom increased sun exposure. Compared to men, women were more likely to reduce sun exposure (Ptanning was attractive. Considering the response variability to UVR in people with different skin colours, different sun protection programs should be provided. In China, especially in the North, the public should be educated to moderately increase sun exposure to maintain adequate vitamin D status while also protecting against eye damage from UVR. PMID:25063981
Full Text Available Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. Although the response rate (28% was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62% have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99% considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77% indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment.
Full Text Available Background: Realizing the ill effects of increasing population, India was the first country to have started a state sponsored Family Planning Programme, long back in 1952; India is the second most populous country of the world only after China. To attain the required targets India needs nationwide surveys to assess the practices of contraception especially in poor performing states in order to utilize the available resources according to local needs. Methods: Hospital based, cross-sectional survey conducted amongst the women of post natal ward of a referral hospital mainly catering rural population. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey of family planning was conducted. Results: A total of 4221 subjects were interviewed.58% of these women were aware of contraceptive methods, mostly Permanent followed by IUCD, Condom, least of oral pills. Conclusions: Spacing methods are less known amongst rural women while the use is even lower which calls for the further strengthening of existing awareness programmes. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 329-333
Tamayo-Velázquez, María-Isabel; Simón-Lorda, Pablo; Cruz-Piqueras, Maite
The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Spanish nurses in relation to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. In an online questionnaire completed by 390 nurses from Andalusia, 59.1% adequately identified a euthanasia situation and 64.1% a situation involving physician-assisted suicide. Around 69% were aware that both practices were illegal in Spain, while 21.4% had received requests for euthanasia and a further 7.8% for assisted suicide. A total of 22.6% believed that cases of euthanasia had occurred in Spain and 11.4% believed the same for assisted suicide. There was greater support (70%) for legalisation of euthanasia than for assisted suicide (65%), combined with a greater predisposition towards carrying out euthanasia (54%), if it were to be legalised, than participating in assisted suicide (47.3%). Nurses in Andalusia should be offered more education about issues pertaining to the end of life, and extensive research into this area should be undertaken. PMID:22990427
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.
Ali Akbar ASADI-POOYA
Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Asadi-Pooya AA, Torabi-Nami M. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Epilepsy Among Biology Teachers in Fars Province, Iran. IranianJournal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:13-18.ObjectiveThis study investigates the awareness and perception on “epilepsy” amongst biology teachers in Fars province, Iran.Materials & MethodsA sample of high school biology teachers in Fars province, Iran, filled out an investigator designed questionnaire including questions about their knowledge and attitude concerning “epilepsy”. There were 17 questions in the questionnaire. Nine questions addressed the knowledge and the rest were about attitude and perception.ResultsForty two teachers completed the questionnaires. More than two-thirds of the participants had a fairly desirable awareness about the definition; whereas, only approximately 40% knew something about the etiology and treatment of epilepsy. More than two-thirds of the participants had a positive attitude towards epilepsy; however, misconceptions and negative attitudes were observed.ConclusionEducational programs for biology teachers and also other teachers are necessary to improve their knowledge, attitude and perception about epilepsy.References Sander JW, Shorvon SD. Incidence and prevalence studies in epilepsy and their methodological problems: a review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987;50:829-39. Saraceno B. The WHO world health report 2001 on mental health. Epidemiol Psychiatr Soc 2002;11(2:83-7. Kim MK, Cho KH, Shin J, Kim SJ. A study of public attitudes towards epilepsy in Kwang-Juarea. J Kor Neurol Assoc 1994;12:410-27. DiIorio C, Shafer PO, Letz R, Henry T, Schomer DL, Yeager K, etal. The association of stigma with self-management and perception of health care among adults with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2003;4(3:259-67. Aziz H, Akhtar SW, Hasan KZ. Epilepsy in Pakistan: stigma and psychological problems: a population-based epidemiologic study. Epilepsia 1997;38:1069-73. Ablon. The nature of stigma and medical conditions. Epilepsy Behav 2002;3:2-9. Jacoby A. Stigma, epilepsy and quality of life. Epilepsy Behav 2002;3:10-20. McLin WM, de Boer HM. Public perceptions about epilepsy. Epilepsia 1995;36:957-9. Daoud A, Al-Safi S, Otoom S, Wahba L, Alkofahi A. Public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Jordan. Seizure 2007;16:521-6. Ndour D, Diop AG, Ndiaye M, Niang C, Sarr MM, Ndiaye IP. A survey of school teachers’ knowledge and behaviour about epilepsy, in a developing country such as Senegal. [Article in French]. Aert Rev Neurol 2004;160(3:338-41. Millogo A, Siranyan AS. Knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes towards the condition among school-teachers in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso. Epileptic Disord 2004;6(1:21-6. Masoudnia E. Awareness, understanding and attitudes towards epilepsy among Iranian ethnic groups. Seizure 2009;18(5:369-73. Fernandes PT, Noronha AL, Araújo U, Cabral P, Pataro R, de Boer HM, Prilipko L, Sander JW, Li LM. Teachers’ perception about epilepsy. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(1:28-34. Aydin K, Yildiz H.Teacher’s perceptions in central turkey concerning epilepsy and asthma and short term effect of a brief education on the perception of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2007;10:280-90. Caixeta J, Frenandes PT, Bell GS, Sander JW, Li LM. Epilepsy perception amongst university students. A survey. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65 (suppl 1:43-8.
