Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
This paper presents the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS), an instrument designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. Development of ASKAS items from a survey of existant physiological research on sexuality in older adults and a review of social-psychological writing on…
White, Charles B.
Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. Antenatal counseling is very useful for ensuring breastfeeding in postnatal period Objectives: Assessment of antenatal services with respect to information about benefits of breastfeeding practices and Assessment of knowledge about benefits of breastfeeding amongst the beneficiaries of the hospitals under study. Methodology: Antenatal mothers attending the OPD were interviewed about their knowledge regarding breastfeeding practices and about the hospital services for imparting this knowledge or information. Results: Out of total 200 antenatal beneficiaries 81.5%were having knowledge about benefits of exclusive breast feeding 37 (18.5% answered donâ€™t know (p value >0.05 not significant statistically. Out of total 200 antenatal beneficiaries 61 (30.5% were informed about exclusive breast feeding and 139(69.5% were not informed, (p value <0.05 significant statistically. Conclusion: Majority of ANC women attending the OPD were not aware about Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF, however they were having good knowledge about the benefits of breast feeding. The major source of information being doctors rather than paramedical staff, calls for more attention and training of nurses and other supporting hospital staff regarding Baby Friendly Hospital.
Nigam Richa, Sinha Umesh
Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…
Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Assessment of intentional abortion and women's knowledge about its causes and complications is an important priority for women's health, but because of the sensitivity, the investigations in this topic are rare. This study was performed for the first time in order to determine women's knowledge and attitude toward intentional abortion.Methods: Women referring to pre-marriage counseling centers in Mashhad, Iran, were selected with easy sampling method and accessed with knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Q-Square, T-Test and Pearson correlation. Results: Of 480 participants, 71% (CI95%=66.8-75.0 had opposed attitudes about the intentional abortion and 26.5% (CI95%=22.6-30.5 had appropriate knowledge. Between lower age and lower education, lack of interest to contraceptive use with low women's knowledge-attitude scores, there was a significant relationship (p<0.05. Conclusion: Most of the participants opposed attitudes to intentional abortion, but more than 70% of them had low knowledge about this topic. Inappropriate knowledge about causes and its adverse consequences, especially the beginning of marital life can lead to unwanted pregnancy, intentional and unsafe abortion that need attention.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, studentsÃ¢Â€Â™ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
Full Text Available Introduction: A high leve of skill & knowledge is required in circumstances of cardiopulmonary resucitation which represents the most urgent clinical situations. The difficulties for pediatric residents who are fronted with the most cases of pediatric & neonatal resucitation are due to different causes of cardiorespiratory arrest in camparison to adults. This study aimed to assess the knowledge & their personal attitude toward the neonatal & pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitatin. Methods: By cross - sectional multicenter study between the pediatric residents who were studied in the teaching hospitals in Tehran (1378-90. Data were gathered among 140 residents by self-completed questionnaires which were included three parts as. demographic information assessment of their attitude by summation of score via ranking list questions and total score from assessment to their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Results: 35.7% of the residents studied in the first year of residency 35.0% in the second year and the remainder (29/3% in the third year More than 90% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation low & less than average. Net only 80% of the residents self - assessed their actual ability about this issue low but also declaired the insufficient education during the medical training. The total score of knowledge assessment was 14.7 + 1_0.54 from 30 without any significant relations among the residents in different hospitals or various levels of pediatric residency. (P value= 0.1 , 0.7 There was not significant correlation between the total score from their attitude & their knowledge. Conclusion: Pediatric residents as the key personnel in the management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the neonates and children should have enough knowledge and skills about this topic. This survey demonstrates a low level of the pediatric & neonatal resuscitation knowledge among the residents pediatrics. The effectiveness of regular training improving the situation of pediatric resusciton should considered in the of the medical education.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Ethiopia and the Amhara region. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and health-seeking practice in this region is essential to plan, implement, and evaluate advocacy, communication, and social mobilization work. This may improve the case detection rate. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients toward TB in the Eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among suspect...
Esmael, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Agonafir, Mulualem; Desale, Adinew; Yaregal, Zelalem; Desta, Kassu
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a global phenomenon, mainly due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics. There are no studies in Lebanon to assess the public's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of antibiotic usage. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire completed by a random convenience sample of 500 people. Nearly half of the respondents (46.1%) demonstrated moderate knowledge levels, while 40.6% demonstrated moderate attitudes. Although 80.2% knew that antibiotics are anti-bacterial, 73.5% did not know that antibiotics are not anti-viral. Moreover, 68.3% of respondents reported consuming antibiotics 1-3 times per year, while 22.4% consumed antibiotics on their own accord. Approximately 66.7% realized that abusing antibiotics could lead to resistance. Participant knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with monthly family income, educational level, place of residency, having medical insurance, working in the health sector or having a relative working in the health sector. Nation-wide awareness campaigns targeting susceptible demographics should be initiated. PMID:25154919
Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Olleik, Zeinab; Itani, Muhieddine M; Kawtharani, Soumayah; Nassar, Hussein; Hassoun, Rached; Houmani, Zeinab; Zein, Zeinab El; Fakih, Ramy; Mortada, Ibrahim K; Mohsen, Youssef; Kanafani, Zeina; Tamim, Hani
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients experience barriers to health care that include fear of discrimination, as well as insensitivity and lack of knowledge about LGBT-specific health needs among providers. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to improve knowledge and attitudes of baccalaureate nursing students regarding LGBT patient care. Education focused on key terminology, health disparities, medical needs of transgender patients, and culturally sensitive communication skills for competent LGBT patient care. Knowledge level and attitudes were evaluated before and after the intervention using a survey based on a modified Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale and two assessment tools developed for this study. A statistically significant increase in positive attitudes and knowledge level was found immediately after the intervention. Findings from this study support the inclusion of education related to LGBT patient health care in undergraduate nursing curricula to promote cultural competence and sensitivity. [J Nurs Educ. 2015;54(1):45-49.]. PMID:25535762
Strong, Kristy L; Folse, Victoria N
Research suggests that when healthcare providers lack cultural competence, minority groups, including the Deaf community, are adversely affected. Although most genetic counseling programs incorporate cultural competency training into their curricula, the extent and impact of Deaf awareness training is unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess Deaf awareness training of recent graduates and its impact on knowledge of deafness and Deaf culture, and attitudes toward deaf people. Genetic counselors who graduated within the past 5 years were invited to participate in an anonymous, online survey. Of the 135 respondents, 26 % reported no Deaf awareness training and 51 % reported limited training (1-2 h) conducted primarily by program instructors. Nearly one-third felt their Deaf awareness training was insufficient. Respondents lacked knowledge regarding effects of cochlear implants on residual hearing, communication between deaf children and hearing parents, and working with sign language interpreters. However, scores on knowledge of deafness and Deaf culture items and scores on attitudes toward deaf people scale did not differ significantly between respondents who had Deaf awareness training and those who did not. These findings suggest that genetic counseling students may not receive adequate Deaf awareness training. Future efforts should focus on increasing Deaf awareness in genetic counseling students, and investigating whether this change improves genetic counseling experiences for Deaf individuals. PMID:25030269
Nagakura, Honey; Schneider, Gretchen; Morris, James; Lafferty, Katherine A; Palmer, Christina G S
Full Text Available Objective: To measure the levels of nurse’s knowledge and attitude after the conduct of education session regarding chemotherapy administration and management. Methodology: This research study was conducted at two oncology units of tertiary Hospital Rawalpindi. A prepost test intervention study design was used on 35 nurses by using Verity’s tools. Results: The mean scores of knowledge were calculated by Cochran’s Q test showed that knowledge scores have significantly increased with ‘educational training’ (p value < 0.001. The difference in the attitude of the nurses was not found to be statistically significant in repeated measure of ANOVA. Conclusion: The results show that knowledge is the weakest component and attitude is strongest component of oncology nurses ‘competencies in chemotherapy administration.
Tazeen Saeed Ali
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale, structure of matter, size-dependent properties, forces and interactions, tools and instrumentation, as well as science, technology, and society. After item analysis, 26 multiple-choice questions were selected for the PKNT test with a KR-20 reliability of 0.91. Twenty items were developed in the PANT questionnaire which can be classified as scales of trust in government and industry, trust in scientists, and perception of benefit and risk. Cronbach alpha for the PANT questionnaire was 0.70. In a pilot study, 209 citizens, varying in age, were selected to respond to the instruments. Results indicated that about 70 % of respondents did not understand most of the six major concepts involving nanotechnology. The public tended to distrust government and industry and their levels of trust showed no relationship to their levels of knowledge about nanotechnology. However, people perceived that nanotechnology provided high benefits and high risks. Their perceptions of the benefits and risks were positively related with their knowledge level of nanotechnology. People's trust showed a negative relationship to their risk perception. Implications for using these instruments in research are discussed in this paper.
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
Full Text Available Background: Health-care professionals are at a high risk of AIDS infection, among hospitalized HIV infectedpatients. Proper training and knowledge accompanied by necessary preventive measures are by all means, the mostsignificant factors which ensure low accident rates and furthermore lower contamination rates of the health-carepersonnel.Objective: Screening and assessment of knowledge and attitudes of newly-qualified doctors towards AIDSinfection.Methodology: We conducted a cohort study with a screening questionnaire, which included demographic data and16 questions associated with AIDS infection. 51 forms were filled in by specializing and rural doctors. Thestatistical analysis was conducted using the statistical program SPSS 13.Results: 25,5% (n=13 of the participants in this reserch have treated at least one patient for HIV infection, 19%(n=10, of them would willingly specialize in intense care of HIV patients and lastly 90.2%(n=46 believe that weshould preserve the medical confidential for HIV patients. 96.1% (n=49 of the participants doctors knew thatAIDS disease is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, 88.2%(n=45 is aware that HIV virus damagesthe immune system and finally 92% (n=47 recognize HIV symptomatology.The vast majority of the doctors(98%,n=50 is aware that HIV infection is spread through sexual intercourse, blood contact and by sharing needlesor syringes. Nevertheless, a percentage of 13.7% (n=7 believe that HIV transmission is feasible through kissingand 7.8% (n=15 through insects’ bites. At last 85-98% of the personnel refer that it’s familiar with the generalpreventive measures, which are usually applied to all HIV positive inpatients.Conclusions: Knowledge and attitude of new doctors towards AIDS infection is, in general terms satisfactory.Nevertheless, it’s imperative that we constantly inform and update newly-qualified doctors about AIDS infection,in order to minimize their inhibitions and compensate for the lack of knowledge, which is commonly observed innew doctors.
Full Text Available Irene Hegeman Richard1, Kori A LaDonna1, Rosanne Hartman2, Carol Podgorski1, Roger Kurlan1, SAD-PD Study Group31University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3Please see Appendix for members of the SAD-PD Study GroupAbstract: We report results of a survey assessing patients’ knowledge about and attitudes towards depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD. 345 patients from 8 tertiary care centers responded (43% response rate. Overall, patients were relatively knowledgeable about depression and its occurrence in PD. However, many patients believed that depression is a normal reaction to the illness. While many respondents would be reluctant to initiate a discussion of depression during a clinical evaluation, most would feel comfortable talking about depression with their physician if he or she asked them questions about their mood. Based on the results of this survey, we recommend the following approach for physicians: (1 inform PD patients that, although a frequent occurrence, depression need not be accepted as a “normal reaction” to PD; and (2 routinely inquire about depressive symptoms rather than waiting for the patient to spontaneously report them.Keywords: depression, Parkinson’s disease, survey
Irene Hegeman Richard
Conclusions: The reasons for self-medication were similar among medical and non-medical students, but positive attitude and knowledge toward self-medication was more among the medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 988-994
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought inf...
Ameh, Veronica O.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Umoh, Jarlath U.
Full Text Available In Thailand, chemical fertilisers provide nutrients that are essential for increasing agricultural productivity but they are expensive, often representing 25% of the crop production cost. Tailor-made fertiliser technology is a new fertiliser application technology that is being promoted to help farmers reduce fertiliser costs. This study aims to investigate and clarify sugarcane farmers’ knowledge and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. This study also attempts to provide a better understanding of the effect of farm size on farmers’ beliefs and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. Moreover, the findings suggest that further extension of tailor-made-fertiliser practices should include training services for smallholders to improve their knowledge of relevant practices.
Hypertension is a major problem that will most certainly grow with increase in the number of older people as the population continues to age. Its complications have estimated reduction in life expectancy and number of Quality of life years. The aim of the study was to study the Knowledge, Attitude ,Practice (KAP) in the management of hypertension among old age people. Purposive random sampling technique was adapted for the study. The total sample constituted 1200 elderly w...
Roopa, K. S.; Rama Devi, G.
Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using ?2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89% had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13% knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5% were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86% did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44 than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50% received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies.
Veronica O. Ameh
Full Text Available Hypertension is a major problem that will most certainly grow with increase in the number of older people as the population continues to age. Its complications have estimated reduction in life expectancy and number of Quality of life years. The aim of the study was to study the Knowledge, Attitude ,Practice (KAP in the management of hypertension among old age people. Purposive random sampling technique was adapted for the study. The total sample constituted 1200 elderly with hypertension residents of urban Bangalore, of which 600 were men and 600 were women between the age group of 65-76 years. The tool used for the study was Structured Interview Schedule (SIS developed by the investigators on demographic profile and on KAP in the management of hypertension and the tool was administered to 1200 old age people. The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis by applying percentage mean, and 't' test. The findings revealed that the scores on the knowledge segment indicated a moderate to good knowledge among the respondents. The mean scores on attitude indicated that the groups showed a fair and healthy attitude towards hypertension. The mean scores on practice showed a moderate level to cope with hypertension.
Roopa, K. S.
Prevention and health promotion are gaining importance in modern medical curricula. Aim of this study was to evaluate the self-assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students towards health promotion and prevention. In 2012, at the Medical University of Vienna, 27% of the 633 fourth-year medical students (50.3% male and 49.7% female; mean age: 24 years) completed a questionnaire. Results show a high assessment of prevention in most respondents. Knowledge gaps were detected on occupational health and mother-child pass examinations. However, almost all students reported sufficient knowledge on screening and risk assessment of developing cardiovascular diseases. Almost all respondents estimated to be able to identify risky behaviours. Overall, estimation towards prevention of tomorrow's physicians is very positive. However, only 40% believed to have been adequately trained on preventive medicine so far. Relevant preventive aspects were added to the medical curriculum in 2012-2013 with the new block 'Public Health'. PMID:24468828
Borsoi, Livia; Rieder, Anita; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Hofhansl, Angelika; Dorner, Thomas Ernst
Background and Aim: Prevalence of malnutrition is high in under-5 years old children and mother’s nutritional knowledge, attitude, practice(KAP) is associated to nutritional status of children and lack of nutritional knowledge and their poor practices can be considered of prominent causes of children malnutrition. This study carried out to assess the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers. Materials and Methods: In this study a group of 632 mothers who had at least one chil...
Moradi-shahrebabak, H.; Dorosti-motlagh, A. R.; Sadrzadeh, M. Hoseini H.
Full Text Available Background: Emergency Contraceptive (EC is a type of modern contraception that is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. Use of EC with in a defined time period could prevent unwanted pregnancy and its damaging consequences like unintended child birth and unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of emergency contraceptives among female preparatory students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 366 female students at Atse Yohanesse preparatory school from January to May 2013. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data processing and analyzing was done using statistical package for social sciences version 20. Result: In this study, about 90.7% of the respondents had heard about emergency contraceptives. The major sources of information were mass media, club in school and friends. About 277 (75.7% of the students had good knowledge about EC. The older age was significantly associated with the students’ awareness (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.23-4.37. The majority (229(64.9% of respondents had a positive attitude towards EC. Age and ethnic group were significantly associated with the students’ attitude towards EC. Among those respondents who used contraceptives, 60.5% of them responded to use EC. About two-third (67.4% of ever users of EC had good knowledge of the correct time of taking EC after unprotected sexual intercourse. Conclusion: Although the findings of this study showed high prevalence of knowledge and attitude towards EC among respondents, the improvement of female students’ knowledge about specific details of the method and timely utilization of emergency contraception is still required.
Full Text Available As a person gets older he/she is prone to many diseases. Among them diabetes mellitus is most prevalent. Diabetes is the major threat to the growing elderly population, the existence of this condition markedly increases multi-systemic complications. Hence the study on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly people was envisioned. The study was conducted with an objective to study the KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly people. A total sample of 1200, constituting of 600 men and 600 women, between the age group of 65-76 years were randomly selected from 30 areas of urban Bangalore. A Structured Interview Schedule (SIS developed by the investigators to study the KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly. The obtained data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis by applying percentage analysis, chi-square and 't' test. The results showed moderate knowledge, fair attitude and not so good practice in the management of diabetes among the respondents.
Roopa, K. S
Background: Community pharmacies are now frequently being visited by customers/patients to seek oral advice. Malaysian community pharmacists are also found to be experiencing an increased demand of oral health advices by their visiting customers. Aims/Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the final year Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a private university toward oral health, as these students will be the future pharmacists. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among final year undergraduate pharmacy students by using self-administered questionnaire. It was conducted as a classroom survey. Raosoft software was used to determine the minimum required sample size. Results: The demographic distribution of the respondents was separated into gender, ethnicity, and state of origin. Over 83.8% of the participants were females, with Chinese ethnicity dominating (78.4%) compared to others, and the distribution showed 11 different states of origin. Conclusions: This research finding shows that pharmacy students have positive attitude toward oral health despite having poor knowledge and mediocre practice principles regarding oral health. PMID:25452930
Rajiah, Kingston; Ving, Chow Jun
Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)
Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.
The most common genetic contributor to late-onset Parkinson disease (PD) is the LRRK2 gene. In order to effectively integrate LRRK2 genetic testing into clinical practice, a strategy tailored to the PD population must be developed. We assessed 168 individuals with PD for baseline knowledge of genetics, perceived risk, and interest and opinions regarding genetic counseling and testing. Most participants felt that they were familiar with general genetics terms but overall knowledge levels were ...
Falcone, Dana Clay; Wood, Elisabeth Mccarty; Xie, Sharon X.; Siderowf, Andrew; Deerlin, Vivianna M.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Ethiopia and the Amhara region. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and health-seeking practice in this region is essential to plan, implement, and evaluate advocacy, communication, and social mobilization work. This may improve the case detection rate. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients toward TB in the Eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among suspected and confirmed TB patients who were 18 years of age and older. For this purpose, 422 participants were enrolled. A structured and pre-validated questionnaire was used to collect data. In addition ?(2) and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see an association with different variables. The mean and median knowledge score of respondents about pulmonary TB was 6.81 and 7, respectively. The majority of respondents had several misconceptions in all aspects of the most infectious form of TB. About half of the respondents did not know the current free cost of TB diagnosis and treatment. The 69.9% of respondents claimed that cost is the main reason for not getting care. The majority of respondents had several misconceptions about TB. The TB control program needs to consider advocacy, communication, and social mobilization for addressing the gap in the study sites. PMID:23419364
Esmael, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Agonafir, Mulualem; Desale, Adinew; Yaregal, Zelalem; Desta, Kassu
Changing environmental conditions have increased the transmission period for both dengue and malaria. Annual incidence of malaria in 2006 alone was 247 million cases leading to nearly 881 000 deaths; whereas another 50 to 100 million dengue infections, associated with an overall mortality of 2.5%, are expected each year. In Pakistan, like many developing nations with endemic malaria, an empirical clinical diagnosis is usually made, due to a lack of resources and availability of diagnostic facilities. Since both diseases are endemic in the same population and presenting symptoms are similar a thorough knowledge of both diseases is essential for improving diagnosis on clinical grounds. Thus our study aims were to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices of family medicine practitioners with regard to dengue and malaria and thereby assess the need for further training. Ninety consenting general practitioners (GPs) in different towns of Karachi, Pakistan were administered an extensive questionnaire of 50 questions regarding their knowledge, attitudes and practices on management of dengue and malaria. The authors concluded that despite possessing basic knowledge of the disease, the majority of GPs in the area needed training regarding both diseases and their management. Key targets identified for training programs included clinical diagnosis and management of endemic vector borne diseases. PMID:24038185
Thaver, Ali M; Sobani, Zain A; Qazi, Fahad; Khan, Maryam; Zafar, Afia; Beg, M Asim
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common cause for genital warts and cervical cancer. Developing countries in the Middle East such as Lebanon are traditionally considered to be conservative societies with low incidence of sexually transmitted infections. However, nowadays, there is an unexpected increase in the incidence of HPV infections among Middle Eastern females. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the behavioral perceptions of HPV vaccination among female students attending an academic institution in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study invited 512 students to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and intentions towards HPV vaccination. Data analysis included the calculation of knowledge scores ranging from 0 to 100, attitude scores ranging from most positive (1) to most negative (5), and intention scores ranging from lowest intention (0) to highest intention (10). With a response rate of n=215 (42%), 36.5% never heard of the vaccine before, and only 16.5% were already HPV vaccinated. The median knowledge score of 52.7%±1.71 reflects poor to moderate knowledge. Still, the median attitude score of 2.47±0.05 shows a general positive attitude towards HPV vaccination where most of the participants agreed that female college students in Lebanon have a good chance of contracting HPV (62.1%) and that all gynecologists should recommend the vaccine (76.0%). Students in graduate programs, health related majors, and those who are vaccinated had significantly higher knowledge scores compared with students in undergraduate programs, non-health related majors, and HPV non-vaccinated students, respectively. Finally, the survey helped in increasing the intention to obtain HPV vaccine as the intention score increased significantly from 5.24±0.27 before the students went through the survey to 6.98±0.22 after the students completed the survey. Our study highlights the importance of offering guidance to female college students about HPV and its vaccination in developing countries where the incidence of sexually transmitted infections is on the rise. PMID:25597945
Dany, Mohammed; Chidiac, Alissar; Nassar, Anwar H
Objective: To assess the cultural competence of dietetics majors. Design: Self-administered questionnaire. Setting: Classrooms at 7 universities. Participants: Two hundred eighty-three students--98 juniors (34.6%) and 185 seniors (65.4%)--recruited during class time. Main Outcome Measures: Knowledge was measured using a multiple-choice test,…
McArthur, Laura H.; Greathouse, Karen R.; Smith, Erskine R.; Holbert, Donald
Full Text Available Background: Adrenal insufficiency is a common occurrence in the critically ill and it is essential that intensivists and endocrinologists involved in the care of these patients have a good understanding of the concepts related to this condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices about adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in the city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing ten questions pertaining to adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill were sent to a total of six endocrinologists and 52 intensivists practicing in Chennai. Results: About 77% of all the respondents agreed to the fact that adrenal insufficiency is a frequent occurrence in critical illness. But 57% of them felt that there is no need for routine evaluation of critically ill patients for adrenal insufficiency. Random serum cortisol was selected by 62% of the responders as the method for evaluating adrenal function in the critically ill. There is clearly no agreement among the endocrinologists or the intensivists on the various cut off levels for diagnosis. Neither is there a clear consensus on the method followed for treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency in the critical care unit. Conclusion: There is no concordance in the knowledge, attitudes or practices on adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists in Chennai. There is a need for developing standard diagnostic and treatment guidelines and making it available for all the practicing endocrinologists and intensivists.
