Hermansen, John Erik; Nguyen, T Lan T
Our food consumption is responsible for a major part of the environmental impact related to our total consumption. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a product-oriented tool that can be used efficiently to identify improvement options within the food chain covering a product’s life cycle from cradle...... to grave, which is very complex for many foods, and to support choices of consumption. The LCA methodology is supported by public standards and public policy measures and has proved its value in business development for more environmentally friendly products. It is an essential feature that the effects...... framework for aggregation facilitates the coherent use of the LCA results in different purposes and by different stakeholders. There is a need, nonetheless, to further develop the methodology, including land use impacts resulting from increased demand for food. It has been demonstrated that this inclusion...
Rajesh Kr Singh
Agriculture sector plays very crucial role in the economic growth of India. For sustaining its further growth, supply chain of agriculture sector needs to be strengthened. Agriculture sector is facing lot of challenges due to poor infrastructure, unorganised retail market, poor adoption of modern technology and overall inefficient supply chain. There is strong need to develop linkages between farmers and food processors and markets. Lack of coordination is the major problem in food supply cha...
All radiation exposure pathways which are considered in the RODOS food chain and dose modules are described. For each of them, the principal processes controlling the exposure are discussed, showing up the input data requirements. Emphasis is put on those data which vary from region to region and thus require the adaptation of model parameters if RODOS is to be applied for regions with different conditions. Calculation of individual doses as well as estimation of collective doses are reflected. Possibilities for improving the dose estimations by consideration of measured data are discussed. The deposition onto different kinds of surfaces (e.g., soil, plant canopies, urban areas) can be improved by means of gamma dose rate measurements, vegetation samples, in situ gamma spectrometry etc. Measurements of concentrations of activity in feed and foodstuffs, whole body burdens, personal dosemeters etc. can help to improve the predicted internal and external doses. (orig.)
Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst; Lotte Peeters; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.
Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE...
Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst
Full Text Available Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems. SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure a step change in operational practices, which will improve the efficiency and sustainability of supply chain logistics. In the paper we present the first results of this project. Aim of this paper is (1 to present a sustainability research framework for food supply chains logistics including drivers, strategies, performance indicators, metrics and improvement opportunities to measure and potentially enhance sustainability performances; and (2 to analyse and diagnose the current status of Dutch food & drinks companies and logistics service providers using this framework. Results are found via a literature review, web-based research and structured interviews with Dutch food and logistics service industry.
The long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal is assessed by the consequence analysis of radionuclides release, of which the final step is carried out by the biosphere assessment. the radiation dose is calculated from the food chain modeling which especially necessitates site-specific input database and exposure pathways. A biosphere model in consideration of new exposure pathways has been analyzed, and a program for food chain calculation has been developed. The up-to-data input data are reflected and the new exposure pathways are considered in the program, so the code shows more realistic and reliable results
Francesca Galli; Fabio Bartolini; Gianluca Brunori
Food chain sustainability assessment is challenging on several grounds. Handling knowledge and information on sustainability performance and coping with the diversity of visions around “what counts as sustainable food” are two key issues addressed by this study. By developing a comparative case study on local, regional and global wheat-to-bread chains, and confronting the multidimensionality of sustainability, this work focuses on the differing visions and perspectives of stakeholders. We int...
The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...
Full Text Available Food chain sustainability assessment is challenging on several grounds. Handling knowledge and information on sustainability performance and coping with the diversity of visions around “what counts as sustainable food” are two key issues addressed by this study. By developing a comparative case study on local, regional and global wheat-to-bread chains, and confronting the multidimensionality of sustainability, this work focuses on the differing visions and perspectives of stakeholders. We integrate qualitative and quantitative data, stakeholder consultation and multi-criteria analysis to align the visions and the multiple meanings of sustainability. Because of the complexity and the dynamicity of the food system, the multidimensionality of the sustainability concept and its pliability to stakeholders priorities, sustainability is an object of competition for firms in the agro-food sector and has major implications in the governance of food chains. Results identify key propositions in relation to: (i the value of combining science-led evidence with socio-cultural values; (ii multidimensional sustainability assessment as a self diagnosis tool; and (iii the need to identify shared assessment criteria by communities of reference.
Schmitt, Emilia; Barjolle, Dominique; Cravero, Virginia; Tanquerey-Cado, Anaelle
In the context of growing consumers’ awareness about the impact of food products on the environment, their health or on social aspects, a careful analysis needs to be conducted to compare the sustainability performance of local and global food value chains. Indeed, a critical analysis of local food chains’ performance in comparison with more global ones will help to objectively assess the real benefits and drawbacks of local and global food chains. In this paper, a comparison of a local and a...
This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G
Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others
This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.
Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.
This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by
Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.
This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.
Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Peeters, L.; Bloemhof, J.M.
Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustain
Hamers, T.H.M.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.
A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated bi
Nica Dragos V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH, relative shell height (RSH, and whorl number (WN. Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability
Shokri, Alireza; Oglethorpe, David; Nabhani, Farhad
The purpose of this article is to investigate the understanding of businesses and end consumers of key sustainability measures in the UK fast food Supply Chain. A quantitative method was used in which two sets of well-structured questionnaires were designed separately for fast food businesses and end consumers. The data analysis was conducted through “cluster analysis”. It was found that social responsibility was scored as the most important fast food sustainability concern for businesses, wh...
Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: email@example.com [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)
Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.
Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran;
integration of these disciplines will lead to better capability in full-chain tracing and tracking biological contaminations (biotracing). The advantages of improved biotraceability are faster intervention, limited recalls and more targeted remedial action. The project is not dealing with risk assessments but......Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the......, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several...
This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses
Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others
This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.
Highlights: • Damselfishes living at sites near a cage farm bore lower δ13C and higher δ15N. • Similar trends occurred in zooplankton and detritus, major foods for damselfishes. • δ15N enrichment in fish may have arisen from the uptake of excess feed and prey. • Farm wastes were documented entering the ecosystem through the pelagic food chain. • No clear evidence of the effects of cage farming on stable isotopes in macroalgae. - Abstract: To assess the effect of cage fish-farming on the coral reef ecosystem off Xiaoliuchiu Island, southern Taiwan, geographical differences in the food chain of each of two damselfishes, Pomacentrus vaiuli and Chromis margaritifer, were examined using a stable-isotope approach. For each damselfish, individuals were found to consume similar foods at all sites. However, specimens collected at sites near the cage farm (as the experimental sites) exhibited lower δ13C and higher δ15N signatures compared to those from reference sites. Similar trends also occurred in the zooplankton and detritus, two major food sources for both damselfishes. This finding indicates that particulate organic matter released by the farm may have entered the coral reef ecosystem through the pelagic food chain. Artificial reef emplacement is recommended to provide extra habitats under cage farms to support additional pelagic-feeding fish populations, thereby reducing environmental impacts of cage farming on coral reefs
Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric
In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.
This publication is the collection of the reports on the project research 'Assessment of Radiation Exposure of the Public to Radioactivities Related to the Environment and Food Chain'. The 16 of the reports are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer
Oeberg, M.; Haakansson, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Insitute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pongratz, I.; Gustavsson, J.Aa. [Karolinska Institutet, Dept. of Biosciences, Huddinge (Sweden)
Harmful effects of chemical contaminants in food are of major health concern in Europe today. Lack of integration between basic research, risk assessment, and education severely hampers the efforts to reach European excellence in this area. The research activities that are carried out are small in scale and are not well integrated into a coherent structure. To tackle the fragmentation problems and to achieve synergistic effects and full European research potential, the European Commission has initiated a Network of Excellence called CASCADE or ''Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain: a network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education'' The contract is running for five years and is worth over 14 million with partners from eighteen research centres. The network has the potential and goal to be a world force in knowledge on health issues related to chemical contaminants in food. Focus is on chemical residues that act via and/or interfere with cell regulation at the level of nuclear receptors. The risk assessment integration parts of the network aim to increase the awareness among scientists and others of the need to bring multiple aspects of scientific information into use in risk assessment.
Hamers, Timo [Wageningen University, Toxicology Group, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den [Wageningen University, Toxicology Group, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Vrije Universiteit, Department of Animal Ecology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik-Jan van [Maastricht University, Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Murk, Albertinka J. [Wageningen University, Toxicology Group, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)
A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus. - In polluted floodplain areas, dietary exposure to metals poses a larger risk for small mammals in a carnivorous than in a herbivorous food chain.
A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus. - In polluted floodplain areas, dietary exposure to metals poses a larger risk for small mammals in a carnivorous than in a herbivorous food chain
Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...
Full Text Available Foods can been contaminated by S. aureus usually as a result of unhygienic behaviour of staff or improper conducted technological procedures. Compared to saprophytic bacteria, S. aureus does not possess significant competitive properties; however its epidemiological potential consists in multiplication to density higher than 106 cfu/g and formation of heat-resistant enterotoxins by which it causes food poisoning. Based on the data in 2001, the risk was characterized as follows: S. aureus is almost ubiquitous in ewes’ milk. It is likely that it can increase its numbers by more than 3 log cfu/g and exceed the densities from 105-106 cfu/g for a short period, particularly at farm conditions. It is unlikely that it can succeed in competition with active lactic acid bacteria when they are present in higher numbers in ewes’ milk. While exposure of S. aureus through consumption of lump ewes’ cheese made from raw milk is high, its consequences are mild and severity may be assessed as negligible. The overall risk is considered as low. A kind of confirmation provides the official incidence of staphylococcal poisoning which is 0.2 per 100,000 populations (lower than the EU average of 0.6/100,000.doi:10.5219/263
The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel management (NFWM) concept of disposal in a vault deep in the Canadian Shield is presented. Together with the surface water, soil and atmosphere submodels, CALDOS is integrated into a comprehensive, probabilistic biosphere model for post-closure assessment. This model is representative of the Canadian Shield in Ontario and CALDOS is fully generic. CALDOS calculates radionuclide transfer through the environment to make dose predictions for man. It considers 68 radionuclides explicitly and takes into account another 28 short-lived daughters in the dose calculations. Nine potentially toxic elements are also considered. CALDOS is of the multiplicative chain type for most of the radionuclides, but some, such as 3H, 129I and 222Rn, are treated specially. The model accounts for all the major internal exposure pathways, including root uptake, leaf deposition, terrestrial animal's drinking water, terrestrial animal soil ingestion, freshwater fish ingestion, human drinking water, human soil ingestion and human inhalation. External exposure from air immersion, water immersion, ground and building materials are also considered. Dose predictions are based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP 26) methodologies, ICRP reference man (ICRP 23) and the critical group concept. CALDOS considers ingrowth of some radioactive daughters, radionuclide availability in soil, recycling and depletion. The model has numerous parameters, some element, radionuclide or food type specific. Sensitivity analysis is used to assess parameter importance in dose prediction. Quality assurance is addressed through general literature, model and parameter evaluations, specifically designed for environmental assessment models. This also involves validation and code comparison studies. (author). 43 refs., 36 tabs., 24 figs
A number of longliving and still being produced radioactive isotopes produces well measurable and not to be neglected radiation, by which, via the food chains, plant, animal and man receives a socalled natural radiation dose. Six of the most important isotopes are discussed here. The radioisotopes 14C and 40K form part of the most live-necessary elements; they pass without strong enrichment and discrimination through the food chains and form a practically constant part of the living organism. Yet by excessive fertilizing a rather higher content of potassium than necessary is present in plants. Also a higher radiation dose arises from exessive uptake of food. The isotopes of uranium 238U and radium, 226Ra, discussed here, occur everywhere in the soil, but locally in very high amounts. They migrate for a very small part into plant and animal, sometimes occur in vegetable food as part of soil particles. Other important isotopes of the uranium families are radioactive lead, 210Pb, and polonium, 210Po, which can be dispersed to a much greater amount than the other isotopes: in the form of the gaseous intermediate product radon, here the isotope 222Rn. 210Pb and 210Po are finally deposited upon plants and other food products. In the hydrosphere 210Po can be enriched in the food chain from plankton to fish. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs
Kurppa, Sirpa; Virtanen, Yrjö
The evaluation of the food chain’s environmental impacts was conducted using an environmentalaccounting model developed specifically for the Finnish food chain. The model is based on production and environmental impact data from year 2005. The model considers both Finnish production and Finnish imports in addition to their transport. The targets of the evaluation were the environmental impacts, in 2005, stemming from production. Environmental impacts of the end-use phase were not assessed....
Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, Ingrid; Ponte, Stefano;
In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive ro...
Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun
Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. PMID:26446198
Luciana Marques Vieira
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.