Šorgo, Andrej; Ambroži?-Dolinšek, Jana
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge about, opinions on and attitudes toward and finally readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMO) among Slovenian teachers. On average, they have higher levels of knowledge in classical genetics, and poor levels of knowledge about modern issues in biotechnology, and their attitudes toward GMOs are not extreme. They make decisions based on the acceptability of a particular GMO and not on GMOs in general, following two patterns...
Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod
Introduction: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are widespread in the population and are a serious dental public health problem among children. Dental trauma may cause both functional and esthetic problems, with possible impacts on the patient's quality of life. Aim: To investigate teacher's knowledge and attitudes of Mathura city about emergency management of TDIs in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 352 teachers from total 23 schools of Mathura city were included in the study. Data were collected through a survey, which included a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three major parts containing multiple-choice questions. Results: Among the teachers 51.1% were males and 48.9% were females. Majority of the respondents, that is, 33.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age. Most respondents (34%) had more than 10 years of teaching experience. Majority of the teachers (39.2%) had educational qualification other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. degrees. Physical education teachers comprised the largest group of school teachers. Regarding knowledge and attitude, the teachers with 10–20 years of teaching experience, physical education teachers, and the teachers other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. qualifications had given more correct answers to the questions when compared with other groups. Conclusion: For the teachers having a low level of knowledge, there is a need for greater awareness to improve teachers’ knowledge and attitudes related to the emergency management of TDIs in children by organizing educative and motivational programs. PMID:25992335
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS. Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%, headache (82.1%, tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%, watering (66.4% and redness (61.2%. Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa ( P =0.006, ?2 test, blurred vision at a distance ( P =0.016, ?2 test and blepharospasm ( P =0.026, ?2 test formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7% were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7% or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/ anxiolytics ( P = 0.04, ?2 test, spectacles ( P = 0.02, ?2 test and conscious frequent blinking ( P = 0.003, ?2 test than the non-computer-users. Conclusions: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.