Full Text Available Context: Use of steroids in septic shock is an issue of contention, more so with two major trials reporting conflicting results. Aims: To assess the current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP related to the role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists practising in Hyderabad. Setting, Design, Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing 10 questions pertaining to the role of steroids in septic shock, were distributed to 76 intensivists during the monthly critical care meeting. Results: A great majority of intensivists (82% agreed that the role of steroids is restricted to septic shock not responding to vasopressors. There was no clear consensus regarding the role of corticotropin stimulation test or the timing of total cortisol level testing, if it has to be performed. Hydrocortisone was clearly the choice of steroid for most intensivists and intravenous bolus injection being the preferred route of administration. There was no agreement regarding the dose of steroids, the role of fludrocortisone and whether steroids should be tapered. Most of the respondents did not extend the steroid therapy beyond seven days and the most common side effect reported was hyperglycemia. Conclusion: There is a lot of ambiguity in the knowledge, attitudes or practices regarding role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists in Hyderabad. Uniform policies and protocols need to be devised at institutional level, with multispecialty inputs, and doctors need to be familiarized accordingly.
Full Text Available
Background: The education of preventing HIV/AIDS among the students 1S one of the best methods to prevent the spread of AIDS Virus. The awareness of the students' knowledge about this disease is the first step in this way.
Methods: This descriptive-analytic study (cross-sectional was done in Hamadan male high schools in 1383-84, By using a closed questionnaire, the data was collected from 409 students which had been chosen through the simple random and cluster sampling. The data were analyzed statistically by using the SPSS software.
Results: In this study ,there was a significant relationship between knowledge and age (P < 0.001,grade of education (P < 0.001,father job (P < 0.001 and source of information about AIDS (P < 0.001 And also, there was a significant relationship between attitude and age (P = 0.007, father education level(P = 0.003 ,mother education level (PÂ = 0.030,grade of education (P < 0.001,father job (PÂ < 0.001,and source of information about AIDS (P < 0.001.
Conclusions: Parents' and teachers' participation in transferring the information (related to sexual health, AIDS, and etc is the fundamental basis for promotion of students knowledge and attitude.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ? 10; item reduction ? 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.
Pongracic Jacqueline A
Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and...
Haftom Gebrehiwot, Berhane Gebrekidan
Full Text Available Introduction : Hypertension (HTN is a common serious health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates .At the same time ,HTN is widely prevalent all over the world including Egypt. For many people, the primary care physician is their first point of contact with the health care system, as well as their main source of preventive and essential care. Objective: Assessing knowledge, attitude and practices of primary health care physicians towards screening patients for hypertension in Cairo. Methodology:A cross-sectional study , conducted in the primary health care centres (PHCC in Nasr city, which was chosen randomly to represent Cairo city , where all doctors working in these centres were asked to complete a self administered structured and open ended questionnaire contained the relevant variables : Results: About 90% of the studied physicians were convinced with the importance of routine measuring blood pressure for risky patients and 79% stated that role of the PHC physician should be the early detection of HTN. As regards knowledge towards HTN items, only 23.5% knew the prevalence and 18.5% knew the most recent definition and grading. The practices of the doctors towards screening patients for HTN ,showed that only 63.9% of the doctors usually perform accurate and enough procedures to diagnose HTN patients and 46.2% routinely screen patients around forty years old while only 43.7% were regularly checking up the accuracy of the used sphygmomanometers . Conclusion: The participating physicians had poor knowledge towards some important items especially the prevalence and new classification of HTN. Their practices were not optimal as regards the accurate diagnosis of HTN and routine checkup and measuring blood pressure for people attending the PHC clinics. Recommendations to manage these defects were suggested.
Ayman S. Abdelhady
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
Human organ transplantation is an important treatment for certain medical conditions, and for irreversible organ failure. There is a shortfall in the number of organs required for transplantation. The close and continuous proximity of nurses to potential donors and their families make them critical links in the organ donation process. Therefore, success in organ procurement may depend on nurses' awareness and integration of knowledge about donotransplantation (the process of organ/tissue donation and transplantation). Postal questionnaires were distributed throughout the United Kingdom (UK) to 2465 registered nurses, to assess their personal attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding cadaveric donotransplantation. One thousand, three hundred and thirty-three questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 54%. Overall, nurses held positive attitudes to donotransplantation, with 78% agreeing with organ donation and only 10% clearly being opposed. However, nurses were found to share ambivalent attitudes of altruism and fear which appear to surround decisions about donation. Factor analysis was used to further explore nurses' attitude structure. Six factors were confirmed providing a non-significant likelihood ratio fit (P = 0.468) and a well reproduced correlation matrix. The factors related to: (1) the value and contribution made by donotransplantation; (2) the unique idea of having another's tissue in one's own body; (3) the importance of organ donation; (4) the individual's moral, and nurses' professional rejection of the responsibility for organ/tissue donation; (5) the post-mortem mutilation of the body; and, (6) the potential distress donation may cause a bereaved family. Comparisons were made between certain of nurses' specialist groups and significant differences were found. Comparisons of factor scores between certain specialist groups or other strata were assessed by analysis of variance. Nurses working in renal units were significantly more in favour of donotransplantation than any other group of nurses. PMID:10641806
Sque, M; Payne, S; Vlachonikolis, I
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, Ind...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Full Text Available Abstract Background As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smoking cessation advice. Methods This paper aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers caring for pregnant Australian Aboriginal women with regard to smoking risks and cessation; and to identify factors associated with self-reported assessment of smoking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 127 staff providing antenatal care to Aboriginal women from two jurisdictions: the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Measures included respondents' estimate of the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women; optimal and actual assessment of smoking status; knowledge of risks associated with antenatal smoking; knowledge of smoking cessation; attitudes to providing cessation advice to pregnant women; and perceived barriers and motivators for cessation for pregnant women. Results The median provider estimate of the smoking prevalence was 69% (95%CI: 60,70. The majority of respondents considered assessment of smoking status to be integral to antenatal care and a professional responsibility. Most (79% indicated that they assess smoking status in 100% of clients. Knowledge of risks was generally good, but knowledge of cessation was poor. Factors independently associated with assessing smoking status among all women were: employer service type (p = 0.025; cessation knowledge score (p = 0.011; and disagreeing with the statement that giving advice is not worth it given the low level of success (p = 0.011. Conclusions Addressing knowledge of smoking risks and cessation counselling is a priority and should improve both confidence and ability, and increase the frequency and effectiveness of counselling. The health system must provide supports to providers through appropriate policy and resourcing, to enable them to address this issue.
Passey Megan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in 2002. Although the epidemic is currently stable, HIV/AIDS remains a major development challenge for Ethiopia. The spread of HIV in any community is in part determined by the knowledge of attitude towards sexuality of its members and by their actual sexual practices. The aim of the study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS and STDs in Gondar, North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between February 1 to March 1, 2009 in preparatory high school students. Pre-tested questioner was used to generate the data and analysis was made by SPSS version 15. Chi -square value was calculated and p-value Results All the students had heard about AIDS before the interview. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite low in the study group. Only half of the students knew that at present, AIDs is incurable and that HIV infection can be acquired through sexual contact with a 'familiar' person. Knowledge about STI was also quite low, 39% knew that pus in the urine is a symptom of STI and 45.4% knew that acquisition of other STIs is increases the chance of HIV transmission following unsafe sex with known cases. 25% of the study group had previous sexual intercourse and exposed at least one risk behavior. About 34% of the respondents had negative attitude towards AIDS and STDs. Conclusion Awareness about STDs and methods of prevention of HIV and STDs was low. More risk behavior was observed in male and those with alcohol and drugs of abuse.
Conclusion: Such training programme should be regularly organized for the undergraduate student as these may not only increase the knowledge of the undergraduate students but also have a positive change in the attitude of students
Ranjana Tiwari, Dhiraj Kumar Srivastava, Manoj Bansal, Parharam Adhikari, Shraddha Mishra
Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an educational program based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) in patients with Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) referred to Razi Hospital in Iran. Mater...
Roya Sadeghi; Azar Tol; Masoud Baikpour; Azita Moradi; Mostafa Hossaini
Full Text Available Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre higiene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada. Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain. The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p <0.001. Declarative knowledge and attitudes significantly predicted behavior. Conclusions: The questionnaire shows high internal consistency, reliability, and validity and is thus a valid tool to assess behavior, knowledge and attitudes related to hand hygiene in health professionals. This instrument also detects deficiencies in basic knowledge.
In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transpla...
Bilgel, N.; Sadikoglu, G.; Bilgel, H.
Full Text Available Various methods have been performed to identify teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was utilized during the semi-structured interview protocol and used as the study’s data collection tool. Attitude maps were constructed during the evaluation process to represent the pre-service teachers’ attitudes’ towards assessment. The participants’ attitudes were determined and categorized as traditional, close to traditional, transitional, close to constructivist, and constructivist. Criterion validity of the results was achieved by comparing the categories drawn from the attitude maps with the categories derived by the survey. Results indicate that attitude mapping is a useful way to evaluate teachers’ attitudes towards assessment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs are common in children. The cause is usually viral, but parents' attitude often contributes to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective is to describe the process of developing a questionnaire to assess parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP concerning the role of antibiotics when children suffer from URIs, as well as to evaluate the response rates, the completeness and the reliability (Cronbach of the questionnaires. Finally, to note any limitations of the study. Methods Literature review, along with pre – testing yielded a questionnaire designed to assess the parents' KAP – level. A postal survey was set, in a national sample of 200 schools stratified by geographical region. The participants consist of a multistage geographical cluster sample of 8000 parents. The influence of demographic characteristics (i.e. sex, age, education was analyzed. Cronbach index test and factor analysis were used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Results The response rate of the parents was 69%. Islands presented the lowest response rate while in Northern Greece the response rate was the highest. Sixty – eight point nine percent of the sample returned questionnaires fully completed, while 91.5% completed 95% of the questions. Three questions out of 70 were answered in a very low rate which was associated mostly with immigrant respondents. The section describing parents' attitude toward antibiotic use was not completed as much as the sections of knowledge or practices. The questions were factor analyzed and 10 out of the 21 extracted factors were finally evaluated, reducing the number of independent variables to 46. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.55. However, only items that increased the Cronbach when added were eventually included in the final scales raising the internal consistency to 0.68. Limitations of the study, such as the vocabulary and form of the questionnaire and the idiocycrancy of the respondents, emerged during the analysis. Conclusion The response rate and the completeness of the questionnaires were higher than expected, probably attributed to the involvement of the teachers. The study findings were satisfactory regarding the development of a reliable instrument capable to measure parents' KAP characteristics.
Goutziana Georgia P
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
Various methods have been performed to identify teachers' attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers' attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was…
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…
The present study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes of the pharmacists on dispensing drugs to pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 150 community pharmacies randomly selected in Curitiba (Brazil). A closed end questionnaire with 25 questions were used, including dispensing scenarios containing risk types A, B, D or X and questions on pharmacist interaction with pregnant women, physicians, and information sources availability. Results: Pharmacists performed appropriately in...
Jp, Baldon; Cj, Correr; Ac, Melchior; Rossignoli P; Fernandez-Llimos F; Pontarolo R
Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and t...
Shu Hui Ng, ?.; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu
Purpose: Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program.The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods: Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to V...
Peerkhan Nazni; Srinivasan Vimala
Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-section...
Ayla Yava; Hatice Çicek; Nuran Tosun; Celale Özcan; Dilek Yildiz; Berna Dizer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%, public swimming pools (21%, and public toilets (20% were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools.
Combining field experience with use of information technology has the potential to create a problem-based learning environment that engages learners in authentic scientific inquiry. This study, conducted over a 2-yr period, determined differences in attitudes and conceptual knowledge between students in a field lab and students with combined field…
Simmons, M. E.; Wu, X. B.; Knight, S. L.; Lopez, R. R.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: There are more than five million neonatal death around the world of which %19 was because of Asphyxia at birth time. In our country, there has been educational program in order to decrease the mortality caused by Asphyxia and to practice a scientific method for resuscitation. This study was conducted to determine the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice for every learner of neonatal resuscitation in the governmental hospitals of Mazandaran province in 2005(1384.Materials and Methods: current study was a descriptive cross sectional done on All Trainees who had professional direct contact with birth Asphyxia. We selected exactly 137 people who had attended Neonatal Resuscitation Workshop for three days.Results: The subjects under the study were %62/8 midwife and %89/8 women. Data show that % 44.5 had good knowledge and % 11.7 had very good knowledge on neonatal Resuscitation. The highest acknowledge was %93/4 and %89/1 on chest compression and breath stimulation way respectively. Data also suggested that totally % 96.34 of the subjects had good and very good attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation. The results show that only % 38.4 of the subjects under the study had a good level practice and their attitudes in terms of age were significantly different (P<0.01. Also, their practice on job showed a significant difference (P<0.017. In the study, there was a converse relation between age and professional experience which was r = 0.25 and r = 0.26, respectively.Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that the amount of knowledge and practice for the subjects under the study was average, but their attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation was good. There fore, according to the positive attitude of the subjects,there must be a trend to promote knowledge and practice.
M. Ahmady, M.Sc
Full Text Available Background: Tight glycemic control in the critically ill is known to reduce both the morbidity and the mortality. It is essential that intensivists and endocrinologists involved in the care of these patients have a good understanding of the concepts related to this condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices about achieving tight glycemic control in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in the city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing ten questions pertaining to clinical outcomes, drawbacks, target levels of glycemic control and insulin regimen in achieving tight glycemia in the critically ill were sent to a total of six endocrinologists and 52 intensivists practicing in Chennai. Results: All those who were administered the questionnaires responded. Majority of the responders (88% believed in tight glycemic control in the critically ill because of better outcomes from hospitalization. A minority did not for fear of hypoglycemia. Fifty percent agreed on the cut off value of 110 mg/dL as followed in the Van den Berghe study. Seventy percent used glucometer for monitoring sugar levels. Most preferred using regular insulin as infusion. Conclusions: There seems to be a good understanding and standard practices among the endocrinologists and intensivists in achieving strict glycemic control in the critically ill. Setting up of standard intensive care unit glycemic control protocols will settle all the methodological differences and make the practices more uniform.
Some studies of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior involve college students who volunteered to participate in the research. The present study assesses the impact of volunteer bias when considering random samples of an entire student body. (Author)
Bauman, Karl E.
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: 98% (153/156) of the students had knowledge about family planning and ...
Prachi Renjhen; Ashwini Kumar; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Afrin Sagir; Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe
Abstract Background As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with...
Passey Megan E; D'Este Catherine A; Sanson-Fisher Robert W
Combining field experience with use of information technology has the potential to create a problem-based learning environment that engages learners in authentic scientific inquiry. This study, conducted over a 2-yr period, determined differences in attitudes and conceptual knowledge between students in a field lab and students with combined field and geographic information systems (GIS) experience. All students used radio-telemetry equipment to locate fox squirrels, while one group of studen...
Simmons, M. E.; Wu, X. B.; Knight, S. L.; Lopez, R. R.
The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of the three long acting beta2-agonists (Salmeterol, Formoterol and Bambuterol) in south Indian population. This prospective multi-centered study conducted in various hospitals on basis of block randomization method using St. George’s respiratory questionnaire and assess pulmonary function using spirometer. Out of 85 patients, 25 received Salmeterol, 35 received Formoterol and 25 received Bambuterol, showed variable improvement in the quali...
Siraj Sundaran; Premkumar, N.; Rajendran, S. D.; Mohammed Saji, S.
Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.
Prashanth K and Umarani J
We live in a time where there is an increasing emphasis on environmental attitudes and interest in the environment and organisms. Toads and other amphibians are animals which children consider to be some of the most disgusting animals. Before teachers can take measures to protect amphibians, they have to find out about the students' attitudes towards and knowledge of these animals. The purpose of our research was to find out how the attitudes towards toads and the knowledge of amphibians was...
There remains a great need for organ donation. Each year thousands of individuals wait for organs to be donated for transplantation. In this study, the Organ Donation Attitude Survey (ODAS) was developed. One hundred ninety undergraduate students (114 women with a mean age of 20.0 and 76 men with a mean age of 20.5 years) enrolled in general education classes at a small midwestern university participated. The present study determined that ODAS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes regarding organ donation. The data were analyzed by stepwise regression to determine which variables were related to attitudes regarding organ donation. The results indicated the impact of four variables: education regarding organ donation, knowledge of someone who had donated an organ after death, awareness of anyone who received a donated organ, and religious beliefs. These significant variables in the regression analysis explained 24.95% of the ODAS total score variability. The most important results of the present study indicated that the ODAS was psychometrically valid and it could be used to evaluate attitudes regarding organ donation. PMID:14697918
Rumsey, S; Hurford, D P; Cole, A K
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.
Kaghaz kanani R.
Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries. Evaluating the pattern of their use would be interesting to assess the appropriateness of adequate intervention. Using a standardized questionnaire, a knowledge, attitude, and practice study was performed in two Lebanese regions, in which a group of agricultural workers was compared to workers of the general population and a third group of pesticide distributors. Agricultural workers were exposed to pesticides during cropping, mixing, loading, and application (100%). They had low pesticide knowledge scales compared to pesticide distributors and to the general population workers (PPesticide safety education is necessary in order to induce protective behavior among agricultural workers. The general population may also benefit from increasing their awareness regarding pesticides. PMID:14643280
Salameh, Pascale R; Baldi, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Abi Saleh, Bernadette
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre hi [...] giene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada). Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Abstract in english Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals [...] and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain). The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p
Joaquín, González-Cabrera; María, Fernández-Prada; Humberto M., Trujillo Mendoza.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre hi [...] giene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada). Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Abstract in english Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals [...] and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain). The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p
Joaquín, González-Cabrera; María, Fernández-Prada; Humberto M., Trujillo Mendoza.
Full Text Available The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE in the XXI century isevident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. Theauthors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the existence of products of knowledge expression which could be created in acquisition, creation, usage and development of them. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as knowledge expression characteristics: economic and social context, human resources, ICT, innovative business and innovation policy. The reason for this analysis was based on the idea that in spite of the knowledge economy existence in all developed World countries adefinitive, universal list of indicators for mapping and measuring the KBE does not yet exists. Knowledge Expression Assessment Models are presented in the article.
Madalina Cristina Tocan
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…
Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management. PMID:24602419
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K
Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, no evidence of a cause-effect relationship was found.
Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Allred, Charlene A.; And Others
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results w...
Asl? Küçükünal; ?lknur K?vanç Altunay; Ezgi Akta?; Gül?en Tükenmez Demirci
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406
Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an important part of medical education. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research in a group of Pakistani medical students at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods It was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted among a group of Pakistani medical students. Through stratified random sampling, a pre-tested, structured and validated questionnaire was administered to 220 medical students. Knowledge and attitudes were recorded on a scale (graduated in percentages. Results Mean scores of students were 49.0% on knowledge scale and 53.7% on attitude scale. Both knowledge and attitudes improved significantly with increasing years of study in medical college [Regression coefficient 4.10 (p-value; 0.019 and 6.67 (p-value; Conclusion Medical students demonstrate moderate level of knowledge and attitude towards health research. Intensive training in this regard is associated with significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes of students towards health research.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Full Text Available Introduction Poor knowledge of and negative attitudes toward available screening tests may account in part for colorectal cancer screening rates being the lowest among 17 quality measures reported for the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, the largest integrated health system in the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a brief assessment tool to evaluate knowledge and attitudes among veterans toward colorectal cancer screening options. Methods A 44-item questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and screening and was then administered as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial among 388 veterans receiving care in a general medicine clinic. Sixteen candidate items on colorectal cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were selected for further evaluation using principal components analysis. Two sets of items were then further analyzed. Results Because the Cronbach a for beliefs was low (a = 0.06, the beliefs subscale was deleted from further consideration. The final scale consisted of seven items: a four-item attitude subscale (a = 0.73 and a three-item knowledge subscale (a = 0.59. Twelve-month follow-up data were used to evaluate predictive validity; improved knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with completion of flexible sigmoidoscopy (P = .004 and completion of either flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (P = .02. Conclusion The two-factor scale offers a parsimonious and reliable measure of colorectal cancer screening knowledge and attitudes among veterans. This colorectal Cancer Screening Survey (CSS may especially be useful as an evaluative tool in developing and testing of interventions designed to improve screening rates within this population.
Franklin Medio, PhD
This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…
Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani
Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding tho...
Plazas Vargas, Merideidy; Go?mez Sua?rez, Marcela; Castro Moreno, Carlos Alberto
Dental students should have knowledge of geriatric dental care and positive attitudes toward elderly patients. This study assessed senior dental students' knowledge of geriatric dental care and their attitude towards elderly patients. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on volunteer senior students in all dental schools (n = 512) in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The completed questionnaires (n = 464) were analysed. The mean scores of respondents' knowledge and attitudes were 12.7 (SD 2.9) and 48 (SD 6.1) respectively. Female and male students' knowledge did not differ significantly but their attitudes score was different. The majority of dental students had low to moderate levels of knowledge of geriatric dental care and attitudes toward elderly people; therefore, an intervention programme is indicated. We conducted the study to use the findings to incorporate geriatric dental care programmes into dental school curricula in the Islamic Republic of Iran. PMID:24995742
Hatami, B; Ahmady, A Ebn; Khoshnevisan, M H; Lando, H A
Objectives: To examine the seroprevalence and correlates of antibodies to herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), and to assess patients' knowledge and attitude towards genital herpes infection and its serotesting, before and after counselling.
Narouz, N.; Allan, P.; Wade, A.; Wagstaffe, S.
