Sample records for asian small felid

  1. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  2. Is it possible to identify four small Neotropical felids (Carnivora: Felidae) based on hair microstructure?

    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi; Flávia Heloisa Rodriguez; Fernando C. Passos


    The microscopic characters of the hair can be used to indirectly identify species that are either uncommon or are difficult to see, for instance small Neotropical felids of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forests. This widely used technique, which has not yet been standardized, involves the identification of hairs collected from feces. We tested the hypothesis that this tool is effective to identify four species of small Neotropical felids: Leopardus guttulus, Puma yagouaroundi, L. wiedii and...

  3. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in captivity

    Letícia S. Resende; Gabriella L. Remy; Valdir de Almeida Ramos Jr; Artur Andriolo


    Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I) period prior to the enrichment, II) per...

  4. Is it possible to identify four small Neotropical felids (Carnivora: Felidae based on hair microstructure?

    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi


    Full Text Available The microscopic characters of the hair can be used to indirectly identify species that are either uncommon or are difficult to see, for instance small Neotropical felids of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forests. This widely used technique, which has not yet been standardized, involves the identification of hairs collected from feces. We tested the hypothesis that this tool is effective to identify four species of small Neotropical felids: Leopardus guttulus, Puma yagouaroundi, L. wiedii and L. pardalis. To accomplish that, we used measurements of the length, width and area of the cuticular scales in the guard hairs and calculated the relationship between width and length (quotient for each species. A multiple discriminant analysis was conducted on the measurements and the percentage of correct identification was obtained. We found a high overlap in the quotients of these species, which indicates that this technique does not identify Neotropical felids accurately. This inefficiency was also confirmed by the multiple discriminant analysis, where only 74% correct identifications were obtained. Therefore we recommend that hair analysis is used only in combination with other sources of evidence, for instance molecular tools.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild small felids from Brazil: molecular detection and genotypic characterization.

    Cañón-Franco, W A; Araújo, F A P; López-Orozco, N; Jardim, M M A; Keid, L B; Dalla-Rosa, C; Cabral, A D; Pena, H F J; Gennari, S M


    Brazil harbors the largest number of wild Neotropical felid species, with ten of the twelve species recorded in the American continent. Although these animals are considered to be definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii, there are few descriptions of the parasite in these species. Here, we performed a molecular detection of T. gondii by amplification of the marker ITS-1 from tissue samples obtained from 90 free-ranging wild small Neotropical felids from Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Of the sampled animals, 34.4% (n=31) were positive including the species Puma yagouaroundi - jaguarondi (9/22), Leopardus geoffroyi - Geoffroy's cat (6/22), Leopardus tigrinus - oncilla (8/28), Leopardus wiedii - margay (6/10), Leopardus pardalis - ocelot (1/1) and Leopardus colocolo - Pampas cat (1/7). Toxoplasma DNA was detected with a frequency of 14.6% (63/433) in primary samples of tongue (16/56), brain (8/43), skeletal muscle (15/83), heart (7/63), diaphragm (3/56), vitreous humor (2/44), eye muscle (6/44) and eyeball (6/44). Multilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping of eleven small Neotropical felids using the molecular markers SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3 allowed the partial characterization of eight genotypes. We fully characterized two new genotypes that have not been described previously in Brazil (Lw#31Tn from L. wiedii and Py#21Sm from P. yagouaroundi) and one genotype Py#56Br from P. yagouaroundi that has been described previously in isolates from cats, dogs and capybaras from São Paulo state. This study constitutes the first detection and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in free-ranging felids in Brazil, demonstrating the occurrence of the parasite in wild populations and suggesting its potential transmissibility to humans and other domestic and wild animals. PMID:23932730

  6. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae in captivity

    Letícia S. Resende


    Full Text Available Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I period prior to the enrichment, II period in which the animals were being submitted to enrichment stimuli, and III period after the enrichment. In phase II, we observed a significant reduction in abnormal behavior compared to phases I and III. Only in phase II did the animals demonstrate the following behaviors: predation, social interaction and territory demarcation. However, in this same phase, the mean time spent interacting with the enrichment throughout the day showed a decrease.

  7. Feeding of small Neotropical felids (Felidae: Carnivora and trophic niche overlap in anthropized mosaic landscape of South Brazil

    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi


    Full Text Available Understanding the diversity of a community and its dynamics is especially important in altered habitats such as agricultural fields, where this information can help biodiversity conservation programs. In an altered landscape of the interior Atlantic Forest, western Paraná State, Brazil (25º41’ to 25º20’S and 53º56’ to 54º35’W, samples (310 were collected and a total of 110 samples could be determined for some small Neotropical felids, including 39 Leopardus guttulus (oncilla, 38 L. wiedii (margay and 33 Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarondi. The diets of these felids contained typical synanthropic prey such as Mus musculus in 44% (L. guttulus, 32% (L. wiedii and 15% (P. yagouaroundi of the total samples. This observation and the sample collection in agricultural places demonstrate that felids can use this anthropized landscape. The small mammals (<100 g were more common in the diet of these species. Nevertheless, the correction factor was shown to have significant efficiency in correcting estimates of biomass ingested for two of the three species of felids, and we therefore recommend that these species be used in future studies. Even with this observed coexistence, the food niche of the three species showed a large overlap.

  8. Serosurvey for feline leukemia virus and lentiviruses in captive small neotropic felids in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Filoni, Claudia; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Catão-Dias, José Luiz


    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Gammaretrovirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus, a Lentivirus, are members of the family Retroviridae, and may establish persistent infections in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Cytoproliferative and cytosuppressive disorders may result from infection with these viruses. Morbidity and mortality rates are high in domestic cats worldwide. Infection of endangered neotropic small felids with these viruses could be devastating. To investigate the prevalence of FeLV and feline lentiviruses in neotropic small felids kept in captivity in São Paulo state. Brazil, serum samples from 104 animals belonging to the species Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, and Oncifelis geoffroyi were tested for FeLV and feline lentiviruses by commercially available immunoassays. All results were negative, suggesting that retrovirus infection is not an important clinical problem in these populations. Because domestic cats in São Paulo city are naturally infected with these pathogens, and feral cats are commonly found in zoologic facilities in Brazil, preventive measures should be taken to avoid transmission of retroviruses to naive populations of wild and captive neotropic felids in Brazil. PMID:12723802

  9. Parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E


    Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores. PMID:17312790

  10. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K


    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  11. Ecomorphology of the African felid ensemble: the role of the skull and postcranium in determining species segregation and assembling history.

    Morales, M M; Giannini, N P


    Morphology of extant felids is regarded as highly conservative. Most previous studies have focussed on skull morphology, so a vacuum exists about morphofunctional variation in postcranium and its role in structuring ensembles of felids in different continents. The African felid ensemble is particularly rich in ecologically specialized felids. We studied the ecomorphology of this ensemble using 31 cranial and 93 postcranial morphometric variables measured in 49 specimens of all 10 African species. We took a multivariate approach controlling for phylogeny, with and without body size correction. Postcranial and skull + postcranial analyses (but not skull-only analyses) allowed for a complete segregation of species in morphospace. Morphofunctional factors segregating species included body size, bite force, zeugopodial lengths and osteological features related to parasagittal leg movement. A general gradient of bodily proportions was recovered: lightly built, long-legged felids with small heads and weak bite forces vs. the opposite. Three loose groups were recognized: small terrestrial felids, mid-to-large sized scansorial felids and specialized Acinonyx jubatus and Leptailurus serval. As predicted from a previous study, the assembling of the African felid ensemble during the Plio-Pleistocene occurred by the arrival of distinct felid lineages that occupied then vacant areas of morphospace, later diversifying in the continent. PMID:23496381

  12. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W


    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant

  13. Retrovirus infections and Brazilian wild felids

    Filoni, C.; Catão-Dias, J L; Lutz, H.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.


    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are two retroviruses that are deadly to the domestic cat (Felis catus) and important to the conservation of the threatened wild felids worldwide. Differences in the frequencies of occurrence and the existence of varying related viruses among felid species have incited the search for understanding the relationships among hosts and viruses into individual and population levels. Felids infected can die of related diseases or co...

  14. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C


    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population. PMID:20876911

  15. Molecular and morphologic characterization of Sarcocystis felis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in South American wild felids from Brazil.

    Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; López-Orozco, Natalia; Christoff, Alexandre Uarth; de Castilho, Camila Schlieper; de Araújo, Flavio Antônio Pacheco; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, J P; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Gennari, Solange Maria


    Wild felids are thought to share parasites with domestic cats. However, little is known of the coccidian parasites of wild felids. We investigated the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in tissues of 6 species of 90 Neotropical small felids killed in road accidents in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by using microscopic and molecular techniques. Formalin-fixed tissues from 28 felids were examined, and Sarcocystis felis-like sarcocysts were detected in 4 wild cats (2 Puma yagouaroundi and 2 Leopardus guttulus). By transmission electron microscopy, sarcocysts from a P. yagouaroundi were identical to S. felis from domestic cats in the USA. Direct sequencing of PCR amplicons resulted the unambiguous sequences of the ITS-1 region from 18 of the 31 PCR positive wild cats; 5 sequences from each P. yagouaroundi, and Leopardus geoffroyi, 4 sequences from L. guttulus, and 2 sequences from each Leopardus wiedii, and Leopardus colocolo. Sequences analysis of ITS-1 region revealed the highest identiy (97-99%) with that of previously describe isolates of S. felis from domestic cats in the USA and identified them as S. felis. Tissues of 1 Leopardus pardalis tested by PCR and histology were negative. The phylogenetic relationship indicated that S. felis is quite different to species which employ opossums as their definitive host. This is the first report of S. felis infection in small wild felids from Brazil. PMID:26827854

  16. Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.

    Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J


    Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

  17. Current Account Dynamics and Capital Mobility in Asian Small Economies

    Selim, Sheikh Tareq


    This paper explores current account dynamics in eight small economies of Asia to examine whether or not capital flows have been excessive in these countries. Standard assumptions of perfect capital mobility and small open economy are jointly instrumental in simplifying theoretical tractability of many open economy models. In empirical estimations, however, the identification of a small open economy is often oversimplified, which makes celebrated results, such as excessive or too low capital f...

  18. Isolation of dermatophytes in wild felids from screening centers

    Ana Paula N. Albano


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was detect the presence of dermatophyte fungi on wild felids from screening centers. Samples were taken from 30 animals, assembled in two groups: "free-ranging" and "transitory captivity". The dermatophytes (Trichophyton genus, isolated from two felids (6.6%, both of the group "free-ranging".

  19. Going LO (laparoscopic oviductal) for ET and AI in Felids – Challenges, Strategies and Successes

    Swanson, WF


    Embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially invaluable techniques for the propagation and management of genetically valuable domestic cat and endangered nondomestic cat populations. Many of the challenges that impair the effective application of ET and AI in felids may be overcome by using laparoscopic oviductal (LO) approaches. LO-ET and LO-AI are minimally-invasive procedures, requiring only two small skin incisions for insertion of a laparoscope and grasping force...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Adania, C H; Ferreira, F; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Ferreira-Neto, J S


    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 865 captive neotropical felids from 20 states from Brazil, sampled from September 1995 to April 1997. Sera were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies (MAT> or =1:20) to T. gondii were found in 472 of 865 (54.6%) cats: in 45 of 99 (45.9%) jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), in 97 of 168 (57.7%) ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), in 68 of 131 (51.9%) oncillas (L. tigrinus), in 35 of 63 (55.5%) margays (L. wiedii), in 1 of 8 (12.5%) Pampas-cat (Oncifelis colocolo), in 9 of 12 (75.0%) Geoffroys-cat (O. geoffroyi), in 134 of 212 (63.2%) jaguars (Panthera onca), and in 83 of 172 (48.2%) pumas (Puma concolor). Antibody titers were: 1:20 in 27 felids, 1:25 in 142 felids, 1:40 in 6 felids, 1:50 in 292 felids, and > or =1:500 in 5 felids. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested a widespread exposure of neotropical cats to T. gondii in zoos in Brazil. The results warrant an investigation on the mode of exposure and oocyst shedding by neotropical cats. PMID:11777601

  1. V-Y Advancement Flaps Based on Yotsuyanagi Aesthetic Subunit Principles for Small Nasal Defects in Asian Patients.

    Gu, Zi-Chun; Li, Hua; Hamann, Dathan; Xu, Fawei


    Cosmesis is paramount in the reconstruction of small nasal defects. Yotsuyanagi et al have previously described nasal aesthetic subunits in patients of Asian descent and their implications for reconstruction of large nasal defects, including forehead flap and Z-plasty. The impact of Asian skin types and aesthetic subunits on reconstruction planning of small nasal defects has not been rigorously explored. The aim of this article is to present a novel method for repairing small nose defects in patients of Asian descent using V-Y advancement flap designed using Yotsuyanagi nasal subunit aesthetic principles. A total of 21 defects ranging from 7 to 22 mm in size in 21 patients of Asian descent were repaired with either 1 or 2 V-Y advancement flaps designed along Yotsuyanagi nasal subunit borders. All reconstructions were completed successfully in one stage. Scars were inconspicuous and nasal subunits were neither displaced nor twisted. All patients were pleased with the cosmetic outcomes. The use of V-Y advancement flaps based on Asian aesthetic nasal subunit principles for the reconstruction of small nasal defects is a novel, cosmetically sensitive alternative. PMID:27248031

  2. Bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) in the Republic of Korea.

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Jae-Myung; Jang, Yunho; Lee, Kyunghyun; Baek, Kanghyun; Lee, Boram; Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Ryoo, Soyoon; Bae, You-Chan; Choi, Eun-Jin; So, ByungJae


    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis has a wide range of hosts including cattle and humans, but its incidence in otters is very rare. Our report describes a case of bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). A deceased female otter ~2-3 years of age that was raised in an aquarium was submitted to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (Anyang, Republic of Korea) for autopsy in June 2013. Following gross pathological examination, many white nodules were observed in the lungs and mesentery. The nodules showed central necrosis infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Acid-fast bacteria were detected in the necrotic foci, but no fungi were observed. Molecular analysis led to the detection of M. bovis, which is identified in otters in some European countries such as Spain and France. PMID:26289719

  3. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L


    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  4. Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.

    André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias


    Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

  5. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.

    Michael Doube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT images (16435 slices in 116 stacks were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus to tiger (Panthera tigris. Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.

  6. An evaluation of the PCR-RFLP technique to aid molecular-based monitoring of felids and canids in India

    Home Chandrima


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The order Carnivora is well represented in India, with 58 of the 250 species found globally, occurring here. However, small carnivores figure very poorly in research and conservation policies in India. This is mainly due to the dearth of tested and standardized techniques that are both cost effective and conducive to small carnivore studies in the field. In this paper we present a non-invasive genetic technique standardized for the study of Indian felids and canids with the use of PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of scat collected in the field. Findings Using existing sequences of felids and canids from GenBank, we designed primers from the 16S rRNA region of the mitochondrial genome and tested these on ten species of felids and five canids. We selected restriction enzymes that would cut the selected region differentially for various species within each family. We produced a restriction digestion profile for the potential differentiation of species based on fragment patterns. To test our technique, we used felid PCR primers on scats collected from various habitats in India, representing varied environmental conditions. Amplification success with field collected scats was 52%, while 86% of the products used for restriction digestion could be accurately assigned to species. We verified this through sequencing. A comparison of costs across the various techniques currently used for scat assignment showed that this technique was the most practical and cost effective. Conclusions The species-specific key developed in this paper provides a means for detailed investigations in the future that focus on elusive carnivores in India and this approach provides a model for other studies in areas of Asia where many small carnivores co-occur.

  7. Assessing the efficacy of hair snares as a method for noninvasive sampling of Neotropical felids

    Tatiana P. Portella


    Full Text Available Hair snares have been used in North and Central America for a long time in assessment and monitoring studies of several mammalian species. This method can provide a cheap, suitable, and efficient way to monitor mammals because it combines characteristics that are not present in most alternative techniques. However, despite their usefulness, hair snares are rarely used in other parts of the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hair snares and three scent lures (cinnamon, catnip, and vanilla in the detection of felids in one of the largest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We performed tests with six captive felid species - Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758, L. tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, L. wiedii (Schinz, 1821, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, and P. yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803 - to examine their responses to the attractants, and to correlate those with lure efficiency in the field. The field tests were conducted at the Parque Estadual Pico do Marumbi, state of Paraná, Brazil. Hair traps were placed on seven transects. There were equal numbers of traps with each scent lure, for a total of 1,551 trap-days. In captivity, vanilla provided the greatest response, yet no felids were detected in the field with any of the tested lures, although other species were recorded. Based on the sampling of non-target species, and the comparison with similar studies elsewhere, this study points to a possible caveat of this method when rare species or small populations are concerned. Meanwhile, we believe that improved hair snares could provide important results with several species in the location tested and others.