Ľubomír Valík; Alžbeta Medveďová
Foods can been contaminated by S. aureus usually as a result of unhygienic behaviour of staff or improper conducted technological procedures. Compared to saprophytic bacteria, S. aureus does not possess significant competitive properties; however its epidemiological potential consists in multiplication to density higher than 106 cfu/g and formation of heat-resistant enterotoxins by which it causes food poisoning. Based on the data in 2001, the risk was characterized as follows: S. aureus is ...
The operation of supply chains (SCs) has for many years been focused on efficiency, leanness and responsiveness. This has resulted in reduced slack in operations, compressed cycle times, increased productivity and minimised inventory levels along the SC. Combined with tight tolerance settings for th
Irrigation of contaminated water onto crop land is a relatively direct pathway for radionuclides to deliver a radiation dose to man. Irrigation was not originally included in the SYVAC assessment model for the Precambrian Shield because no irrigation is currently practised in the region. This report re-evaluates this decision. An analysis of meteorological data shows that crop yield in northern Ontario would benefit from irrigation. Thus, incentives are present for subsistence-scale, and perhaps commercial-scale, irrigation of surface or well water. A food-chain analysis indicated that irrigation with contaminated water could deliver a dose comparable to direct consumption (drinking) of the same water, for some radionuclides. Long-term contamination of soil through irrigation was predicted to be a substantial hazard, even when soil leaching was incorporated into the food-chain model. This report presents parameter estimates that could be used to incorporate irrigation as a pathway in the SYVAC code and will constitute the basis for further decisions concerning this pathway
Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Arneborg, Nils
Traditionally, many data on food–borne microorganisms are obtained as an average of a whole population, under the assumption that the individual cells are clonal and therefore identical. However, it is now acknowledged that there may be a large heterogeneity within an isogenic population, and...... consequently new methods focus on the individual cells. This mini-review will give an overview of the response of food-borne microorganisms; i.e. pathogenic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts, at a single-cell level to various food-related stress conditions, comprising acid-, disinfection-, salt- and...
Akpinar, Goksel; Gul, Mevlut; Gulcan, Sinem
Consumer oriented marketing concept appeared to be effective in accordance to the shift from the traditional marketing approach to the modern marketing approach. This process brings about the concept of customer value in retail food sector as it is the case in other sectors. The rise in number and variety of shopping units that operate in the retail market drives firms into value based marketing concept. Due to the positive effect on the relationship between customer value and customer satisf...
Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Songer, Nancy Butler
Being able to make claims about what students know and can do in science involves gathering systematic evidence of students' knowledge and abilities. This paper describes an assessment system designed to elicit information from students at many placements along developmental trajectories and demonstrates how this system was used to gather…
Full Text Available The aim of the article was technical and economic assessment of organizational improvements and use of resources of the examined business entities within the frames of their economic activity. The measurement of economic effi ciency was done with the use of commonly accepted profi tability indices (ROE, profi t margin and RONA. The technical assessment was based on the DEA method, taking into account the model: CRS, VRS and the scale of production. The variables applied in the model w ere operating incomes, as well as expenditures, i.e. UR area, labour input, value of fi xed assets and expenditure connected with energy and materials consumption. The research results proved that there were not signifi cant diff erences between the examined groups (Z and N as far as calculated indices were concerned.
Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude
Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631
Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar; Tome, Davorin; Pokorny, Boštjan
Pb levels were measured in tissues of small mammals (Microtus agrestis, Apodemus flavicollis, Sorex araneus and Crocidura leucodon), inhabiting shooting ranges of the Slovenian Army (Apače, Bač, Bloška polica, Crngrob, Mačkovec, Poček); in addition, Pb content was analysed in their diet as well. The present research was performed with the aim to confirm the use of small mammals as bioindicators of Pb contamination of shooting ranges and to performthe risk assessment of military shooting range...
Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs
The paper sets out from the definition of the value chain upon which follows the analysis of the value chain structure ih the food sector. Special attention is paid to market forms in the food sector (competition, agreements, oligopolistic constellation and the like). After that, modern form of cooperation in the value chain are started (supply chain management - SCM, efficient consumer response – ECR, and other). In this context the role of wholesale and that of retail trade in the food prod...
Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.
Companies operating in the food sector are confronted with i) accelerating environmental and social impact assessment policies and standards, ii) an emerging concept of extended producer responsibility supporting the shift from ‘seed to meat’ to ‘cradle to cradle’ and iii) increasing preoccupation i
Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.
The concept of food safety objective has been proposed to provide a target for operational food safety management, leaving flexibility in the way equivalent food safety levels are achieved by different food chains. The concept helps to better relate operational food safety management to public healt
This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...
Gergen Iosif; Harmanescu Monica
Abstract Background The aim of the paper is to assess by the principal components analysis (PCA) the heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables widely used as food for people who live in areas contaminated by heavy metals (HMs) due to long-lasting mining activities. This chemometric technique allowed us to select the best model for determining the risk of HMs on the food chain as well as on people's health. Results Many PCA models were computed with different variables: heavy metals con...
Six internationally recognized terrestrial food-chain models developed in Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the International Atomic Energy Agency are compared. This comparison includes the data bases and predictions for the transfer of Co-60, Sr-90, I-131, and Cs-137 into milk, and leafy and nonleafy vegetables from a hypothetical 30-yr continuous rate of atmospheric deposition onto agricultural systems. Model predictions are compared against United Nations summaries of empirical relationships between atmospheric deposition and concentrations in food of Sr-90 and Cs-137. The results of statistical analyses of the effect of parameter uncertainties on model predictions are also included for Sr-90, Cs-137, and I-131. Discrepancies among model predictions vary between factors of 6 and 30. These results reflect differences in model assumptions rather than uncertainties in model parameters
As a first step in constructing a terrestrial food chain model suitable for long-term waste management situations, a numerical sensitivity analysis of FOOD III was carried out to identify important model parameters. The analysis involved 42 radionuclides, four pathways, 14 food types, 93 parameters and three percentages of parameter variation. We also investigated the importance of radionuclides, pathways and food types. The analysis involved a simple contamination model to render results from individual pathways comparable. The analysis showed that radionuclides vary greatly in their dose contribution to each of the four pathways, but relative contributions to each pathway are very similar. Man's and animals' drinking water pathways are much more important than the leaf and root pathways. However, this result depends on the contamination model used. All the pathways contain unimportant food types. Considering the number of parameters involved, FOOD III has too many different food types. Many of the parameters of the leaf and root pathway are important. However, this is true for only a few of the parameters of animals' drinking water pathway, and for neither of the two parameters of mans' drinking water pathway. The radiological decay constant increases the variability of these results. The dose factor is consistently the most important variable, and it explains most of the variability of radionuclide doses within pathways. Consideration of the variability of dose factors is important in contemporary as well as long-term waste management assessment models, if realistic estimates are to be made. (auth)
This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...
Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Meerdink, G.; Linnemann, A.R.
This paper presents a methodology to efficiently design food supply chains. The goals of quality, cost and environmental load are looked at independently of each other. Food chains are made up of links and are designed to deliver a particular product with consumer-specified attributes. These attribu
Although local, short supply chains are regarded as most suitable for organic products, most organic food is sold through general retailers. The extended supply chains create challenges: (1) how to sustain the connection between farmers and consumers and deliver the multifaceted value of organic food and (2) how to cooperate to meet both the needs of consumers and of each independent company involved in the supply chain. This publication gives among other things practical implications concern...
Christine Göbel; Nina Langen; Antonia Blumenthal; Petra Teitscheid; Guido Ritter
Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC). The aim of this study is (1) to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2) to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste o...
Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra
The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain....
A software has been developed for a fast assessment of the consequences of a radioactive fallout on the food chain. From the surface activity measured 24 h after deposition, it computes the dose ingested by the population on the 60th day of exposure; this duration corresponds to 2 or 4 mechanical clearance half-lives of the radionuclides at the vegetal surface. Particular attention was paid to easy access to specific local parameters, conviviality and possibility to be used on any MS.DOS operated PC. (authors). 17 refs., 1 fig
chain perspective, this thesis mainly focuses on the part of the chain which starts from the food processing industry: the food processing industry, the distribution industry, and final consumers. In the second chapter of this thesis, a thorough review is presented classifying the related contributions......The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... in strategic, tactical, and operational studies, aiming to explain how several key food distribution planning challenges have been dealt with in the Operations Management literature. The next two chapters discuss specific production and distribution planning problems from the foodservice sector. Generic...
Trienekens, J.H.; Top, J.L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.
Food chain management research can help in the analysis and redesign of value creation and the product flow throughout the chain from primary producer down to the consumer. The aim is to meet consumer and societal requirements effectively at minimal cost. In the Wageningen UR strategic research prog
The purpose of the thesis was to analyze the food safety problem that happened in different supply chains in China. In addition, the aim was to give a general view of why people do not trust food producers in China these days. In this thesis there were two different cases, Huangtaiji and Sanlu milk powder The purpose of these two cases was to show two types of food producers in China.
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...
Full Text Available Wetland food chain is the channel of the matter and energy transfer or flow in the wetland ecosystem. From wetland food chain scission mechanism, the structure and functional characteristics of the wetland food chain scission were analyzed, while building a healthy wetland food chain diagnostic index system. Depending on wetland ecosystem health research results, this study brought forward the wetland food chain structure stability and functions of wetland energy measures and their quantitative calculation formula and finally we gave the healthy wetland food chain diagnosis process in order to provide scientific basis for wetland food chain restoration.
Modern food systems are characterized by a high energy intensity as well as by the production of large amounts of waste, residuals and food losses. This inefficiency presents major consequences, in terms of GHG emissions, waste disposal, and natural resource depletion. The research hypothesis is that residual biomass material could contribute to the energetic needs of food systems, if recovered as an integrated renewable energy source (RES), leading to a sensitive reduction of the impact...
Introduction: Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by the secondary metabolism of toxic moulds in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera occurring in food commodities and foodstuffs. The range and potency of mycotoxins make this group of naturally occurring toxins an ongoing animal health hazard and a constant risk for contamination of the food supply. Mycotoxicoses are diseases caused by exposure to foods or feeds contaminated with mycotoxins. Mycotoxins exhibit a variety...
Slee, William; Kirwan, James
In recent years, a number of dynamic aspects of food supply chains have attracted great interest among social scientists investigating rural restructuring and change. These include: the expansion of organic agriculture; the development of new value added enterprises at farm level and the revitalisation of traditional and new-old artisanal production practices; the expansion from a low base of the market share of alternative short supply chains, such as farmers markets; and the so-called quali...
Li-Juan Cui; Xin-sheng Zhao; Wei Li
Wetland food chain is the channel of the matter and energy transfer or flow in the wetland ecosystem. From wetland food chain scission mechanism, the structure and functional characteristics of the wetland food chain scission were analyzed, while building a healthy wetland food chain diagnostic index system. Depending on wetland ecosystem health research results, this study brought forward the wetland food chain structure stability and functions of wetland energy measures and their quantitati...
Challenged by the increasing scale of environmental degradation and corresponding stakeholders’ pressure, firms are increasingly integrating environmental concerns into their operations and into the relationships with external partners. Mainly through the theoretical lens of the Resource-based view and its spins-offs, this dissertation focuses on environmental innovation and environmental management (EM) that involves supply chain partners as means of promoting sustainable industry grow...
Kambewa, E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.
Although it is often acknowledged that effective inclusion of small-scale primary producers in international chains is crucial for alleviating poverty in developing countries, few insights exist about how to build sustainable and all-inclusive food chains especially those based on scarce natural res
Dembska, Marta; Dudek, Mirosław R.; Stauffer, Dietrich
We have analyzed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nucleotide fraction from its equilibrium value was playing the role of the fitness parameter, B, in Bak-Sneppen model. Our finding is, that the higher is the value of the threshold fitness, during the evolution course, the more frequent are large fluctuations in number of species with strongly differentiated nucleotide content; and it is more often the case that the oldest species, which survive the food-chain competition, might have specific nucleotide fraction making possible generating long genes.
Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)
Dembska, Marta; M. R. Dudek; Stauffer, D.
We have analysed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nu...
Considerable concern is now being expressed over the discharge of actinides into the environment. This report presents a brief review of the chemistry of the actinides and examines the evidence for interaction of the actinides with some naturally-occurring chelating agents and other factors which might stimulate actinide concentration in the food chain of man. This report also reviews the evidence for concentration of actinides in plants and for uptake through the gastrointestinal tract. (author)
Seppänen, Mervi; Kontturi, Juha; Hartikainen, Helinä
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals which is circulated to food chain via crop plants. Agronomic biofortification with Se is used in areas where the soil Se content is low and Se deficiency causes health problems. Brassica species are efficient in accumulation of soil Se and therefore an attractive choice of species for biofortification. Se uptake and translocation was studied in B. rapa and B. napus in field experiments applied with 0, 6 or 20 mg...