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Female athletes often engage in harmful dietary and weight control practices that can impair bone health and hinder performance. To promote related positive health behavior practices, nutrition educators may be more effective if they understand the osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female athletes. A questionnaire including items related to osteoporosis and dietary calcium knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral practices was administered to 114 female collegiate athletes (19.6+/-1.4 years). Self-reported intakes of dairy product consumption were also obtained; subjects were asked how many times per week they drank milk and ate cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. The mean score for osteoporosis knowledge was 7.1+/-1.9 (out of 10 items). The mean score for favorable responses to attitude items was 2.1+/-0.8 (out of 3 items). Correct responses to dietary calcium knowledge items were 2.2+/-0.7 (out of 3 items). On average, subjects consumed 2.4+/-1.6 servings of dairy products per day; 31% of subjects consumed the recommended 3 or more servings per day. Osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis attitudes, and dietary calcium knowledge were not correlated (p > .05) with dairy product intake. Because of the importance of achieving a high peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis, our data suggest that further research is needed regarding other factors that might influence dairy product intake among female athletes. PMID:11915782
Turner, L W; Bass, M A
Although several studies have been conducted to assess dentists' knowledge of and attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), few have targeted dental assistants. The main aims of this study were to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among dental assistants in Kuwait and to compare the knowledge and attitudes of dental assistants at Kuwait University Dental Center (KUDC) with those of dental assistants in Ministry of Health (MoH) hospitals. The secondary objective was to determine if any intervention was needed to provide more information to dental assistants on HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing questionnaires. The study sample included 85 dental assistants from each of KUDC and the MoH. The questionnaire included questions to assess the assistants' knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Statistical data analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Qualitative data were analysed using the Pearson chi-square text for any association or the Z-test for proportion to test the significance of differences. A total of 167 questionnaires were completed, returned and analysed. KUDC dental assistants were found to have significantly more knowledge about HIV/AIDS than their MoH counterparts, whereas the assistants at the MoH clinics displayed a more positive attitude towards patients with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.05). Although dental assistants at KUDC were more knowledgeable than those at the MoH clinics, there are still some misconceptions that need to be addressed, in addition to the negative attitudes displayed by some of the respondents. It would therefore be beneficial to increase awareness about HIV/AIDS patients through lectures, seminars and workshops targeting dental assistants. PMID:25345503
AlMuzaini, Anwar A A Y; Yahya, Asmaa S Y S; Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Sharma, Prem N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards research amongst a group of Post Graduate Medical Trainees (PGMTs' at Aga Khan University (AKU, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional health research survey was carried out on all PGMTs' at AKU Pakistan. AKU is a tertiary care health facility which offers residency in 28 specialties and fellowship in 16 programs. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to health research were assessed using a pretested, structured and validated questionnaire. Health research related practices of the residents were examined using questions graded on Likert scale. Results Mean percentage score ± SD on the knowledge scale was 36.9% ± 20.2 and 47.19% ± 25.18 on the attitude scale. Of 104(55.6% who had previously participated in research 28(26.9% had been involved in basic science research only, 62(59.6% in clinical research and 14(13.5% had participated in both clinical and basic science research projects. 88(47.1% planned to pursue a future research career. Those who planned to pursue a future research career had more positive health research attitudes p Conclusion PGMTs' demonstrate inadequate knowledge, while they have moderate attitudes towards health research. Residency training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by resident trainees.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…
Patterson, George T.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved
Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc
Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22 % response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439
McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The m...
Leilah Zahedi; Emma Sizemore; Stuart Malcolm; Emily Grossniklaus; Oguchi Nwosu
Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemo...
Taraneh Movahhed; Hadi Ghasemi; Behjatalmolook Ajami; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri; Mahboobe Dehghani
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigi...
Palaian S; Mi, Ibrahim; Mishra P.
This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
Russell, Elizabeth B.
Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…
Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic teaching (DT group or a combined didactic teaching and self-directed learning (DT/SDL group. The DT/SDL group continued having a series of learning activities after both groups had a lecture on depression together. Student's knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately after the activities, one month and six months later. Results The intervention (DT/SDL group showed substantially greater improvements in recognition of depression as a major health issue and identifying helpful treatments than the DT group. Only the DT/SDL group demonstrated any improvement in attitudes. This improvement was sustained over six months. Conclusions Self-directed learning is an effective education strategy in improving medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards depression.
Davenport Tracey A
Full Text Available Healthcare workers (HCWs who are employed in traditional health care workplaces face a serious danger that may threaten their life; it is their exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF. In Lebanon, the introduction of a hospital accreditation system has put a particular emphasis on staff safety, and on the evaluation of professional practice (EPP programs. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 277 HCWs working in 4 general hospitals in South Lebanon. Objective: 1 describe the prevalence and the risk factors for occupational exposure to BBF among HCWs; 2 evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices of HCW concerning blood-borne pathogens and adherence to universal safety precautions. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.14 years (SD = 10.33, 57.4% were females. 43.3% of HCWs expressed that they use gloves all the time for every activeity of care. 67.1% were aware that needles should not be recapped after use; registered nurses and nursing students were more aware than physicians and nursing assistants (nurse in this subject. 30% of HCWs declared having had at least one occupational exposure to BBF; 62.7% of all accidental exposure was reported to the department responsible for managing exposures. Percutaneous injuries were the most frequently reported. Vaccination coverage was 88.4% for hepatitis B, and 48.4% against influenza. The source patient was tested in 43.4% of reported BBF exposures. Accidental exposure to BBF was more frequent in older people (OR = 3.42; p = 0.03 and the more experienced. Subjects working in intensive care unit ward reported more exposure to BBF (OR = 3; p = 0.04. Participants incurring exposure to BBF resorted to different measures after the injury suggesting a lack of a uniform policy for post-exposure prophylaxis. Conclusion: Exposure to BBF represents an important and frequently preventable occupational hazard for HCWs in Lebanon that requires continuous EPP of HCWs, and a comprehensive approach for prevention and management.
Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice) model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-se...
Sanskriti Khanal; Ramya Shenoy; Arathi Rao; Baranya Shrikrishna Suprabha
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess mental health knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers in Belize before and immediately after a competency based training program in mental health. A baseline Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey was given to health personnel, mainly nurses, working primary and secondary care. The intervention was a 13-week face-to-face training course for health care professionals with the objective of increasing their competency in me...
Bennett, Eleanor Davis
This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study d...
Lwelamira, J.; Mnyamagola, G.; Msaki, M. M.
The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher?s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher?s attitude and the way they handle the i...
Mohandas U; Chandan G
Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in medical science and modern technology, epilepsy remains as a stigmatized condition and negative public attitude toward epilepsy is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries such as Iran. It is the major factor causing serious social discrimination against people with epilepsy which in turn may be more devastating than the disorder itself. Thorough understanding of the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy is essential to modify these negative attitudes. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire interview survey in crowd locations of Tehran in August, 2004-April 2005. A total of 1079 persons all more than 15 years old were asked to fill the questionnaire. Results: Eighty eight percent of respondents had heard about epilepsy before, 42.2% of them knew one person with epilepsy. However, out of responses about the causes of epilepsy, 52/4% said it was caused by brain damage, 26.4% said it was an inherited disease,, 14.3% said it was due to fever, 34.8% believed stress as the cause of it and1.1% said evil spirits was the cause. 56.9% considered pregnancy to be appropriate for epileptics. 94% believed children with epilepsy could go to school and have normal education. Conclusion: According to this survey, public knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy in study population is not satisfactory. It is suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through education programs especially among school children.
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.
This descriptive study explored the influence of specific geriatric knowledge on second and third year nursing students in their provision of care to older adults. Nineteen student participants provided qualitative data on their values and beliefs about nursing older adults prior to their attendance at a 1-h session teaching about two assessment tools: SPICES (Sleep disorders, Problems with feeding, Incontinence, Confusion, Evidence of falls, Skin breakdown) and BPI-SF (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form). Data were again collected following a 6-week practice experience in which the same students had the opportunity to implement the tools. Four emerging themes, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and application, suggested how the students' geriatric knowledge and attitudes evolved and took on personal meaning in their intermediate practice experiences. Their realization of the hegemony associated with devaluing of the care of older adults warrants further examination into how geriatric knowledge is conveyed and assimilated. PMID:23465846
Potter, Gail; Clarke, Tammie; Hackett, Susan; Little, Maureen
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik
Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes of the pharmacists on dispensing drugs to pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 150 community pharmacies randomly selected in Curitiba (Brazil. A closed end questionnaire with 25 questions were used, including dispensing scenarios containing risk types A, B, D or X and questions on pharmacist interaction with pregnant women, physicians, and information sources availability. Results: Pharmacists performed appropriately in 53% of the encounters. Lower success were associated to prednison and captopril (24.8% in both, end cases producing more doubts were captopril (31.7% and simvastatin (30.7%. Most of the pharmacists state have advised drugs to pregnant women or contact to the physician to discuss about a prescription related with this issue. A Majority (64.4% did not feel able to understand FDA risk classification and did not have trustable information sources in pharmacy. Conclusions: Pharmacists dispensing drugs in Curitiba are not able to interpret information on the use of drugs in pregnant women, and they don have reliable information sources on the use of dugs in pregnancy. However, they advice and counsel drugs to pregnant women and discuss with physicians therapeutic strategies.
The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)
Johnson, Faye C. Stucy
This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…
Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.
In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…
Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
Undertreatment of postoperative pain can aggravate patient outcomes and is associated with attending nurses' knowledge deficits or negative attitudes toward pain. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward postoperative pain of surgical department nurses and to identify predictors of their knowledge and attitudes. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey that took place in the departments of general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, ear-nose-throat surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology at five Greek hospitals. Participants were a convenience sample of registered and assistant nurses. Nurses were asked to complete a three-section questionnaire, which included demographics, a Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) tool modified for postoperative pain, and seven questions capturing personal characteristics, working conditions, and feelings about work. One hundred eighty-two questionnaires were completed. Average scores were 45.35% for modified KASRP tool; 28.57% for pain assessment; 55.44% for general pain management; and 47.13% for use of analgesics. Four of the five most commonly missed items referred to use of analgesics. More previous personal experience of postoperative pain (p = .002) and being a registered nurse (p = .015) predicted higher modified KASRP tool score. Participation in continuing education programs and department of employment were also associated with differences in the modified tool score. The knowledge deficits and negative attitudes of the nurses toward postoperative pain highlight the role of pregraduate and continuing education, appropriately specialized for each surgical department, in the development of empathy toward patients in pain and of clinical competency regarding pain assessment and administration of analgesics. PMID:24981120
Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Gardeli, Panagiota; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Adamopoulou, Katerina; Avdulla, Christos; Tzourala, Georgia; Konstantinou, Evangelos
This article reports three studies in which a scale for assessing teachers' beliefs about professional-development initiatives was developed and its scores evaluated for reliability and validity. Results indicated that the Teachers' Attitudes About Professional Development (TAP) scale produced scores with high reliability, a stable one-factor…
Torff, Bruce; Sessions, David; Byrnes, Katherine
Introduction: cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about Hu...
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio; Miranda Machado Pablo Andrés; Borre Arrieta Orlando
The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87%) had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM) products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students...
Kadir Bilen; Murat Özel
Adolescents with asthma, their peers, and their teachers were studied in order to establish the level of knowledge concerning asthma and its management, their attitudes towards asthma, and the degree quality of life impairment due to asthma. A community survey was conducted among year 8 high school students (n = 4161) and their teachers (n = 1104). There was a good response rate to the questionnaires from students (93%) and teachers (61%). Twenty three per cent of students had asthma and this...
Gibson, P. G.; Henry, R. L.; Vimpani, G. V.; Halliday, J.
Full Text Available This paper reports data from a survey conducted with 260 Bahamian adolescents assessing their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about AIDS. The results revealed that these adolescents have a high level of knowledge about AIDS. In fact, these adolescents are as knowledgeable about AIDS as adolescents in their normed group, which consisted of low-income African American adolescents. Further, neither males nor females differed in their perceptions about their risk for getting AIDS and in their perceptions about the effectiveness of condoms in preventing the spread of AIDS. Implications for the development of AIDS prevention programmes for Bahamian adolescents are discussed.
Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement "Tanned skin is healthy skin", this was not the case for "Tanning makes me look better". Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior. PMID:24802677
Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B
Pain is an unpleasant human experience, often associated with underlying medical conditions, and a key reason for individuals experiencing pain to seek medical advice. However, the pain experience is unique and subjective, and affects people's quality of life, as well as impacting on their concerned family members. Optimal pain management requires adequate knowledge, a positive attitude, and competent pain assessment measures. It has been reported that oncology nurses in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) have inadequate knowledge, assessment skills and management of pain. PMID:25190634
Alqahtani, Mohammed; Jones, Linda Katherine
The paper presented by the author at the first IAEA Knowledge Management Conference (2004, Saclay, France) was dedicated to the main achievements of the Soviet Union and Russia in generation and systematization of nuclear knowledge and in providing human resources for their application. Nevertheless, some well-known nuclear professionals consider the breach of the normal knowledge transfer process, which occurred when nuclear power plants have been transferred from the half-military nuclear complex with its high level of discipline to the civil 'boiler power industry' (quite unprepared for that), as one of the relevant causes of the Chernobyl accident. The crises of 1980-90ies (Chernobyl accident, changed political system, collapse of the USSR) have stopped the development of nuclear power industry and gave a severe blow to the nuclear knowledge management system. In present conditions, which can be surely described in the terms of 'nuclear renaissance', it seems important to trace, how the preserved and developing knowledge management system is influenced by the attitude towards nuclear energy in the country and in its 'components' (governmental authorities, energy community, public), as well as to follow up the role of nuclear professionals in forming the above attitude
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools. PMID:23508899
Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Doost, Mostafa Emami; Tahani, Bahareh
Since SPOT1, the French national space centre (CNES) has worked on improving the geometry of Earth observation spacecrafts. The accuracy of sensor calibration is one of the main key points for any Earth observation application such as orthorectification, DEM generation or surface change detection. For the last twenty years CNES has developed two families of methods: absolute methods and relative methods. These methods are used to characterize a pushbroom acquisition along the detector line and the time line. By this way, the viewing directions are measured and the residual of the spacecraft's attitude angles (not restituted by the Attitude and Orbit Control System) is estimated. This information can complete the geometric model of all the scenes acquired by the instrument and is used in all geometric applications. This paper presents new attitude assessment methods taking advantage of the capabilities of Pléiades-HR in terms of agility and focal plane arrangement - panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands.
Delevit, J. M.; Greslou, D.; Amberg, V.; Dechoz, C.; de Lussy, F.; Lebegue, L.; Latry, C.; Artigues, S.; Bernard, L.
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
This study investigated knowledge, attitude and decision making on HIV/AIDS among adolescents with hearing impairment in Oyo, Lagos and Kwara States. Seventy-six respondents participated in the study with age range between 16 and 20. The research adopted a descriptive survey research design. Seventy-six students with hearing impairment…
Adeniyi, S. O.; Oyewumi, A. M.; Fakolade, O. A.
Full Text Available Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a question was considered about the respondent’s resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was 0.54±0.56 (full score: 3. Higher scores were significantly more prevalent in women, younger’s, people with more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7 (full score: 3. only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8. Dental flossing was more reported in more educated (OR = 2.27 and non smoker people (OR = 1.85. Dental visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34. The most important source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care center staff. As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.
Abstract Background Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or cutting caries legal and bioethical debates and it is practiced in many developing countries. Methods Random selection of 154 midwives was used for the study during June 2012 and through July 2012 aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of the midwives towards FGM in Eastern Sudan. Results A total of 157 midwives enrolled in this study. They had been practicing for 3 – 44 years (mean SD 19.2...
Ali Abdel Aziem A
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and precautionary behaviors were assessed among a random sample of Michigan-licensed emergency medical service (EMS) professionals between June and August 1988. Of 2,000 mailed questionnaires, 1,020 were returned (51 percent response), and 997 of the returned questionnaires were used in the final analysis. Survey results indicated that most respondents were able to correctly identify the transmission routes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but many...
Smyser, M. S.; Bryce, J.; Joseph, J. G.
Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04) and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis w...
Menorath Sing; Hansana Visanou; Phengsavanh Alongkon; Vanphanom Sychareun; Tomson Tanja
Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal c...
Sunita Bamanikar; Liew Kok Kee
Introduction: School teachers are most likely to be in the vicinity of the child at the time of the injury in the school. Thus they should be well prepared to intervene when such dental emergencies arise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding tooth avulsion and dental fi rst aid among school teachers in Chandigarh (urban area) and Barwala (rural area). Material & Methods: The study was performed by administering a self-designed quest...
Manjeet Kaur; Kanika Gupta; Ruchika Goyal; Navdha Chaudhary
Marcus Eh Ong1, Susan Yap1, Kim P Chan1, Papia Sultana2, Venkataraman Anantharaman11Department of Emergency Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Research, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeObjective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of local primary health care physicians in relation to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation.Methods: We conducted a survey on general practitioners in Singapore by using a self-administered questionnaire that comprised 29 questions.Results: ...
Marcus Eh Ong; Susan Yap; Chan, Kim P.; et al.
The use of multivitamins within a pharmaceutical setting has been the subject of considerable debate.Objective: This research aimed to provide a platform for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and professional practices of Jordaninan community pharmacists in counselling patients about the safe consumption of vitamins.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and May 2010. Data collection was carried out using a 44-item semi-structured self-administrated qu...
To assess the parental attitude and knowledge towards the use of barrier techniques by the pediatric dentist,parents of 200 preschool pediatric patients were randomly selected and asked to fill the questionnaire related to the usageof barrier technique by the pediatric dentists.Seventy five percent of the parents felt, that pediatric dentist should wear gloves and 35% wanted their pediatricdentist to wear mouth mask, 70% of parents thought that both pediatric dentist and the patients will be ...
Deepak P. Bhayya,; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.Results: It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9% had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60% had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50% had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1% as Rank 2 and injection (16.3% as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status(c2 = 47.14, p=0.001, occupation (c2 =15.81, p=0.044, family monthly income (c2 =6.473, p=0.039 and duration of marriage (c2=6.721, p=0.035. There was no association between attitude and the studied variables.Conclusion: The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa
This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices of health-care providers towards waste management at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. In this cross-sectional study 110 physicians, 151 nurses and 89 housekeepers were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Housekeepers were significantly more knowledgeable than physicians or nurses about hospital policies and systems for waste disposal, but less so about specific details of disposal. Housekeepers also had the highest overall scores for attitudes to waste disposal among the 3 groups. Significantly more nurses had satisfactory practice scores (84.0%) than did physicians (67.3%) (housekeepers were not assessed). Training and duration of work experience were not significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores, except for nurses with longer work experience, who were more likely to have satisfactory knowledge about waste disposal than less experienced nurses. PMID:24952293
Hakim, S A; Mohsen, A; Bakr, I
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of epilepsy among 12 th -class students in Uttarakhand state. Secondly data of Uttarakhand was compared with KAP study from other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All 12 th - class students studying in six schools of randomly selected 36 villages in Chakrata block of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state were provided a printed questionnaire having answer as "yes or no". This questionnaire used was used previously by various authors and validated for KAP analysis. These filled questionnaires were collected by village health workers and medical officer. Results: This study conducted on 219, 12 th -class students revealed that epilepsy was heard by 98%, 74.9% thought epilepsy a mental disease and 4.8% believed that it is contagious. Negative attitude showed as nearly 2/3 rd students stated that epilepsy is hindrance in marriage and occupation. Nearly 41% would use onion or shoe for terminating seizure attack. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred over allopathic drugs. Conclusions: Study on 12 th -class students of Uttarakhand revealed poor knowledge, attitude and practice for epilepsy and needs special education program to dispel these misconceptions.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of the high school students for HIV / AIDS and also to evaluate the sources from which the information has been received. Material and Methods: 74 male and 39 female high school students (n:113 have participated in the study. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented by UNICEF and it contained 22 questions assessing knowledge and attitudes. Survey interviewing method was applied to students. Results: The average rate of correct answers to questions about the knowledge, in male and female students were 71.8%10.9, 73.49.2% respectively. The vast majority of the students (96.4% have knowledge about virus that causes the disease. 93% of the students have knowledge that the disease could been detected by a blood test but only 31% of them knows the name of the Elisa test. 42.4% of them have stated that it is an incurable disease. 49.1% of the students’ thought that, a person with AIDS does not have the diseases. Majority of the students have stated that they have had knowledge about HIV/AIDS form conferences and TV. 20% of students had a negative attitude and refusal towards-the patient who were infected with HIV or has AIDS. Conclusion: The students have a good level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS. The rate of information possessed re?ected insufficiently on attitudes and behaviors. Parents’ cooperation with the students is needed to obtain adequate information on this subject
Gülden Uzer Ekin
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of the high school students for HIV / AIDS and also to evaluate the sources from which the information has been received. Material and Methods 74 male and 39 female high school students (n113 have participated in the study. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented by UNICEF and it contained 22 questions assessing knowledge and attitudes. Survey interviewing method was applied to students. Results The average rate of correct answers to questions about the knowledge in male and female students were 71.8%10.9 73.49.2 respectively. The vast majority of the students (96.4% have knowledge about virus that causes the disease. 93% of the students have knowledge that the disease could been detected by a blood test but only 31% of them knows the name of the Elisa test. 42.4% of them have stated that it is an incurable disease. 49.1% of the students thought that a person with AIDS does not have the diseases. Majority of the students have stated that they have had knowledge about HIV/AIDS form conferences and TV. 20% of students had a negative attitude and refusal towards-the patient who were infected with HIV or has AIDS. Conclusion The students have a good level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS. The rate of information possessed resected insufficiently on attitudes and behaviors. Parents cooperation with the students is needed to obtain adequate information on this subject
Gulden Uzer Ekin
Being responsible for providing care for HIV/AIDS in a society, physicians should be knowledgeable and have favourable attitudes. We designed a cross-sectional study to assess knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of private practicing physicians in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 346 general practitioners and specialists completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires with response rate of 91.1%. For knowledge questions, the mean proportion of correct responses was 53.5% (±13.2). Misconceptions about HIV transmission were the main areas of insufficient knowledge. Surprisingly only 20% knew how to manage a patient who had experienced sexual contact with an HIV-positive partner. While 84% disagreed that 'HIV-infected individuals deserved to catch infection' owing to high-risk behaviours, 38% sympathized less with people who were infected via extramarital sex. It seems that knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among the studied physicians is not favourable and is an area that requires attention to enable effective management of the disease in Iran. PMID:22930308
Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Moradi Marjaneh, M; Mashhadi, I Eftekharzadeh
Misconception and stigma towards epilepsy have a profound impact on this disease in Africa. An unselected sample of Zambian people was interviewed to investigate their knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy. Proper/improper answers were scored, and a composite score was developed with negative values for unsatisfactory awareness and high stigma levels. The sample comprised 231 people residing in urban (107) or in rural (124) areas. The median and interquartile range of scores for epilepsy awareness and stigma were, respectively, -1 (-3; +1) and +1 (-1; +6). Poor education was the only significant predictor of unsatisfactory awareness (p=0.0131), while education and residency were significantly associated with stigma (pMisconception and negative attitudes towards epilepsy among Zambian people reflect poor education and rural residency. PMID:24681384
Pupillo, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Eugenio; Messina, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore
Objective. To assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of dental faculty regarding research ethics and research ethics committees (RECs). Design. Through convenience sampling, we distributed a survey to academics at dental faculties at two universities in the Middle East. We used descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression statistics to analyze the data. Results. Our response rate was 62.5%. A large majority (>90%) held positive attitudes towards RECs; however, almost half (44.0%) ...