  8. Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea): resting and swimming metabolic rates.

    Borgwardt, N; Culik, B M


    Open-flow oxygen and carbon dioxide respirometry was used in Neumünster Zoo (Germany) to examine the energy requirements of six Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea) at rest and swimming voluntarily under water. Our aim was to compare their energy requirements with those of other warm-blooded species to elucidate scale effects and to test whether the least aquatic of the three otter species differs markedly from these and its larger relatives. While at rest on land (16 degrees C, n = 26), otters (n = 6, mean body mass 3.1 +/- 0.4 kg) had a respiratory quotient of 0.77 and a resting metabolic rate of 5.0 +/- 0.8 Wkg-1(SD). This increased to 9.1 +/- 0.8 Wkg-1 during rest in water (11-15 degrees C, n = 4) and to 17.6 +/- 1.4 Wkg-1 during foraging and feeding activities in a channel (12 degrees C, n = 5). While swimming under water (n = 620 measurements) in an 11-m long channel, otters preferred a speed range between 0.7 ms-1 and 1.2 ms-1. Transport costs were minimal at 1 ms-1 and amounted to 1.47 +/- 0.24 JN-1 m-1 (n = 213). Metabolic rates of small-clawed otters in air were similar to those of larger otter species, and about double those of terrestrial mammals of comparable size. In water, metabolic rates during rest and swimming were larger than those extrapolated from larger otter species and submerged swimming homeotherms. This is attributed to high thermoregulatory costs, and high body drag at low Reynolds numbers. PMID:10227184

  9. Digital Image Collections for Asian Religion and Art History in a Small-Sized Liberal Arts College

    May Chang


    Full Text Available


    small;">This paper reviews the establishment of a digital image library from 35mm slides to support faculty and student needs in a small-sized liberal arts college. The framework consists of central local resources, distributed faculty collections, and external resources. Standards and guidelines for digital preservation and access are also discussed. The pilot collections were multi-disciplinary resources in Middle East art and architecture and faculty slide collections in East Asian religions and Asian art history. Technical and management issues of integrating digital technology in the traditional slide library are also discussed.

  10. Clinical canine parvovirus type 2C infection in a group of Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea).

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Murphy, Hayley; Rivera, Sam


    Despite the occurrence of clinical disease in a wide range of carnivore hosts, only vague accounts of clinical canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) in any otter species have been reported in the literature. Over the course of 25 days, nine Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) presented for evaluation of inappetence, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea. A diagnosis of canine parvovirus type 2c was made based on electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing of group fecal samples. Supportive care was provided based on individual clinical assessment and included subcutaneous crystalline fluid therapy, antiemetics, antibiotics, appetite stimulants, and a neuraminidase inhibitor. Five of the nine otters exhibited moderate to severe disease requiring treatment, and one case was fatal despite supportive efforts. In light of this case report, CPV-2 should be recognized as a potential cause of gastrointestinal disease in Asian small-clawed otters. PMID:25831584


    Wojick, Kimberlee B; Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick W; Gamble, Kathryn C


    Urolithiasis is a significant disease concern in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea), with over 60% of captive animals affected. Bilateral ureteral stent placement, using endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were performed as salvage procedures in a 13-yr-old intact female Asian small-clawed otter following a 7-yr history of nephrolithiasis and progressive renal insufficiency. Following the procedure, radiographs revealed a slight shifting of urolith position, although a decrease in urolith mass was not observed. As a result of declining quality of life related to severe osteoarthritis, the otter was euthanized 5 wk after the procedure. While this treatment approach was unsuccessful in this case, the technique was clinically feasible, so ESWL and ureteral stent placement may remain a consideration for other individuals of this species presented earlier in the course of this disease. PMID:26056891

  12. Assessing The Welfare Of Captive Asian Small-Clawed Otters (Amblonyx cinereus): Can Inductive Methods Play A Part?

    Wright L.C.


    A large number of factors need to be taken into account when assessing an animal's welfare under field conditions. Grounded Theory, an inductive method, might be of use in correlating these factors with the results of scientific studies to produce a freely available IT tool that could be used by relatively untrained persons to assess the welfare of animals. This ongoing work is intended to establish whether inductive techniques can contribute to welfare assessment of captive Asian Small-Clawe...

  13. Behavioral and physiological responses in felids to exhibit construction.

    Chosy, Julia; Wilson, Megan; Santymire, Rachel


    Despite the growing body of literature examining the welfare of zoo-housed animals, little standardized work has been published on the effect of construction and environmental disruption on the physiology and behavior of affected animals. When Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL), embarked on a renovation project for its Kovler Lion House, the opportunity was taken to perform a scientific study of behavioral and physiological markers in the resident felids to determine the effect of construction and environmental disruption. Fecal samples and behavioral observations were collected on four felid species (five individuals) before, during, and after the period of construction. As a group, the average z-score for fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentration increased during construction relative to baseline. Levels remained elevated after construction, but trended toward baseline. All individuals demonstrated a significant decrease in the frequency of pacing and time spent visible during construction. Overall activity levels also showed a significant decrease relative to baseline measures. As zoological institutions continue to recognize the importance of habitat design, construction and renovation become inevitable. It is important to be aware of the potential consequences this can have on animals in the vicinity and to work toward minimizing negative effects. One recommendation is the availability of ample retreat and hiding space for felids during disruption to their environment. PMID:25042703

  14. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis.

    Slattery, J P; Johnson, W E; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J


    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using the methods of Fitch-Margoliash and neighbor-joining on a matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic distances for all pairs of species. Results of a relative-rate test indicate changes in two-dimensional electrophoresis data are constant among all South American felids with respect to a hyena outgroup. Allelic frequencies were transformed to discrete character states for maximum parsimony analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates a major split occurred approximately 5-6 million years ago, leading to three groups within the ocelot lineage. The earliest divergence led to Leopardus tigrina, followed by a split between an ancestor of an unresolved trichotomy of three species (Oncifelis guigna, O. geoffroyi, and Lynchailuris colocolo) and a recent common ancestor of Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii. The results suggest that modern South American felids are monophyletic and evolved rapidly after the formation of the Panama land bridge between North and South America. PMID:7932791

  15. Small-scale transcriptomics reveals differences among gonadal stages in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)

    Ravi, Preethi; Jiang, Junhui; Liew, Woei Chang; Orbán, László


    Background The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a protandrous hermaphrodite that typically matures as a male at approximately 2–4 years of age and then changes sex in subsequent years. Although several sexual maturation stages have been described histologically for both testis and ovary, the underlying gene expression profiles remain lacking. The development of a gene expression platform is therefore necessary to improve our understanding of the gonad development of this cultured teleost s...

  16. The first report of Hepatozoon sp. (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Metzger, Betina; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Pereira, Cristiane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena


    In order to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon infection in Neotropical felids from Brazil, blood from the jugular or cephalic vein was taken from 29 non-domestic felids including ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus), margay (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarondi (Puma yagouaroundi) from the Northeast region of Brazil. Hepatozoon infection was confirmed by light microscopy and molecular techniques. The results showed five naturally infected felids. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the Hepatozoon sp. from these felids were further analyzed. Sequences revealed that the isolates found are closely related to Hepatozoon sp. from domestic cats in Spain. Hepatozoon species from Neotropical felids were identified molecularly and characterized for the first time. This is also the first report of Hepatozoon infection in a little spotted cat. PMID:18243562

  17. Health effects of small volatile compounds from East asian medicinal mushrooms.

    Pennerman, Kayla K; Yin, Guohua; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom


    Medicinal fungi, taken whole or as various forms of extracts, have been used to alleviate, cure or prevent human ailments since pre-historic times. In particular, Asian cultures have incorporated a variety of mushrooms into their medical practices. Chemically pure, bioactive metabolites from fungi have been a mainstay of modern pharmacological research and in addition to antibiotics, include anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, enzyme inhibitors, antagonist and agonists of hormones, and a variety of psychotropic substances. However, to date not many studies have focused on the possible health benefits of odorant volatile organic compounds (i.e., gas phase compounds). An analysis of these compounds for their health related effects will expand the range of compounds available for the treatment of chronic and acute diseases. This review highlights phenolic acids and monoterpenes from Asian medicinal mushrooms (AMMs), which not only produce pleasant odors but also have antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Odorant bioactive volatile phase compounds from medicinal mushrooms remain an essentially untapped source for future medicines, and AMMs remain a promising resource for future pharmacological research. PMID:25892909

  18. Vitamin D status and vascular dementia due to cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly Asian Indian population.