Full Text Available Nelson Barber1, Christopher Taylor2, Sandy Strick31College of Human Sciences, Box 41240 Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; 2School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, NM, USA; 3School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USAAbstract: The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in environmental consciousness worldwide. Consumers are now changing their behavior to integrate environmental considerations into lifestyle choices. This change includes consumers’ purchasing decisions based upon how well products satisfy their needs and how these products affect the natural environment. In some cases, consumers are willing to pay a premium for environmentally friendly products. Marketing professes to serve the benefit of the public by informing them of the availability of goods and services that will advance their quality of life. However, this is only true if marketing’s communication approach and methods of promotion aid in informing, educating, and channeling the needs of current and future consumers toward “green” products and services. Using wine as the product, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of a consumer’s involvement with a product and the environment, their knowledge of environmental issues and attitudes toward the environment, and their willingness to purchase the product. The results suggest personality segmentation, through selective marketing and redirecting of consumers needs and wants toward environmentally friendly wine products. For example, what wine consumers actually know about environmental wine issues is associated with their involvement with environmental issues more than what they self-assess they know about wine.Keywords: environmental knowledge, green products, wine
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Polio among people in Khyber PakhtunKhwa and to recommend measures in order to improve the awareness of disease. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Nowshera, CMH Mardan and Kohat General Hospital from March to June 2013. Subjects and Methods: Persons presenting for consultation to tertiary care hospitals at medical reception rooms were approached by convenience sampling. Structured questionnaire was developed and data was collected by interviews. Results: The findings of the study revealed that out of 296 persons participated in study 57.4% were males while 42.2% were females. They were residents of Mardan, Nowshera, Kohat and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtukhwa. Persons who believed that vaccine is prohibited in religion were 13.9%, 81.1% persons knew about Polio disease and 84.5% persons believed that disease could be prevented by giving vaccines to children. Persons who gave vaccine to their children were 88.9% and 66.9% also knew the schedule of the vaccine. Pressure groups which included tribal elders stopped 19.3% people from giving vaccine to their children and for 11.1% persons the facility of giving vaccine was not available. Persons who believed that Polio can cause infertility were 11.5% and 20.9% believed that Polio vaccine cannot prevent Polio disease. Persons who have seen patient of Polio were 38.9% and 88.5 % persons wanted to eradicate disease from Pakistan. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that people have adequate knowledge about Polio and wanted to eradicate it from Pakistan by participating in vaccination activities but still there are few people who believe that Polio vaccine cannot prevent disease resulting in failure to adminster vaccine for their children. (author)
Wong Daniel FK
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.
Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi
Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.
Hussain Abdulrahman Al-Omar
Full Text Available The survey was conducted to explore use, knowledge and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among pharmacy students at the college of pharmacy, King Saud University. A total of 133 fourth- and fifth-year pharmacy students completed a questionnaire designed to explore their use, knowledge and attitudes toward CAM therapies at the college of pharmacy, King Saud University. Study lasted for 3 months from 1 st of October until 31 st of December in 2007. Nutrition and herbal medicine therapies were the most known therapies by 65% and 53% of the students, respectively. Knowledge about CAM therapies among the students was limited. Thirty-nine percent of the students reported use of some form of CAM at least once in their lifetime. CAM was used for acute, chronic and mild illness as well as nutrition. Herbal medicine, nutrition, massage, relaxation exercises, yoga and mega-dose vitamin were the most CAM used. Lectures were the chief CAM information source. More than one half of the respondents (53-70% believed that five of the 15 CAM modalities were useful, namely massage, herbal medicine, nutrition, yoga and relaxation exercises. Respondents had a positive attitude toward statements that favoured CAM. Most students strongly agreed or agreed that most CAM therapies were efficacious, whereas 52.6% of the respondents did believe that CAM therapies can be harmful to public health. The study showed that the students had positive attitude toward CAM and exhibited relatively high level of self-reported use of CAM therapies. Overall, students? knowledge of CAM is limited. The students perceived interest in learning and training in CAM. A separate course in CAM including its various components is needed. Also, availability of a reliable CAM information sources will aid the students to increase their knowledge of CAM.
Rea, M. F.; Venancio, S. I.; Martines, J. C.; Savage, F
Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in São Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediately...
Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP. 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors that can positively influence brand attachment and brand attitude strength. Brand creation through an effective marketing strategy is necessary for creation of unique associations in the customer’s memory. Customer’s attitude, awareness and association towards the brand are primarily focused while evaluating performance of a brand, before designing the marketing strategies and subsequent evaluation of the progress. In this research, literature establishes a direct and significant effect of Knowledge metrics of the Brand equity, i.e., Brand Awareness and Brand Association, on creation of Brand Attachment and Brand Attitude Strength and this factor becomes more effectual while introducing and promoting new brands. Finding of this research imply that for achieving desirable outcome through creation of Brand attachment and Brand Attitude Strength n the target audience and for designing more effective and fruitful strategies, managers and policy makers should pay more focus on creating strong Knowledge metrics amongst the target audience.
Holen Are; Hjortdahl Per; Fasmer Ole B; Baerheim Anders; Grimstad Hilde; Gude Tore; Anvik Tor; Risberg Terje; Vaglum Per
Abstract Background The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS) created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS) and negative attitudes (NAS). The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards le...