El-dessouky, Hadir F.; Abdel-aziz, Amr M.; Chadi Ibrahim; Malini Moni; Reham Abul Fadl; Henry Silverman
Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitud...
Amiegheme F.E; Adeyemo F.O
Clinical genetic testing for specific isolated congenital heart defects (CHD) is becoming standard of care in pediatric cardiology practice. Both genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing are associated with an increased utilization of genetic testing, but these factors have not been evaluated in parents of children with CHD. We mailed a survey to measure the demographics, genetic knowledge, and attitudes towards genetic testing of parents of children with CHD who previously consented to participate in a separate research study of the genetic etiology of left ventricular outflow tract malformations (LVOT). Of the 378 eligible families, 190 (50%) returned surveys with both parents completing surveys in 97 (51%) families, resulting in 287 participants. Genetic knowledge was assessed on an adapted measure on which the mean percent correct was 73.8%. Educational attainment and household income were directly and significantly associated with genetic knowledge (P?genetic testing were favorable with at least 57% agreeing that genetic testing would be used for managing health care and finding cures for disease. Conversely, a minority of participants found it likely that genetic testing would be used for insurance (up to 39.9%), employment (15.8%), or racial/social discrimination (up to 11.2%). Parents of younger children were less likely to endorse employment or racial/social discrimination. Genetic knowledge was not correlated with specific attitudes. Among parents of children with CHD, genetic knowledge was directly associated with household income and education, but additional research is necessary to determine what factors influence attitudes towards genetic testing. PMID:25256359
Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Klima, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly; Chisolm, Deena; McBride, Kim L
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.
Ryujin Lisa T
A study of 4,976 high-school students in Israel, representative of this age group for the entire country except for 13 percent who attend religious schools, revealed that about one-third of the boys aged 14-15 and almost one-half of those in the 16-17 age category have had sexual intercourse. The respective figures for girls are 6 percent and 16 percent. Age at onset of sexual activity was found to be higher and the level of knowledge about the same as in reports from the Western world. Students of Oriental origin, as well as those considering themselves religious or traditional tended to be less active sexually, more conservative in their attitudes, and less knowledgeable. In contrast, students of both sexes residing in kibbutzim were found to be more active sexually and more knowledgeable. A double standard for girls was accepted, especially among the female respondents, except in the kibbutzim. A subgroup of girls highly sexually active, in contrast to their own attitudes, has been identified, and possible reasons for this discordance discussed. As sexual activity among teenagers is becoming more prevalent, comprehensive and early sex education school programs should be encouraged. PMID:717616
Lancet, M; Modan, B; Kavenaki, S; Antonovski, H; Shoham, I
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87% had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.
The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ donation after a programme of study. Design A quantitative questionnaire was completed before and after participation in a programme of study using a pretest–post-test design. Setting Participants were recruited from a University based in Northern Ireland during the period from February to April 2011. Participants 100 preregistration nurses (female?:?male=96?:?4) aged 18–50?years (mean (SD) 24.3 (6.0)?years) were recruited. Results Participants’ knowledge improved over the programme of study with regard to the suitability of organs that can be donated after death, methods available to register organ donation intentions, organ donation laws, concept of brain death and the likelihood of recovery after brain death. Changes in attitude postintervention were also observed in relation to participants’ willingness to accept an informed system of consent and with regard to participants’ actual discussion behaviour. Conclusions The results provide support for the introduction of a programme that helps inform student nurses about important aspects of organ donation. PMID:24381257
McGlade, Donal; Pierscionek, Barbara
Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…
Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.
Full Text Available Introduction: The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on oral health are well established. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dental patients about the effects of smoking on oral health and their cessation efforts.Methods and materials: In this descriptive analysis-cross sectional study, 905 patients from dental clinics in Kerman were selected. They were asked to complete a self- administered structured questionnaire on the effects of smoking on oral health. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic data, smoking status, patients' knowledge and attitude about the effects of smoking and cessation efforts of them. Finally, data was analyzed with SPSS program, t test and x2 test.Result: A total 905 patients (53% men and 47% women were studied. The mean age was 32.76 ± 9.509. The prevalence of smoking was 20.5%. The relationship between sex and education and smoking was significant (p value = 0.0001. Mean Knowledge score was 53.95%. Smoking patients and men were significantly less aware of the effects of smoking on oral health. In this study, 54.9% of smoking patients had tried to quit smoking. Only 12.2% had taken counselling. The attitude toward cigarettes was passive.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the knowledge about effects of smoking on oral health, especially oral cancer, was low. Therefore dentists have a key role for awarding their patients of such effects and are placed to be have a key role in tobacco prevention and cessation.Keywords: Cigarette, Oral manifestations, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Dental patients
The aim of the study: is to analyze the relation between the knowledge and attitude to nutrition of Lithuanian teenagers and their eating habits. The objectives of the study: to analyze the dietary habits of adolescents. To examine the knowledge and attitude of adolescents to diet. To evaluate the link between the eating habits of teenagers and their knowledge and attitude to nutrition. Research methods: total of 3465 students surveyed. The study included 1802 (52%) girls and 1663 (48...
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS a...
Zafar, Mubashir; Nisar, Nighat; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Shafique, Kashif
The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the stude...
Dantas Fábio Galvão; Cariri Gibran Agra; Cariri Gustavo Agra; Ribeiro Filho Antônio Roberto Vaz
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.
Abstract Background With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare...
de Beer Ingrid H; Gelderblom Huub C; Schellekens Onno; Gaeb Esegiel; van Rooy Gert; McNally Alta; Wit Ferdinand W; Tobias Rinke de Wit F
The medical management of end-of-life symptoms, and the psychosocial care of the dying and their families have not been a specific part of the curriculum for undergraduate medical students or residency training programs. The purpose of our research was to assess family medicine residents' knowledge of and attitudes toward care of the dying. All entering (PGY1) and exiting (PGY2) residents of the Dalhousie University Family Medicine Residency Program were given a 50-item survey on end-of-life care. They survey contains two 25-item subscales concerning attitudes/opinions toward end-of-life care, and knowledge about care. Thirty-one of the 33 entering PGY1s 94%) and 26 of the 30 exiting PGY2s (86%) completed the surveys. Overall attitude scores were felt to be high among both groups, with little difference between them. Areas of concern regarding the adequacy of knowledge were found in relation to managing opioid drugs and the symptom of dyspnea. Interventions are now in development to address these issues in the residency program. In an era of subspecialties, the challenge of integrating these areas into the curriculum without creating rotations in specialist palliative care is an issue faced by most family medicine residency programs. PMID:11019501
Burge, F; McIntyre, P; Kaufman, D; Cummings, I; Frager, G; Pollett, A
Full Text Available Background: Worldwide opinion says, “Smoking is injurious to health”. It is positively injurious in many ways not only to the health of smoker but also to the health of the people around him or her known as the passive smokers. The three main components of inhaled cigarette smoke are nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar, which can cause disease. If this nicotine is absorbed in the blood stream and left within 10 seconds it increases the heart rate and blood pressure by stimulating the release of hormones such as adrenaline and constricting blood vessels . Aim: To assess knowledge and attitude on ill effects of smoking among adults residing in Lekhnath municipality, ward no.12, Khudi, Kaski”. Material & Method: A survey approach with the descriptive design was selected to achieve the objectives of the study. Convenient sampling technique was used to select the samples. The sample size was 100 adults of 20 years & above. Data was collected from 10/03/2013-10/04/2013 by interview technique regarding ill effects of smoking by using questionnaire and finally the data was analyzed using Excel 2007 & SPSS for Windows Version 16.0. Results: The major findings of the present study were as follows: Most of the participants (58% were having good level of knowledge, 31% were having average level of knowledge and remaining 11% were having poor level of knowledge towards ill effects of smoking. Majority of participants had favorable attitude (81% towards ill effects of smoking. The correlation between knowledge and attitude was found to be positive at the significance level of P>0.01.Significant association of knowledge was found with gender, marital status and education level regarding ill effects of smoking. Significant association of attitude was found with family type and source of information regarding ill effects of smoking. Conclusion: Hence, still few people residing in the community are having poor knowledge and attitude on ill effects of smoking, so more efforts are needed to make people aware about it in order to prevent our society completely from the clutch of this evil addiction.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. Methodology: A cross–sectional survey was conducted among students enrolled in two universities, the Xingjiang University (XU and Xinjiang Medical University (XMU. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS among 200 students randomly selected students from XU and 200 students from XMU Result: Among the 400 students who participated in the study Overall, the mean knowledge score was 19.3 +5.5. Their knowledge score ranges from 2 to 30. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female students, first year students and Uyghur and other minorities. About two-thirds of the university students in Xinjiang had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. At the same time about 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to sex and unprotected sex.
Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a estudiantesde secundaria de dos colegios de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, en el periodocomprendido entre julio y diciembre de 2011.Resultados: el 10.8% de las adolescentes encuestadas respondió que conocía lacondilomatosis, enfermedad infecciosa de transmisión sexual causada por el VPH y el20,1% tiene conocimiento de la relación del cáncer de cuello uterino con la infecciónpor VPH.Conclusiones: se observa bajo conocimiento acerca de la infección por VPH y suasociación con el CACU, buenas actitudes con respecto a la utilización de métodosde prevención de la infección por VPH y de métodos de detección precoz de CACU yprácticas deficientes, principalmente en la cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio
Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in primary health care centres regarding Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Umraniye.Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-August 2008 in 18 primary healthcare centres in the Umraniye Provincial Health Directorate. The study sample was not selected and we approached 229 healthcare workers working in these primary health care centres; 144 participants (62.8% completed the study. Study data were collected using a three-part questionnaire including 35 questions. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and t-tests.Results: Of the participants (72.2% women, 68.7% thought they had sufficient knowledge about the disease. 99.3% knew the aetiological factor of CCHF is a virus, and 92.4% specified that people who go picnicking and camping without protection are a risk group. The mean CCHF knowledge points was 17.48±3.37; the mean score of doctors (18.31±3.24 was significantly higher that that of nurses (17.01±3.36, p<0.05. 72.2% thought caring for a CCHF patient was a high risk task. Conclusion: The knowledge level of healthcare workers was found to be low compared to other studies performed in Turkey. The knowledge level of doctors was higher than that of nurses. In general, the answers of healthcare workers on the attitude questions were negative.
In order to assess the effect of a hunter education program on knowledge and attitudes toward hunting, students enrolled in the eight-hour New Jersey Hunter Education Course were administered the New Jersey Hunter Education Examination Number 4 and the Attitude Inventory for Hunters as a pretest and posttest. The hunter education course is…
Drawbaugh, Charles C.; Locandro, Roger R.
Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…
del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin
Genital herpes virus infection can cause both psychological and medical consequences. A study surveyed knowledge and attitudes of college students to assess degree of familiarity with this disease. Findings suggest misconceptions that could be dealt with in health education programs. (Author/DF)
Hillard, James R.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based comprehensive sex education program among unmarried youth in China. The impact of the intervention on sexual knowledge, attitudes, and sexual initiation were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The program used six methods for providing sex-related…
Wang, Bo; Meier, Ann; Shah, Iqbal; Li, Xiaoming
The objective of this pilot study was to assess and describe changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding influenza vaccination in an inner city setting using an interactive computer-based educational program. A convenience sample of ninety participants whose children were in the age group of 6 months to 5 years was enrolled in this…
Joshi, Ashish; Lichenstein, Richard; King, James; Arora, Mohit; Khan, Salwa
A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that ha...
Lynette Smith; Shingairai Feresu
Intervention to assess and improve the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals in brief counseling for smoking cessation: The B.O.A.T program (Brief Opportunistic Advice Training Program for smoking cessation
Full Text Available Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Health care professionals can contribute to controlling the epidemic of smoking by applying brief counseling for smoking cessation in clinical practice. Purpose: The program B.O.A.T was implemented to increase knowledge and enhance health professionals’ attitudes on the brief counseling for smoking cessation. The purpose of the intervention was to enforce participants' intention to implement counseling. Material and Method: The research project was a pretest-posttest equivalent groups design. The sample consisted of 33 health professionals of various specialties. The intervention consisted of a two-hour training course and distribution of printed material. Attitudes, subjective norm, perceived control and intention of health professionals were measured, regarding the counseling in smoking cessation. Results: Statistical analysis showed an increase of perceived control in the experimental group (p = 0.031 and increase of its intention to implement smoking cessation counseling compared to the comparison group (p = 0.003. There was no difference between and within groups before and after the intervention for the variables of attitudes and subjective norm. The evaluation also showed an increase of knowledge in the experimental group. Conclusion: This study reinforces the current literature which supports that training health professionals on smoking cessation counseling can be effective. The theoretical background turns out to be important. In the future more time and resources should be invested to increase effectiveness and efficiency of such programs.
Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was to evaluate the knowledge about management of tooth avulsion among sports teachers inAhmednagar District. Methods: A sample of 60 sports teachers were interviewed from different schools.The data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing seven items which wasdistributed among the sports teacher from different schools. Results: we found that 90% of the sportsteachers were not having the first-aid knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed tooth andthe benefit of timely care. This demands an effort to properly educate sports teachers about first-aidmanagement and consequently change their attitude towards dental trauma.
Introduction: Emergency contraceptives are accessible and acceptable methods for most women, which their proper use could prevent about three quarters of unwanted pregnancies. In this study, we aimed to determine the providers’ knowledge, attitudes and their relation with the pills and condoms users’ knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception at public health centers/posts in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects were 140 health p...
Mohammad-alizadeh-charandabi, Sakineh; Farshbaf-khalili, Azizeh; Moeinpoor, Roya
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223
Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid
This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers (n =…
Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.
Nigerian secondary students were surveyed regarding selected environmental issues to determine prevailing knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Students performed very poorly in the knowledge component of the questionnaire and demonstrated negative attitudes towards issues. Students also indicated practices that were harmful to a healthy…
Mansaray, A.; Ajiboye, J. O.
High school students in Taiwan with disabilities (N=1204) were compared with nonhandicapped adolescents (N=754) on their sexual knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. Although the nonhandicapped students were most knowledgeable and demonstrated the most positive attitudes toward sexuality, the hearing-impaired group were the most sexually…
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowle...
Jabulani Ray Gumbo; Sibiya, Jerry E.
Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management of individual sufferers. Because of their working relations and close link with CHWs, community nurses in primary health-care facilities need to recognise these beliefs and attitudes since these may differ from their own.
Background: School teachers by virtue of their training can influence a large number of children thereby play major role in the planning and implementation of oral health preventive programs. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of school teachers towards oral health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among school teachers of the city of Pondicherry. A structured questionnaire was used and 212 teachers were assessed on their knowledge on oral health, attitude and practice regarding their personal oral health, attitude regarding oral health of children and status of oral health education at the schools. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 21.0. Results: Around 47% of the participants felt that bacteria and sugar are the main causes of dental caries, while 42% felt that plaque and calculus are the main agents for periodontal disease. Around 82.5% teachers brushed twice daily. However, only 32% felt it is necessary to visit dentist regularly. While 86% of the teachers felt that children’s teeth should be checked by dentist, only 51% agreed that it is their duty to impart oral health education to the students. Conclusion: The knowledge regarding oral health among school teachers was fair. Oral Health education must be imparted to preschool and primary school teachers as a part of National Oral Health care Program on a regular basis and further studies must be done to assess their awareness levels and make the necessary changes in further education modules. PMID:25302258
P., Sivsankar; M.A., Easwaran; L., Subitha; N., Bharath; K., Rajeswary; S., Jeyalakshmi
Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794
Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ? 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Full Text Available Background: Knowledge and attitudes of nurses toward pain management have an influence on medical judgment and patients' perception of pain control. Aim: To assess and compare oncology and non-oncology nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pain management. Method: A cross sectional descriptive comparative design was used. Nurses were recruited conveniently from one specialized oncology center and one main general medical city in Jordan. Participants were required to complete a specific questionnaire. The total number of participant was 207 nurses (124 oncology and 93 non-oncology nurses. Results: It was evident that oncology nurses received post-registration training or courses in the field of pain management more than non-oncology nurses. Both oncology and non-oncology nurses exhibited an appropriate knowledge and attitude toward pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management strategies. However, oncology nurses scored higher in the overall knowledge and attitude toward pain compared to non-oncology nurses. Nurses showed knowledge deficit in assuming the risk for addiction and the use of narcotics in pediatric patients. Conclusions: The study revealed that oncology nurses were more knowledgeable compared to non-oncology nurses in managing pain. Professional development for nurses in the field of pain management is required whether during academic preparations or post-graduation.
Mona Abed El-Rahman
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of AIDS and sexual behavior of middle school students. Structural questionnaires were designed to interview 1980 junior and senior middle school students about their basic knowledge, attitude, and behavior with respect to AIDS and sexual behavior. Students were recruited from the six most common middle schools of the six regions in Luoyang City of the Henan Province of China by cluster sampling from September to December of 2004. Results showed that 54.5% of students had not learned about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in school, and 38.3% of students did not have any knowledge about the route of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, 91.2% of students were reluctant to share a classroom with HIV/AIDS patients. Approximately 21.7% of students had read books, watched videos, and consulted other media related to sex, 1.1% of students had had sexual intercourse during high school, and 80.5% believed that health education on HIV/AIDS and sex was necessary. The results of this survey showed that middle school students have little knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sex. Therefore, health education programs for HIV/AIDS prevention and sexual health should be developed as soon as possible to help students peacefully get through a sexually puzzling period of life. PMID:24737509
Wang, P; Zhang, Y J; Pan, X J; Xia, X Y; Lv, S Y
The present study examined changes in university students' attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution measured by the previously validated Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS) in response to curricular content. Specifically, student responses on the survey were compared across an evolutionary psychology course, an introductory biology course with significant evolutionary content, and a political science course with no evolutionary content. To this end, 868 students were assessed at a large Midwestern U.S. university prior to and following completion of one of the three courses. A multiple group repeated measures confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine latent mean differences in self-reported Evolution Knowledge/Relevance, Creationist Reasoning, Evolutionary Misconceptions, and Exposure to Evolution. A significant and notable increase in Knowledge/Relevance, as well as decreases in Creationist Reasoning and Evolutionary Misconceptions, was observed for the evolutionary psychology course, whereas the biology course demonstrated no change in Knowledge/Relevance and a significant increase in Evolutionary Misconceptions. The implications of these findings for evolution education are discussed. PMID:25603558
Short, Stephen D; Hawley, Patricia H
Objectives: Traumatic dento-alveolar injuries are frequent in children and adolescents, affecting teeth, their supporting structures, and adjacent soft tissues. Because school teachers are likely to be in contact with the child soon after injury, it is important to ascertain their knowledge and attitude about this. Aim: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers in Coorg with regard to immediate management of avulsed teeth. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among school teachers in Coorg district. A self-administered questionnaire containing 16 questions was given to a sample of 600 school teachers. Results: Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test were used for analysis. Only 24.7% teachers thought the tooth was important and wanted to search for the avulsed tooth. Regarding the knowledge about replantation of tooth, 25.7% teachers knew that a fallen tooth can be placed back in the socket. Extraoral time for replantation of the tooth that was opted by 44 teachers (30.3%) was ?30 min. Conclusion: This survey reflected the lack of experience and inadequate knowledge regarding dental trauma management among school teachers in Coorg. The implications of this study are directed toward education of these school teachers who are involved in the supervision of children in schools. PMID:25452927
Shamarao, Supreetha; Jain, Jithesh; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Haridas, Reshmi; Tikare, Shreyas; Kalappa, Amrutha Ammanichanda
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess knowledge of, attitude toward and professional experience with emergency contraceptives (EC among doctors practicing in Sikkim, India. Methods: Between November 2012 to June 2013, a pre-designed, pretested, self-administered anonymous questionnaire was sent to the doctors practicing in different hospitals of Sikkim. The questionnaire included items on knowledge, attitude, and professional experience of doctors with EC. Results: Of the 285 doctors invited, 210 (73.7% returned the questionnaire. Although the entire participant responded that they were aware of EC, objective assessment revealed limited knowledge on various aspects of EC. Correct time frame of EC pills use was aware by 63%, while only 45% were aware of correct dosage regime of levonorgestrel pill. Actual level of knowledge was present only in 48.6% doctors. Misconceptions about EC were common, more than half of the doctors felt that easy availability and promotion might increase sexual promiscuity and discourage use of regular contraceptives. Twenty percent doctor used EC either for themselves or for their spouses. Only 42.4% doctors ever recommended or prescribed EC to their clients. Those who never recommended or prescribed EC, the common reasons offered were their concerns that EC may discourage use of regular contraceptives (63.6%, may increase sexual promiscuity (46.3% and their inadequate knowledge (43.8%. Conclusions: Knowledge and professional experience about emergency contraception among participant doctors was inadequate. EC should be included in continuing medical educational programmes, in workshops and seminars for doctors, which would be helpful in creating awareness and remove misconception about EC among doctors. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 913-918
Clozapine is, in most countries, underutilized and the initiation of clozapine is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the delay and the underutilization of clozapine. One hundred psychiatrists were interviewed by phone. The interview was a structured interview with questions regarding attitude to, knowledge of and experiences with clozapine. Forty-eight (48%) psychiatrists had treatment responsibility of fewer than five patients treated with clozapine and 31 of the interviewed psychiatrists (31%) had started clozapine within the last 3 months. Seven psychiatrists (7%) had never prescribed clozapine despite the fact that they had been working more than five years in general psychiatry. Sixty-four psychiatrists (64%) would rather combine two antipsychotics than use clozapine. Sixty-six psychiatrists (66%) believed that patients treated with clozapine were less satisfied with their treatment when compared with those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. Many psychiatrists are reluctant to use clozapine and this might be due to less experience and knowledge of clozapine. A reason for the low awareness of clozapine's properties might be that clozapine is now a generic drug, and therefore, the marketing and education in using the drug is sparse.