    Prabhakar, Puttachandra; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Supriya, Manjunath; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Prasad, Chandrajit; Christopher, Rita


    Vitamin D plays vital roles in human health and recent studies have shown its beneficial effect on brain functioning. The present study was designed to evaluate the association of vitamin D with vascular dementia (VaD) due to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in Asian Indian population. 140 VaD patients aged ≥ 60 years with neuroimaging evidence of SVD, and 132 age and gender-matched controls, were investigated. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Logistic regression model revealed that deficient levels of vitamin D (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (12-20 ng/ml), the odds were increased to 31.6-fold and 14.4-fold, respectively. However, in hypertensives with vitamin D sufficiency (>20 ng/ml), the odds of VaD were increased by 3.8-fold only. Pearson correlation showed that serum vitamin D was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.401 and -0.411, pvitamin D-deficient subjects. Since the combined presence of hypertension and vitamin D deficiency increases the probability of developing VaD, screening for vitamin D status in addition to regular monitoring of blood pressure, could reduce the risk of VaD associated with cerebral SVD in the elderly Asian Indian subjects. PMID:26671097

  19. Analysis of Thermal Environment over a Small-Scale Landscape in a Densely Built-Up Asian Megacity

    Younha Kim


    Full Text Available Many studies have found that larger parks might be needed to counteract the Urban Heat Island effects typical in densely populated Asian megacities. However, it is not easy to establish large parks to serve as urban cool islands in Asian megacities, where little space exists for large urban neighborhood parks. Officials in these cities would rather use small areas by replacing heat-absorbing artificial land cover with natural cover. The main objective of this study was to understand the cooling effect of changes in land cover on surface and air temperatures in urban micro-scale environments for supporting sustainable green-space planning and policy in densely built-up areas. This was achieved using measurements at different heights (ground surface, 0.1 m, and 1.5 m for five land cover types (LCTs and modeling with the micro-scale climate model ENVI-met. At all vertical measuring points, the average temperature over the entire measurement period had the same hot-to-cold order: asphalt > soil > grass > water > forest. However, the value dramatically decreased as the measuring points became higher. The intensity of hot and cool spots showed the highest value at surface by 18.2 °C, and declined with the height, showing 4.1 °C at 0.1 m and 3.1 °C at 1.5 m. The modeling results indicated that the well-known diurnal variation in surface insolation also occurred in our small domain, among the various LCTs. Based on these findings, providing small-scale green infrastructure in densely built-up areas could be an effective way to improve urban micro-scale thermal conditions.

  20. Molecular detection of Cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids.

    André, Marcos R; Adania, Cristina H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Allegretti, Silmara M; Felippe, Paulo A N; Silva, Ketty F; Nakaghi, Andréa C H; Dagnone, Ana S


    Cytauxzoon spp. DNA was detected for the first time in blood samples from asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids. In 2006, 72 EDTA blood samples from seven wild felids species: Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), Leopardus wiedii (margay), Leopardus tigrinus (little spotted cat), Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat) and Panthera onca (jaguar) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18S rRNA gene segment in order to verify the presence of Cytauxzoon spp. DNA. Nine samples were positive: six ocelots, two pumas, and one jaguar. In Brazil, wild felids may be natural reservoirs for Cytauxzoon spp. PMID:19204356

  1. Assessing the distribution and habitat use of four felid species in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Jennifer L. McCarthy


    Full Text Available There have been few targeted studies of small felids in Sumatra and there is little information on their ecology. As a result there are no specific management plans for the species on Sumatra. We examined data from a long-term camera trapping effort, and used Maximum Entropy Modeling to assess the habitat use and distribution of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi, Asiatic golden cats (Pardofelis temminckii, leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis, and marbled cats (Pardofelis marmorata in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. Over a period of 34,166 trap nights there were low photo rates (photo events/100 trap nights for all species; 0.30 for golden cats, 0.15 for clouded leopards, 0.10 for marbled cats, and 0.08 for leopard cats. There is overlap in the predicted distributions of clouded leopards, golden cats, and marbled cats; indicating areas of high conservation importance for these species within the park. The predicted distribution of leopard cats was discrete from the other species which is important to consider in the development of conservation strategies. This study provides important documentation of small felid distribution in Sumatra, information for the development of management strategies within the park, and a basis upon which to develop future research for the species.

  2. Short-term culture of ovarian cortex pieces to assess the cryopreservation outcome in wild felids for genome conservation

    Wiedemann, Caterina; Zahmel, Jennifer; Jewgenow, Katarina


    Background Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has the potential to preserve female germ cells of endangered mammals. In the present study, a freezing protocol successfully used for human tissue, was adapted for preserving ovarian tissue of domestic and non-domestic felids. Ovaries from non-domestic felid species were obtained from seven freshly euthanized and two recently deceased wild felids kept in different European Zoos. In addition, ovaries from domestic cats were obtained after ovariect...

  3. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinereus)

    Lemasson, A.; Mikus, M.-A.; Blois-Heulin, C.; Lodé, T.


    Ability to discriminate familiar conspecifics is an essential competence in any group-living species, ensuring socio-spatial cohesion, but in many animals, such as mustelids, the relative importance of the different communicative modalities for discrimination is poorly understood. In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the potential for acoustic identity coding as well as for identity decoding in visual, acoustic and olfactive domains remains unexplored. We investigated the acoustic structure of contact calls in five captive groups of small-clawed otters and found that it is possible to reliably assign one particular call to a given adult male caller. Females discriminated between familiar and unfamiliar adult males based on their sound (playback) and smell (feces) but not based on their picture, suggesting abilities to memorize and use acoustic and olfactive signatures in their daily social life.

  4. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea


    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores. PMID:26967127

  5. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Alexsandra Schneider


    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  6. Neutralizing antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 in captive wild felids of Brazil.

    Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho; Kindlein Vicentini, Franco; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Rosado Spilki, Fernando; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Roehe, Paulo Michel


    Feline herpesvirus type 1 infection affects domestic cats, causing mainly upper respiratory tract diseases. Although this infection has been described in captive and free-ranging wild felids from Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa, no information is available on its occurrence among wild felids of Brazil. In this study, 250 serum samples of six species of Brazilian captive wild felids (Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis, and Panthera onca) were examined for neutralizing antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1. Positive sera were found in 72% of L. tigrinus samples, 15% of L. wiedii, 6% of L. pardalis, 8% of H. yaguarondi, 18% of P. concolor, and 14% of P. onca. The relatively low percentages of seropositivity and low antibody titers found among the last five species suggest that feline herpesvirus type 1 does not circulate extensively among these animals. Nevertheless, quarantine, serologic screening, and vaccination of newly introduced felids is recommended in zoos in order to prevent virus transmission and outbreaks of the disease among wild felids kept in captivity. PMID:17312763

  7. [Distribution patterns of wild felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in the dry tropics of Central-Western Mexico].