A comparison was made of the direct transfer of cesium from water to carps and the indirect transfer via the food. In a first experiment on chronic contamination of carps by water, the kinetics and distribution of cesium in the organs of the carps were studied. Equilibrium was not reached on the 56th day, 4% of the initial water activity had been retained by the carps and the concentration factor was below 10. The highest specific activities were found in the transit organs. In a second experiment, the water activity varied by alternating contamination and decontamination. A fluctuating equilibrium was reached on the 22nd day. The concentration factor was of the same order of magnitude than in the previous experiment. Indirect contamination of fish by ingestion of contaminated daphnids was studied in a third experiment. Cesium levels in carps increased with the cumulated activities in meals, and the uptake rate in fish was 4%. Both decorporation and biological half-lives (30-40 days) were independent of the contamination routes. The respective significance of the transfer pathways is discussed taking into account the biomass pyramids to be found in the nature. It is estimated that in a cesium environment, 70% of the carp activity should come from the diet and 30% from the water. The concentration factor would then be 75 instead of 22 when only direct transfer of cesium from water to fish is considered
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in...
Ameseder, Christoph; Haas, Rainer; Fritz, Melanie; Schiefer, Gerhard
The purpose of this study is to assess and evaluate the most important risks in selected European and international food chains from the perspective of the buying company. The primary objective is to identify the “non-acceptable” risks in terms of damage potential and likelihood of occurrence of value chains in the sectors grain, meat, fruit and vegetable, and olive oil. Data was collected by each partner of the European research project “e-trust” (FP6-CT-2006-043056) by conducting 81 qualita...
There is increasing interest in local food, as consumers feel confidence in such food. Local food has good opportunities to fulfil quality aspects/requirements of transparency and traceability in the supply chain due to the possibilities for direct interaction between producers and consumers. However, local food producers often face logistics challenges due to their small scale, decentralisation and integration difficulties with larger supply chains. This necessitates analysis of specific log...
Kambewa, E.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Trijp, van, J.M.P.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van, P.J.A.; Boekel, van, R.J.H.M.
Although it is often acknowledged that effective inclusion of small-scale primary producers in international chains is crucial for alleviating poverty in developing countries, few insights exist about how to build sustainable and all-inclusive food chains especially those based on scarce natural resources. In order to address challenges that marketing and development policy and institutions as well as small-scale primary producers in the agro-ecological sector face in promoting sustainable pr...
Full Text Available The role of production and supply chain is increasing worldwide due of the growing consumer concerns over foodsafety and quality together with retailer demands for large volumes of consistent and reliable product. In developedcountries, product losses (post harvest losses are generally small during processing, storage and handling becauseof the efficiency of the equipment, better storage facilities, and control of critical variables by a skilled and trainedstaff. Recently, the concept of Agricultural and Food production has been under development as more effective andefficient management system is required for the food production planning, physical collection of primary producefrom fields and homesteads, processing and storage at various levels, handling, packaging, and distribution of finalproduct.
Morgan, Kevin; Morely, Adrian
The conventional food chain presents a challenge to sustainable development, containing hidden costs such as health bills, environmental damage and economic costs to the rural economy. This report argues for the development of local food chains, which would bring the 'multiple dividend' of healthier diets, local markets for local producers, lower food miles and better understanding between producers and consumers. Barriers to the growth of local food chains include EU procurement regulati...
High-tech information systems can offer competitive advantages to agri-food firms when the systems support a supply chain strategy that suits the demand for the product. This article discusses differences between supply chains for functional versus innovative products and the relevance for managers in agri-food firms. Unique characteristics of agriculture and food products and economic concentration in food industries affect the appropriate supply chain approach.
Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; VAN HAGEN, J M; Omta, S.W.F.
This paper presents a research agenda on innovation through (international) food supply chains and networks in developing countries. It derives major topics from a multi-perspective view on international food chains (economic, technology, social/legal and environment) and from different theoretical streams dealing with chains and networks (Supply Chain Management, Industrial Organization theory and Network Theory). Three agri-supply chain projects in developing countries (Thailand, South-Afri...
Key words: Nitrogen, phosphorus, food chain, food pyramid, food system, food security, food cost, environmental impacts, nutrient cycling, nutrient management
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer applications have greatly contributed to the increased
Whether animals are herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores, each one is part of an eternal food chain that carries on from one generation to the next. In this videotape, students learn more about terms like "predator,""pre-consumer" and "producer," as well as the cycles of food chains and food webs and how they support all of Earth's creatures. This…
The demand for locally produced food is increasing as global food supply system has considerably affected the confidence of consumers by increasing tonne-kilometres, food safety risk, environmental impact, and disconnecting local food producers and consumers. However, local food suppliers are not in the position to compete with large scale food supply systems due to high logistics costs. The overall objective of this study was to improve the logistics management of local food supply chains. I...
In order to predict 137CS concentrations in marine organisms of Japanese coastal food chains, a basic compartment model being composed of nuclide transfer both from seawater and food chain was investigated. Food chain structure of typical Japanese coastal water is established to include detritus, food chain, benthic food chain and planktonic food chain
Full Text Available The wide-ranging literature on food systems provides multiple perspectives and world views. Various stakeholders define food and food systems in non-equivalent ways. The perception of the performance of food systems is determined by these specific perspectives, and a wide variety of policies responding to different aims are proposed and implemented accordingly. This paper sets out to demonstrate that the pre-analytical adoption of different narratives about the food system leads to non-equivalent assessments of the performance of food supply chains. In order to do so, we (i identify a set of relevant narratives on food supply chains in Spanish and Catalan contexts; (ii identify the pertinent attributes needed to describe and represent food supply chains within the different perspectives or narratives; and (iii carry out an integrated assessment of three organic tomato supply chains from the different perspectives. In doing so, the paper proposes an analysis of narratives to enable the analyst to characterize the performance of food supply chains from different perspectives and to identify the expected trade-offs of integrated assessment, associating them with the legitimate-but-contrasting views found among the social actors involved.
Agnieszka Kawecka; Marcin Gębarowski
In the age of globalization of food markets, short supply chains are the reversion to traditional food distribution systems. A large group of consumers is willing to reach for local food, frequently also buyers of organic food delivered directly from food producers. The paper presents the characteristics of short food supply chains, food distribution system is shown by: markets, direct purchases from producers and modern forms of providing consumers with local products. Qualitative study was ...
In the very begin of Chernobyl accident, the high contamination of food, the large variability and the unexpected behavior posed many problems in order to assess the radiological consequences. A simple dynamic food-chain model was built in early May and used for our first assessment on future food contamination and overall impact of Chernobyl in Romania. This quite primitive model show remarkable performance when compared in late 86 and 87 with measurements and our projection of dose was close to a factor two with 10 years later post assessment. After the slowing down of radiological stress we developed a more advanced, process level model of food chain, using not only all literature available but also all local measurements with quality assurance. This model, named LINDOZ, was first internationally applied in the frame of A4 scenario in BIOMOVS 1. and presented in the 1990 Stockholm conference. It was the first time when fallout solubility and foliar absorption were introduced in such a model, explaining very well the dynamics of grass and milk contamination. Upgrades of the model were done concerning deposition and retention and LINDOZ91 was successfully applied in international comparisons VAMP and BIOMOVS 2., including blind tests. Using local expertise and certified data, correlation between probability distribution of deposition and food contamination were used and successfully applied to predict Cs body content distribution in VAMP scenario. Extension to lake-fish was done and tested with excellent results in BIOMOVS 2. In 1994, the model was applied in the first attempt to assess food contamination in Iput region and this old results have been compared recently with those obtained last year by other modelers using updated scenario information. The key points in LINDOZ and its performances in international comparison exercises are presented. In 90'years the German model ECOSYS was spread in Europe and a variant (FDMT) was developed as a food-chain model for
Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.
Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link
Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.
Hershey, David R.
Advocates including plants at several trophic levels when studying food chains. Presents background information on parasitic plants, myco-heterophytes (saprophytes), and carnivorous plants. Contains 20 references. (WRM)
Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Rialland, A.
Internet technologies allow supply chains to use virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. Virtualiza
Science Activities, 1989
Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)
Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P
Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory. PMID:24362648
Kinsey, Jean D.; Kaynts, Kateryna; Ghosh, Koel
This report details the activities and findings of a three year research project funded by The National Center for Food Protection and Defense at the University of Minnesota, a Homeland Security Center of Excellence. The project was conducted by three universities each taking responsibility for collecting data on a different part of the food supply chain. The overall goal was to ascertain the food defense practices and readiness of food firms along the food supply chain to defend their food a...
The aim of this study was to establish the degree of the acceptance of organic food production and food in the Finnish food chain. The organic food system in Finland is poorly developed and one of the many reasons is that the food chain stakeholders are not committed and do not share common objectives for organic food and its production. A survey was carried among 1527 respondents from agriculture, industry, retail, catering and consumers to establish their opinions on safety and healthiness ...
Full Text Available With the frequent occurrence of food safety problems in recent years, it is urgent to solve safety management problem of food traceability. In this study, with an overview of the food supply chain, it explores the significant meaning of safety management of food traceability as well as the traceability types of supply chains, discussing the construction measures and procedures of safety management of food traceability as well as the technical designing demand on food traceability system.
Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.
Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay fo
Coff, Christian Eyde
. Much of the information available is superficial, conflicting or partial, and it is hard for consumers seeking to make informed food choices on ethical matters to know which information to trust. Food traceability, which provides a record of the history and journey of a given food, and which...... is increasingly used in the food sector for legal and commercial reasons, has the potential to communicate a more authentic picture of how food is produced and thus provide an answer to some consumer concerns. The idea of ‘ethical traceability’ adapts the idea of food traceability to record and communicate...... an opportunity for two-way communication along food chains, allowing the views of consumer-citizens to be taken into account along the length of the chain. As food traceability retells the history of a food, it can address the ethical aspects of that history, enabling more informed food choice. Secondly, it can...
Liu, Yuexian; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Egelyng, H.
The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development of...... organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao Ecological Holiday Village as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate of the energy use efficiency of the chain....
This paper is a literature review of studies of mid-scale food values based food chains and healthy growth processes in the organic food sector. By midscale values based food chains we mean productions that are growing out of the niche/small scale market into larger volumes and sales. Previous research have shown that niche market chains might have inherent problems in moving from niche to volume, while mainstream large-scale markets have inherent problems in securing and advancing organic va...
Purpose: The need for food safety and food quality standards is acknowledged by public regulators, private actors, and the society. The purpose of this paper is to identify the types of actors in the multilevel transnational food chain regulatory governance and how their interlinking affects...... regulatory outcomes over time. Design/methodology/approach – Food chain regulatory standards emerge within a complex process beyond the state. Based on interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives, namely regulatory governance and political economy, this paper provides a integrative framework of analysis by...... identifying the types of actors and their interactions in the food chain regulatory governance. Findings – Food chain regulatory standards setting have been mainly studied either from the public regulator or the firm self-regulating point of view. This paper demonstrates how the political and economics...
Downs, SM; Singh, A.; Gupta, V.; Lock, K.; Ghosh-Jerath, S
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends virtually eliminating trans fat from the global food supply. Although several high-income countries have successfully reduced trans fat levels in foods, low- and middle-income countries such as India face additional challenges to its removal from the food supply. This study provides a systems analysis of the Indian food chain to assess intervention options for reducing trans fat intake in low-income consumers. Methods Data were collect...
Wei Liu; Wen Cheng; Jianmin Zhang
Due to food safety issues, traceability is becoming a method of controlling food safety and connecting suppliers and consumers. The aim of this study is to build up a food logistics supply chain traceability system which can control food safety and connect suppliers and consumers. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability system based on the Structured Query Language (SQL) Server, uses the failure mode and effect analysis to assess key indicators of the system. The result shows, ...
An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)
Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.
Francesco Caracciolo; Maria Teresa Gorgitano; Pasquale Lombardi; Giuliana Sannino; Fabio Verneau
This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ), a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO), meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian ...
Following a request from the European Commission, the risks to human health related to the presence of chlorate in food were assessed by the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel). The presence of chlorate in food can arise from the use of chlorinated water for food processin...