Nielsen, Jimmi; Dahm, M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.
Full Text Available Background and Aims : Dentists have usually a critical role in diagnosing oral cancer lesions in their early stages. In this study we aimed to assess the senior dental student’ and dentists’ knowledge, attitude and behaviors regarding oral cancer in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed to assess the current practice, knowledge and attitude of general dentists working in Isfahan-Iran and senior dental students regarding oral cancer lesions. The questionnaire was consisted of questions to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding diagnosis, risk factors and prognosis of oropharyngeal cancerous lesions. The frequencies of answers to questions in sections of practice and attitude (just for dentists and sum score of questions in knowledge section were calculated and compared using statistical analysis regarding age, sex, duration of experience and practice setting p ublic/private of participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, linear regression and logistic regression. Results: 139 questionnaires from dentists and 57 questionnaires from students were returned. The mean score of dentists’ knowledge was 5.41 out of 13 (CI95%=5.03-7.79 . Significant differences were observed among dentists regarding their experience (P=0.001. Only one fifth of the dentists in our survey reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and just about 34% of dentists gained acceptable level of knowledge. Among senior dental students, the status of knowledge was better as about 58% of them gained the level of acceptance (P=0.01. Conclusion: Although dentists were willing to follow the diagnostic protocol for oral cancer, they were mostly unsatisfied with the level of their knowledge. Therefore, this study highlights the need for educational planning and training activities in general dentists with regard to the risk factors and early detection of oral cancers.
Sayed Mohamad Razavi
The PATT (Pupils' Attitude Towards Technology) questionnaire, as validated for the United States, was used to assess and analyze attitudes of 500 girls and 510 boys from the Gauteng Province in South Africa. Findings are compared for both genders. Four tables present results. Contains 43 references. (AEF)
Van Rensburg, Susan; Ankiewicz, Piet; Myburgh, Chris
Pain following cardiac intervention in children is a common, but complex phenomenon. Identifying and reporting pain is the responsibility of the nursing staff, who are the primary caregivers and spend the most time with the patients. Inadequately managed pain in children may lead to multiple short- and long-term adverse effects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain in children among the nursing staff at B.M. Patel Cardiac Center, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India. The study included 42 of the 45 nurses employed in the cardiac center. The nurses participating in the study were responsible for the care of the pediatric patients. A modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain and a sociodemographic questionnaire were administered after obtaining written informed consent. The study was approved by the institutional Human Research Ethics Committee. Mean (SD) experience in years of the nursing staff was 2.32 (1.69) years (range 1 month to 5 years). Of the nurses, 67% were posted in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) score for true/false questions was 11.48 (2.95; range 7,19). The average correct response rate of the true/false questions was 45.9%. Knowledge about pain was only affected by the ward in which the nurse was posted. In first (asymptomatic) and second (symptomatic) case scenarios, 78.6% and 59.5% underestimated pain, respectively. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management is poor among nurses. Targeted training sessions and repeated reinforcement sessions are essential for holistic patient care. PMID:25439124
Dongara, Ashish R; Shah, Shail N; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Archana S
Full Text Available Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5% used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 % were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 % were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07% of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. ?Easy availability? and ?relief from tension? were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5% and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hypertension is a global health hazard and most cases are first attended to by the physicians. Achieving a control will depend on the knowledge, attitude and practice of the physicians. We therefore determined the knowledge, attitude and practices of physicians on the detection and treatment of arterial hypertension in north-central Nigeria. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 of the 250 physicians attending a continuing medical education lecture series in Bida was conducted using a pre-validated self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the physicians was 41.05 ± 8.71 years and 59 (73.8% were males. Forty-one (51.2% of them have practiced for more than 10 years. Arterial hypertension was considered an important health problem by 93.8% of the physicians, 30% of them believed that it should not be referred to a specialist. Majority of the physicians request for urinalysis (96.2%, electrocardiogram (95.0%, fasting blood glucose (88.8%, blood urea nitrogen (98.8% and fasting lipid profile (97.5% to either assess target organ damage or associated co-morbid conditions. Fifty-seven (71.2% of the physicians prescribe diuretics as the initial drug. However, the knowledge of the other drugs on initiation of therapy of mild uncomplicated hypertension was poor. The sources of information on arterial hypertension by physicians were scientific programs (73.8%, drug companies (38.8% and journals in 11.3%. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude and practice of physicians in the detection and management of hypertension were modest. Educative programs like continuing medical education, seminars, and conferences on cardiovascular disorders are advised to be organized regularly to strengthen these and update the physicians.
Umar Gati Adamu
In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280
Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E
Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857
Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary
Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country. PMID:23682436
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh
Achieving optimal exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains a challenge. Because intention is a precursor of practice, we examined factors associated with EBF intention during pregnancy in two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh. We studied 2,400 pregnant women in their third trimester (26-32 weeks gestation). We assessed knowledge (6 items, scale range 0-6), attitudes (15 items, scale range 15-75) and self-efficacy (6 items, scale range 6-30) by interview using a standardized questionnaire. 83.9 % of pregnant women reported EBF intention. Mean breastfeeding knowledge was 3.5 (SD 1.3), mean attitude was 55.8 (SD 8.1) and mean self-efficacy was 25.6 (SD 3.4). Knowledge was associated with EBF intention (OR 2.47, 95 % CI 1.74, 3.51), attitudes toward EBF (OR 1.68, 95 % CI 1.31, 2.16) and self-efficacy (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.23, 2.40) were independently associated with EBF intention in the model in which all three constructs were entered simultaneously. Receipt of breastfeeding counseling during pregnancy and being literate were each associated with EBF knowledge and EBF intention (all p < 0.05). Increasing maternal knowledge, positive attitudes, and self-efficacy regarding EBF were associated with prenatal EBF intention. These results reinforce the importance of appropriate counseling to increase EBF prevalence . PMID:24752315
Thomas, Joan S; Yu, Elaine A; Tirmizi, Noor; Owais, Aatekah; Das, Sumon K; Rahman, Shahed; Faruque, A S G; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional stud...
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher nowledge is essential for stimulating a positive attitude towards technology in pupils. Particularly, teachers' enhanced Pedagogical Content Knowledge is found ...
Rohaan, Ej; Taconis, R.; Jochems, Wmg
The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge of and attitudes toward computers of graduate nursing students before and after an elective course “Computers in Nursing”. At the beginning of the course students completed a questionnaire which included questions about computer access and use, knowledge of computer terminology and computer use, and attitudes toward computers. Prior to the course students had widely varying self-rated knowledge of computer terminology scores. Self-rat...
Merrow, Sherry Lynne
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding rabies in Bohol, Philippines were assessed following introduction of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Programme. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 460 households chosen utilizing the WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage cluster survey technique with population proportionate to size. Scores for KAP were evaluated using linear regression. The majority of households had heard of rabies (94%); however, specific knowledge of rabies was limited. Only 18% knew to report a suspected rabid dog to the authorities. In multivariate analyses, having known someone with rabies had the greatest effect on knowledge scores. Employment (professional or non-professional) had the greatest effect on attitudes scores, and only the knowledge score was significantly associated with higher practices scores. Several factors, notably, personal experience with rabies, affect KAP in Bohol. The programme should continue to focus on education and include personal accounts to underscore why rabies prevention and control is so important. PMID:24093635
Davlin, S L; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K O
Full Text Available Background: Nursing students must be able to ensure that patients understand important health screening information. However, studies have reported a deficit in nursing students’ knowledge of genetics and genetic disorders. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate nursing students’ knowledge of, and attitudes to prenatal genetic screening. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted with final year undergraduate nursing students recruited from a tertiary teaching hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia. Thirty-four of the 37 students returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate=97% that assessed knowledge of, and attitudes to, prenatal genetic screening. Findings: The majority of the respondents demonstrated an adequate level of knowledge regarding prenatal genetic screening (65%, and 62% were more supportive than others of screening. Approximately one third (35% had limited knowledge. Simple linear regression analysis uncovered a significant linear relationship between the attitude score and the knowledge score (R2=0.48, P<0.05, 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: These findings suggest the need to improve and upgrade the nursing education strategy concerning genetics. The deficit in nursing students’ knowledge of prenatal genetic screening may result in inappropriate counselling, health teaching and referrals, which can have serious repercussions.
Lean Keng Soon
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the knowledge and attitude of family physcians offering primary health care, towards adult vaccination and their own vaccination coverage. Methods: This descriptive study was performed in May 2009 in Kayseri, Turkey. 282 family physician accepted to fill a questionnaire about adult vaccination. Results: Most of the family physcians (83.0% thought adult vaccination as a modality of protection and 66.7% wanted a vaccination scheme just like the one in childhood. Their own vaccination rate for Hepatitis B was 67.0% and 58.5% for influenza at any time. Only half of the physcians were vaccinated within the season for influenza. Only 9.2% of the doctors have stated that they ask questions to their patients about their vaccination status. When physcians were questioned about the vaccines they advise to their patients aged 65 and more; 70.6% stated influenza and 39.7% stated pneumococcus. Conclusion: In spite of being in the risk group, family physicians have low vaccination coverage rates. Suggestion of the necessary vaccines to the risk groups or to their patients at risk is low as well.
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Abstract Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, only 14.6% of babies born in the District of Columbia (DC) reached this goal. Breastfeeding support from providers has been shown to increase exclusive breastfeeding. We aim (1) to describe breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes, (2) to determine the presence of breastfeeding in routine prenatal discussions, and (3) to determine the knowledge of facility adoption of the Perinatal Care (PC) Core Measure Set among DC ACOG members. A survey sent to DC ACOG members assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breastfeeding and evaluated participants' barriers to breastfeeding counseling, management of breastfeeding challenges, and awareness of facility adoption of the PC Core Measure Set. All 29 respondents reported breastfeeding as the best infant nutrition and that physicians should encourage breastfeeding. However, despite 75% reporting counseling most of their patients regarding breastfeeding, only 27% reported that most of their patients were breastfeeding at the postpartum visit. Participants scored 83% correct on knowledge-based questions. Perceived barriers to breastfeeding counseling included lack of time (66%), reimbursement (10%), and competence in managing breastfeeding problems (7%). Most respondents were unsure of both adoption of, and breastfeeding data collection for, the PC Core Measure Set (52% and 55%, respectively). Participants had knowledge gaps and identified barriers to discussing breastfeeding. There was limited awareness of hospital data collection about breastfeeding. These results indicate a need for more breastfeeding education among DC obstetricians-gynecologists and better outreach about the PC Core Measure Set. PMID:25389912
Sims, Alexandra M; Long, Sahira A; Tender, Jennifer A F; Young, Michal A
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…
Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.
Fan?ovi?ová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Full Text Available Traffic accidents compromises a large quantity of peoples annually, and is one of the most important causes of death in Iran. Human factors are amongst of the most leading causes of traffic accident mortality and morbidity and this study is conducted to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of drivers regarding driving laws in Tehran. Two hundred and twenty drivers were selected randomly in this cross sectional study. Cluster sampling with 10 participant in each cluster was used for selection of participants. 22 points were defined using a random sample of telephone numbers. Distribution points was such as one point were selected in each zone of municipality zones. Ten consecutive drivers passing the specified point were interviewed by an interviewer and a senior officer of Traffic Control Organization of Tehran was responsible for assessment of practices. Reliability of questionnaire was evaluated using alpha chronbach coefficient and construct validity was assessed by Principal component Analysis method. Chi square and odds ratio (OR were used for assessment of relation between qualitative variables, when appropriate. Two hundred and twenty drivers were recruited in this study. Suitable Knowledge, Attitude and practice were seen in 67.7, 56.4 and 47.7 percent of respondents respectively. When adjusted using logistic regression analysis, we did not observe any relation between these three variables. There was a significant relation between knowledge and age; and also between practice and education, marital status, occupation and type of automobile. We conclude that practice of drivers of Tehran are weak regarding traffic laws and there is an emergent need for research and intervention in this regard.
The Web-based technology is a potential tool for supported collaborative learning that may enrich learning performance, such as individual knowledge construction or group knowledge sharing. Thus, understanding Web-based collaborative learning for knowledge management is a critical issue. The present study is to investigate learners' attitudes…
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Huang, Hsiu-Mei
The Health Belief Model was utilized to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of individuals regarding regular jogging. Results suggest that behavior of sedentary individuals may be changed by using strategies which address perceived obstacles to jogging. (Author/DF)
Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595
Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel
We aimed to assess and quantify parental beliefs regarding ketogenic dietary therapies (KDTs). We also aimed to determine whether beliefs were related to response to KDTs. Adapted versions of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire were completed by parents of children following KDTs for epilepsy. Demographic and clinical data were collected from hospital records. Ketogenic dietary therapy response was defined as ?50% seizure reduction compared to baseline. Many parents had a positive perception of KDTs and were convinced of the necessity of KDTs for their children, although beliefs were wide-ranging. Over half of parents reported concerns about the potential long-term effects of KDTs. Parental beliefs about KDTs were significantly correlated with patient response. This was an attempt to quantify parents' beliefs regarding the use of KDTs for their child's epilepsy. The questionnaire may be used to identify individuals with a less positive attitude towards KDTs and who may be less likely to report a favorable response to KDTs. It is unknown whether people who have positive beliefs about KDTs engage in less nonadherent behavior or whether beliefs regarding KDTs simply reflect outcomes. The evidence behind the long-term side effects of KDTs should be emphasized when counseling patients and their families. PMID:25146337
Schoeler, Natasha E; MacDonald, Lindsay; Champion, Helena; Helen Cross, J; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Horne, Rob
The aim of this study was to examine epilepsy sufferers' attitudes to and knowledge of their condition, the effect of epilepsy on their lives and their views on the management they had received, and to compare knowledge and attitudes with those of a control group of non-sufferers. A questionnaire was completed by 29 patients with epilepsy and 32 control group subjects from two general practices. It was found that people with epilepsy knew little more than those without epilepsy regarding the ...
Dawkins, J. L.; Crawford, P. M.; Stammers, T. G.
"nBackground and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students...
Golestan B.; Amir Soltani M; Jafari A; Bahrami N
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of first year university undergraduates in 1989 and 1994. DESIGN: Comparisons were made between cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 1989 and 1994, of first year undergraduates at three Melbourne universities. RESULTS: The 1994 cohort reported more positive attitudes toward, and better knowledge of, safe sex practices and less discrimination against perceived risk groups than did the 1989 cohort; howeve...
Rosenthal, D. A.; Smith, A. M.; Reichler, H.; Moore, S.
Background: Spontaneous reporting is an important tool in pharmacovigilance. However, its success depends on cooperative and motivated prescribers. In order to improve the reporting rate, it is essential to improve the Knowledge, Attitude and the Practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals with regards to the ADR reporting and the pharmacovigilance. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of pharmacovigilance among private prescribers of R...
Karelia, Bharti N.; Piparava, Kiran G.
A benchmark study was carried out on the knowledge surrounding, attitudes toward, and use of institutional repositories at Mozambican Universities, especially with regard to their medical faculties. This benchmark study was part of a two-step research set-up which examined: The level of knowledge, the attitudes and practices (KAP) of university library users in Mozambique; Factors or interventions that could have an effect on the KAP of library users in the near future; How the spread of info...
Dam, H.; Madzija, T.; Martinho, A.; Waete, R.
Objectives: To determine the knowledge, attitude and adherence to cold chain guideline among general practitioners.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general practitioners in Kelantan using questionnaire, refrigerator inspection form and minimax thermometer. The validated questionnaire consists of 10 items on knowledge and 11 items on attitude with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.68-0.72. Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS 12.0.Results: There were 89 general practitioners invol...
Azira, B.; Mn, Norhayati; Norwati, D.
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection and causes 529.000 cases of cervical cancer every year. Nowadays, there are vaccines available to prevent infection. Knowledge of HPV influence the attitude towards the vaccine and is therefore a factor of accepting the vaccine. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of HPV and attitudes towards HPV-vaccine among Thai female university students. Method: Descriptive and cross-sectional...
Stridh, Sandra; Hammar, Solvind
Background: Good knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of HIV prevention are essential in order not to acquire HIV infection and to prevent the disease from spreading. A proper and well functioning prevention of HIV requires clear and relevant information and instructions from health care givers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV prevention among Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and compare these between genders. Meth...
This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude...
Wahid Murad, M. D.; Chamhuri Siwar
This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48%) males and 832 (52%) females (9 respondents no mention of gender), from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and health...
Rose Begani; Bob Tombe; Tuka Andew; Orathinkal Jose; Alphonse Begani; Keri Totona
Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Ri...
Kristen Rohde; Myde Boles; Bushore, Chris J.; Pizacani, Barbara A.; Maher, Julie E.; Erin Peterson
This report describes the development and measurement characteristics of a new measure of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) among treatment providers. Data are based on survey responses from 336 paid staff working in one of three drug abuse treatment or HIV care settings. Exploratory factor analysis, used to examine the factor structure, pointed towards five underlying factors: a single “knowledge” factor, three “attitude” factors (‘treatment barriers,’ ‘counse...
Delucchi, Kevin L.; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile disease, caused by infection of dengue virus transmitted by the female Aedes mosquito. This is the second leading cause of deaths in Champasack Province, where Pakse district has the highest number of this outbreak. This cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of people regarding dengue disease in 9 villages of the Pakse district from July to September 2006. Purposive sampling was done to collect data from 230 subjects. They had a fair knowledge about the vector 163 (70.9%). For 101 (43.9%) respondents, their main source of information about dengue was their friends or relatives. It is encouraging that 217 (94.3%) respondents had a positive attitude that DF can be treated, and that 222 (96.5%) knew they should visit a doctor when they suffer from it. About 196 (85.2%) people stored water at home but infrequently changed it. The study indicated that the community was quite familiar with Dengue, but that there was some confusion about vaccination and water storage for domestic use. Dengue awareness activity should be included at the school and college level. Radio and television should play an important role in conveying health information to the public, and regular visits of health personnel to the villagers should be ensured. PMID:19358473
Nalongsack, Soodsada; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Morita, Satoshi; Sosouphanh, Keo; Sakamoto, Junichi
Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04 and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3% but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Conclusion Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.
Full Text Available To assess the parental attitude and knowledge towards the use of barrier techniques by the pediatric dentist,parents of 200 preschool pediatric patients were randomly selected and asked to fill the questionnaire related to the usageof barrier technique by the pediatric dentists.Seventy five percent of the parents felt, that pediatric dentist should wear gloves and 35% wanted their pediatricdentist to wear mouth mask, 70% of parents thought that both pediatric dentist and the patients will be protected from thespread of the infection. Thirtyfive percent of them also wanted pediatric dentist to wear protective glasses during thetreatment procedure. Eightyfive percent of them refused the treatment by pediatric dentists who were not wearing thegloves; 72% wanted the gloves to be changed for each patient. Fifty five percent of them thought that dental assistant alsoshould wear gloves during treatment; only 55% of the parents were satisfied with the barrier techniques protocol of theirpediatric dentist; Ninty percent of them thought that using gloves and mouth mask will scare the child. Quite high level ofpositive attitude and knowledge was seen in the present group of parents and they were not willing to take their child tothe pediatric dentist who didn’t follow the proper barrier technique.
Deepak P. Bhayya,
A baseline assessment of tuberculosis infection control (TB IC) knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) was conducted among staff in a resource-limited rural South African hospital where nosocomially transmitted multi- and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) TB had been reported. Assessment consisted of anonymous questionnaires and direct observation during July-September 2007, soon after the report of M/XDR-TB. Data were obtained from 57 questionnaires and 10h of direct observation. While knowledge and attitudes were generally supportive of TB IC implementation, 49.1% of staff felt that the hospital did not care about them and/or was not working to prevent staff TB infections, and 42.9% were less willing to continue as a healthcare worker because of staff TB/MDR-TB/XDR-TB deaths. Practices were variable. The recent appointment of an IC officer and implementation of natural ventilation were strengths, but the facility lacked a TB IC policy, the patient TB screening process was inadequate, and 41.5% of respondents were unaware of their personal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Respondents reported a number of barriers to TB IC implementation such as concerns about the confidentiality of staff health information, the stigma of TB and HIV, inadequate resources, and patient non-compliance. Assessment of staff KAP provided useful data regarding deficits and barriers to TB IC, and helped to focus subsequent IC strategies. Given the critical importance of reducing nosocomial TB transmission, it is recommended that facilities should conduct simplified TB IC assessment, ensure the confidentiality of staff health information, address the stigma of TB/HIV, and implement multi-faceted TB IC facility and behavioural change interventions. Behavioural science methods have the potential to improve TB IC research and implementation. PMID:21978608
Kanjee, Z; Catterick, K; Moll, A P; Amico, K R; Friedland, G H
Full Text Available Background: The principles of pharmaceutical care are embedded in the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP. GPP is poorly applied in community pharmacies not only in Asian countries, but even in United States and Europe. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community pharmacists in Iran, regarding GPP. Methods: A total of 794 pharmacists were evaluated with a reliable and validated KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice questionnaire regarding GPP in September 2008. Results: The most important finding in the present study was the pharmacists’ low knowledge (Mean= 13.42 and practice (Mean= 29.85 level about GPP, while their attitude towards this subject was at a high level (Mean= 74.83. Increase in their knowledge of good pharmacy practice aligned with an increase in their attitudes towards this issue. Also increase in our pharmacists’ knowledge and attitude aligned with an increase in quality of their practice. Conclusion: The current practice of Iranian community pharmacists needs further improvement. National pharmaceutical organizations should organize educational programs for the community pharmacists to equip them for their main role in community practice: promoting rational drug use. Keywords: Pharmacy, Knowledge, Attitude
Mohammad Reza Javadi
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 6–12 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98, and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78. Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.
Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.
Background: Recent raise in litigation againsthealthcare practitioners is definitely an issueof immediate concern and may reflect an in-crease in unethical practices by them. Profes-sional relations between physicians and nursesmay have differences with respect to their atti-tudes towards patient-care. Aim and Objec-tives: To assess the knowledge of, and attitudesto healthcare ethics among north Indian physi-cians and nurses. Material and Methods: Thepresent cross sectional study was carried ...
Mukul Chopra; Anu Bhardwaj; Prassana Mithra; Abhishek Singh; Adiba Siddiqui; Dr, Rajesh
AbstractBackground and purpose: Pharmacovigilance is a science that focuses on the detection, assessment, and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the post-marketing phase. Its back bone is spontaneous reporting by health care workers via completing the yellow cards. Due to the low reporting of ADRs in the Mazandaran province, this study was designed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and performance of pharmacists and nurses regarding ADRs reporting.Materials and Methods: This des...