Nash, Jane Gradwohl; Bravaco, Ralph J.; Simonson, Shai
The purpose of this study was to assess structural knowledge change across a two-week workshop designed to provide high-school teachers with training in Java and Object Oriented Programming. Both before and after the workshop, teachers assigned relatedness ratings to pairs of key concepts regarding Java and Object Oriented Programming. Their…
Danilenko Svetlana V.
Full Text Available The article considers the concepts of forming and development of enterprise knowledge; a sequence of actions to implement assessment methods of the complex of combinations of key competencies is presented, approaches used in developing a system of ranking and evaluating of managerial competencies are identified.? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????, ???????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????.
McIntyre James A
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore adolescent HIV risk perception, HIV vaccine knowledge, willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine clinical trials, and the factors that influence willingness to participate among high school students in Soweto, South Africa, we recruited school-going youth through randomly selected local high schools. All pupils within the selected schools from whom parental consent and child assent could be obtained were eligible for participation. A self-administered, facilitated questionnaire was completed by all participants. Findings Perception of adolescent HIV risk was high. Some misconceptions regarding vaccine research were common, particularly regarding placebo and potential eligibility criteria for prophylactic vaccine trials. Of 240 responses to the willingness item, 84 (35% indicated they were "probably willing" and 126 (52.5% that they were "definitely willing to participate". There were no significant differences in willingness by gender, age, school grade, or institution. Factors that were rated as "very important" in determining willingness included receiving current information about HIV research [n = 201 (88.9%], doing something to honour people who have HIV or have died of AIDS [n = 168 (70.9%], getting free counselling and testing [n = 167 (70.5], that participants may receive some protection against HIV infection from the vaccine [n = 160 (70.2%], and improving motivation to avoid risky behaviour [n = 134 (59%]. Conclusion Soweto school-going youth report high degrees of willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. This may be related to the high levels of adolescent HIV risk perception. Whether hypothetical willingness translates to participation will await data from adolescent HIV vaccine trials.
Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F
Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n?=?292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367
Anshula Neeraj Deshpande
Full Text Available Context: Gynecologists the Primary Health Care providers, for pregnant mothers bear the unique responsibility to detect and diagnose oral health problems for timely and effective interventions. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of Perinatal Oral Health Care (POHC education program on the knowledge, attitude and practice behavior amongst Gynaecologists of Vadodara City. Settings and Design: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted amongst Gynecologists practicing in Vadodara city, registered under Indian Medical Association (IMA, Baroda, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A validated questionnaire survey was conducted to establish a baseline level of knowledge, attitude and practice behavior of 46 Gynecologists. After that education and awareness regarding POHC to Gynecologists was provided with the help of flip charts and resource brochures. To determine the impact of recent provision of education and awareness a post-test was conducted. Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed by paired t-test using the SPSS Version 20. Results: The results after evaluating the data from pretest and posttest showed a mean increase of correct answers in knowledge (from 7.304-9.891; P = 0.00, Attitude (from 3.978-4.108; P = 0.49 and practice behavior (from 4.130-5.521; P = 0.00 in POHC amongst Gynecologists following the education program. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a need for provision of education and awareness to the primary health care providers which would help in improving pregnant women and infant?s oral health status along with establishment of dental home.