Minas Gerais, a Brazilian state, is rich in mineral occurrences, mainly in the so-called Iron Quadrangle considered one of the richest mineral-bearing regions in the world. Many studies have been carried out indicating that mineral exploitation and correlated activities, including the 'garimpo' - small scale mining - are the main sources of metal contamination in water courses, river sediment and fish. According to these studies, there is strong evidence of contamination exactly in this area because of high concentrations of arsenic determined in surface water, sediment, soil and children's urine. Most investigations were concerned with determining only As and Hg in water, sediment and fish. No study to determine other important elements has been carried out so far. It is highly important to investigate contamination by other mining pollutants in different matrixes - mainly foodstuff - to determine how much human health could be affected by long-term exposure to such elements. The importance of this study consists in not only providing a scientific basis for better understanding of element transported from the pollutant source to the chain food, but also in revealing the health impact on the population. The people who live around the mining areas consume local water and grow vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants for their own use. It is relevant to state that there are no data about the contamination levels in such foodstuffs. The work plan during the first year will define the specific and strategic sampling sites. Water, soil, plants, food and airborne particulate matter will be collected in the regions both close to and far from the mining area. The samples will be prepared for analysis mainly by means of k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-INAA). (author)
Vande Velde, Katrien; Maertens, Miet
Supply chain upgrading in domestic and staple food chains in developing countries is important for a more efficient supply to growing urban markets. Little research is done on institutional innovations, such as contract-farming, in these chains. Research on the impact of smallholder contract-farming largely focuses on export-oriented high-value commodities. In this paper, we assess the welfare implications of smallholder contract-farming in the rice sector in Benin, using farm-household surve...
Ross, Brent; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Ross, Kara L.
Sustainability initiatives are frequently imposed on upstream supply chain members by their more powerful downstream partners. This paper assesses the challenges of estimating costs and benefits for participants and the difficulties associated with identifying their locations and effects in the supply chain. The paper argues that the success and endurance of agri-food supply chains that purport to pursue sustainability objectives depend critically on the distribution of the associated costs a...
Protecting the United States food and agricultural critical infrastructure and key resources is an important responsibility shared by Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial governments and private industry partners. Interference with the food or agricultural infrastructure could have a devastating impact on the Nation's public health and economy. Adequate protection and resiliency of infrastructure in the Food and Agriculture Sector requires a number of integrated processes and procedures undertaken by all sector partners. A number of tools, guidance documents, educational materials, and regulations are available to aid in protecting the United States Food and Agriculture Sector.
Gómez, M.I.; Barrett, C.B.; Buck, L.E.; Groote, H. de; Ferris, S.; Gao, H.O.; McCullough, E.; Miller, D.D.; Outhred, H.; Pell, A.N.; Reardon, T.; Retnanestri, M.; Ruben, R.; Struebi, P.; Swinnen, J.; Touesnard, M.A.; Weinberger, K.; Keatinge, J.D.H.; Milstein, M.B.; Yang, R.Y.
Food value chains (FVCs) comprise all activities required to bring farm products to consumers, including agricultural production, processing, storage, marketing, distribution, and consumption. FVCs are changing rapidly in developing countries (DCs), because of population and income growth; urbanizat
Jana Schwarz; Monica Schuster; Bernd Annaert; Miet Maertens; Erik Mathijs
The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental...
Verdouw, Cor N.; Wolfert, Sjaak; Beulens, Adrie .J.M; Rialland, Agathe Isabelle
Internet technologies allow supply chains using virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. Virtualization enables supply chain actors to monitor, control, plan and optimize business processes remotely and in real-time through the Internet, based on virtual objects instead of observation on-site. This ...
Tsion Taye Assefa; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.
ABSTRACT This paper reviews the literature on price volatility transmission in vertical food markets. The methods and major findings of the literature are discussed and avenues for future research are suggested. The literature review shows that price volatility is analyzed using a class of univariate and multivariate GARCH models. The reviewed studies conclude that price volatility transmits along food supply chains thereby exposing all chain actors to risk and uncertainty. Extension of the l...
Wegener, Henrik Caspar
fluoroquinolones, which are used for empirical treatment of diarrhea in humans. Resistance to vancomycin and Synercid((R)) in enterococci is associated with use of similar drugs as growth promoters in food animals. Danish food animal producers have terminated the use of antimicrobial growth promoters. This has...
Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin
Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid , like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.
Coff, Christian Eyde
increasingly used in the food sector for legal and commercial reasons, has the potential to communicate a more authentic picture of how food is produced and thus provide an answer to some consumer concerns. The idea of ‘ethical traceability’ adapts the idea of food traceability to record and communicate the......Some practices in the agri-food sector worry consumers. Consumers might for instance be concerned about animal welfare, health, environmental issues, transparency of the food chain and so forth. A question, which confronts consumers today, is how they can become capable of acting upon such ethical...... concerns. Information is often seen as an answer to the mentioned consumer concerns. Paradoxically, although consumers are bombarded with information on food - from the media, the food industry, food authorities, NGOs and interest groups – details about how foods are actually produced is often hard to find...
Full Text Available Chemical additives (fertilizers and plant protection preparations are largely used for improving the production yield of food produce. Their application often causes the contamination of raw materials for food production, which can be dangerous for the health of consumers. Alternative methods are developed and implemented to improve and ensure the safety of on-farm production. The substitution of chemical fertilizers and soil additives with alternative treatment methods, such as irradiation, ultrasound and the use of electromagnetic energy are discussed. Successful application of physical methods in different stages of food-preparation is recommended.
Ecological studies of radionuclides in the environment have a long tradition in developing the capability to identify and predict movement and concentration of nuclides in agricultural food chains leading to man. Food chain pathways and transfer coefficients for the nonagricultural portions of natural and managed ecosystems characteristic of affected habitats adjacent to nuclear facilities have not been adequately characterized to establish reliable models for radionuclide releases. This information is necessary in order to assess the impact that such installations will have on the biota of natural ecosystems. Since food chains are the major processes transferring elements from one trophic level to another in terrestrial ecosystems, information is needed on the (a) food-chain transfer pathways, (b) bioconcentration by each trophic component and (c) turnover rates by receptor organisms. These data are prerequisite inputs for food-chain transport models and can be correlated with species characteristics (e.g., body weight and feeding habits), to provide indices for predictive calculations. Application of these models for radionuclide transfer can aid in the assessment of radioactive releases from nuclear reactor facilities to terrestrial nonagricultural food chains
This paper incorporates the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and presents a comprehensive framework for analyzing the risk management in agri-food sector. First, it specifies the diverse (natural, technical, behavioral, economic, policy etc.) type of agri-food risks, and the (market, private, public and hybrid) modes of their management. Second, it defines the efficiency of risk management and identifies (personal, institutional, dimensional, technological, natural) factors of go...
ANNA ALADJADJIYAN; KAKANAKOVA, Andriana
Chemical additives (fertilizers and plant protection preparations) are largely used for improving the production yield of food produce. Their application often causes the contamination of raw materials for food production, which can be dangerous for the health of consumers. Alternative methods are developed and implemented to improve and ensure the safety of on-farm production. The substitution of chemical fertilizers and soil additives with alternative treatment methods, such as irradiation,...
Reardon, Thomas; Minten, Bart
There has been a rapid transformation of food supply chains in India over the past two decades. Modern retail sales are growing at 49 percent per year and quickly penetrating urban food markets and even rural markets. The food-processing sector is growing quickly while also concentrating and undergoing a rapid increase in the capital-output ratio, with little increase in employment. A modern segment is emerging in the wholesale sector, with the penetration of modern logistics firms and specia...
Hanf, Jon Henrich
In recent years strictly coordinated supply chains have gained in importance in the agri-food business sector. In this context this article aims to provide a review of the state of the art of verticalisation and of supply chain management in agri-food business. Because today food retailers can be considered to be one of the most powerful actors in this sector the article also aims to provide an overview of the connection between retail developments and verticalisation. The proposition in this...
Aldo Bertazzoli; Rino Ghelfi; Sergio Rivaroli; Antonella Samoggia
The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different ...
Kristensen, Niels Heine; Netterstrøm, Sune; He, Chen;
organic procurement schemes are developing as a strategic part of policymaker’s tools. However evidence has shown that the organic change agenda in public food service supply chains seems to be fragile. This is due to the fact that the organic agenda challenges the normal way that food service provision...... works and thus it seems not enough to implement organic food once and for all. The organic supply chain is dynamic being challenged by influences as price premiums, supply shortages and problems of convenience level. This paper investigates three Danish municipalities focusing on important elements in...... the policy process that make the organic food service chain work and survive on a long-term scale....
Kristensen, Niels Heine; Netterstrøm, Sune; He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Nielsen, Thorkild
organic procurement schemes are developing as a strategic part of policymaker’s tools. However evidence has shown that the organic change agenda in public food service supply chains seems to be fragile. This is due to the fact that the organic agenda challenges the normal way that food service provision...... works and thus it seems not enough to implement organic food once and for all. The organic supply chain is dynamic being challenged by influences as price premiums, supply shortages and problems of convenience level. This paper investigates three Danish municipalities focusing on important elements in...... the policy process that make the organic food service chain work and survive on a long-term scale....
Kjeldsen, Chris; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Noe, Egon
social or physical geographies of such food chains. This study is focused on exploring whether the utilisation of different notions of quality in emerging producer–consumer networks also translates into new patterns of rural development. This paper is based on data on various sub-sectors of Danish food......Accounts of the ‘quality turn’ in agro-food literature suggest that there is a potential for growth in the market for ‘high-quality’ food, which utilises distinct notions like ‘quality’ and ‘place.’ These food chains are typically described as ‘alternative.’ Alterity might stem from alternative...... chains on municipality scale for the period 2000–2005. Specifically, this study seeks to identify whether this is the case in the Danish context. First, the analysis considers the economic geography of Danish food chains on national level. Second, a deviant case on a regional level is considered, which...
Radzi, Rafisah; Saidon, Intan Marzita; Ghani, Nadzri Ab
The food manufacturing industry in Malaysia plays a significant role in the economy. Since the industry is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, the local food manufacturing sector is not able to satisfy increasing demand. Malaysia has experienced a persistent food trade imbalance as the demand for food items has risen faster than their supply. In helping Malaysia become more self-sufficient in its food requirements, improvements in the supply chain are important. Given that Japan ...
Wegener, Henrik Caspar
Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter to...
Abate-Kassa, Getachew; Peterson, H. Christopher
The paper examines relationships and linkages between the conventional supply chain actors (wholesalers and retailers) and local food producers based on a study conducted in Southeast Michigan. A case study approach was employed to examine chain actorsâ€™ operations and to explore their roles, experiences and perceptions about local foods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the owners and managers of eleven retailers and six wholesalers. The study found differences in local food p...
Minas Gerais, a Brazilian state, is rich in mineral occurrences, mainly in the Iron Quadrangle considered one of the richest mineral-bearing regions in the world. Apart from extensive Fe ores, hydrothermal Au mineralization can be found in Archean greenstone belt formations, occurring with other minerals in varying proportions. Active Au mining has been going on in the Nova Lima area since early 1700's at the famous Morro Velho Mine. Other major Au deposits can be discerned within the volcanic sedimentary sequence of the Nova Lima group in Raposos. These deposits lie within the district of Nova Lima, 15 km from Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, and drain into the Das Velhas River, the main source of water supply to Belo Horizonte and other cities. Many studies have been carried out pointing out that the mineral exploration and correlated activities, including the 'garimpo'- small scale mining - are the main sources of metal contamination in water courses, river sediment and fish. According to the studies, there is strong evidence of contamination exactly in this area: high concentrations of arsenic in surface water, sediment, soil and children's urine were confirmed. The gold mineralization is supposed to be the main source of elevated total As contents in surface water. Concerning children's urine, the source of contamination has not been determined. Most of investigations are interested in determining only As and Hg in water, sediment and fish. No study to determine other important elements has been carried out so far. It is highly important to investigate contamination by other mining pollutants in different matrixes - mainly foodstuff - to determine how much human health is affected by a long-term exposure to such elements. The importance of this study consists in not only providing a scientific basis for better understanding of the element transported from the polluted source to the chain food, but also in revealing the health impact on the
PARFITT Julian; Barthel, Mark; Macnaughton, Sarah
Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on food waste and estimates varied widely; those for post-harvest losses of grain in developing countries might be overestimated. As much of the post-harvest loss data for developing countries ...
Vellema, S.; Boselie, D.M.
Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety re
Philippe, FLEURY; Carole, CHAZOULE
For ten years, innovative forms of distribution of organic products emerged between long supply chain and short supply chain. We defined them as " localized agri-food supply chains". Our work is based on the analysis of 18 localized food supply chains in Rhône-Alpes (France). Firstly, it presents the diversity of these localized supply chains and the mechanisms implemented to address the limits of short supply chains, particularly an increasing number of intermediaries. Then we assess th...