    Charre-Medellín, Juan Felipe; Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio Cesar; Guido-Lemus, Daniel; Mendoza, Eduardo


    The Michoacán state is characterized by the existence of important environmental heterogeneity in terms of climate, topography and types of vegetation, which includes the worldwide endangered tropical dry forest. Some reports indicating the presence of the six species of felids occurring in Mexico in this region have been made; however, evidence to support these reports is scant, and filling this lack of information is particularly critical in the case of threatened species or habitats. The aim of this study was to systematize and analyze data distribution patterns of felids in the state of Michoacán, in the Central-Western Mexico. We conducted a review of literature and databases to compile species presence records in the study region. Moreover, we analyzed data obtained from ten years of field work conducted in the region, in which complementary methods (detection of direct and indirect evidence of species occurrence along transects, camera-trapping and interviews to local people) were applied to detect the presence of felid species. We compiled a total of 29 presence records of felids in the region from our review. Additionally, field work, which accumulated 1,107.5 km of walked transects, and 8 699 camera-trap days, produced 672 records of species presence. Lynx rufus was the species with the lowest number of records and the most restricted distribution. In contrast, the species with the greatest number of records was Leoparduspardalis (n = 343). In general, 89% of felids records occurred below 1,000 masl. Overall mean annual temperature of presence records was 24 °C and mean annual precipitation was 1,040 mm. The species whose presence records showed the most distinctive pattern, in terms of temperature and precipitation associated, was L. rufus (15.8 ± 1.3°C and 941 ± 171 mm). Results of a cluster analysis showed that areas supporting different combinations of eco-regions and types of vegetation could be grouped in five clusters having different

  8. Cross-cultural differences in the refusal to accept a small gift: the differential influence of reciprocity norms on Asians and North Americans.

    Shen, Hao; Wan, Fang; Wyer, Robert S


    Asians are more likely than North Americans to refuse a small gift that is offered to them by a casual acquaintance. Five experiments confirmed this difference and explored the reasons for its occurrence. Asians, who are inclined to think of themselves in relation to others, are more likely than North Americans to invoke a reciprocity norm in exchanging gifts with casual acquaintances, and they refuse a gift in order to avoid the feeling of indebtedness they would experience if they cannot reciprocate. North Americans, however, who are inclined to think of themselves independently of others, are more likely to base their acceptance of the gift on its attractiveness without considering their obligation to reciprocate. These cultural differences are not evident when the gift is offered by a close friend with whom individuals have a communal relationship. Implications of our findings for miscommunication between members of different cultures are discussed. PMID:21058870

  9. The effects of urbanization on population density, occupancy, and detection probability of wild felids.

    Lewis, Jesse S; Logan, Kenneth A; Alldredge, Mat W; Bailey, Larissa L; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R


    Urbanization is a primary driver of landscape conversion, with far-reaching effects on landscape pattern and process, particularly related to the population characteristics of animals. Urbanization can alter animal movement and habitat quality, both of which can influence population abundance and persistence. We evaluated three important population characteristics (population density, site occupancy, and species detection probability) of a medium-sized and a large carnivore across varying levels of urbanization. Specifically, we studied bobcat and puma populations across wildland, exurban development, and wildland-urban interface (WUI) sampling grids to test hypotheses evaluating how urbanization affects wild felid populations and their prey. Exurban development appeared to have a greater impact on felid populations than did habitat adjacent to a major urban area (i.e., WUI); estimates of population density for both bobcats and pumas were lower in areas of exurban development compared to wildland areas, whereas population density was similar between WUI and wildland habitat. Bobcats and pumas were less likely to be detected in habitat as the amount of human disturbance associated with residential development increased at a site, which was potentially related to reduced habitat quality resulting from urbanization. However, occupancy of both felids was similar between grids in both study areas, indicating that this population metric was less sensitive than density. At the scale of the sampling grid, detection probability for bobcats in urbanized habitat was greater than in wildland areas, potentially due to restrictive movement corridors and funneling of animal movements in landscapes influenced by urbanization. Occupancy of important felid prey (cottontail rabbits and mule deer) was similar across levels of urbanization, although elk occupancy was lower in urbanized areas. Our study indicates that the conservation of medium- and large-sized felids associated with

  10. Unlocking the Potential of Zambian Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises "Learning from the international best practices - the Southeast Asian Experience"

    Chisala, Chibwe


    This paper examines the SMEs performance in Zambia and attempts to identify some practical lessons that Zambia can learn from Southeast Asian countries (with reference to Malaysia) in order to facilitate industrial development through unlocking the potential of its SMEs sector. Malaysia and Zambia were at the same level of economic development as evidenced by similar per capita incomes but Zambia has remained behind economically and its manufacturing sector has stagnated as if both countries ...

  11. Conservation of spermatogonial stem cell marker expression in undifferentiated felid spermatogonia.

    Vansandt, Lindsey M; Livesay, Janelle L; Dickson, Melissa Joy; Li, Lei; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Keefer, Carol L


    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are distinct in their ability to self-renew, transmit genetic information, and persist throughout the life of an individual. These characteristics make SSCs a useful tool for addressing diverse challenges such as efficient transgenic production in nonrodent, biomedical animal models, or preservation of the male genome for species in which survival of frozen-thawed sperm is low. A requisite first step to access this technology in felids is the establishment of molecular markers. This study was designed to evaluate, in the domestic cat (Felis catus), the expression both in situ and following enrichment in vitro of six genes (GFRA1, GPR125, ZBTB16, POU5F1, THY1, and UCHL1) that had been previously identified as SSC markers in other species. Antibodies for surface markers glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1, G protein-coupled receptor 125, and thymus cell antigen 1 could not be validated, whereas Western blot analysis of prepubertal, peripubertal, and adult cat testis confirmed protein expression for the intracellular markers ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1, zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16, and POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1. Colocalization of the markers by immunohistochemistry revealed that several cells within the subpopulation adjacent to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules and identified morphologically as spermatogonia, expressed all three intracellular markers. Studies performed on cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) testis exhibited a conserved expression pattern in protein molecular weights, relative abundance, and localization of positive cells within the testis. The expression of the three intracellular SSC marker proteins in domestic and wild cat testes confirms conservation of these markers in felids. Enrichment of marker transcripts after differential plating was also observed. These markers will

  12. First evidence of canine distemper in Brazilian free-ranging felids.

    Nava, Alessandra Ferreira Dales; Cullen, Laury; Sana, Dênis Aléssio; Nardi, Marcello Schiavo; Filho, José Domingues Ramos; Lima, Thiago Ferraz; Abreu, Kauê Cachuba; Ferreira, Fernando


    Serum samples from 19 jaguars (Panthera onca), nine pumas (Puma concolor), and two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were collected between January 1999 and March of 2005 and tested for presence of canine distemper virus (CDV). All cats were free-ranging animals living in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In addition, 111 domestic dogs from nearby areas were sampled for CDV. Our results show the first evidence of CDV exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids. From the 30 samples analyzed, six jaguars and one puma were tested seropositive for CDV. All seropositive large felids were from Ivinhema State Park, resulting in 31.5% of the sampled jaguars or 60% of the total jaguar population in Ivinhema State Park, and 11.28% of the sampled pumas. From the total 111 domestic dogs sampled, 45 were tested seropositive for CDV. At Morro do Diabo State Park, 34.6% of the dogs sampled were positive for CDV, and 100% at Ivinhema State Park. Canine distemper virus in wild felids seems to be related with home range use and in close association with domestic dogs living in nearby areas. PMID:19259737

  13. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I


    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals. PMID:24450052

  14. Conservation Aspects of the Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed and Smooth Otters on the Malay Peninsula

    Foster-Turley P.


    Between April 1989 and June 1990 I made four six-week study visits to Tanjong Piandang, Perak, Malaysia where I studied otters in collaboration with Mr Burhannudin ("Bond") Mohd of the Department of National parks and Wildlife of Peninsular Malaysia. We mostly studied field signs and collected scats of both smooth (Lutra perspicillata) and small clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) inhabiting the rice fields and fringing mangroves of the study site. With experience, smooth and small-clawed otters si...

  15. Risk factors associated with sero-positivity to Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda Vianna; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Ferreira Neto, José Soares


    From September 1995 to February 2001, blood samples were collected from 865 neotropical felids belonging to 8 different species. These animals were housed in 86 institutions located in 78 cities of 20 Brazilian states. Our goal was to identify the risk factors associated with sero-positivity to Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil. All serum samples were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT), using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. For each animal an individual questionnaire was filled with questions about tattoo number, felid species, age, sex, origin, number of animals in the group, introduction of new animals in the group, time in the institution, eating meat previously frozen for a period Leopardus pardalis); 50% (95% CI: 45%, 56%) for oncilla (L. tigrinus); 54% (95% CI: 46%, 62%) for margay (L. wiedii); 12% (95% CI: 4%, 31%) for Pampas-cat (L. colocolo); 83% (95% CI: 65%, 93%) for Geoffroy's-cat (L. geoffroyi); 64% (95% CI: 50%, 68%) for jaguar (Panthera onca) and 48% (95% CI: 42%, 54%) for puma (Puma concolor). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the variables in the questionnaire and sero-positivity to T. gondii. We concluded that the independent risk factors for toxoplasmosis were: age >3 years (OR=4.75 [2.75; 8.2]), eating meat previously frozen for a period <7 days (OR=2.23 [1.24; 4.01]), and consumption of animals that were run-over or euthanized (OR=1.64; [1.14; 2.37]). PMID:17140683

  16. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker


    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (Pfelids kept in captivity, particularly the wild-caught specimens, may be invariably exposed to infection due to other environmental sources. PMID:20472340

  17. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy; Fedullo José Daniel Luzes; Corrêa Sandra Helena Ramiro; Teixeira Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Coutinho Selene Dall' Acqua


    Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus) are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken fr...