Kh Gholami; Sh. Ala; Salehifar, E.
Abstract Background Both conflict and HIV affect sub-Saharan Africa, and supportive approaches for HIV prevention among refugees are crucial. Peer education has been associated with improved HIV outcomes, though relatively little research has been published on refugee settings. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposure to refugee peer education was associated with improved HIV knowledge, attitudes, or practice outcomes among refugees in Guinea. Second...
von Roenne Anna; Kollie Sarah; Souare Yaya; Howard Natasha; Woodward Aniek; Borchert Matthias
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health education plays a very important role in maintaining health of individuals. Good oral health, as a part of general health, is largely dependent on the level of knowledge, attitudes and habits that children already have. The aim of this study is to examine the level of knowledge and habits in children regarding oral hygiene, diet and bad habits. Methods. The study included 506 school children aged 12 and 15 years in three towns (Fo?a, ?ajni?e, Kalinovik, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was conducted in order to assess knowledge, attitudes and habits that children have in relation to their own oral health. Results. Most respondents stated that they began to brush their teeth at the age of 4, while a smaller number linked beginning of tooth brushing to the start of school. The parents more often help the boys during tooth brushing. A total of 54.9% of children brush their teeth after every meal, while 40.1% of them brush teeth only once during the day. Twelve year olds brush their teeth more often, especially after a meal. A total of 92.5% of children had never used fluoride tablets nor are the tablets recommended to them by anyone. More than half of the children (61.7% visited the dentist for the first time before starting school that is on the regular examination that is performed upon enrollment to school. A pain as a reason for dental visits was present in 43.9%, while the preventive check in only 31.4% of the children. Conclusion. Children included in this study, particularly 15-year-olds, are quite well informed about teeth brushing frequency and proper selection of tools for hygiene maintenance, but this knowledge is not applied. Girls are more responsible for their own health, and come regularly to the preventive dental checkups.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortion and the increase in HIV infection have become major concerns in sub-Saharan Africa and understanding adolescent sexual behaviour remains a challenge. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the practice of illegal abortions is prevalent among school-going adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies. Assessing their attitude and knowledge on the subject could be a starting point from which to address the problem.
Objectives: To determine the knowledge of schoolgirls in Goma, DRC about the health consequences of illegal abortions and to assess their attitude towards these abortions.
Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected sample of 328 high school girls aged 16 to 20 years. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Nine out of 55 (11 public and 44 private secondary schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The Epi-Info 2000 computer program was used for data capturing and analysis.
Results: The different sources of information were the radio (66.2%, 217, friends (31.7%, 104, parents (1.5%, 5, and the church (0.5%, 2. The health consequences of illegal abortion mentioned were death, infertility, infection and bleeding. Of the participants, 9.8% (32 had committed an abortion before and 46% (151 knew where to obtain it; 76.2% (250 of participants were against illegal abortion, while 23.8% (78 supported it.
Conclusion: Girls in secondary school in Goma had good knowledge of the illegal abortion practice and its consequences. A fifth of them were in support of the procedure. The DRC government may need to consider legalising abortion to secure a healthy future for affected girls.
How to cite this article: Paluku LJ, Mabuza LH, Maduna PMH, Ndimande JV. Knowledge and attitude of schoolgirls about illegal abortions in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(1, Art. #78, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.78
Langalibalele H. Mabuza
Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Knowledge, attitude and practices associated with infant feeding forms an essential ‘need felt’ for the intervention program designed to bring about positive behavioural change in infant health. Objective: to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of infant feeding among infant mothers. Methodology: This is community based cross-sectional study conducted in Vantamuri PHC area with the sample size of 401mothers. Percentage and chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: In this study, only 9.23% of mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding while majority of mothers (79.05% had average knowledge. Others had poor knowledge about the same. 22.44% of mothers had highly positive attitude towards infant feeding while majority (59.6% had average attitude. 17.96% of mothers had poor attitude towards the same. Regarding practice, 13.97% of mothers did good practice, 7.73% of mothers practiced negatively and majority (78.3% were on an average. Conclusion: The breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practices about infant feeding are suboptimal among infant mothers and those who were well informed, do not practice it willingly.
Baburaddi M. Kengalagutti
Full Text Available Global economic changes cause certain problems of knowledge work assessment. The authors of this article offers three interrelated and interdependent block of corporate knowledge work assessment. Assessment of knowledge workflow complexity may be considered as the most important and fundamental element of the whole system of knowledge work evaluation as the basis of staff remuneration employed in knowledge work. In order to this definition has acquired the application meaning of the level of knowledge workflow complexity must be measured with parameters describing next characteristics.
Avaliação do nível de conhecimento e de atitudes preventivas da população sobre a leishmaniose visceral em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Assessment of knowledge and preventive attitudes concerning visceral leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o nível de conhecimento e algumas atitudes preventivas em relação à leishmaniose visceral em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2006. Foi feito um estudo de caso-controle, com visitas domiciliares e questionário semi-estrurado. Comparou-se dois grupos: (1 82 casos humanos de leishmaniose visceral ocorridos em 2004 e (2 164 controles, constituídos por vizinhos dos casos. A leishmaniose visceral acometeu mais em crianças, com aumento do risco de contrair leishmaniose visceral de 109,77 vezes para menores de dez anos. O homem demonstrou ter 2,57 vezes mais chances de adoecer que a mulher. A escolaridade da população mostrou-se baixa (68,3% não completaram o ensino médio. Cinqüenta por cento dos casos desconheciam-na quando foram infectados e apenas 1,2% conhecia o vetor. Conhecer algo sobre a leishmaniose visceral minimizou o risco de adoecer em 2,24 vezes. Quanto às atitudes de proteção, o risco de se contrair leishmaniose visceral diminui em 1,94 vez para pessoas que mantêm limpos os domicílios ou que levam o cão ao veterinário. Em Belo Horizonte, o conhecimento da população perante a leishmaniose visceral é superficial e as atitudes preventivas inespecíficas.The main objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis and attitudes used to prevent the disease in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2006. A case-control study was conducted, with home visits and a questionnaire. The odds ratio was calculated, comparing 82 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis in 2004 and 164 controls (neighbors of cases. The disease was more frequent in children (OR = 109.77. Visceral leishmaniasis was 2.57 times more likely in males than in females. Overall schooling level was low (68.3% of subjects had not completed secondary school. Half of the cases did not know what visceral leishmaniasis was, and only 1.2% could identify the vector. Having basic knowledge of visceral leishmaniasis reduced the odds of acquiring the disease by 2.24 times. Keeping the house clean and taking pet dogs to the veterinarian reduced the risk by 1.94 times. In Belo Horizonte, the population's level of knowledge on visceral leishmaniasis is superficial, and preventive attitudes are inaccurate.
Bárbara Kellen Antunes Borges
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. Th...
Murphy Kathy; Gallagher Alison; Hazlett Diane; Coates Vivien; Moorhead Anne; Nolan Geraldine; Dinsmore John
Full Text Available Stigma in mental health is studied in a sample of 152 subjects of Almería city population with the aim of designing specific anti-stigma campaigns. For this, Stigma is operatized in three constructs: Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour, using MAKS, CAMI and RIBS scales for these. Results show that the younger group, under thirty-five years old are less knowledgeable about mental health related to stigma, showing a significant difference (p< .05. Moreover, we found significant differences in gender regarding the intention of stigmatizing behaviour (p=.049 as well as attitudes (p= .006 where men have more stigmatizing behaviour and attitudes than women. These results together with those that show a significant correlation between knowledge and behaviour, as well as between attitudes and behaviour will be used as a guide to design interventions aimed to reduce stigma in mental health.
Ana María Moreno Herrero
In Italy since 2007 vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. To assess Italian young women's knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention a cross-sectional study among young women aged 18-26 years was conducted in 2008. The survey collected information on in-depth awareness and knowledge regarding Pap testing, HPV infection, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. The response rate was 57.7% with a wide range of variability (34-84%) amongst local health units. Among 667 women who participated in the survey poor awareness and various misconceptions regarding HPV and cervical cancer prevention were detected. Overall women were found to be more knowledgeable about Pap smears and cervical cancer than about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Respondents pointed to their healthcare providers as their most trusted source for medical information. Understanding women's knowledge on cervical cancer prevention, as well as related factors is important in helping to achieve and maintain adherence to cervical cancer preventive strategies. Moreover in order to minimize cervical cancer risk by improving women's adherence to preventive strategies, appropriate and adequate information dissemination, and guidance from health professionals appear to be crucial elements. PMID:22300719
Donati, Serena; Giambi, Cristina; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Filia, Antonietta; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Gallicchio, Giuseppina; Bella, Antonino
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception’s method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. Results showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents’ knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001, while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents’ knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It is encouraging that most of the responding physicians are willing to take up training and become counsellor for victims of torture to be able to provide treatment, counselling and rehabilitation. PMID:11002645
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
Business students (n=254) were assessed on their knowledge of computers, health and safety, radiation, workstations, and ergonomic techniques. Overall knowledge was low in all categories. In particular, they had not learned computer-use techniques. (SK)
Alexander, Melody W.
Livestock diseases and other animal health events are a threat to achieving sustainable livestock industry. The knowledge of trace-back and the practice of providing feedback on diseases encountered in slaughtered animals from the abattoir to the farm can help limit the spread as well as manage potential future incidents of such diseases. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 200 willing livestock traders on traceability in Bodija Municipal Abattoir, south-western Nigeria. The results reveal that the majority of these traders had poor knowledge (79.5 %) and practices (74.0 %) of traceability, though 89.5 % demonstrated good attitudes. While 22.9 % knew that traceability could be an effective means to control diseases, only a lower proportion (9.0 %) knew the health status of the animals being purchased. Though 29.0 % reported the diseases encountered in their animals during slaughter to the farm, only 9.5 % followed up to ensure the farmers take steps at preventing further occurrence of the reported diseases. While age (p?=?0.000; 0.014) and education (p?=?0.000; 0.000) were both significant for good knowledge and attitudes, frequency of condemned cases (p?=?0.000) and length of years in the trade (p?=?0.004) were, respectively, significant for good knowledge and attitudes with none associated with practice. These poor levels of knowledge and practices of traceability are a threat to sustainable livestock industry, food security and human health; hence, there is an urgent need to institute national feedback mechanism on slaughtered animals in order to strengthen interventions against diseases at farm levels. PMID:24030103
Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ocheja, Samuel E
Full Text Available This study assessed Australian clinicians’ knowledge, attitudes and referral patterns of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome for genetic services. A total of 144 oncologists, surgeons, gynaecologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists from the Australian Medical Association and Clinical Oncology Society responded to a web-based survey. Most respondents demonstrated suboptimal knowledge of Lynch syndrome. Male general practitioners who have been practicing for ?10 years were less likely to offer genetic referral than specialists, and many clinicians did not recognize that immunohistochemistry testing is not a germline test. Half of all general practitioners did not actually refer patients in the past 12 months, and 30% of them did not feel that their role is to identify patients for genetic referral. The majority of clinicians considered everyone to be responsible for making the initial referral to genetic services, but a small preference was given to oncologists (15% and general practitioners (13%. Patient information brochures, continuing genetic education programs and referral guidelines were favoured as support for practice. Targeted education interventions should be considered to improve referral. An online family history assessment tool with built-in decision support would be helpful in triaging high-risk individuals for pathology analysis and/or genetic assessment in general practice.
Yen Y. Tan
This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls is a baseline for further TB awareness-raising among the Gezira population.
Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N
Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.
Aida Malek Mahdavi
Full Text Available Sarah Shrader1,2, Ann M Rodden1, Lisa Carroll3, Lars E Peterson11Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Family Medicine, Charleston, SC, USA; 2South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, Charleston, SC, USA; 3Spartanburg Regional Family Medicine Residency Program, Department of Family Medicine, Spartanburg, SC, USABackground: Emergency contraception (EC may reduce unintended pregnancies if patients are informed and have access. A great deal of medical education occurs during medical and pharmacy training community clerkships. This study concurrently assesses knowledge and attitudes about EC between community physician and pharmacist preceptors who prescribe/dispense EC.Study design: Electronic survey of demographic information, knowledge-based, and attitude questions related to EC was completed by 182 (36.6% response rate South Carolina community physicians and pharmacists who precept students. Comparisons were performed using chi-square or Fischer’s exact test.Results: In the study population, approximately 62% of pharmacists dispense EC while only 28% of physicians prescribe it. More physicians than pharmacists believe repetitive use is not harmful (48.3% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010, while more pharmacists believe it causes birth defects (22.6% vs 7.9%, P = 0.008.Conclusion: Overall, both physicians and pharmacists have poor knowledge about EC. Further education for both groups may be needed so future physicians and pharmacists are not taught incorrectly during their training and so patient access is not hampered by prescriber misunderstanding.Keywords: emergency contraception, levonorgestrel, pharmacist, physician
Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among the different health care workers (HCWs on nosocomial infections. Methods : A total of 150 HCWs, doctors (n=50, nurses (n=50 and ward aides (n=50 were included. A questionnaire was administered to the HCWs to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices on nosocomial infections. A scoring system was devised to grade those (KAP score. They were further subjected to a series of similar questionnaires at intervals of 6, 12 and 24 months after an education module. Subjects in each category of staff (n=10 were observed for compliance to hand washing practices in the ward in the post-education period. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software. Results : The study showed an increase in the number of subjects in each category scoring good and excellent in the post-education questionnaire; however this declined with the progress of time. It was observed that the compliance level to hand washing practices differed among the different HCWs. Total compliance was 63.3% and ward aides were most compliant 76.7% (adjusted Wald 95% CI= 58.80-88.48. Conclusions : Education has a positive impact on retention of knowledge, attitudes and practices in all the categories of staff. There is a need to develop a system of continuous education for all the categories of staff. In order to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections, compliance with interventions are mandatory.
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge about and attitude toward and sources of information about epilepsy.Methods: Seventy individuals with epilepsy (IWE and 56 control participants (CPs received Epilepsy Knowledge Scale, Epilepsy Attitude Scale and information forms which required answers to related open-ended questions.Results: There was a significant difference between the initial and current amount of epilepsy knowledge of the IWE. The IWE evaluate their epilepsy knowledge as adequate more than CPs, however as general, both groups stated inadequate epilepsy knowledge. Also, the IWE had more knowledge about epilepsy, but there was no difference in the attitudes toward epilepsy between IWE and CPs. The most frequently reported source of information by IWE was “doctors and other health staff”, and “family and acquaintances” by CPs.Conclusion: The level of knowledge about epilepsy was increasing with the passage of time among the IWE. As the most cited source of information, health staff have an important role in providing information to IWE. The study also indicates the need of national campaigns in order to increase the knowledge of epilepsy and create more favorable attitudes toward epilepsy.
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of prescribers concerning piperacillin-tazobactam use at 4 Emory University-affiliated hospitals. Discussions during focus groups indicated that the participants' perceived knowledge of clinical criteria for appropriate piperacillin-tazobactam use was inadequate. Retrospective review of medical records identified inappropriate practices. These findings have influenced ongoing interventions aimed at optimizing piperacillin-tazobactam use. PMID:17080393
Antoine, Theresa L; Curtis, Amy B; Blumberg, Henry M; Desilva, Kathryn; Fransua, Mesfin; Gould, Carolyn V; King, Mark; Kraman, Alice A; Pack, Jan; Ribner, Bruce; Seybold, Ulrich; Steinberg, James P; Wells, Jane B; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda L; Cardo, Denise; Jernigan, John A; Gaynes, Robert P
A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…
Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others
Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…
Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
Full Text Available A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that had been translated into Nuer and Arabic. Women in this study had low levels of education, poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and safer sex practices, and poor attitudes to HIV/AIDS. They believe that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God, HIV-positive people should be separated from society, carrying a condom indicates having loose morals, women should not experience sexual pleasure, and men should decide when and how to have sexual intercourse. Education, gender, and cultural beliefs are critical in the spread of HIV. Efforts to educate immigrant and displaced populations, particularly women, are essential.
Full Text Available Nadir Kheir, Hoda Y Gad, Safae E Abu-Yousef College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha, Qatar Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitude of pharmacists in Qatar towards natural health products (NHPs. Methods: The quantitative component of this study consisted of an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge about NHPs among pharmacists in Qatar. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were conducted using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®. Means and standard deviation were used to analyze descriptive data, and statistical significance was expressed as P-value, where P?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Associations between variables were measured using Pearson correlation. The qualitative component utilized focus group (FG meetings with a purposive sample of community pharmacists. Meetings were conducted until a point of saturation was reached. FG discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a framework approach to sort the data according to emerging themes. Results: The majority of participants had average to poor knowledge about NHPs while only around 7% had good knowledge. In the FG meetings, participants considered the media, medical representatives, and old systems of natural health as major source of their knowledge. They criticized undergraduate pharmacy courses (for inadequately preparing pharmacists to deal with NHPs and the pharmacy regulations (for being irrelevant. A perception of NHPs as being “safe” still exists among pharmacists. Conclusions: Pharmacists’ ability to provide effective services associated with NHPs is limited by poor access to evidence-based information and poor knowledge. A perception of NHPs and CAM as 'safe' still exists among pharmacists, and regulations related to NHPs require addressing to follow best practice and ensure patient safety. Keywords: Qatar, focus group, complimentary alternative medicine
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4% knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE was low; only 432 participants (43.2% admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1% had clinical breast examination (CBE in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines that will enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of information about breast cancer to all women in Nigeria.
Okonofua Friday E
This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, as well as for future research. PMID:23182779
Koppel, Sjaan; Muir, Carlyn; Budd, Laurie; Devlin, Anna; Oxley, Jennie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart
To identify and assess the level of knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals (HCP) in Qatar toward organ donation and transplantation, this cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2007 to February 2008 in the Accident and Emergency Departments and Intensive Care Units of the hospitals of the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC). A representative sample of 585 HCP working in the hospitals of the HMC was approached and 418 staff gave consent to participate in the study (71.5%). 36.8% were physicians, 48.6% nurses and 14.6% Emergency Medical Service (EMS) technicians. Of the surveyed HCP, 40.7% were males and 59.3% were females. Majority of the staff were in the age group of 30-39 years (58.6%). More than half of the physicians (59.7%) and technicians (57.4%) assumed that organs can be bought and sold in the State of Qatar. Most of the physicians (76.6%) and nurses (75.9%) knew that brain-dead persons are eligible for organ donation, whereas only 57.4% of the EMS technicians thought so. Majority of the HCP supported organ donation; physicians (89.0%), nurses (82.3%) and technicians (70.5%). The attitude of the physicians (24.0%) and nurses (20.2%) to donate a kidney to a family member was very poor compared with the attitude of the technicians (44.3%). Although the HCP support organ donation (83%), more than half of the physicians (51.3%), nurses (61.6%) and technicians (54.1%) wanted to be buried with all their organs intact. The findings, although they give cause for hope, suggest that there is much work yet to be done before organ donation and transplantation can become fully accepted by the medical community in Qatar. PMID:23168874
Alsaied, Osama; Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mosalamani, Yousuf; Nour, Bakr
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were recruited by random selection. Patients completed questionnaires, which included 29 questions about their knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in diabetes mellitus. The data was scored and analyzed. Result: The results showed knowledge (58.64 and attitude (46.86 scores of diabetic patients were moderate, while their practice (24.3 score were poor. There is statistical significant relation between mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with their educational level and age. Conclusion: This study showed knowledge, attitude and practice level of diabetic patients were insufficient on oral health care.
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam
The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast American and Canadian teachers' knowledge and attitudes regarding ADHD. Both samples completed a self report questionnaire. The first part determined the demographic background of the teachers. The second section consisted of 20 true/false questions concerning ADHD intended to assess teachers' general knowledge of the essential concepts involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. The results indicated that both samples had little in-service training regarding ADHD. Despite this, most teachers regarded ADHD as a valid diagnosis with educational implications and wanted more formal training. While most teachers did well on knowledge-based questions regarding the etiology and educational implications of the condition, many still perceived non-medical therapies such as diets as being effective. Many regarded the condition as being outgrown at adolescence. Significantly, only 14% of the teachers had been involved in the diagnosis and ongoing monitoring of mediation by outside professionals. The implications of improved in-service training for all professionals involved with children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:7874659
Jerome, L; Gordon, M; Hustler, P
Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women. PMID:23358794
Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup
Background: HIV/AIDS had profoundly affected every aspect of the health sector. Most importantly doctor’s attitude of avoiding treatment of HIV patients is mainly due to their apprehensions caused by their lack of understanding of the disease and its modes of transmission. Aims and objective: To investigate a group of dental students’ knowledge about HIV infection, attitudes towards treating HIV/AIDS patients and behaviour practices. Materials and methods: stu...
Venu Shan; Shethwala, Nimisha D.; Bala, D. V.
The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole...
OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding co...
Rowe, B. H.; Ryan, D. T.; Therrien, S.; Mulloy, J. V.
This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs) about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study are...
Sengwana, M. J.; Puoane, T.
Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes. PMID:24172028
Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel
Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.
For over 25 years, The Arthritis Program (TAP) at Southlake Regional Health Centre has worked within a successful interprofessional model. TAP recognized the need to teach its model and developed The Arthritis Program - Interprofessional Training Program (TAP-ITP). This pilot study evaluated perceptions of 22 TAP-ITP participants related to effectiveness and satisfaction. The study employed a longitudinal survey design and data were collected at the baseline (T1), post-program (T2), and at one year (T3) by use of the following instruments: W(e)Learn Program Assessment; Interprofessional (IP) Learner and Team Contracts; Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies Attainment Survey (ICCAS); Bruyère Clinical Team Self Assessment Scale; and Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams (ATHCT). Data analysis included descriptive, non-parametric and parametric tests. Results indicated participants were very satisfied with TAP-ITP. ICCAS scores revealed statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon rank sum tests) from T1 to T2 in perceptions of IPC competencies (p?0.05). Paired t-tests for each T1 to post (T2 and T3) scores were all significant (p?0.05) for each Bruyère subscale and overall scores. For ATHCT, paired t-tests for each T1 to T2 were significant for Quality of Care/Process (p?=?0.04) and borderline significant for Physician Centrality scale (p?=?0.06). At T3, improvement in both scales was maintained. This pilot study suggests that TAP-ITP improves self-assessed scores of knowledge and skills, as well as attitudes in interprofessional care post-program and sustained at one year. PMID:24646204
Bain, Lorna; Kennedy, Carol; Archibald, Douglas; LePage, Jennifer; Thorne, Carter
The success of tacit knowledge management lies in firms’ capabilities to attract and retain employees possessing unique knowledge. The purpose of the paper is to investigate students’ attitudes towards career in tourism in the context of tacit knowledge management. The study was conducted on the group of 345 undergraduates and graduates enrolled in tourism and hospitality studies in Poznan. Research revealed that majority of students plan short-term career in tourism, which entails tacit ...