The radioecological food-and dose module in the ARGOS decision support system was tested in EcoDoses phase one, and found useful and suited for predicting radiological consequences of nuclear fallout. Further work with the model has indicated need to adjust and change a number of model assumptions and parameters from default values based on Central European conditions to those characteristic for Nordic countries, e.g. growing seasons, harvest times, crop yields, animal feeding regimes, human habits. (au)
1 - Description of problem or function: ARRRG calculates radiation doses to humans for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim, or boat. FOOD calculates radiation doses to humans from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. With both programs, doses may be calculated for either a maximum- exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute, one-time, exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an 'infinite' flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness, and a modifying factor is used to compensate for finite extent in the shoreline calculations. The radionuclide concentrations in aquatic and irrigated food products are based on the radionuclide concentration in the contaminated water, which is based on the release rate of radioactive contamination and the characteristics of the receiving water body. Concentration of radionuclides in plants depends on the concentrations in the soil, air, and water. Concentration of radionuclides in farm animal products, such as milk, meat, or eggs, depends on the animal's consumption of feed, forage, and water containing radionuclides. For persons swimming in contaminated water, the dose is calculated assuming that the body of water is an infinite medium relative to the range of emitted radiations. Persons boating on the water are assumed to be exposed to a dose rate half that of swimmers. Internal doses are calculated as a function of
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different food chain stages. The analysis is carried out on primary and secondary data: around 2400 financial statements concerning 480 enterprises from 2003 to 2007 and stakeholders’ interviews. Results show that value is usually created in the processing and distribution stages, to the detriment of the primary sector, and that the retail managing practices tend to impose damaging structural changes on farms whose profitability is at times becoming sustainable only thanks to European subsidies. To conclude, there is evidence of inadequate definition of strategic and network alliance along the chain. Competitiveness is still a concept achieved by single food chain stages against others and food chain internal competition entails a declining sustainability of small farms and enterprises.
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Møller, Anja Skadkær
This purpose of this paper is to investigate price transmission patterns through selected Danish food chains – from primary production to processing, from processing to wholesale and from wholesale to retail prices. Specifically, the study addresses the following research questions: To what exten...... between sectors and stages of the food supply chain. Both transaction costs and imperfect competition seem to contribute to these asymmetries....... are commodity prices transmitted from one stage to another in the food chain? What is the time horizon in the price transmission? Is price transmission symmetric – in the short run and in the long run? Is the degree of price transmission affected by the degree of concentration in the supply and demand...
Full Text Available In this article we consider a chemostat-like model for a simple food chain where there is a well stirred nutrient substance that serves as food for a prey population of microorganisms, which in turn, is the food for a predator population of microorganisms. The nutrient-uptake of each microorganism is of Holling type I (or Lotka-Volterra form. We show the existence of a global attractor for solutions of this system. Also we show that the positive globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point of the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation when the dynamics of the microorganisms at the bottom of the chain depends on the history of the prey population by means of a distributed delay that takes an average of the microorganism in the middle of the chain.
Ratcliff, Jon; Boddington, Michael
Traceability is today considered an essential requirement for the food value chain due to the need to provide consumers with accurate information in the event of food safety recalls, to provide assurance with regard the source and production systems for food products and in certain countries to comply with government legislation. Within an individual business traceability can be quite simple to implement, however, in a global trading market, traceability of the entire supply chain, including logistics is extremely complex. For this reason IT solutions such as TraceTracker have been developed which not only provide electronic solutions for complete traceability but also allow products to be tracked at any point in the supply chain.
Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra;
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...... directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food...
Lokobauer, N; Franić, Z; Bauman, A
The paper indicates the importance of investigating radionuclide translocation in the human food chain, and the contribution of selected food components in total exposure of the population after accidental radioactive contamination. Data on radioactive contamination and risk assessment of the Croatian population after the Chernobyl nuclear accident are given and possibilities of decontamination of food chain components are discussed. Literature data on radionuclide removal from the human food chain are compared to the results of own investigations. Emphasis is placed on biologically most important radionuclides, 131I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and the most effective means of protection are sought. The preventive measures following a nuclear accident should be based on the cost-benefit principle i.e. the damage from applying radiation protection measures should not exceed the benefit from possible dose reduction. PMID:8347101
Full Text Available In the age of globalization of food markets, short supply chains are the reversion to traditional food distribution systems. A large group of consumers is willing to reach for local food, frequently also buyers of organic food delivered directly from food producers. The paper presents the characteristics of short food supply chains, food distribution system is shown by: markets, direct purchases from producers and modern forms of providing consumers with local products. Qualitative study was conducted among organic food markets participants – exhibitors (food producers, and visitors (customers. Consumers notice many benefi ts from buying and consuming local food, among others, higher quality of products, favorable price-quality performance ratio, and assurance of purchased products origin. Producers for the most important fi nd greater share in the total price of products and receiving feedback information from consumers. Short supply chains are also resulting signifi cant environmental benefi ts eg. limited transport. A new approach to the subject of local foods and the benefi ts of shortening the supply chain is refl ected in the policy of the European Union – including through programs on rural development.
Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.
Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.
Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska
Forsman, Sari; Paananen, Jaana
The subject of this paper is the integration of food production and processing, distribution, and consumption on local markets in rural areas. We approach this integration from the point of view of an alternative food supply chain, a local food system as an example. The data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 12 entrepreneurs and 9 representatives of institutional food service units and restaurants in Eastern Finland.
Barnes, Andrew Peter; McVittie, Alistair
Recent policy interest has been directed at the sustainability of food industries, in particular the post-farm gate food chain. This comprises of manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing and catering. In order to measure sustainability Byerlee and Murgai (2001) have argued that productivity measures, alongside key indicators of resource quality trends, should be used to indicate sustainable growth. This paper adopts this approach by presenting Fisher indexes of both Total Factor Productivity (TF...
Full Text Available There are few English publications on various impacts of Fukushima nuclear disaster on agri-food secor in Japan. This paper fills the gap and presents results of a study on implications of Fukushima nuclear disaster for Japanese agri-food chains. Firsly, immediate and short-term radiation effects, and effects on nearby population, safety regulation and inspection system, markets and consumer’s behavior, agrarian and food products, health, and economic impacts on farming and agri-businesses, are assessed. Next, overall shorter and longer-term impacts on agriculture, food industries, and consumers in Fukushima region, neighboring regions, and other parts of Japan are estimated.
Full Text Available Due to food safety issues, traceability is becoming a method of controlling food safety and connecting suppliers and consumers. The aim of this study is to build up a food logistics supply chain traceability system which can control food safety and connect suppliers and consumers. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability system based on the Structured Query Language (SQL Server, uses the failure mode and effect analysis to assess key indicators of the system. The result shows, the largest Risk Priority Number (RPN is the precision risk of information. Moreover, with fuzzy synthetic evaluation model and intensity weighted average method, this paper ranks the importance of the three factors of the food logistics supply chain traceability system and finds that the depth is the most important factor. Lastly, it uses a case of Green Pork Company to calculate economics effect to prove the feasibility of the system.
The paper presents a terrestrial food chains model for computing potential human intake of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during normal NPP operation. Attention is paid to the choice of model parameter values. Results obtained by our approach are compared to those applied in current methodology. (orig.)
Beghin, John C.; Meade, Birgit; Rosen, Stacey
Abstract: We present a parsimonious demand modeling approach developed for the annual USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment. The assessment focuses on chronic food insecurity. The approach incorporates price effects, food quality variation across income deciles, and consistent aggregation over income deciles and food qualities. The approach is based on a simple demand approach for four food categories. It relies on the existing sparse data available for the Assessment, complemented ...
Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day-1) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day-1). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues
Modell, M.; Spurlock, J. M.
Closed food cycles for long duration space flight and space habitation are examined. Wash water for a crew of six is economically recyclable after a week, while a total closed loop water system is effective only if the stay exceeds six months' length. The stoichiometry of net plant growth is calculated and it is shown that the return of urine, feces, and inedible plant parts to the food chain, along with the addition of photosynthesis, closes the food chain loop. Scenarios are presented to explore the technical feasibility of achieving a closed loop system. An optimal choice of plants is followed by processing, waste conversion, equipment specifications, and control requirements, and finally, cost-effectiveness.
Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim
develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach......Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so...... pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality and to...
Full Text Available This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ, a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO, meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian region of Campania and has benefited from several regionally funded interventions, such as genetic research and support for the application for EU certification of origin. Two key findings emerged from the research. First, the results allowed us to define a Stakeholder Priority and Responsibilities’ Matrix (SPRM, and monitor the sustainability trend of SMZ food supply chains. Second, the consistency between the adoption of quality strategy (brand of origin and sustainable development of the sector was evaluated. Despite its intrinsic characteristics and its organized, well-defined structure, the SMZ food supply chain is unable to address sustainable objectives without considerable public intervention and support. In terms of sustainability, to be able to show desirable food chain characteristics, the existence of a fully collaborative relationship between the actors has to be ascertained. Identifying shared goals is essential to assign and implement coordinated actions, pooling responsibility for product quality into social and environmental dimensions.
Frewer, L.J.; Kher, S.V.
The European Union has enforced mandatory traceability for food business operators for effective monitoring and management of risks associated with food and feed chains. The implementation of such a system needs to take account of stakeholder priorities and expectations. Expert stakeholders (such as
Hawkes, Corinna, ed.
The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in...
李丹; 高阳俊; 耿春女
problems are likely to occur at each step of the improper handling. Farmland as the cornerstone of a food supply source is the pool of other pollutants from air, water, etc. With urban development, human economic activity leads to increased pollution to farmland. Pollutant exposure through food intake, justas ingestion through oral, respiratory, skin, should be given indispensable considerations in human health risk assessment. Food safety has now become a very serious issue. In January 2010 the former Ministry of Health established a “Food Safety Risk Assessment Regulations” ( Trial) according to“Food Safety Law”, which setup an overall process to assess food risk from the soil to table. But it was not into the details and thus difficult to put into practice. In 2014 Ministry of Environmental Protection issued a“Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites Technical Guidelines”, which provided detailed approaches on assessment of the human health risk caused by soil pollution. However, although the Guidelines considered exposure pathways like oral, skin, respiratory, drinking groundwater, food exposure was missing. In this paper, CLEA ( contaminated and environmental assessment ) of England and HHRAP ( human health risk assessment protocol for hazardous waste combustion facilities ) of America are discussed in⁃depth in order to provide a framework of “Food Chain Pathway Exposure Risk Assessment Guidelines”.
Blanke, Michael M
Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing
Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Frewer, Lynn J.
on consumer behaviour with respect to food safety issues, this chapter both provides some basic principles of consumer behaviour and a selection of topical case studies. First, this chapter envisages introducing basic principles of consumer behaviour and consumer decision-making that are applicable in food...... consumer research. To this end, consumer motivation for food choice and a classical model of consumer decision-making with related information processing concepts and influencing factors are set forth. Particular attention is paid to the potential role of risk perception in shaping consumer attitudes...... budget and, in accordance with perceived product value, consumers pay prices that makes up the profit of all previous agri-food chain participants. Hence, understanding consumer behaviour is critical to making the right managerial and marketing decisions, including strategic choices with respect to risk...
A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent manmade radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. The survey consisted mainly of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates over the islands of each atoll. The logistical support for the entire survey was designed to accommodate this operation. As a secondary phase of the survey, shore parties collected appropriate terrestrial and marine samples to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to those individuals residing on the atolls, who may in the future reside on some of the presently uninhabited atolls, or who collect food from these atolls. Over 5000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern water and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef and pelagic fish, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. The concentration data for 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239240Pu, and 241Am in terrestrial food crops, fowl, and animals collected at the atolls or islands are summarized. An assessment of the total dose from the major exposure pathways including external gamma, terrestrial food chain including food products and drinking water, marine food chain, and inhalation is provided. Radiological doses at each atoll or island are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in the terrestrial foods, marine foods, etc. assuming the average daily intake for each food item
A detailed description is presented of the model of the contamination of crops grown in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The model includes a model of primary and secondary contamination of plants, a model of the contamination of animal products and a model of the concentration of radionuclides in foods prior to consumption. The individual parameters of the model are presented. Tabulated are transfer coefficients for individual links in the food chain and for different elements. The resulting values of the individual parameters are compared with the results obtained using existing methods. (E.S.). 9 tabs., 45 refs
Vásquez, Andrés; Busschaert, Pieter; Geeraerd, Annemie
An important element of microbiological risk analysis, is risk assessment; a process in which the dynamics of microbiological hazards in the food chain are identified and characterized, and the exposure of consumers to the particular hazards is estimated. The current focus of microbiological risk assessment studies is “how it can best be utilized in food safety management to understand the magnitude of prevailing risk regarding a pathogen/product combination, to design risk ...