  18. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue


    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  19. Neutralizing antibodies against feline parvoviruses in nondomestic felids inoculated with commercial inactivated polyvalent vaccines.

    Sassa, Yukiko; Fukui, Daisuke; Takeshi, Kouichi; Miyazawa, Takayuki


    The virus neutralization (VN) antibody titers of serum samples from 18 individuals representing 8 carnivore species vaccinated with commercial polyvalent vaccines optimized for domestic cats containing inactivated feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) were evaluated against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2). In addition, the titers among 5 individuals from 4 carnivore were evaluated against antigenic variants of feline parvoviruses; FPLV, CPV2, CPV2a, CPV2b, CPV2c, mink enteritis virus type 1 (MEV1) and MEV2. The polyvalent vaccines induced cross-reactive VN titers against antigenic variants of feline parvoviruses in nondomestic felids. However, we observed very low cross-reactive VN antibody in lions and Siberian tigers, therefore we should pay attention to CPV infections in these animals even if they were vaccinated with inactivated FPLV vaccines. PMID:17146178

  20. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G


    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745

  1. Tracheal organ cultures as a useful tool to study Felid herpesvirus 1 infection in respiratory epithelium.

    Leeming, Gail; Meli, Marina L; Cripps, Peter; Vaughan-Thomas, Anne; Lutz, Hans; Gaskell, Rosalind; Kipar, Anja


    Felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) is an important feline pathogen of the upper respiratory tract which can be identified in clinical cases by virus isolation and PCR. Studies on the effect and mode of spread of FeHV-1 in the respiratory epithelium, however, have previously only been performed in infected cats. Feline tracheal organ cultures which were inoculated with FeHV-1 at varying multiplicity of infection (MOI) were established. A dose-dependent response was observed. Low MOIs induced multifocal infection in the otherwise viable respiratory epithelium, which allowed monitoring of viral growth over several days. Therefore, tracheal organ cultures represent a suitable model for further study of the morphological and functional effects of FeHV-1 on respiratory epithelium, mimicking the in vivo situation. PMID:16926054

  2. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy


    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco(TM. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.

  3. Measurement of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) in captive nondomestic felids.

    Rodini, Débora Cattaruzzi; Felippe, Erika Cristiane Gutierrez; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga


    The aim of this research was to obtain basic values for the evaluation of thyroid function in nondomestic felids. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 145 cats, representing nine species of captive nondomestic felids: jaguar (Panthera onca), n = 49; puma (Puma concolor), n = 10; ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), n = 22; oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), n = 12; geoffroy (Oncifelis geoffroyi), n = 4; jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), n = 8; margay (Leopardus wiedii), n = 7; lion (Panthera leo), n = 26; and tiger (Panthera tigris), n = 7. For each species, mean +/- SEM of T3 and T4, respectively, were as follows: jaguar, 0.56 +/- 0.03 and 9.7 +/- 0.8 ng/ml; puma, 0.67 +/- 0.04 and 11.2 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; ocelot, 0.48 +/- 0.03 and 13.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; oncilla, 0.43 +/- 0.03 and 10.0 +/- 1.6 ng/ml; geoffroy, 0.44 +/- 0.04 and 8.0 +/- 0.16 ng/ml; jaguarundi, 0.7 +/- 0.03 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 ng/ml; margay, 0.48 +/- 0.04 and 12.2 +/- 2.3 ng/ml; lion, 0.43 +/- 0.02 and 5.7 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; and tiger, 0.66 +/- 0.03 and 12.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml. Within species, T3 and T4 concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between males and females. PMID:17469287

  4. Serologic survey for Leptospira spp. in captive neotropical felids in Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil.

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Hoffmann, Juliano L; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Camossi, Lucilene Granuzzio; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander W


    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of worldwide distribution and is endemic in tropical countries, where rodents and other wild mammals are abundant and may act as reservoirs. Leptospirosis has become a concern in captive wild animals, due mostly to their exposure to contaminated urine or environment. Although domestic cats (Felis catus) have been reported refractory to leptospirosis, serology and disease in captive wild felids is still unclear. In this study 57 adult, clinically healthy felids, including 1 Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi), 3 jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi), 17 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 22 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), and 14 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) kept in captivity at the Sanctuary at the Itaipu Binacional hydroelectric power plant (Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary), Foz do Iguacu City, Paraná State, Brazil, were serologically surveyed for the presence of antibodies against 28 serovars of Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT). Two animals (3.5%) were seropositive: one male ocelot to the serovar Cynopteri (titer 100) and one female margay to Autumnalis (100) and Butembo (200). The captive-born, 5-yr-old ocelot had been solitary housed in an individual cage. The approximately 21-yr-old wild-caught margay was also kept individually. None of the tested animals showed signs ofleptospirosis. During a study conducted 4 yr previously in the same facility, this particular margay also tested positive for the same two serovars, among others. The present study indicates that the felids tested for Leptospira spp. by MAT were exposed to serovars, but did not demonstrate clinical signs of disease. Comparison with a previous study suggests that serovar titers may vary over time and that leptospirosis dynamics remains unclear in wild felids. PMID:22779223

  5. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa.

    Lane, Emily P; Brettschneider, Helene; Caldwell, Peter; Oosthuizen, Almero; Dalton, Desiré L; du Plessis, Liza; Steyl, Johan; Kotze, Antoinette


    An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research. PMID:27380652

  6. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge


    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil. PMID:19569487

  7. Human attacks by large felid carnivores in captivity and in the wild.

    Shepherd, Suzanne M; Mills, Angela; Shoff, William H


    Whereas those who live in the native ranges of the large feline carnivores are well aware of the risks of cat and human encounters, North Americans and Europeans are increasingly exposed to exotic animals through travel, ecotourism, leisure pursuits in rural areas, occupational exposure, zoo and animal park visits, wild habitat encroachment at the urban-wildlands interface, and contact with exotic pets. In encounters during which persons have been severely injured, lapses in animal management protocols, lack of appropriate adult supervision, and intoxication have been reported. Unlike common domestic pets that have lived in close association with humans for thousands of years, no matter where individual large felines may have been raised, they remain wild carnivores with strong prey-drive and territorial instincts. The emergency management of large felid attacks is similar to that of other major trauma: stabilization; management of significant orthopedic, neurologic, vascular, and soft tissue injuries; antibiotic coverage provided for the number of organisms that inhabit their mouths and the potential for tetanus and rabies; and early management in survivors of likely posttraumatic stress disorder. We must actively explore responsible measures globally that can be taken to ensure biologically appropriate, ethical, safe, and sustainable conservation of these large carnivores in both their natural habitats and captivity. PMID:24864068

  8. Population Assessment of Belizean Felids in a Mosaic Landscape through non-invasive Genetic‚ Parasite‚ and Stress-Hormone Analyses -abstract-