Bednarska, Marlena A.; Olszewski, Marcin
Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.
Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)
Full Text Available Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S. try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm, and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1 determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2 identify reasons for smoking; 3 determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4 determine smokers’ intent to quit. Methods: The population of interest included individuals age 30 or younger. The instrument, in the form of an online Tobacco Survey, was distributed via email, Facebook®, and other social media. The survey was created on Survey Monkey.com®. Data were collected for nine months and analyzed using SPSS® version 17 for Windows®. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the primary factors were high to adequate, attitude a = .89, knowledge a = .71, and subjective norm a = .67. Results suggested subjective norm and attitude may predict smoking but knowledge was not a predictor. Over 70% of the smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years. Most reported reasons for smoking were alcohol consumption, smoking with friends in social settings, stress relief, and relaxation. Seventy-five percent of the smokers agreed that smoking was addictive and knowledge was high regarding the hazards of smoking. Less than 50% of the smokers planned to quit within the next year. Conclusions: Tobacco use among adolescents and young adults may be directly influenced by overall attitude and peer and family smoking behaviors. Knowledge of the hazards of smoking does not appear to influence smoking behaviors; therefore it is recommended health care providers, and others in a position to influence young people, focus on changing attitudes about smoking.
Barbara J. Ganley
Full Text Available Marcus Eh Ong1, Susan Yap1, Kim P Chan1, Papia Sultana2, Venkataraman Anantharaman11Department of Emergency Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Research, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeObjective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of local primary health care physicians in relation to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and defibrillation.Methods: We conducted a survey on general practitioners in Singapore by using a self-administered questionnaire that comprised 29 questions.Results: The response rate was 80%, with 60 of 75 physicians completing the questionnaire. The average age of the respondents was 52 years. Sixty percent of them reported that they knew how to operate an automated external defibrillator (AED, and 38% had attended AED training. Only 36% were willing to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation during CPR, and 53% preferred chest compression-only resuscitation (CCR to standard CPR. We found those aged <50 years were more likely to be trained in basic cardiac life support (BCLS (P < 0.001 and advanced cardiac life support (P = 0.005 or to have ever attended to a patient with cardiac arrest (P = 0.007. Female physicians tended to agree that all clinics should have AEDs (P = 0.005 and support legislation to make AEDs compulsory in clinics (P < 0.001. We also found that a large proportion of physicians who were trained in BCLS (P = 0.006 were willing to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation.Conclusion: Most local primary care physicians realize the importance of defibrillation, and the majority prefer CCR to standard CPR.Keywords: general practitioners, cardiac arrest, resuscitation, defibrillation, attitude, knowledge
Marcus Eh Ong
The objective of this cross-sectional comparative study was to find the effects of environment and education on knowledge and attitude of nursing students towards leprosy. Data were collected, using a pretested questionnaire, from the first year and third year students of a School of Nursing attached to a leprosy specialty hospital and also from a comparable School of Nursing attached to a general hospital. The results showed that trainees acquired more knowledge on leprosy during training in both schools of nursing. However, those trained in leprosy hospital environment had higher knowledge and attitude scores than those trained in general hospital environment. The attitude of the trainees attached to leprosy hospital was favourable even before they had formal training in leprosy. Those trained in the general hospital showed more favourable attitude after training compared to before training. School of Nursing attached to leprosy hospital provided an atmosphere conducive to learning and understanding more about leprosy. The trainees retained what was learnt because of regular association with patients affected by leprosy. For employment in hospital or community based services or research related to leprosy, nurses trained in a leprosy hospital would have added value of knowledge and attitude. PMID:21638982
Rajkumar, E; Julious, S; Salome, A; Jennifer, G; John, A S; Kannan, L; Richard, J
Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…
Sanderson, Catherine A.
Poor teamwork skills are contributors to poor performance and mishaps in high risk work settings, including the operating theatre. A questionnaire was used to assess the attitudes towards, and knowledge of, Irish surgeons (n = 72) towards the human factors that contribute to mishaps and poor teamwork in high risk environments. The responses were compared to those obtained from U.S. Naval aviators (n = 552 for the attitude questions, and n = 172 for the knowledge test). U.S. Naval aviators were found to be significantly more knowledgeable, and held attitudes that were significantly more positive towards effective teamworking than the surgeons. Moreover, 78.9% of Senior House Officers and Registrars stated that junior personnel were frequently afraid to speak-up (compared with 31.3% of Consultants). Only 7.3% of surgeons stated that an adequate pre-operative brief team brief was frequently conducted, and only 15% stated that an adequate post-operative team brief was frequently conducted. It is suggested that the human factors training currently provided to surgeons in Ireland is a positive first step. However, there is a need to stress the importance of assertiveness in juniors, listening in seniors, and more reinforcement of good teamworking behaviours in the operating theatre. PMID:22959161
O'Connor, Paul; Ryan, Stephen; Keogh, Ivan
Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Mahshahr Razy Petrochemical Complexm Ahwaz, Iran. A sample size of 210 was randomly selected. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaire's validity was gained by content-validity and its reliability was validated by Kronbach's alpha. Data was analyzed using SPSS 13."nResults: Mean age of workers was 31.1 years. The mean of their knowledge, attitude and behavior was reported 26.02, 153.18 and 36, respectively. 52.9% of workers had low, 36.7% moderate and 10.5% high level of knowledge. In addition, 75.7% of the subjects had a positive attitude towards occupational health and safety; 30% of workers had low safety behavior and 70% had safe behavior. The mean of knowledge grade shows a significant relationship with education level. A same relationship was reported for the mean of attitudes and behavior with age."nConclusion: Managers should design and implement educational interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and safe behaviors of workers.
H Sanaei Nasab
Full Text Available The objectives of this study of pregnant women with asthma are 1 to describe their knowledge and attitudes of asthma in pregnancy and their self-efficacy in carrying out their self-management plan during pregnancy, 2 to determine if their knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy changed as their pregnancy progressed, and 3 to ascertain the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and self-esteem and age, education, trimester of pregnancy, weeks of pregnancy, the number of times pregnant and live births. Sixty-eight pregnant women who had an asthma diagnosis were given knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy questionnaires initially during the point of first contact (first or second trimester (Time I and subsequently during the latter part of their pregnancy (third trimester (Time II. A demographic data form was also administered at Times I and II. Data were collected in an urban academic medical clinic and analyzed using SPSS 17. Data analysis utilized frequencies, paired samples t tests, and linear regression. There were no significant differences between Time I and Time II in attitudes and self-efficacy. Significant differences were limited to the knowledge questionnaire (t = 4.370, p = 0.05. There was a significant relationship between education and knowledge. Pregnant women with asthma had gaps in their knowledge of asthma in pregnancy, although their knowledge increased as their pregnancy progressed from Time I to Time II. Also, the more education the women had, the better they understood asthma. Education for pregnant women with asthma is tailored to their needs and modified as necessary. Nurses are prepared to address this challenge.
Nancy J. MacMullen
Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ?5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031
Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A
Under normal circumstances, operating decisions are made in accordance with the operators understanding of written procedures and of the plant which they are controlling. To ensure plant safety, an operator must have sufficient knowledge to respond correctly when both routine and unusual events place demands on his knowledge and understanding of the plant and procedures. In order that plant operating procedures or the methods used in qualifying operators may be improved a quantitative measure of understanding is required. This paper proposes a methodology which could be developed to yield a quantitative assessment of an individual's understanding. An extension is outlined where the knowledge relevant at each stage of a progressing task is assessed. This is intended to allow the identification of those parts of a task which are only weakly supported by an operator's background knowledge and where for example additional training and/or improved documentation could be introduced to greatest effect. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs
Full Text Available Malnutrition and growth failure are prevalent among Persons with Disabilities (PWD and most trainers or care givers in the Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR centres had limited knowledge in nutrition management for this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the validity and reliability of an evaluation instrument, Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire in Persons with Disabilities (KAP-nOKU among trainers in CBR centres, Malaysia. KAP-nOKU was a guided self-administered questionnaire and consisted of 30 knowledge, 15 attitude and 15 practice items. After items generation, it was assessed the content validity by an expert panel; and face validity by nine care givers for spastic children. The revised questionnaire was further pre-tested. This pilot study was a cross-sectional survey and recruited 165 trainers from CBR centres in Perlis, Pulau Pinang and Perak, Malaysia. Item analysis or construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of KAP-nOKU were examined. Five sub-domains were constructed for knowledge domain and three factor-solutions emerged for attitude and practice domains, respectively. Items with low factor loading and correlation were removed. Internal consistency was good-to-excellent for knowledge (KR20 = 0.63, attitude (CA = 0.67 and practice (CA = 0.82 domains. Test-retest reliability- the intraclass correlation coefficients for knowledge, attitude and practice domains were 0.59, 0.73 and 0.91 (p<0.05. The finalized KAP-nOKU after analysis contained 57 items-29 knowledge, 13 attitude and 15 practice items. KAP-nOKU was an adequately valid and reliable questionnaire which can serve as an assessment tool to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education among trainers or care givers in rehabilitation centres, Malaysia.
Full Text Available This quasi-experimental intervention was conducted with 10- to 14-year-old students enrolled in public schools in Teresina, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of a nutritional education program on the students’ knowledge, behaviour and attitudes towards nutrition. The dietary attitudes were evaluated in terms of food tastes/preferences and food behaviours. The participants in the study included 126 students from four schools. Differences between before and after the intervention were found regarding knowledge about the “food pyramid”, “healthy eating” and “nutrients” (p
Marize Melo dos Santos
No Child Left Behind mandates utilizing summative assessment to measure schools' effectiveness. The problem is that summative assessment measures students' knowledge without depth of understanding. The goal of public education, however, is to prepare students to think critically at higher levels. The purpose of this study was to examine any difference between formative assessment incorporated in instruction as opposed to the usual, more summative methods in terms of attitudes and academic achievement of middle-school science students. Maslow's theory emphasizes that individuals must have basic needs met before they can advance to higher levels. Formative assessment enables students to master one level at a time. The research questions focused on whether statistically significant differences existed between classrooms using these two types of assessments on academic tests and an attitude survey. Using a quantitative quasi-experimental control-group design, data were obtained from a sample of 430 middle-school science students in 6 classes. One control and 2 experimental classes were assigned to each teacher. Results of the independent t tests revealed academic achievement was significantly greater for groups that utilized formative assessment. No significant difference in attitudes was noted. Recommendations include incorporating formative assessment results with the summative results. Findings from this study could contribute to positive social change by prompting educational stakeholders to examine local and state policies on curriculum as well as funding based on summative scores alone. Use of formative assessment can lead to improved academic success.
Chauncey, Penny Denyse
Abstract Background The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and surve...
Petroczi Andrea; Raymond-Barker Philippa; Quested Eleanor
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…
Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina
The goal of this study was to assess the impact of peer education and single-session educational lectures on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude change among university students (n = 157 male, n = 230 female; mean age = 20) on the campuses of two metropolitan state universities in Ankara, Turkey. The students were randomly selected to participate in…
Ergene, Tuncay; Cok, Figen; Tumer, Aygen; Unal, Serhat
Abstract Background Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions...
Gustafsson Markus; Borglin Gunilla; Krona Hans
Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.
Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan
Full Text Available In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene was not acceptable. However the mean of their attitude score was more than scale mean and most of them had a positive attitude toward improvement of mercury hygiene in their offices. According to the results, dent ist"s practice, in this regard proved weak. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and practice and between attitude and practice (P > 0.05. In order to improve dentists" knowledge, training them is supposed. Because of no significant correlation between their knowledge and practice, surveillance seems necessary.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The epidemic of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa varies significantly across countries in the region with high prevalence in Southern Africa and Nigeria. Cancer is increasingly identified as a complication of HIV infection with higher incidence and mortality in this group than in the general population. Without cancer prevention strategies, improved cancer treatment alone would be an insufficient response to this increasing burden among people living with HIV (PLHIV. Although previous studies have noted low levels of awareness of cancers in sub-Saharan Africa none has examined the knowledge and perceptions of cancer among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods Focus group discussions (FGD and Key Informant Interviews (KII were carried out in 4 high volume tertiary care institutions that offer HIV care and treatment in Nigeria. FGD and KII assessed participants’ knowledge of cancer, attitudes towards cancer risk and cancer screening practices. Results The mean age (SD of the FGD participants was 38 (2.8 years. Most participants had heard about cancer and considered it a fatal disease but displayed poor knowledge of the causes of cancer in general and of AIDs associated cancers in particular. PLHIV in Nigeria expressed fear, denial and disbelief about their perceived cancer risk. Some of the participants had heard about cancer screening but very few participants had ever been screened. Conclusion Our findings of poor knowledge of cancer among PLHIV in Nigeria indicate the need for health care providers and the government to intervene by developing primary cancer prevention strategies for this population.
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Dorah U. Ramathuba
Injuries to children arising from home accidents are an increasing community health concern. The aim of this cross-sectional study in Qalubeya governorate, Egypt was to measure the incidence and types of home injuries affecting rural children aged up to 12 years and to assess their mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about first aid and its associated factors. An interview questionnaire was completed by 1450 rural mothers. The incidence of home injuries in the previous 4 weeks was 38.3% (57.5% were boys). Cut wounds, falls and fractures, burns, poisoning and foreign body aspiration were the common forms of home injuries. Mothers answered an average of 11.0 (SD 5.3) out of 29 KAP questions correctly. Younger age of mother, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic status, being in paid employment, source of knowledge about first aid and having attended a training course on first aid were significant predictors of better KAP among mothers. PMID:23301356
Eldosoky, R S H
Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.
This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1 +/- 2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices. PMID:23930337
Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema
There are growing concerns in the civil engineering community that misconceptions and a lack of knowledge about the profession are dissuading students from pursuing engineering careers. The purpose of this research is to discover if students understand what civil engineering is and if their knowledge and attitudes towards civil engineering change after they are introduced to the profession. This study compares knowledge and attitudes of research subjects according to variables such as gender,...
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study regarding knowledge, attitude & practices of family planning was conducted in an immunization center of Indore district. All the females coming to immunization center for vaccinating their infants were interviewed using a pretested, semi structured Performa during a fixed study period. The performa included details like socio demographic features, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding contraceptive use. Results showed poor contraceptive knowledge amongst females. 18% KAP Gap was found in total subjects. Maximum KAP Gap was found in the 19-21year age group. The KAP Gap was not significantly more in Muslim women as compare to Hindu women. The KAP Gap was more in Housewives than other occupations. Knowledge of various family planning methods should be provided to all the females coming to health center.
Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Deepa Raghunath, Sanjay Dixit
This study investigated the association among select socio-cultural variables and sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with a diverse population of metropolitan New York community college students. The Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Test survey instrument was administered to 338 students between the ages of 17 and 26 in their…
Community knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices are essential in any diarrhoea research. This cross-sectional study addresses these questions ill a semi-urban community in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study included 344 subjects and 276 controls v/’ all age groups. Most people had reasonable knowledge of diarrhoea. Mothers o/’ children with diarrhoea continued to fired them during the attack. However, some community practices were found to be harmful. The majority of di...
Bella, Hassan; Ai-freihi, Hussein; El-mousan, Mohammed; Danso, Kingsley Twum; Sohaibani, Mohamed; Khazindar, Ms Samar
Detection of probable harmful consequences arised from the usage of pharmaceutical products requires decisive, continuous and close monitoring by medical staff whom should have knowledge of adverse drug reactions and they should also have to report any suspected instances, when any kind of adverse drug reactions have been observed. This study has been carried out on the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses towards pharmacovigilance in the Taleqani medical, teaching and treatment center ...
Hajebi, Giti; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Zian, Aed
BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students? the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about...
Safak Taner Gursoy; Isil Ergin; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu
To inform future health promotion programmes, we studied the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the Northern Ireland population to sun care. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied to one adult per household from a random sample of 1242 addresses. Lower levels of knowledge were found among respondents who were male, aged under 25 years or over 65 years, in a manual occupation or living in the west where health promotion activity on this topic was less active than in the east....
Owen, T.; Fitzpatrick, D.; Dolan, O.; Gavin, A.
The task of genetic counselling of people at risk for Huntington's disease might be facilitated by increased knowledge of relevant population characteristics. The aim of the present study was to clarify select socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge concerning the disease, and attitudes towards predictive tests of people at 50% risk of inheriting Huntington's disease in the state of Victoria. A random sample of subjects was drawn from the Huntington's disease register and 50 questionnaires w...
Teltscher, B.; Polgar, S.
Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from…
Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…
Green, Edward C.
Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…
Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia
A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)
Veitia, Marie C.; And Others
This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…
Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration or willingness to administer mandatory or recommended vaccinations for infants and immunization education programs of the parents. Results Only 42.3% paediatricians knew all recommended vaccinations for infants and this knowledge was significantly higher in females, in those who worked a higher number of hours for week, and in those who use guidelines for immunization practice. Only 10.3% had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants and this was significantly higher in those who administered recommended vaccinations for infants. A large proportion (82.7% of paediatricians routinely informed the parents about the recommended vaccinations for infants and this appropriate behaviour was significantly higher among younger, in those with a higher number of years in practice, and in those who administered the recommended vaccinations for infants. Conclusion Training and educational interventions are needed in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants among paediatricians.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…
He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…
Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi
A key organizational barrier related to the implementation of open innovation strategies refers to the unwillingness of employees to undertake extra-organizational knowledge transactions. Negative attitudes against the utilization of external knowledge (i.e. the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome), as well as against the external commercialization of knowledge assets, for example, via licensing (i.e. the Not-sold-here (NSH) syndrome), may create resistance to these activities and, consequently, a misalignment between the intentions of top management and the attitudes of involved employees (Katz and Allen, 1982; Lichtenthaler et al., 2010). In this paper, we examine the extent to which these attitudes impact the actual adoption of both the inbound and the outbound approaches to open innovation. We posit that these attitudes have a negative influence, since they create unfavourable perceptions of the value of outside competencies and know-how, supporting only internal development and application of ideas and technologies. We test two hypotheses concerning the consequences of the NIH- and NSH-syndromes with cross-sectional survey data from 355 Danish firms. The population consists of firms in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge.
Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; SØndergaard, Helle Alsted
We found lack of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and means for prevention in addition to unfavorable attitudes towards HIV/AIDS individuals. We recommend an evaluation of HIV/AIDS information in the curricula of health institutes and health colleges in addition to conduction of a nationwide health education campaign on HIV/AIDS.
Yagob Y. Al-Mazrou
This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…
Pebdani, Roxanna N.
The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…
Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.
This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…
Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie
To adopt an evidence-based approach to education there is a need for research-based evidence to support its effectiveness. This study investigated the impact of evidence-based education on the knowledge and attitude of nursing students. In this quasi-experimental study, all nursing students (n = 41) studying the courses of musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal systems were chosen and assigned randomly to intervention and control groups. The groups were taught through an evidence-based or traditional approach. Students' knowledge and attitude were then evaluated. Data were gathered by three knowledge and two attitude questionnaires with multiple choice and Likert scales and then analyzed. It was shown that there was a significant difference between the average scores for attitude of the groups, but there was no statistically significant difference between the average scores of knowledge. The results suggest the evidence-based approach might be used as a complementary approach to nursing education. It was not only as effective as the usual method but also led to the acquisition of particular skills by students. The results can be used to formulate programs to design and implement evidence-based nursing education. PMID:21595816
Jalali-Nia, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Salsali, Mahvash; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Ebadi, Abbas
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…
He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John
This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…
Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
Full Text Available The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the students. Some teachers still thought that epilepsy was contagious. A few others either objected to having epileptic children in their classes or did not think that an epileptic child could achieve higher studies. The knowledge about the clinical characteristics and initial procedures to attend a person during a seizure was unsatisfactory. We conclude that schools should offer some kind of knowledge or assistance in health services and physicians must ensure that these teachers have sufficient knowledge of epilepsy. Also general public education campaigns should be encouraged in this field.
Dantas Fábio Galvão
Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%, but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%.The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%. Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.
Jabulani Ray Gumbo
This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%).The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%). Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community. PMID:23736657
Sibiya, Jerry E; Gumbo, Jabulani Ray
Knowledge of science and the scientific method are important in learning about and using evidence-based medicine in practice. Courses in research methodology have been introduced for both medical students and practicing doctors. In Pokhara, the basic science subjects are taught in an integrated manner during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Studies on students' attitudes towards and knowledge of science are lacking in medical colleges in Nepal. Hence the study was carried out to obtain information on students' attitude towards and knowledge of science and scientific methodology among preclinical medical students and note the association, if any, of students' attitudes and their demographic characteristics. The study was carried out in March 2005 among the students of the first four semesters at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal using a questionnaire developed by Hren and coworkers. Two hundred and twenty students (overall response rate 73.3%) successfully completed the questionnaire. Seventy-five respondents were Nepalese, 115 were Indians, 27 were Sri Lankans and 3 belonged to other nationalities. The X +/- SD total attitude score was 147.4 +/- 10.8 (neutral score 135). The X +/- SD scores on the subscales, value of science to humanity, value of scientific methodology and value of science to medicine were 51.3 +/- 5.4, 39.6 +/- 3.7 and 58.5 +/- 5.9 (neutral scores were 36, 51 and 48 respectively). The knowledge score measured using a set of 8 multiple choice questions was 3.3 +/- 1.4. The attitude scores were lower and the knowledge score was comparable to that reported previously in a study in Croatia but higher than that reported from Southeast Europe. PMID:18041371
Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Upadhyay, Dinesh K; Subish, P; Mishra, Pranaya
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs. HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC practices is critical. Objective: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0% took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Results: Most respondents (89.2% had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0% were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4% reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%. Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. Conclusion: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.
Lesley T. Bhebhe
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may inform policy guidelines.
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may inform policy guidelines.
Background: Variable health literacy and genetic knowledge may pose significant challenges to engaging the general public in personal genomics, specifically with respect to promoting risk comprehension and healthy behaviors. Methods: We are conducting a multistage study of individual responses to genomic risk information for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 300 individuals were recruited from the general public in Durham, North Carolina: 60% self-identified as White; 70% female; and 65% h...