Full Text Available Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in papers and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites. In this study are discussed some examples of CF values calculated both, production of primary raw materials, food processing stages, final products transporting and activities taken during food preparation in the household, as well. The CF indicator offers also a new tool to promote disposition of food products distributed e.g. through big international supermarket chains. Mostly due to the suggestion of ecological institutions, direct comparison of CF values for different food products leads even to postulate almost total elimination of less eco-friendly animal origin food (like red meat from the diet of typical consumer. So, improving the state of consumers education in respect to environmental issues of whole food chain might effect not only their eating habits but also their health.
Arthur P. J. Mol
Full Text Available There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability systems for sustainability in agro-food supply chains. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyze the prevalence of four different traceability systems to guarantee sustainability; to identify the factors that determine the kind of traceability systems applied in particular supply chains; and to assess what the emergence of economic and market logics in traceability mean for sustainability. Two conclusions are drawn. Globalizing markets for sustainable agro-food products induces the emergence of book-and-claim traceability systems, but the other three systems (identity preservation, segregation and mass balance will continue to exist as different factors drive traceability requirements in different supply chains. Secondly, traceability itself is becoming a market driven by economic and market logics, and this may have consequences for sustainability in agro-food supply chains in the future.
Results of environmental contamination measurements are reported. The aim of this study was to compare the amount of radiocaesium in chosen parts of food chains from localities in the eastern Slovakia. Prevailing part of radiocaesium is in the upper layer of soils and specific activity of 137Cs in the first layer for locality Stara Voda in 2000 achieved 152.4 Bq · kg-1. The amount of artificial radionuclides in the individual compartments of food chains is at present at a very low level. Mushrooms are characterised by high ability to accumulate radiocaesium. From studied species of mushrooms the highest value was determined in sample of Sarcodon imbricatum and specific activity achieved 6.24 kBq · kg-1 d. w. (author)
Parshad, Rana D.
We investigate a realistic three-species food-chain model, with generalist top predator. The model based on a modified version of the Leslie-Gower scheme incorporates mutual interference in all the three populations and generalizes several other known models in the ecological literature. We show that the model exhibits finite time blowup in certain parameter range and for large enough initial data. This result implies that finite time blowup is possible in a large class of such three-species food-chain models. We propose a modification to the model and prove that the modified model has globally existing classical solutions, as well as a global attractor. We reconstruct the attractor using nonlinear time series analysis and show that it pssesses rich dynamics, including chaos in certain parameter regime, whilst avoiding blowup in any parameter regime. We also provide estimates on its fractal dimension as well as provide numerical simulations to visualise the spatiotemporal chaos.
In the aftermath of a large scale radioactive contamination, the authorities will have to decide on protective measures for reducing the contamination of the food chain. The overall aim is to reduce the dose of the population to an acceptable level while still guaranteeing sufficient foodstuffs and feeding stuffs on the market and also to limit the social, environmental and economic impact of the countermeasures implemented. Many countermeasures have been developed over the years, but their large scale feasibility and especially their acceptability have hardly been studied. Within the context of a European research project called Farming (2000-2004). SCK-CEN has organised stakeholder meetings, leading to guidance to the authorities for improvements in the emergency organisation. To improve emergency countermeasure decisions related to the food chain, especially as regards feasibility and acceptability, taking into account stakeholder opinions. The stakeholders include scientists and representatives from both governmental and non-governmental organisations
Abd-Elalim A. Elsadany
In this paper, a discrete-time food chain characterized by three species is modeled by a system of three nonlinear difference equations. The existence and local stability of the equilibrium points of the discrete dynamical system are analyzed. It is shown that for some parameter values the interior equilibrium point losesits stability through a discrete Hopf bifurcation. Basic properties of the discrete system are analyzed by means of phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponen...
Kühne, Bianka; Gellynck, Xavier
Chain networks of manufacturers of traditional food products comprehend a large majority of micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs – firms employing less than 250 people). In a more and more globalised market with increasing competition, innovation is an important strategic tool for SMEs to achieve competitive advantage (Avermaete et al., 2004a, Gellynck et al., 2007, Murphy, 2002). Innovation can be defined as an ongoing process of learning, searching and exploring, resulting in ...
Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.
The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.
Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.
Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the advanced logistics supply chain for food management using green logistics. To protect the food logistics environment and prevent the environmental pollution, it is crucial to establish powerful modern supply chains to support the food management in transportation. The construction speed of the food companies is very fast; however, the food supply lags behind the food companies. As a result, the environmental pollution caused in the food logistics becomes severe. To improve this situation, a new logistics supply chain for food management using the environmental logistics theory is proposed in this study. The design and analysis of the proposed food supply chain system has been introduced. By the use of advanced environmental logistics theory, the food supply can be operated in an effective and green manner. Hence, the proposed new logistics supply chain can reduce the environmental pollution of the food logistics and improve the food market environment.
Dreyer, Heidi C.; Jan O. Strandhagen; Thomassen, Maria K.; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran
Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...
Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman
Full Text Available Nowadays environmental issues persuade companies to pursue conditions whereby the needs of the present are met without compromising the resources of future generations. So, implementing green rules and regulations gain more and more attentions. In spite of benefits of implementing green practices, many companies are not understood why they should invest on it. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine what drivers encourage companies to move towards implementing green practices in their supply chains. To achieve the objectives of this study a survey was designed and distributed to 300 halal food companies in Malaysia. A total of 61 usable replies were received. The results of this study revealed that performance and quality improvement, waste and cost reduction are the important drivers of implementing Green Supply Chain (GSC practices in the halal food companies. It is interesting that having ISO 14000 certificates are reported as the least important driver of implementing GSC practices among these companies. Therefore, it can be concluded that internal benefits mostly motivate halal food companies to implement GSC practices. Since there is little documentation regarding the application of GSC practices in the halal food industries, understanding these issues is identified as a gap in the existing literature.
The study aims to investigate the advanced logistics supply chain for food management using green logistics. To protect the food logistics environment and prevent the environmental pollution, it is crucial to establish powerful modern supply chains to support the food management in transportation. The construction speed of the food companies is very fast; however, the food supply lags behind the food companies. As a result, the environmental pollution caused in the food logistics becomes seve...
Full Text Available Background: In the context of economic globalization and increasing complexity of economic relations enterprises need methods and techniques to improve and sustain their position on the global market. Integration processes offer business new opportunities, but at the same time present new challenges for the management, including the key objectives of the risk management. Method: On the basis of analysis tools known from the pertinent literature (Supply Chain Management and Supply Chain Risk Management methods, methods of probability theory, methods of risk management, methods of statistics the authors of this paper proposed their own risk assessment method and the method of management of logistics chains. The proposed tool is a specific hybrid of solutions known from the literature. Results: The presented method has been successfully used within the frames of economic-mathematical model of industrial enterprises. Indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier are considered in this paper. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers. Conclusion: Every organization, which starting the process of integration with supplier and customers, needs to use tools, methodologies and techniques for identification of "weak links" in the supply chain. The proposed method allows to fix risk origin places in various links of the supply chain and to identify "weak links" of a logistic chain that may occur in the future. The method is a useful tool for managing not only risks and risk situations, but also to improve the efficiency of current assets management by providing the ability to optimize the level of risk in the current assets management of the industrial enterprise.
Prišenk, Jernej; Borec, Andreja
In the literature the value based food chains express two main characteristics: business relationships among strategic partners interacting in the supply chain are based on a written set of values and food products are differentiated from similar food products based on product attributes such as food quality, safety, and/or functionality along with environmental and social attributes (Stevenson, 2009). To verify the first part of the definition the analysis of two organic food chains where ca...
Meena, Ramu; Datta, S P; Golui, Debasis; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C
A case study was undertaken to assess the risk of sewage-irrigated soils in relation to the transfer of trace elements to rice and wheat grain. For this purpose, peri-urban agricultural lands under the Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme (KEIS) of Delhi were selected. These agricultural lands have been receiving irrigation through sewage effluents since 1979. Sewage effluent, groundwater, soil, and plant (rice and wheat grain) samples were collected with GPS coordinates from this peri-urban area. Under wheat crop, sewage irrigation for four decades resulted into a significant buildup of zinc (141 %), copper (219 %), iron (514 %), nickel (75.0 %), and lead (28.1 %) in sewage-irrigated soils over adjacent tube well water-irrigated ones. Under rice crop, there was also a significant buildup of phosphorus (339 %), sulfur (130 %), zinc (287 %), copper (352 %), iron (457 %), nickel (258 %), lead (136 %), and cadmium (147 %) in sewage-irrigated soils as compared to that of tube well water-irrigated soils. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of trace toxic elements by humans through consumption of rice and wheat grain grown on these sewage-irrigated soils were well within the safe permissible limit. The variation in Zn, Ni, and Cd content in wheat grain could be explained by solubility-free ion activity model (FIAM) to the extent of 50.1, 56.8, and 37.2 %, respectively. Corresponding values for rice grain were 49.9, 41.2, and 42.7 %, respectively. As high as 36.4 % variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by solubility-FIAM model. Toxic limit of extractable Cd and As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard associated with consumption of rice grain by humans was established. A similar exercise was also done in respect of Cd for wheat. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of extractable metals and metalloid in soils with respect to soil properties and human health hazard under the
Pettitt, R G
Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes. PMID:11548528
Onyango, Benjamin M.; Turvey, Calum G.; Hallman, William K.
This study uses results from marginal effects estimates across the foods and points of the food chain to rank the foods and food chain points in order of intensity of likelihood of a terrorist attack. The results show that young people, low incomers (
The various chemical forms of 74As accumulated from either water or food by the marine food chain [Fucus spiralis (L.) → Littorina littoralis (L.) → Nucella lapillus] have been separated and characterized. Arsenic components were separated by differential extraction followed by high-voltage paper electrophoresis/paper chromatography of the water-soluble farction and thin-layer chromatography of the lipid-soluble fraction. The algae assimilates arsenic mainly (60%) as one lipid-soluble compound with Rsub(f) = 0.18, and 12 water-soluble organo-arsenic compounds as minor components. On the other hand, the snails produce predominantly one major water-soluble organo-arsenic compound with Rsub(f) = 0.66. This water-soluble arsenic compound was produced by the snails and not by intestinal microbes. Time-course studies on the relative proportions of labelled arsenic compounds in algal tissue indicate a transition from arsenate through water-soluble organo-arsenic components to a lipid-soluble arsenic compound. The water-soluble organo-arsenic compounds in the food chain studied were different from those previously found or proposed in marine organisms. (orig.)
On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)
On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)
Kahiluoto, H. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)], email: email@example.com
In Europe, around a third of GHG emissions and more than half of eutrophication are related to food chains. Policy goals and measures are set to respond to these environmental challenges and responsible consumers increasingly use their voice on the market. Enterprises face these challenges through new rules and incentives, which also offer new options. One such option is utilisation of untapped waste and by-product biomasses of food chains to produce renewable energy and recycling fertilisers. The aim of the project was to analyse biomass potentials of food chains, appropriate technologies and optional business models for utilisation of the biomass. The detailed goals and solutions were identified in an interaction among enterprise actors from different areas of biorefinery activity and researchers representing different disciplines. Based on these results and on identified business options, contrasting biorefinery scenarios were constructed to reflect alternative optimisation goals, elements of biorefinery activity and their contrasting features in the alternative scenarios as jointly selected with the actors. The overall sustainability of the scenarios was assessed: environmental impacts using life cycle assessment, impacts on regional economy and partnership in actor chains. In addition, future visions, business opportunities and possibilities for commercialisation were considered. South Savo and partly Satakunta provided the case study regions (differing from each other by biomass, distances and markets), but the project also produced tools for generalisation and contributed to national solutions.
A flexible and interactive code, NEPTUN, has been written in FORTRAN IV for the PDP-10 computer to assess the impact on man of radionuclides in aquatic food chains. NEPTUN is based on an equilibrium model of the linear-chain type, and calculates aquatic food concentrations and doses to man. A decay term is included for the holdup time of the various food types. A total of seven food types can be selected, which include drinking water, freshwater and salt-water plants, inverebrates and fish. Thirty different diets can be implemented and five different dose factor files can be chosen. These include dose conversion factors for infants and adults based on ICRP 2 and ICRP 26 methodologies. All dose factors involve a dose commitment of 50 years, or equivalently, 50 years of chronic exposure. To date, only stochastic ICRP 26 dose caluclations have been implemented. The basic concentration factor file contains data for 211 different radionuclides; the dose factor files are less comprehensive. However, all files can be readily expanded. The output includes tables of concentrations and doses for individual radionuclides, as well as summaries for groups of radionuclides. Existing aquatic food chain models and the sources of currently-used generic concentration factors are briefly reviewed, and dose factors based on ICRP 2 and ICRP 26 methodologies are contrasted. (auth)
In this article, we investigate three species food chain system with Holling II functional responses and periodic constant impulsive perturbations of predator at different fixed time. The conditions for extinction of prey and top predator are given. By using the Floquet theory of impulsive differential equation and small amplitude perturbation skills, we consider the local stability of prey and top predator eradication periodic solution. Further, we obtain the conditions of permanence of the system. The complex dynamics behavior of the system (1.3) is found by using numerical method.