    José Bernardo Mesa-Cruz


    Full Text Available Many Neotropical felid species‚ such as jaguars‚ are threatened with extinction due to direct effects of habitat destruction and/or human persecution. However indirect effects that may contribute to these threats remain unknown. Human activities around protected areas in Belize‚ Central America‚ are increasing and so are levels of human-felid conflict. Potential consequences of this conflict are an increase in stress that negatively impacts health‚ or heightening of animal aggression resulting in more conflict. The goal of this study was to assess the potential effects of human-disturbed habitats on the five native Belizean felids by comparing fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM concentrations‚ and endoparasite species richness (ESR using non-invasive felid scat sampling in protected forest vs. non-protected areas‚ including areas highly modified by humans outside the core forest. We collected scat using a detector dog‚ and analyzed DNA to assign individual identity to the scats. We retrieved parasite propagules with a modified Wisconsin fecal flotation technique‚ and we measured FGM with the 125I corticosterone RIA (MP Biomedicals. We collected 336 scat samples. DNA amplification success was low at 30%. We detected five felid species: jaguar‚ puma‚ ocelot‚ jaguarundi and domestic cat. FGM concentrations were higher in pumas and jaguarundis. We identified a total of 24 genera of endoparasites and one unknown (i.e.‚ unidentified species. Most scat samples were positive for nematodes (60%‚ trematodes (70%‚ and protozoans (85%. ESR did not differ across felid species‚ but the domestic cat had overall the highest number of endoparasites. Numbers of parasite eggs were highly variable within and among felid species. Two trematode species‚ Spirometra sp. and Platynosomum sp‚ were found at the highest prevalence across the felid species. Geographical distribution of samples and physiological measures suggested that

  9. Asian gas

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  10. Diet of two sympatric felids (Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii in a remnant of Atlantic forest, in the montane region of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil (English

    Jardel Brandão Seibert


    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet of two sympatric felids, the oncilla and the margay, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Fecal samples were collected from 2003 to 2005. Of the 52 fecal samples examined, 34 were confirmed to be from the oncilla and 18 of them from the margay. Small mammals (Rodentia and Didelphimorphia were the most important food item, followed by insects and birds. The food habit of the oncilla and the margay in the area were classified as a specialist carnivore, feeding in a variety of prey, which mammals were the most consumed item. The coexistence between those species may involve spatial and temporal segregation and the use of complementary items in the diet. (English

  11. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis


    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol. PMID:26666134

  12. Obesity and Asian Americans

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Improved semen collection method for wild felids: urethral catheterization yields high sperm quality in African lions (Panthera leo).

    Lueders, I; Luther, I; Scheepers, G; van der Horst, G


    For wild and domestic felids, electroejaculation (EE) is the most common semen collection method. However, the equipment is expensive, there is a risk of urine contamination and animals usually show strong muscular contraction despite general anesthesia. Accordingly, we tested the feasibility of a different approach using urethral catheterization (UC) in seven African lions, previously described for domestic cats only. After general anesthesia with the α2-agonist medetomidine (which also stimulates semen release into the urethra) and ketamine, a transrectal ultrasound was performed to locate the prostate. A commercial dog urinary catheter (2.6 or 3.3 mm in diameter) was advanced approximately 30 cm into the urethra to allow semen collection into the lumen of the catheter by capillary forces. After retraction, sperm volumes between of 422.86 ± 296.07 μl yielded motility of 88.83 ± 13.27% (mean ± SD) with a mean sperm concentration of 1.94 × 10(9)/ml. Here we describe a simple, field friendly and effective method to attain highly concentrated semen samples with excellent motility in lions and potentially other wild felid species as an alternative to electroejaculation. PMID:22538007

  14. Reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the Leopardus genus.

    Moreira, N.; Monteiro-Filho, E.L.A.; Moraes, W.; Swanson, W.F.; Graham, L.H.; Pasquali, O.L.; Gomes, M.L.F.; Morais, R.N.; Wildt, D.E.; Brown, J.L.


    Reproductive endocrine patterns were characterized in female ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n = 3), tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 2), and margays (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2) housed in captivity in southern Brazil. Females were maintained as singletons and exposed to natural fluctuations in photoperiod. Cyclic changes in ovarian steroids were monitored by analyzing estrogen and progestogen metabolites in fecal samples collected five times weekly for 14 to 18 months. Based on intervals between fecal estrogen peaks, mean (+/- SEM) duration of the estrous cycle was 18.4 +/- 1.6 days for the ocelots (range, 7-31 days; n = 75 cycles), 16.7 +/- 1.3 days for the tigrinas (range, 11-27 days; n = 23 cycles), and 17.6 +/- 1.5 days for the margays (range, 11-25 days; n = 32 cycles). Fecal progestogen analyses combined with two laparoscopic observations of the ovaries confirmed that ocelots and tigrinas did not ovulate spontaneously. In contrast, non-mating-induced luteal phases of 40.1 +/- 6.3 days in duration (range, 30-60 days) were observed frequently in both margays. There was no evidence of gonadal seasonality in margays in either follicular or luteal activity. In ocelots, cyclic changes in estrogen excretion were observed during each month of the year; however, only one female cycled continuously. In the other two ocelots, periods of acyclicity of several months' duration were observed. It was not possible to conclude whether tigrinas were aseasonal because estrous cyclicity was observed in only one of two individuals. In the female that cycled, a 3-month period of acyclicity was observed in the late fall/early winter. These data demonstrate similarities among three felid species of the genus Leopardus, including evidence they are polyestrous but experience unexplained periods of ovarian inactivity. Only the margays differed by exhibiting occasional spontaneous, non-mating-induced ovulations. Historically, these species have not bred well in captivity. However, it is

  15. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others


    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  16. Osmotic properties of spermatozoa from felids producing different proportions of pleiomorphisms: influence of adding and removing cryoprotectant.

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Spindler, Rebecca; Wildt, David; Bush, Lena May; Howard, JoGayle


    The spermatozoon of felids (cats) survives cryopreservation inconsistently. Using ejaculates from three species (domestic cat [normospermic versus teratospermic], the normospermic serval and the teratospermic clouded leopard), this study (1) determined the influence of adding and removing two permeating cryoprotectants (glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide) and (2) assessed the impact of one-step versus multi-step cryoprotectant removal on sperm motility and membrane integrity. Spermatozoa were exposed in a single step to various anisotonic solutions or to 1M solutions of glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide. In both cases, sperm then were returned to near isotonic conditions in a single or multi-step with de-ionized water, Ham's F10 medium or saline. Percentage of sperm motility was measured subjectively, and plasma membrane integrity was assessed using a dual fluorescent stain and flow cytometry. Sperm motility was more sensitive to anisotonic conditions than membrane integrity. Rapid dilution into various test solutions and removal of cryoprotectant with de-ionized water reduced (P85% spermatozoa retaining intact membranes. However, return to isotonicity with de-ionized water in a single step or multiple steps always caused severe plasma membrane disruption. In contrast, sperm motility and membrane integrity in all species and populations remained unaffected (P>0.05) when spermatozoa were returned to isotonicity in multiple steps with Ham's F10 medium or 0.9% sodium chloride. Results demonstrate that: (1) felid spermatozoa are resistant to hypertonic stress; (2) sperm motility is more sensitive to changes in osmolality than membrane integrity; and (3) removal of cryoprotectant in multiple steps with an isotonic solution minimizes loss of sperm motility and membrane disruption in both normospermic and teratospermic males. PMID:12237094

  17. Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid

    We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

  18. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  19. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Libretti, Tim


    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  20. Patterns of Asian and non-Asian morbidity in hospitals.

    Donaldson, L. J.; Taylor, J. B.


    On the basis of surname, 6418 Asians were identified out of a total of 109 187 deaths and discharges of Leicestershire residents who had been treated in hospitals in the Trent Regional Health Authority over two years. After linkage to Hospital Activity Analysis computerised records, hospital morbidity in Asians and non-Asians was compared. Asian patients in certain age groups were more likely than non-Asian patients to be diagnosed as having asthma; leukaemia; diabetes mellitus; blood, thyroi...

  1. A case of mistaken identity – reappraisal of the species of canid and felid hookworms (Ancylostoma) present in Australia and India

    Traub, Rebecca J; Hobbs, R.P.; Adams, P.J.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Harris, Philip D; Thompson, R.C.A.


    This study serves to clarify the current status of canid and felid Ancylostoma species present in Australia. The morphological identification of A. ceylanicum from cats for the first time in Townsville, Australia, appears to be in error, together with the genetic markers provided for the species. Morphological and genetic data presented herein provide strong evidence that the hookworms from cats in Towsville are not A. ceylanicum as previously identified (i.e. the first report of this species...

  2. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    M. K. A. Rosli


    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  3. Asian Art on Display

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn


    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  4. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  5. The South Asian genome.

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  6. Central Asian Republic Info

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  7. The Asian Face Lift

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray


    The face-lift procedure (rhytidectomy) is increasingly popular in Asia. There is extensive literature on different techniques in Western patients. Cultural and anthropomorphologic differences between Asian and Caucasians require the adaptation of current techniques to obtain a satisfactory outcome for both the patient and the surgeon. This article therefore attempts to define important differences between Asians and Caucasians in terms of signs of facial aging, perception of beauty, and surgi...