Leung, Doris Y P; Chan, Sophia S C; Fu, Idy C Y; Lam, Tai-hing
Volunteers and staff of women's organisations who are highly active in engaging and providing community service can be recruited to motivate female smokers to quit. We described the knowledge and attitudes regarding tobacco control and smoking cessation among these affiliates in Hong Kong and identified factors associated with the practices of cessation interventions. Eight of 14 women's organisations joining the Women Against Tobacco Taskforce agreed to participate. All staff, volunteers, and members of the eight organisations were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire during July and August 2006. A total of 623 out of 771 (80.8%) affiliates responded. Their knowledge on smoking and health (mean = 3.91, SD = 1.44 on a range of 0-7), smoking related diseases (mean = 2.91, SD = 0.97 on a range of 0-4), and women-specific diseases (mean = 2.93, SD = 1.87 on a range of 0-6), was considered to be inadequate. They had positive attitudes towards tobacco control (mean = 3.31, SD = 0.55) and their own role in smoking cessation counselling (mean = 3.19, SD = 0.56) on a 4-point Likert scale and 39.3% reported had attempted to offer quitting advice. Logistic regression analysis found that participants having direct contact with smokers who had a positive attitude towards their own role in smoking cessation counselling (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.67-3.95) and better knowledge of smoking and smoking-related diseases (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06-1.71) were more likely to provide cessation counselling after controlling for gender; knowledge on smoking and health, and women-specific diseases; attitude towards tobacco control, negative and positive attitudes towards female smokers, and perceived self-efficacy in smoking cessation counselling. Women's organisations showed limited support towards tobacco control and their affiliates had a limited knowledge on smoking and health but had positive attitudes. Appropriate training, capacity building and establishing rapport with women's organisations are needed to promote smoking cessation and to support tobacco control in the community. PMID:21129069
M.d. Wahid Murad
Full Text Available This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor communities concerning solid waste management are adequate and satisfactory. Hence, the low socio-economic profile of the urban poor has not been proven as causal to environmental degradation. The study suggests that it is inherent to improve the quality of lifestyles of the poor to enable them to come out of poverty threshold, even though an adequate and satisfactory solid waste management system exists amongst the communities.
Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The results from the study further suggested that the internal consistency of these key components differed across the countries. This implies that young students' perceptions and attitudes are multidimensional on bioenergy issues and they could vary from one country to another country. The conceptual models based on regression analysis revealed that the students' intentions to use bioenergy in general could be explained by considering their perceptions of the societal aspects related to bioenergy. Fostering the awareness of bioenergy among young students, we need to share the educational methods among home, school, and media. It is recommended that the bioenergy policy makers and professionals must raise the awareness of bioenergy among young students in our society and regard them as an important target group while formulating bioenergy policies. The results of this research support the idea of increasing collaboration between bioenergy policies and bioenergy education strategies for school students. However, it is suggested that further research should be undertaken in these issues to have a deeper understanding of young citizens' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with more country specific contexts. (orig.)
Incantalupo, Lisa; Treagust, David F.; Koul, Rekha
The use of technology in schools is now ubiquitous, but the effectiveness on the learning environment has mixed results. This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure students' attitudes toward and knowledge of technology with the aim of investigating any differences based on gender after a course where the science department made use of technology as an integral part of teaching biology. In this study, conducted in one school in the state of New York, in the United States of America, the Students' Attitudes Toward and Knowledge of Technology Questionnaire was administered to nearly 700 high school science students. A principal component and principal factor analysis resulted in new scales from the validation of the instrument that demonstrated high reliabilities. There were statistically significant gender differences in all the scales of the questionnaire in favor of males.
Understanding how students go about problem solving in chemistry lends many possible advantages for interventions in teaching strategies for the college classroom. The work presented here is the development of an in-classroom, real-time, formative instrument to assess student expertise in chemistry with the purpose of developing classroom interventions. The development of appropriate interventions requires the understanding of how students go about starting to solve tasks presented to them, what their mental effort (load on working memory) is, and whether or not their performance was accurate. To measure this, the Rapid Knowledge Assessment (RKA) instrument uses clickers (handheld electronic instruments for submitting answers) as a means of data collection. The classroom data was used to develop an algorithm to deliver student assessment scores, which when correlated to external measure of standardized American Chemical Society (ACS) examinations and class score show a significant relationship between the accuracy of knowledge assessment (p=0.000). Use of eye-tracking technology and student interviews supports the measurements found in the classroom.
Bengü Aksu Ataç
Problem Statement: A rapidly increasing interest has been observed in finding alternatives to traditional forms of assessment in education. For at least three decades, teachers, curriculum developers and program administrators have been studying hard to identify appropriate procedures to assess the knowledge and abilities of students. The term “authentic assessment” has emerged from this need in the field of education, and can be described as “the multiple forms of assessment that reflect stu...
Aksu Ataç, Bengü
Problem Statement: A rapidly increasing interest has been observed in finding alternatives to traditional forms of assessment in education. For at least three decades, teachers, curriculum developers and program administrators have been studying hard to identify appropriate procedures to assess the knowledge and abilities of students. The term “authentic assessment” has emerged from this need in the field of education, and can be described as “the multiple forms of assessment that reflect stu...