In this paper, we investigate three species food chain system with periodic constant impulsive perturbations of mid-level predator. Conditions for extinction of lowest-level prey and top predator are given. By using the Floquet theory of impulsive equation and small amplitude perturbation skills, we consider the local stability of lowest-level prey and top predator eradication periodic solution. Further, influences of the impulsive perturbations on the inherent oscillation are studied numerically, which shows the rich dynamics (for example: period doubling, period halfing, non-unique dynamics) in the positive octant. The dynamics behavior is found to be very sensitive to the parameter values and initial value
A number of wide-ranging monitoring studies have been performed in order to estimate the degree of mercury (Hg) contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Knowledge regarding contamination of different levels of the food chain is necessary for estimation of total pollutant input fluxes and subsequent partitioning among different phases in the aquatic system. The growing international concern about this environmental data is closely related to the strongly developing ecological risk assessment ac...
Arevalo Chavez, Pablo Jose
Today unsafe food products can have terrible results in the consumer and the supplier network. The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated conceptual framework for identify and assess effective the quality risk of a product along the global supply chain. The product quality risk concept has not totally researched. The proposed framework is divided in four main sections (i) Desired quality; (ii) Product quality; (iii) Organisational risk and (iv) Supplier management. A Central A...
Oostindie, Henk; Broekhuizen, van, J.C.; Roest; Belletti, Giovanni; Arfini, Filippo; Menozzi, Davide; Hees, Eric
Priority setting between local versus global food chains continues to be subject of debate among food, rural and agricultural scholars with an interest in how to support more sustainable food provision and consumption patterns. Recently the FP7 European GLAMUR project targeted to assess and compare the performances of local versus global food chains in a systematic way covering multiple performance dimensions. Especially drawing on empirical research on the performances of three Italian and t...
In the case of a nuclear accident in Europe the integral decision support system R.O.D.O.S. ( real-time on-line decision support system for off-site emergency management) supplies comprehensive information on the present and future radiological situation, and the consequences of measures to protect the population. These data comprise mainly map information such as population distribution, rivers, roads, vegetation areas and production data of various food products. This work concentrates on the customization of the data for the food chain and dose module for terrestrial pathways. During the last fifteen years two different codes have been used in Austria for support during accidents with radioactive releases: O.E.C.O.S.Y.S. and R.O.D.O.S.. Adaptations and improvements have been performed to give better tools, they are detailed in this paper. (N.C.)
Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.
Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-Fang; Fu, Xian-zhi
In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...
Hand, Michael S.
Case studies of mainstream and local food supply chains reveal the variety of ways that food products move from farms to consumers. Farms in local food supply chains maintain a diverse portfolio of products and market outlets, which may help defray large fixed costs across multiple revenue streams. Local food supply chains are more likely to provide consumers with detailed information about where and by whom products were produced.
Valeeva, N.I.; M.P.M. Meuwissen; Huirne, R.B.M.
The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue in improving the food safety level, but little is known about its economic aspects. This paper reviews important issues in this field, namely the definition of safe food, the nature of food safety...
Highlights: • We propose a chaotic food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator. • Local and global stability conditions are derived in presence of additional food. • Chaos is controlled only by increasing quantity of additional food. • System enters into periodic region and depicts Hopf bifurcations supplying additional food. • This an application of non-chemical methods for controlling chaos. -- Abstract: The control and management of chaotic population is one of the main objectives for constructing mathematical model in ecology today. In this paper, we apply a technique of controlling chaotic predator–prey population dynamics by supplying additional food to top-predator. We formulate a three species predator–prey model supplying additional food to top-predator. Existence conditions and local stability criteria of equilibrium points are determined analytically. Persistence conditions for the system are derived. Global stability conditions of interior equilibrium point is calculated. Theoretical results are verified through numerical simulations. Phase diagram is presented for various quality and quantity of additional food. One parameter bifurcation analysis is done with respect to quality and quantity of additional food separately keeping one of them fixed. Using MATCONT package, we derive the bifurcation scenarios when both the parameters quality and quantity of additional food vary together. We predict the existence of Hopf point (H), limit point (LP) and branch point (BP) in the model for suitable supply of additional food. We have computed the regions of different dynamical behaviour in the quantity–quality parametric plane. From our study we conclude that chaotic population dynamics of predator prey system can be controlled to obtain regular population dynamics only by supplying additional food to top predator. This study is aimed to introduce a new non-chemical chaos control mechanism in a predator–prey system with the
Haifei YU; Dingwei WANG
Based on the characteristics of colony emer-gence of artificial organisms, their dynamic interaction with the environment, and the food-chain crucial to the life system, the rules of local activities of artificial organ-isms at different levels are defined. The article proposes an artificial life-based algorithm, which is referred to as the food-chain algorithm. This algorithm optimizes computa-tion by simulating the evolution of natural ecosystems and the information processing mechanism of natural organ-isms. The definition, idea and flow of the algorithm are introduced, and relevant rules on metabolic energy and change in the surroundings where artificial-life individuals live are depicted. Furthermore, key parameters of the algorithm are systematically analyzed. Test results show that the algorithm has quasi-life traits that include being autonomous, evolutionary, and self-adaptive. These traits are highly fit for optimization problems of life-like sys-tems such as the location-allocation problem of a distri-bution network system.
Engel, Erwan; Ratel, Jérémy; Planche, Christelle
Food-producing animals are exposed to toxic micropollutants via their environment and feeds. These micropollutants represent a chemical human health hazard because they are capable of entering the animals and being transferred to edible tissues 1 . Most current approaches to assessing contamination levels in foods are based on high performance analytical methods designed to determine the concentration of targeted micropollutant residues present down to trace levels in the food. Alternative...
The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674
Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.
Heidi C. Dreyer
Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.
Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller
emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance in the...... food supply of one country is currently potentially a problem for all countries....
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is two-fold. First, to identify the main sustainability issues that Scottish food supply chain actors are concerned with and any differences that exist between primary producers, processors and distributors and consumers; and second, to explore the implications of respondents’ views for the direction of food and drink policy in Scotland. The analysis was based on a dataset assembled from the written responses to the National Food Policy discussion in Scotland, which contains opinions on the different dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social from a broad range of individuals and organizations representing different segments of the Scottish population. The empirical analyses involved comparing the responses according to two criteria: by food supply chain stakeholder and by geographical region. The results indicated that whilst there were differences among the studied groups, the importance of social and economic sustainability were strongly evident in the foregoing analysis, highlighting issues such as diet and nutrition, the importance of local food, building sustainability on sound economic performance, the market power of supermarkets, and regulation and support in building human and technical capabilities.
Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and
Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.
Irani, Z; Sharif, A.
Purpose: This paper is seeking to signpost the genesis of food security and associated factors such that organisations, enterprises, policy makers and interested stakeholders can seek to explore and understand this important societal issue. The challenges that food security poses are eclectic in nature and cut through country, society, organisation and individual boundaries. Only through identifying these factors – hence identifying underlying factors of food waste and usage of information wi...
Full Text Available Purpose: Food cold chain is very important for ensuring food safety and decreasing the loss in the supply process. It is also benefit for the citizen, because cold chain could promise the food safety and the demand of the special cold food. Beijing, as the capital, the level of food chain is high, compared to other cities, and analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing is necessary, it could direct the scientific and health development of cold chain all over our country. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, in accordance with the investigation, we analysis the demand status of food cold chain from two aspects, then according to the status, we forecast the demand of refrigerated cars and warehouse for food cold chain in Beijing with the multivariate statistics. Findings: From the analysis of the paper, we can see that the need of cold chain logistics grows rapidly, but most consumers are lack of the awareness of the importance of the cold chain and many companies cannot bear the huge investment, it make the gap of the resources of cold chain logistics large and cannot meet the normal need of cold chain logistics in Beijing. Originality/value: The result of this paper could support the relative enterprise to run business in terms of the refrigerated car and warehouse.
A food chain model, LIMCAL, has been designed to aid in the assessment of the effects of long-term nuclear waste management on man far into the future. LIMCAL is particularly suited to the evaluation of an underground vault. Energy budgets, a basic feature of food chains, have been introduced in LIMCAL to help overcome uncertainties imposed by long time spans. LIMCAL includes all the ingestion pathways leading to man, which comprise terrestrial, fresh-water and saltwater food types and man's and animals' drinking water. The terrestrial pathways include both root uptake and leaf deposition. The basic input terms for LIMCAL are annual average radionuclide concentrations in soil, fresh water and saltwater. Annual average air concentrations can be calculated from soil concentrations by using the resuspension factor or the mass-loading approach. Many of the equations in LIMCAL are similar to those in FOOD II and NEPTUN, existing food chain models for contemporary assessments. The basic output of LIMCAL consists of radionculide concentrations in various food types and drinking water, and the resulting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents for infant and adult man. Dose/ concentration ratios can also be calculated readily by LIMCAL. LIMCAL is best described as a deterministic generic quasi-equilibrium assessment model of the linear-chain type. The parameters of LIMCAL have been reviewed in detail in a separate document
In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry,the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry.However,information sharing is the basis of supply chain management.For this purpose,on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management,the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail.It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of information-sharing mechanisms in the food industry green supply chain management and operation process and analyzes the necessity of using information sharing mechanism among the members of the food industry green supply chain management mode by game theory,so as to strengthen the competitiveness of enterprises through supply chain management.
Rinaldi, S.; Gragnani, A.; de Monte, Silvia
how the separation of behavioral and ecological timescales allows one to determine both responses starting from an explicit behavioral model. Within the general set-up considered in this paper, the two functional responses can tend toward Holling type II responses when consumers react only weakly to...... predation. Thus, the main characteristics of the standard Rosenzweig-MacArthur tritrophic food chain (logistic resource and Holling type 11 consumer and predator) remain valid also when consumers have weak antipredator behavior. Moreover, through numerical analysis, we show that in a particular but......When consumers feeding on a resource spend time in avoiding high risks of predation, the predator functional response declines with predator density. While this is well established, less attention has been paid to the dependence of the consumer functional response on predator density. Here we show...
Rinaldi, S.; Gragnani, A.; de Monte, Silvia
When consumers feeding on a resource spend time in avoiding high risks of predation, the predator functional response declines with predator density. While this is well established, less attention has been paid to the dependence of the consumer functional response on predator density. Here we show...... how the separation of behavioral and ecological timescales allows one to determine both responses starting from an explicit behavioral model. Within the general set-up considered in this paper, the two functional responses can tend toward Holling type II responses when consumers react only weakly to...... predation. Thus, the main characteristics of the standard Rosenzweig-MacArthur tritrophic food chain (logistic resource and Holling type 11 consumer and predator) remain valid also when consumers have weak antipredator behavior. Moreover, through numerical analysis, we show that in a particular but...
The ECOSYS model is the basic food chain model in the current European state-of-the-art systems for decision-aiding in connection with major nuclear accidents. To apply this model optimally in the decision process in a Nordic country contaminated due to an accident, it is necessary to change a number of the default parameters in ECOSYS to reflect Nordic, national or regional conditions. A number of potentially problematic parameters are identified and examined in this context. The importance of obtaining adequate parameters for, e.g., human consumption habits, animal feeding regimes, crop development dynamics and soil-plant transfer processes are discussed. Also the generic importance of considering particle size in connection with deposition modelling is demonstrated. (au)
Abadi, Savitri, D.
We study a food chain system that consists of 1 prey and 2 predators populations. The prey population grows logistically while the predators apply different Holling functional responses. The first predator preys on the prey following Holling type II functional response and the second predator preys on both the prey and the first predator following Holling type II and III functional responses, respectively. The study starts with the stability analysis of critical points of the systems. Then, by using normal form and centre manifold method the information about other nontrivial solutions due to bifurcation including possible limit cycles appearance is obtained. The results are confirmed by numerical simulation using MatCont and biological interpretation of the results are also presented.