Haga, Susanne B.; Barry, William T.; Mills, Rachel; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Svetkey, Laura; Sullivan, Jennifer; Willard, Huntington F.
Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research....
Talaei, M.; Roohi, S.; Sabet, B.; Baghaei, A. M.; Bahman Ziari, P.
Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was...
FARHEEN USTAD; MOHD INAYATULLAH KHAN; PRIYAYANKA BHUSHAN; FAREEDI MUKRAM ALI
Full Text Available Introduction:Appropriate breaking bad news skills are essential to the practice of high quality medicine. This study was performed in order to assess the educational benefits of training on breaking bad news skills by role play versus group discussion methods.Material and Methods:This interventional double blind study was performed in 2009-2010 in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Determination of the sample size and sampling method was based on census. 30 interns were involved in this study. They were divided into two groups randomly. Their knowledge and attitude about breaking bad news skills were evaluated with valid and reliable questionnaires. Then, group one participated in group discussion workshop and the other group participated in the role play workshop. Their knowledge and attitude were re-evaluated after the course. The scores of pre-course and post- course of both groups were compared. The results were analyzed in SPSS 11.5 using t-test and paired t-test. Results:The mean score of knowledge and attitude of both groups before training were compared and the results showed that there was no significant difference between them (p=0.618 and p=0.329. The mean scores of knowledge of groups one and two before and after training were compared and there was a significant difference (P<0.0001. The mean scores of the attitude of groups one and two before and after training revealed a significant difference (p=0.001. The mean scores of the knowledge and attitude of groups one and two after training were compared and there was a significant difference (P<0.0001, P<0.0001.Conclusion:Although both methods were effective in producing significant changes in medical student’s knowledge and attitude, role playing was more effective.
Full Text Available Objectives: The following questions were addressed; to what extent is sugar consumption, tooth brushing, and oral health related attitudes and knowledge subject to change following a combined atraumatic restorative treatment (ART /oral health education (OHE program? Are changes in intended sugar avoidance associated with changes in cognitions as specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB? Are changes in oral health related knowledge associated with changes in attitudes and oral health behaviour?Method: A total of 1306 (follow-up prevalence 73.8% primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania completed interviews before and after a combined ART/OHE program. Post intervention at 6 months follow-up assessed changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Complete baseline and follow-up interviews were obtained from 221 and 1085 students who received ART/OHE and OHE only at schools, respectively.Results: Improvement was obtained with attitudes towards sugar avoidance, knowledge, and tooth brushing (effect sizes in the range 0.1-0.3. Within individual changes did not differ significantly between students receiving ART/ OHE and OHE only. Change scores of intended sugar avoidance associated in the expected direction with changes in sugar consumption. Attitudes and norms with respect to sugar avoidance deteriorated and improved among subjects who respectively decreased and increased intended sugar avoidance. Tooth brushing increased in students who improved oral knowledge.Conclusion: School based ART/OHE improved pupils’ tooth brushing, knowledge, and attitudes, but had no effect on sugar consumption. This study provided support for the validity of the TPB in predicting changes in intended sugar avoidance and reported sugar intake.
Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) was first detected in Cambodia in 2010. The disease was responsible for high morbidity and high mortality in adult pigs and the outbreak had a costly impact on those farmers affected. The aim of this study was to generate a better understanding of Cambodian swine producers' behaviour, in relation to PRRS and its control, in areas that have previously been affected by the disease. A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs) of pig owners with regard to PRRS was conducted in semi-commercial and backyard farms in Takeo province in southeast Cambodia. The survey was designed to assess knowledge of PRRS disease and its transmission, farmers' attitudes and practices related to preventive and control measures, knowledge on vaccination and perception towards local veterinary authority activities. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise qualitative data, while multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association between selected outcomes and a number of hypothetical predictors. When presented with clinical signs typical of PRRS, most farmers identified an infectious disease as the most likely explanation for the listed clinical conditions. Farmers were also confident in recognising direct contact between pigs as one of the main ways of disease transmission; however, other viral transmission patterns typical of PRRS were mostly unknown or ignored. In general, male farmers and farmers with a higher level of education were more likely to have a better knowledge of transmission routes between pigs. In terms of attitude towards control measures, vaccination and disinfection were perceived as the most effective control practices. Farmers with a better knowledge of vaccine protocols were more likely to find vaccination effective. Village animal health workers (VAHWs) were generally in contact more with backyard farmers, while semi-commercial farmers were more prone to treat pigs themselves, raising the issue of easy and uncontrolled access to medication and vaccination. In general, farmers had a positive attitude towards local veterinarians, and lack of contact between farmers and the veterinary authority was associated more with logistic constraints than with farmers' mistrust towards the authority. PMID:24472214
Tornimbene, B; Chhim, V; Sorn, S; Drew, T W; Guitian, J
Full Text Available Background: Incidence of asthma is 5.5% in Iran. Patients with asthma need frequent self-management in order to control the symptoms maintaining natural lung activity. The aim of this study is to study the effective factors of self-management behaviors, and its relation with controlling asthma in asthmatic patients in Kashan. Materials and Method: Simple sampling was employed to recruit 102 asthmatic patients referring to asthmatic therapeutic centers of Kashan, Iran. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was conducted and the data were collected using a survey questionnaire based on knowledge and attitude factors and self-management behavior constructions and asthma control test. SPSS software for Windows was used for analyzing data (t-test, ANOVA, correlation and regression.Results: The respondents acquired 46.8% of total asthma knowledge score, 82.2% of attitude score. Respondents with acquisition 57.7% of total asthma self-management behavior score placed in middle class. The acquired score in asthma control is low class (40.28%. Negative relation between knowledge and asthma control was observed. Conclusion: The results showed that if the situation of knowledge and attitude factors are better, the self-management behaviors in asthmatic patients will be better and if the situation self-management behavior be better, asthma control will be better, too. Negative relation between knowledge and asthma control needs more researches
S. Saeed Mazloomi
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48% males and 832 (52% females (9 respondents no mention of gender, from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and healthy attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. Among the demographic variables of gender, province and the institution of their study a significant difference showed in their levels of knowledge and also a statistically significant association was found between beliefs and knowledge. Interestingly, about 58% of the students think that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God. Almost half (46.5% of the respondents think that learning about sex and the use of condoms could also encourage young people to engage in more frequent sex. Although, in general the students have a very good knowledge, they indicate the need for more sex education and awareness pro-grams about HIV/AIDS that could be given in high schools.
Objective To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents' attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants' contribution in control program of CL in this area. PMID:25183278
Sarkari, Bahador; Qasem, Asgari; Shafaf, Mohammad Reza
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 448 women attended primary care facilities in Kelantan were included in this study. Twostage sampling process was used to select clinics in all districts in Kelantan followed by female participants from selected clinics attendance lists. Recruited were non illiterate young adult women up to 65 years of age and without psychotic symptoms. Consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire that should be completed within 15 minutes. Findings: The respondents’ mean age was about 40 years with majority of them having secondary educational level and coming from low socio-economic group. Among them, 56.8% involved in tobacco products and 41.3% reported as having CVD related medical illnesses, especially obesity (23.7% and hypertension (17.6%. About 56.2% had family history of CVD risk. Only 26.8% of them obtained the CVD information from health care workers. The good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% accordingly. There were significant association between attitude and knowledge, practice and knowledge and practice and attitude which were found to be strong (0.10, 0.20, (0.10, 0.18 and (0.26, 0.40 95% CI, respectively and is independent with socio-demographic and personal disease characteristic. Conclusion: Positive relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice will encourage primary care doctors to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge about, opinions on and attitudes toward and finally readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMO) among Slovenian teachers. On average, they have higher levels of knowledge in classical genetics, and poor levels of knowledge about modern issues in biotechnology, and their attitudes toward GMOs are not extreme. They make decisions based on the acceptability of a particular GMO and not on GMOs in general, following two patterns...
S?orgo, Andrej; Ambroz?ic?-dolins?ek, Jana
The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to explore the effectiveness of an educational intervention on nurses' attitudes and knowledge regarding pain management and to explore associations with nurses' characteristics. A four Solomon group experimental design was employed to assess the effect of the intervention and potential effects of pre-intervention testing. One hundred and twelve nurses were randomized to two intervention and two control groups. The intervention was based on viewing a series of educational videotapes and case scenarios. The Validated Hellenic version of the Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (GV-NKASRP) was used. Pre-intervention scores revealed various limitations in regard to pain assessment and management. At the pre-test, the average number of correct answers was 17.58+/-7.58 (45.1%+/-19.3% of total questions). Pre-intervention scores differed significantly among participants with different educational backgrounds (P < 0.0001). A significant effect of pain education on total knowledge scores as well as regarding specific questions was detected. Intervention group participants provided 6.11+/-5.55 additional correct answers (15.66%+/-14.23% improvement, P < 0.0001), and they exhibited significantly improved post-test scores compared to controls (26.49+/-5.24 vs. 18.75+/-4.48; P < 0.0001). A potential negative effect of pre-test on knowledge gain for specific items and for total scores was detected. These findings suggest low pre-test knowledge scores among Hellenic oncology nurses and a significant effect of the intervention. PMID:16246621
Patiraki, Elisabeth I; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E; Tafas, Cheryl; Akarepi, Vasiliki; Katsaragakis, Stelios G; Kampitsi, Anjuleta; Lemonidou, Chrysoula
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.
Full Text Available Emergency Contraception (EC is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women’s contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women’s contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p<0.05 and more frequently counseled women about EC than general practitioners (GPs (p<0.001. The most cited reason for EC prescriptions were rupture condom and none use of contraception. Our findings showed despite of majority of health staff had good knowledge about EC, their knowledge about the indications for prescription of EC and its side effects was inadequate. The educational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program.
Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is applied to prevent pregnancy after 72-120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency contraceptive (EC pill is used to reduce unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. EC pill is available as OTC in India since 2005. As EC pill highly used among adolescents we carried out to this study among college students. Methods: The study was conducted among female college students. A pre-validated questionnaire was used as tool for the study. It contains consent form and questions knowledge and attitude regarding EC pill. Results: We divided students into group A (medical, paramedical and pharmacy colleges and group B (nonmedical colleges like science, arts and engineering. In group A 470 and group B 280 students were participated. Knowledge about appropriate time of taking EC pill (within 72 hours after sexual intercourse was 44% in group A which is significant than 15% in group B. Knowledge about brand name, availability cost and side effects were more in group A than group B. Electronic media was the most common source of information mentioned by both the groups. Attitude regarding advice to use of EC pill to other was more in group A than group B. Conclusions: Knowledge about use of EC pill was higher in group A than group B. Attitude was not positive regarding availability of EC pill as OTC. So education about EC pill among young population is necessary. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 77-84
Prakash R. Shelat
Advance directives (ADs) give patients autonomy in making decisions regarding end-of-life preferences prior to becoming incapacitated or otherwise unable to communicate. Limited family-related research currently exists on young, adult African American families and their knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions toward the utilization of ADs. A mixed-method design of quantitative data, using the Advance Directives-Knowledge, Attitudes, and Utilization Questionnaire (AD-KAUQ); and qualitative data, using a focused group session, was conducted in a southeastern city in the United States. The study surveyed 112 young, adult African American family members, ages 21-40 years, to explore their perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes toward utilizing ADs, as well as to determine whether there was a relationship between gender, education level, marital status, and occupation in making this decision. The study findings did not support evidence of significant relationships between the variables with the exception for the relationship between gender and the feeling of being treated differently for having a living will in place. This finding suggested that there was a need for members of young, adult African American families to obtain knowledge of ADs. PMID:23734473
Ramsey, Carolyn Pace
Full Text Available Objective: Health care workers especially medical students are at risk of being exposed to blood-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards standard isolation precautions (SIP. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was completed by 148 medical students from April to July of year 2009 to seek their knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions in a clinical setting at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions were 6.8±2.1 (maximum 10, 16.6±4.2 (maximum 20, and 18.05 ± 4.5 (maximum 30 respectively. Significant differences were observed between practice of female and male (P < 0.008 and also knowledge of year 6 and year 7 students (P <0.021. Conclusion: Education on infection control based on standard isolation precaution must be stressed and barriers of appropriate practice must be removed.
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students were examined for having any fissure-sealed teeth. Data were collected and analyzed by multiple logistic regression tests."nResults: 414 boy students and their parents were participated in this study. 57.6% of parents knew that fissure sealant prevents the caries and 44.5% believed that fissure sealant is important to prevent caries. However, only 8.9% of children had fissure sealant. Parents' knowledge was significantly related to the source of oral health information and oral health education. Regular dental visits and high level education was effective in increasing the knowledge about sealant therapy. There was a significant relation between parents' attitude toward fissure sealant and level of education, oral health education and numbers and times of dental visit (P<0.001. There were a significant relation between tooth sealing and parents' oral health information."nConclusion: Regular dental visits and oral health education have positive role in parent's knowledge and attitude and practice. So parents must be encouraged to have regular dental visit and dentists must be emphasized to give them necessary education. School is the best place for giving proper information to parents.
Full Text Available Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P 0.05 in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.
The University of British Columbia Geriatric Dentistry Program (GDP) offers dental services and provides a comprehensive in-service education program for nursing and residential care-aide (RCA) staff in the provision of daily mouth care for elders in various long-term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver. This study examined the general impact of the education initiative at one LTC site. A survey (N=90), semi-structured open-ended interviews (N=26), and product audits were conducted to 1) examine the impact of the GDP education initiative on the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of RCAs and nursing staff regarding the provision of daily mouth care; 2) identify the enablers and barriers that influenced the provision of daily mouth care practices, policies, and protocols using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of health promotion research; and 3) assess the self-perceptions of RCAs and nursing staff members regarding their oral health. A knowledge gap was evident in some key areas pertaining to prevention of dental diseases. Twenty-five percent of residents were missing toothbrushes and toothpaste for daily mouth care. Residents who exhibit resistance to mouth care tended not to receive regular care, while issues such as time, increased workload, limited staff, and the lack of an accountability structure are disenabling factors for provision of daily mouth care. Results suggest that the impact of educational interventions is affected by the quality of in-service education, an absence of identified predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors, and a strong commitment among LTC staff to the provision of daily mouth care for frail elders. PMID:19433533
Dharamsi, Shafik; Jivani, Khairun; Dean, Charmaine; Wyatt, Chris
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 253-258
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 253-258
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors that can positively influence brand attachment and brand attitude strength. Brand creation through an effective marketing strategy is necessary for creation of unique associations in the customer’s memory. Customer’s attitude, awareness and association towards the brand are primarily focused while evaluating performance of a brand, before designing the marketing strategies and subsequent evaluation of the progress. In this research, literature establishes a direct and significant effect of Knowledge metrics of the Brand equity, i.e., Brand Awareness and Brand Association, on creation of Brand Attachment and Brand Attitude Strength and this factor becomes more effectual while introducing and promoting new brands. Finding of this research imply that for achieving desirable outcome through creation of Brand attachment and Brand Attitude Strength n the target audience and for designing more effective and fruitful strategies, managers and policy makers should pay more focus on creating strong Knowledge metrics amongst the target audience.
Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.
Whitcher, Carrie Lynn
Social Security spends $135 million yearly, contracting with physicians to provide consultative examinations for disability applicants. However, little is known about who these physicians are or how they view the determination of impairment. We surveyed a random sample of 153 physicians from North Carolina who performed consultative examinations for the North Carolina Disability Determinations Agency in 1983 (the consultative group), and a randomly selected group of 165 physicians of similar medical specialties (the comparison group). Response rates were 75% for the consultative group and 66% for the comparison group. Most consultative physicians (63%) performed fewer than 6 examinations per month. Characteristics of the consultative physicians were similar to the comparison group. Both groups were skeptical of the claims of disability applicants; 48% of the consultative and 55% of the comparison group thought that a majority of applicants could be employed. Of the consultative physicians, 53% indicated that they had learned little about disability programs from any source. Most consultative physicians (58%) judged it "almost impossible" to determine impairment on the basis of a single office examination. However, consultative physicians were less likely than the comparison group to view Social Security as difficult to work with (25% vs. 54%; P less than 0.01). Agencies that determine disability ask physicians to perform a task for which they feel ill prepared and have little special knowledge. PMID:3695646
Carey, T S; Fletcher, S W; Fletcher, R; Earp, J
Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n?=?292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367
Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F
Full Text Available Background: ICT competencies are now essential for nurses in optimizing their care services and their training. Objective: To analyze knowledge, attitudes and practices related to ICT, in de population of public hospital and ISP’s nurses of Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and transversal study was conducted. Data were collected from 130 professionals, during June and July of the year 2011, through interviews and by application of a questionnaire of open and closed questions and a Likert scale.Results: The dimensions of knowledge and use shows elementary levels, but the attitude toward ICT is favorable. Discussion: This last fact and the finding of a predominantly young population suggest that interventions aimed at training have a high probability of success.
Carmen Noelia Espínola López
Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The results from the study further suggested that the internal consistency of these key components differed across the countries. This implies that young students' perceptions and attitudes are multidimensional on bioenergy issues and they could vary from one country to another country. The conceptual models based on regression analysis revealed that the students' intentions to use bioenergy in general could be explained by considering their perceptions of the societal aspects related to bioenergy. Fostering the awareness of bioenergy among young students, we need to share the educational methods among home, school, and media. It is recommended that the bioenergy policy makers and professionals must raise the awareness of bioenergy among young students in our society and regard them as an important target group while formulating bioenergy policies. The results of this research support the idea of increasing collaboration between bioenergy policies and bioenergy education strategies for school students. However, it is suggested that further research should be undertaken in these issues to have a deeper understanding of young citizens' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with more country specific contexts. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore adolescent HIV risk perception, HIV vaccine knowledge, willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine clinical trials, and the factors that influence willingness to participate among high school students in Soweto, South Africa, we recruited school-going youth through randomly selected local high schools. All pupils within the selected schools from whom parental consent and child assent could be obtained were eligible for participation. A self-administered, facilitated questionnaire was completed by all participants. Findings Perception of adolescent HIV risk was high. Some misconceptions regarding vaccine research were common, particularly regarding placebo and potential eligibility criteria for prophylactic vaccine trials. Of 240 responses to the willingness item, 84 (35% indicated they were "probably willing" and 126 (52.5% that they were "definitely willing to participate". There were no significant differences in willingness by gender, age, school grade, or institution. Factors that were rated as "very important" in determining willingness included receiving current information about HIV research [n = 201 (88.9%], doing something to honour people who have HIV or have died of AIDS [n = 168 (70.9%], getting free counselling and testing [n = 167 (70.5], that participants may receive some protection against HIV infection from the vaccine [n = 160 (70.2%], and improving motivation to avoid risky behaviour [n = 134 (59%]. Conclusion Soweto school-going youth report high degrees of willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. This may be related to the high levels of adolescent HIV risk perception. Whether hypothetical willingness translates to participation will await data from adolescent HIV vaccine trials.
McIntyre James A
Background To assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) amongst the general community regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in rural Bangladesh. Methods Data was collected using cluster random sampling from 3104 adults residing in a rural district in Bangladesh. Participants underwent a KAP questionnaire survey regarding assessing diabetes, socio-demographic and medical history. Descriptive, Chi-square and regression analyses were performed. Results Participants were aged between 30 and 89 years (M ?=?51, SD ?=?11.8) and 65.5% were female. The prevalence of diabetes was found to be 8.3%. The majority (93%) reported to have heard of diabetes, yet only 4% knew what a glucose tolerance test was. Only 50% reported that they knew physical inactivity was a risk factor. Age, gender, level of education and socio-economic status (SES) were significantly associated with KAP. A lower proportion (41%) of older participants (aged ?65 years) reported that they knew that dietary modifications assist in diabetes control compared to those aged less than 35 years (69%), p<0.001. Males (? ?=?0.393, 95% CI?=?0.142–0.643), and any level of education compared to no schooling (? ?=?0.726, 95% CI?=?0.596, 0.857) reported significantly more knowledge, after multivariate adjustments for covariates. Participants aged under 35 years, (odds ratio (OR) ?=?1.73, 95% CI ?=?1.22–2.43) had significantly higher positive attitudes towards treatments of diabetes compared to those aged ?65 years. Of the 99 people with known diabetes, more than 50% (n?=?52) never had their blood sugar levels checked since diagnosis. Conclusions Knowledge of diabetes and its risk factors is very limited in rural Bangladesh, even in persons diagnosed with type 2 DM. The development of public health programmes to increase knowledge of diabetes and its complications is required to assist people living in rural Bangladesh to control and management of diabetes. PMID:25313643
Islam, Fakir M. Amirul; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Dirani, Mohamed; Islam, M. Tauhidul; Ormsby, Gail; Wahab, Mohamed
Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used ...
Mulat Gedefa; Tesfaye Wolde; Gebremedhin Solomon
Background The Surgical Informed Consent (SIC) is a comprehensive process that establishes an informationbased agreement between the patient and his doctor to undertake a clearly outlined medical or surgical intervention. It is neither a casual formality nor a casually signed piece of paper. The present study was designed to audit the current knowledge and attitudes of doctors towards SIC at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional qualitat...
Bushra Ashraf; Nasira Tasnim; Muhammad Saaiq; Khaleeq- Uz-Zaman
The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who h...
Jon-Håkon Schultz; Inger-Lise Lien
Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. If not treated quickly, it can develop into a lethal hemorrhagic disease. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design aimed to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever in Kawalu Public Health Centre Tasikmalaya City. The study population is all public jigures who are in the Kawalu Public He...
Background & Objective: Regular and adequate physical activity is a major factor in maintaining good health throughout entire life course. Levels of inactivity are high in all countries. Effective educational interventions are needed to promote physical activity in all populations. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a heath education intervention on physical activity knowledge, attitude, and behavior in health volunteers of Tehran in 2008. Methods & Materials...
Seyed Emami R; Eftekhar Ardebili H; Golestan B.
This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…
Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld
Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) associated with avian influenza (AI). To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized...
Cheng Xiaowen; Yu Zhangda; Li Leilei; Huai Yang; Liao Qiaohong; Zhou Hang; Zhou Lei; Peng Zhibin; Ye Min; Zhang Shunxiang; Wu Jiabing; Shi Ying; Xiang Nijuan; Su Weike; Wu Xiaomin
Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran. One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate ...
Taraneh Movahhed; Mahboobe Dehghani; Sedigheh Karbasi; Sara Khaki; Mojtaba Dorri
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception’s method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were di...
Fariba Mahamed; Saadat Parhizkar; Alireza Raygan Shirazi