Rosediani Muhamad; Ranimah Yahya; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading killer not only in men but also in women worldwide and primary target for prevention. However, majority initial researchers believed it was mainly a men’s disease that resulted in fewer women being informed regarding the disease.Aim and Objectives: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women attended outpatient clinics with Family Medicine Speciali...
Mah, Z; Bryant, H
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are age-related differences in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour with respect to breast cancer and whether the differences reflect the age-specific Canadian recommendations on breast cancer screening. DESIGN: Telephone survey. SETTING: Two cities and five towns and their surrounding areas in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: The age-specific, randomly selected sample comprised 1284 women aged 40 to 75 years who did not have breast cancer. Of the 1741 eligible women...
Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Mohammad S. Abouzeid; Al-Jeffri, Mohammad H
OBJECTIVES The present study aimed to build a baseline profile for knowledge and attitudes of Saudi paramedical students toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). METHODS The study was a cross-sectional one conducted on a sample selected from health institutes and colleges in Saudi Arabia during the calendar year 2002/2003. RESULTS A high percentage of students correctly perceive the risk presented by HIV/AIDS. Extramarital sex and unpro...
Aweto Happiness A; Oligbo Cynthia N; Fapojuwo Oluseun A; Olawale Olajide A
Abstract Background Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. Methods Three hundred and eight practicing physiotherapists from various p...
Prucha, Michael G.; Susan G. Fisher; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Deborah J Ossip
Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted wit...
Qidwai Waris; Saleem Taimur; Ishaque Sidra
Abstract Background Gemstones have been in use as part of alternative and complementary medicine for years. However, our understanding of the perceived healing powers of gemstones is limited. An extensive literature search revealed that there is a dearth of validated information on this subject. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the various aspects of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the public towards gemstone therapeutics. Methods A survey was performed in the Communi...
Bojan Jelakovi?; Patricija Luketi?; Dragana Juri?; Živka Dika; Jovana ?uri?; Ksenija Vitale; Slavica Paradinovi?
High salt intake is important risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt intake in rural population in continental Croatia. Data were obtained by standardized questionnaire in 928 adult subjects (586 women and 342 men). Results have shown low level of awareness (~60%) of salt risk. Women were more aware about the harmful effects of salt and could identify some food with hig...
Ebong, Rosemary D
Developing countries are constantly and continuously confronted with a myriad of health and environmental problems that threaten the efforts to establish and maintain safe air and water supplies. Nigeria, in general, and Akwa Ibom State, in particular, are not isolated from increasing health and sanitation problems. My goal in this study was to determine the knowledge base of men and women related to sanitation and environmental health in Akwa Ibom State. I found no differences in the attitud...
Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter C.
Barbara P Yawn, Peter C WollanOlmsted Medical Center, Research Department, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: COPD remains under-recognized and under-treated. Much of early COPD care is given by primary care physicians but only when COPD is recognized. This survey explores the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge related to COPD recognition, diagnosis, and treatment from family physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) working in primary care.Methods: We completed a survey ...
Jon-Håkon Schultz; Inger-Lise Lien
The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who h...
Kouam Luc; Wiysonge Charles; Fomulu Nelson; Ngassa Pius; Kongnyuy Eugene J; Doh Anderson S
Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order t...
Man-Yee Emmy Wong; Tak-Ming Lawrence Lam
Internal migration in China has introduced critical challenges to the education and health of migrant adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in sexual knowledge and attitudes among migrate and local adolescents. Survey research with a total of 616 adolescents in grades equivalent to US 10th and 11th grades including 113 migrants completed a selfadministered questionnaire. Misconceptions of adolescent physical development, sexual activity, marriage, birth contro...
Salam, Rehana A; Haroon, Sarah; Ahmed, Hashim H; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, w...
M.I. Khairil Anuar; M.N. Norazmir; G. Nurliyana
The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala...
Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld
This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…
Jamilah Ahmad; Habibah Lateh
This paper presents the findings of a field survey of supposedly educated young Malaysians regarding their knowledge of landslide as an environmental hazard and their attitudes and practice regarding landslide issues. The respondents were undergraduate students of Penang’s Universiti Sains Malaysia whose RST (Restu, Saujana, Tekun) residential hostels were chosen for the study due to their location on a mountainous terrain. A total of 343 students participated in the survey. The results...
Ugarte Guevara, William J.
The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain an understanding of the dynamics of the HIV epidemic by estimating prevalence and exploring the relationship between HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and HIV status in Nicaragua. Structured questionnaires were administered to adults from a health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua (Papers I–III). In-depth interviews and a survey were conducted among men who have sex with men (MSM, Paper IV). Blood sampling for HIV was...
Nielsen, Steen; Melander, Preben; Jakobsen, Morten
There have been several studies of the diffusion of new management accounting practices. This study adds a new dimension: in order to indicate the number of practices associated with the respondents, their interrelationships, the respondents, were asked to answer questions in a questionnaire covering four variables: level of knowledge, level of attitude, priority of usage, and level of benefit for 15 new accounting practices. The survey includes a sample of 119 large and medium-sized privately o...
Kahraman Hasan; Celik Mustafa; Ozer Ali; Sucakli Mustafa; Ekerbicer Hasan
Abstract Background Tobacco control effort should be first started in people that are looked upon as role models for the general population. We aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of religious officials towards smoking and the new tobacco law. Method The study group was comprised of 492 Imams and 149 Quran course instructors working in Kahramanmaras city of Turkey, 641 religious officials in total, and our survey form was applied on 406 (63.3%) of those religious official...
Berin E; Sundell M; Karki C; Brynhildsen J; Hammar M
Emilia Berin,1,* Micaela Sundell,1,* Chanda Karki,2 Jan Brynhildsen,1 Mats Hammar1 1Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between w...
Taraneh Movahhed; Mahboobe Dehghani; Sedigheh Karbasi; Sara Khaki; Mojtaba Dorri
Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran. One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate ...
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam; Ahmad Haerian; Maryam Sadat Salami; Mohammad Hasan Akhavan Karbasi; Roham Fakhr-Tabatabayi; Farzane vaziri
Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were re...
Govender Dayanandan; Kunene Simon; Mabaso Musawenkosi LH; Hlongwana Khumbulani W; Maharaj Rajendra
Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in Swaziland. Methods...
The overall aim of this thesis was to study knowledge, attitudes and experience of emergency contraceptive pills among women and providers. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Focus-group interviews were conducted with teenage-girls (I) and with women who had purchased ECP without prescription (IV). Self-administered waiting-room questionnaires were administered to women presenting for induced abortion in three large hospitals (II, III), and after the deregulation of ECP, a p...
Svensson, Linn; Waern, Sara
Sexually transmitted diseases are a major problem among adolescents in Thailand, and seeing that unprotected sex is a growing trend, awareness must be increased. The aim of this study was to examine Thai students’ knowledge of and attitudes to STDs as well as if there are any differences in gender regarding these questions. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at a private university in Bangkok, Thailand. The Health Belief Model was provided as theoretical framework. A question...
Edvinsson, Alfrida; Schmidt, Anna
Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been a increasing problem worldwide with an estimation of 340 million new cases each year. STDs are one of the top five reasons of seeking health care in the developing countries. Aim: The aim was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding STDs among young adults in two vocational schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and also compare the genders regarding the issues. Method: A descriptive and comparative study was used. ...
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of a national immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations.Methods: The study design utilized a pre- and post-survey administered to pharmacy students before and after the American Pharmacists Association’s (APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program. The primary outcome explored was a change in the perceived knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the pharmacy students. A five-point Likert scale (i.e. strongly agree = 5, strongly disagree = 1 was used for measuring the main outcomes, which was summated by adding the individual item scores in each section to form a composite score for each outcome. Results: The certificate training program resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge (38.5% increase in score, p<0.001 and skills (34.5% increase in score, p<0.001, but not attitudes (1% increase in score, p=0.210.Conclusions: The national immunization training certificate program had a positive impact on the perceived knowledge and skills of pharmacy students. However, no change was observed regarding students’ perceived attitudes toward pharmacy-based immunizations.