Chromium has been considered both as potential radioactive and conventional pollutant. Chromium-51 is produced by the activation of 50Cr, which may be present either as a component of steel alloys used in reactors, or in Na2CrO4 added as an anticorrosion agent to the cooling water. Only small amounts of 51Cr are normally found in the liquid waste of nuclear power plants before discharge into rivers. In exceptional situations, however, as a result of the direct release of cooling waters, the aquatic environments may receive relatively large quantities of 51Cr. Part of this 51Cr is adsorbed e.g. to the sediments, but a fraction remains in solution in the river water. Somme accumulation of the radionuclide is observed in fresh water and marine organisms. Therefore, although 51Cr has a relatively short physical half life (27.8d), it is of interest to acquire better information on its accumulation by different species of fresh water organisms and plants, as well as on its behaviour in soils, in order to evaluate the relative importance of this nuclide in the radioactive contamination of the aquatic and terrestrial food chains. As a related and sometimes associated pollutant, stable chromium is also taken into consideration. This element occurs fairly frequently as an environmental pollutant in many countries, either because of its abundance in soils derived from serpentine or because of its release to the environment from industrial wastes. The sequence of presentation of the experiment data is based on the consecutive steps of the contamination process: aquatic environment, soils, plant link of the food chain. Special attention is paid, in the different chapters, to the behaviour of various chemical forms of chromium and to their distribution in different fractions: soluble in water, adsorbed, precipitated on particles or complexed with organic material
One third of the entire food produced for our consumption is either lost or wasted at some point of the food supply chain. The problem of food waste does not only intensify the elementary problem of food insecurity in wasting precious nourishment - originally intended to be consumed - connected with its economic value, but the processing and disposal of food also wastes scarce resources such as water, agricultural land and energy, as well as increasing CO2 emissions. Recent studies identify c...
Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst; Tromp, Seth; Van Der Zee, Durk-Jouke
Abstract Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation tools are often used for supporting decision-making on supply chain (re)design when logistic uncertainties are in place, building on their inherent modelling flexibility. Mostly, ...
Full Text Available The diffusion of the short food supply chains in Sardinia, at present, is not the same as in other Italian regions. Several structural and economic conditions of the Regional food supply chain, prevent an extensive diffusion. Forms of cooperation between primary producers and final consumers, as the responsible buying groups, will promote the shortening of the food supply chain, offering to the primary producers an alternative way of marketing for the wide array of locally grown farm produce.
Cox, A; Chicksand, D; Yang, T
This paper applies power regime methodology to provide an alternative wav of understanding the options available for supply chain management within the Chinese multiple food retail market. It helps international and local retailers to select the most appropriate supply chain approach for China. The paper suggests that short-term supplier selection is not always the appropriate sourcing approach for multiple food retailers. They should consider proactive collaborative relationships with their ...
Eighteen parameters of LIMCAL, a comprehensive food chain model for predicting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents to man due to long-term nuclear waste management are reviewed. The parameters are: soil bulk density, plowlayer depth, soil surface layer depth, resusupension factor, atmospheric dust load, deposition velocity, plant interception fraction, plant environmental half-time, translocation factor, time of above-ground exposure, plant yield, holdup time, animals' feed consumption rate, animals' water consumption rate, man's water consumption rate, food type calorie conversion factors, man's total caloric intake rate and food type calorie fractions. LIMCAL has both traditional and unique parameters. The former occur in most of the currently used assessment models for nuclear installations, whereas the latter do not. For each of the parameters of LIMCAL, a suitable generic value for long-term nuclear waste management was determined. Thus, the general literature and the values currently used or recommended by various agencies were reviewed
The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology.
The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors)
Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée
Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do not...... adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems...
A general methodology for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in the food chains to man is described. The models are dynamic in nature so that the long-term time dependence of processes in environmental materials can be represented, for example, the build-up of activity concentrations in soils during continuous deposition from atmosphere. Modules for radionuclide migration are described in well-mixed (cultivated) soil and undisturbed soil (pasture). The methods by which the transfer coefficients used in plant and animal modules are derived are also given. The foodstuffs considered are those derived from green vegetables, grain, and root vegetables together with meat and liver products from the cow and sheep and cow dairy products. The dynamic model permits the time dependence of food chain transfer processes to be represented for different land contamination scenarios; in particular, the model can be adapted to represent behaviour following a single deposit. Using the sensitivity of results to the variation of transfer parameters the model can be used to determine the parts of the food chain where improved data would be most effective in increasing the reliability of radiological assessments; a worked example is given. (author)
A dynamic modeling system is described for the transfer of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains. The main features of the system are its ability to predict the time dependence of the major transfer processes and its flexibility and applicability to a range of contamination scenarios. The modeling system is regarded as a basic framework on which more realistic models can be based, given the availability of reliable environmental transfer data. An example of such a development is included for 90Sr in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. The model predicts annual average concentrations of 90Sr in milk caused by fallout in the United Kingdom to within 15% of measured values for over most of the 20-y period for which data exist. It makes possible the evaluation of the time dependence of the contributions of various transfer processes. Following acute releases to the atmosphere or releases in any other contamination scenario where direct deposition is absent, certain pathways often not considered in food-chain models, such as the external contamination of plants caused by resuspension processes or the ingestion of contaminants together with soil by grazing animals, are shown to be potentially important in the transfer of activity to man. The main application of dynamic food-chain models is the prediction of the consequences of accidental releases to the terrestrial environment. The predictions can be used in planning countermeasures and in assessing the health, economic, and social impacts of accidental release
Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin
degradation in such a way that it can be integrated in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for production and distribution planning. The resulting model is applied in an illustrative case study, and can be used to design and operate food distribution systems, using both food quality and cost......One of the most challenging tasks in today's food industry is controlling the product quality throughout the food supply chain. In this paper, we integrate food quality in decision-making on production and distribution in a food supply chain. We provide a methodology to model food quality...
Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin
One of the most challenging tasks in today's food industry is controlling the product quality throughout the food supply chain. In this paper, we integrate food quality in decision-making on production and distribution in a food supply chain. We provide a methodology to model food quality...... degradation in such a way that it can be integrated in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for production and distribution planning. The resulting model is applied in an illustrative case study, and can be used to design and operate food distribution systems, using both food quality and cost...
Vrkoč, Ivo; Křivan, Vlastimil
One of the key results of the food web theory states that the interior equilibrium of a tri-trophic food chain described by the Lotka-Volterra type dynamics is globally asymptotically stable whenever it exists. This article extends this result to food webs consisting of several food chains sharing a common resource. A Lyapunov function for such food webs is constructed and asymptotic stability of the interior equilibrium is proved. Numerical simulations show that as the number of food chains increases, the real part of the leading eigenvalue, while still negative, approaches zero. Thus the resilience of such food webs decreases with the number of food chains in the web. PMID:26498384
Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formu
Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Brown, T.; Leducq, D.; Verlinden, B.E.; Evans, J.; Van Der Sluis, S.; Wissink, E.B.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Thuault, D.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; M. Nicolai, B.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.
Quantification of the impact of refrigeration technologies in terms of the quality of refrigerated food, energy usage, and environmental impact is essential to assess cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present a software tool QEEAT (Quality, Energy and Environmental Assessment Tool) for ev
Bukeviciute, Lina; Dierx, Adriaan; Fabienne ILZKOVITZ; Roty, Guillaume
Agricultural commodities and consumer food prices have experienced strong variations over the last 2 years, both upwards and downwards. This increased volatility, combined with long-term prospects of rising food prices, highlights the necessity to increase the efficiency of the food supply chain to ensure consumer food prices reflect the evolution of inputs prices. This paper aims at better understanding price transmission mechanisms along the chain across European Union Member States. Signif...
Liu, Yuexian; Høgh-Jensen, Henning; Egelyng, Henrik
The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development of organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate o...
Dreyer, Heidi C.; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Thomassen, Maria K.; Romsdal, Anita; Gran, Erik
Based on an analysis of four local food producers this paper explores the relation between the supply chain design and control principles, and the strategic fit. Local food has arisen as a popular supplement to the traditional supermarket product range offered by retailers and restaurants. However it has been shown that local food struggles with the market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers to gain a solid market position. We analyse how ...
Full Text Available Organizations no longer compete as independent entities, but as chains (Christopher, 1998; Cox, 1999; Lambert, Cooper, 2000. Consequently, chain strategies became more important in creating competitive advantage (Vickery et al., 2003; Gunasekaran et al., 2004. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of chain strategies, many chains active in the agri-business sector still face difficulties in developing common chain strategies and implementing them collaboratively to generate additional mutual gains and savings. Chains lacking a chain strategy and having short-term perspectives face difficulties in envisaging and implementing cooperative solutions to problems they cannot manage alone. Despite this recognition, the actual development of such chain strategies lags behind because of some particular issues which still need to be addressed (e.g. vision, mission, values or action plans. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to identify and consolidate chain members’ goals, to select a minimum set of key goals and to confront these chain goals with consumer preferences. This way, the paper develops the vision of traditional food chains in the EU, as a first step of strategy development. First, chain members goals are identified and consolidated with the help of approximately 100 stakeholders (suppliers, focal companies, customers from three European countries representing 5 traditional food product categories (cheese, beer, dry ham, dry sausage and white pepper. The most important goals of traditional food chains are to maintain traditionalism, to improve responsiveness, to maintain superior quality and to create chain balance. These chain goals are tested against the perception of 4828 consumers from six European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. As a result, the vision of traditional food chains is developed: the European traditional food sector envisions a competitive sector maintaining the traditional
LÃ€hdesmÃ€ki, Merja; Viitaharju, Leena; Suvanto, Hannele; Valkosalo, Pauli; Kurki, Sami; Rantala, Sanna-Helena; Hartmann, Monika; Fischer, Christian; Reynolds, Nikolai; Bavorova, Miroslava
The aim of this report is to discuss the role of the relationship type and communication in two Finnish food chains, namely the pig meat-to-sausage (pig meat chain) and the cereal-to-rye bread (rye chain) chains. Furthermore, the objective is to examine those factors influencing the choice of a relationship type and the sustainability of a business relationship. Altogether 1808 questionnaires were sent to producers, processors and retailers operating in these two chains of which 224 usable qu...
The release of radionuclides from nuclear facilities following an accident into air results in human exposures through two pathways. One is direct human exposures by inhalation or dermal absorption of these radionucles. Another is indirect human exposures through food chain which includes intakes of plant products such as rice, vegetables from contaiminated soil and animal products such as meet, milk and eggs feeded by contaminated grasses or plants on the terrestial surface. This study presents efforts of the development of a computer code for the assessment of the indirect human exposure through such food chains. The purpose of ECOREA-II code is to develop appropriate models suitable for a specific soil condition in Korea based on previous experimental efforts and to provide a more user-friendly environment such as GUI for the use of the code. Therefore, the current code, when more fully developed, is expected to increase the understanding of environmental safety assessment of nuclear facilities following an accident and provide a reasonable regulatory guideline with respecte to food safety issues
The release of radionuclides from nuclear facilities following an accident into air results in human exposures by intakes of plant products such as rice, vegetables and/or animal products including meat, milk and eggs from contaminated soil. In order to evaluate such exposures from radioactive substances, it is essential to mathematically predict the behavior of these substances in the environments. A computer code, named 'ECOREA-II' is developing to assess human exposures through food chain of such substances in Korea. ECOREA-II code has a dynamic compartment-based model at its core, the graphical user interface (GUI) for the selection of input parameters and result displays on personal computers, and generation of data files for a GIS (Graphical Information System). Even the code is developed mostly based currently available models and/or codes, a new model is included for the time-dependent growth dilution in a vegetation part. Effort on The development of the code is towards the prediction of the behavior and pattern of radionuclides in a specific food chain condition in Korea. Finally, it provides a more user-friendly environment such as GUI developed based on the VBA(Visual Basic Application) for personal users. Therefore, the current code, when more fully developed, is expected to increase the understanding of environmental safety assessment of nuclear facilities following an accident and provide a reasonable regulatory guideline with respect to food safety issues
G., Ólafsdóttir; Andrade, Grace Patricia Viera; Nielsen, Thorkild;
The report is aimed to give a thorough review of different environmental impacts that the food and drink sector are producing along the whole chain, from fork to farm and to assess which of them are the key environmental challenges for Europe. A representative range of product groups have been...
Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.
The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.
The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.
Srećko Ćurčić; Sida Milunović; Ivan Savović; Milena Đurić
With the establishment of an environmental management logistics system, organizations in the production chain of food products should provide evidence of their ability to control safety and environmental dangers. Logistics systems should be applicable to all organizations, regardless of their size, which are involved in any aspect of the food chain, from production preparation to waste management.
Song, Qiang; Gao, Xuexia; Santos, Emmanuel T.
This paper introduces the capacitated vehicle routing problem with recycling in reverse logistics, and designs a food chain algorithm for it. Some illustrative examples are selected to conduct simulation and comparison. Numerical results show that the performance of the food chain algorithm is better than the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization as well as quantum evolutionary algorithm.