  8. The Asian methanol market

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  9. Using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat to expand knowledge and assist felid conservation in Misiones, Argentina.

    DeMatteo, Karen E; Rinas, Miguel A; Argüelles, Carina F; Holman, Bernardo E; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Davenport, Barbara; Parker, Patricia G; Eggert, Lori S


    Many carnivores require large ranges to meet their ecological and energetic needs; however, anthropogenic changes threaten species and their habitats. Camera traps have been used to effectively collect data on carnivores in a variety of habitat types; however, a single survey effort is typically limited to species that have similar body size, habitat use and movement patterns, and individual identification of animals is not always possible. We evaluated whether scat detection dogs could effectively survey for 4 wide-ranging felids that vary in these characteristics: jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). From June to October 2009 and May to August 2011, a detection dog-handler team detected 588 scats, from which 176 unique genotypes were detected. We assigned sex to 84.7% of the genotyped scats and identified 55 individuals multiple times. The effectiveness of these noninvasive techniques (detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat) not only opens the door for additional studies in areas that were previously difficult or impossible with standard survey techniques, but also provides conservationists with a set of tools that overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of camera traps alone. PMID:25236691

  10. In vitro characterization of felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) mutants generated by recombineering in a recombinant BAC vector.

    Tai, S-H Sheldon; Holz, Carine; Engstrom, Michael D; Cheng, Hans H; Maes, Roger K


    Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) mutants were constructed using two-step Red-mediated recombination techniques based on a virulent full-length FHV-1 BAC clone. The individual mutant viruses generated were deficient in glycoprotein C (gC), glycoprotein E (gE), US3 serine/threonine protein kinase (PK), or both gE and thymidine kinase (TK). The gC- mutant virus produced plaques that were similar in size to those resulting from infection with the C-27 parent strain. In contrast, the gE(-), PK(-), and gE(-)PK(-) deletion mutants produced plaques that were significantly smaller. Multistep in vitro growth kinetics of the gE(-), PK(-), and gE(-)PK(-) viruses were slightly delayed compared to those of the C-27 parent strain. Peak progeny titers of these three mutants were approximately 10-fold lower than those generated with the C-27 strain. There was no delay in the growth kinetics of the gC- mutant, but the progeny virus titer obtained with this mutant was at least 3 logs lower compared to the parental strain titer. Based upon their in vitro characteristics, these mutants will be useful for the development of novel immunization strategies against this important feline pathogen. PMID:27157860

  11. Coastal development and precipitation drive pathogen flow from land to sea: evidence from a Toxoplasma gondii and felid host system.

    VanWormer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Tim E; Singh, Purnendu; Shapiro, Karen; Wallender, Wesley W; Conrad, Patricia A; Largier, John L; Maneta, Marco P; Mazet, Jonna A K


    Rapidly developing coastal regions face consequences of land use and climate change including flooding and increased sediment, nutrient, and chemical runoff, but these forces may also enhance pathogen runoff, which threatens human, animal, and ecosystem health. Using the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii in California, USA as a model for coastal pathogen pollution, we examine the spatial distribution of parasite runoff and the impacts of precipitation and development on projected pathogen delivery to the ocean. Oocysts, the extremely hardy free-living environmental stage of T. gondii shed in faeces of domestic and wild felids, are carried to the ocean by freshwater runoff. Linking spatial pathogen loading and transport models, we show that watersheds with the highest levels of oocyst runoff align closely with regions of increased sentinel marine mammal T. gondii infection. These watersheds are characterized by higher levels of coastal development and larger domestic cat populations. Increases in coastal development and precipitation independently raised oocyst delivery to the ocean (average increases of 44% and 79%, respectively), but dramatically increased parasite runoff when combined (175% average increase). Anthropogenic changes in landscapes and climate can accelerate runoff of diverse pathogens from terrestrial to aquatic environments, influencing transmission to people, domestic animals, and wildlife. PMID:27456911

  12. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  13. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS


    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between As...

  14. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    Singla, Rashmi


    exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  15. When felids and hominins ruled at Olduvai Gorge: A machine learning analysis of the skeletal profiles of the non-anthropogenic Bed I sites

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel


    In the past twenty years, skeletal part profiles, which are prone to equifinality, have not occupied a prominent role in the interpretation of early Pleistocene sites on Africa. Alternatively, taphonomic studies on bone surface modifications and bone breakage patterns, have provided heuristic interpretations of some of the best preserved archaeological record of this period; namely, the Olduvai Bed I sites. The most recent and comprehensive taphonomic study of these sites (Domínguez-Rodrigo et al., 2007a) showed that FLK Zinj was an anthropogenic assemblage in which hominins acquired carcasses via primary access. That study also showed that the other sites were palimpsests with minimal or no intervention by hominins. The FLK N, FLK NN and DK sequence seemed to be dominated by single-agent (mostly, felid) or multiple-agent (mostly, felid-hyenid) processes. The present study re-analyzes the Bed I sites focusing on skeletal part profiles. Machine learning methods, which incorporate complex algorithms, are powerful predictive and classification methods and have the potential to better extract information from skeletal part representation than past approaches. Here, multiple algorithms (via decision trees, neural networks, random forests and support vector machines) are combined to produce a solid interpretation of bone accumulation agency at the Olduvai Bed I sites. This new approach virtually coincides with previous taphonomic interpretations on a site by site basis and shows that felids were dominant accumulating agents over hyenas during Bed I times. The recent discovery of possibly a modern lion-accumulated assemblage at Olduvai Gorge (Arriaza et al., submitted) provides a very timely analog for this interpretation.

  16. Asian oil demand

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  17. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  18. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Kitano, Margie K.


    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  19. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned


    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  20. Asian fungal fermented food

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.


    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  1. Asian-American Youth.

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants provided cheap…

  2. Profile: Asian Americans

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  3. A new landing impact attenuation seat in manned spacecraft biologically-inspired by felids

    Yu Hui; Zhang Zhiqiang; Liu Hua; Yang Jialing; Wang Lili; Yang Liming


    When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down vol...

  4. Job matching for Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants in Canada

    Eric Fong; Peter Shi Jiao


    Using recently collected data from Toronto, a major city in Canada, we explored job mismatch among Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants. Our study shows that a relatively small percentage of Chinese immigrants, and an even lower percentage of Asian Indian immigrants, work in the same industry and occupation as they did before immigrating. The multivariate analysis suggests that higher education before immigration does help immigrants secure first jobs that match their jobs before immigration. ...

  5. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel


    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. PMID:23199638

  6. A new landing impact attenuation seat in manned spacecraft biologically-inspired by felids

    Yu Hui


    Full Text Available When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down voluntarily from different heights. Based on the ground reaction forces combined with kinematics, the experiment indicated that felids’ landing after self-initial jump was a multi-step impact attenuation process and the new seat was inspired by this. Then the construction and work process of new seat were redesigned to realize the multi-step impact attenuation. The dynamic response of traditional and new seat is analyzed under the identical conditions and the results show that the new concept seat can significantly weaken the occupant overload in two directions compared with that of traditional seat. As a consequence, the risk of injury evaluated for spinal and head is also lowered, meaning a higher level of protection which is especially beneficial to the debilitated astronaut.

  7. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    Ohm, Julie Juhye


    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  8. Asian material culture


    This exciting, richly illustrated volume gives the reader a unique insight into the materiality of Asian cultures and the ways in which objects and practices can simultaneously embody and exhibit aesthetic and functional characteristics, everyday and spiritual aspirations. Material culture is examined from a variety of perspectives and the authors rigorously investigate the creation and meaning of material object, and their associated practices within the context of time and place. All chapte...

  9. Asian Media Productions

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  10. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS


    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  11. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y


    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother. PMID:8109248

  12. South Asian Cluster

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju


    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  13. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    Singla, Rashmi


      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse of ...



    PetroChina, the largest oil producer in China, ranks first in a competitiveness report of listed Asian enterprises recently published by the Research Institute of Boao Forum for Asia. The oil giant tops the ranks in the Asian Competitiveness: Annual Repor

  15. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju


    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  16. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Chung, Jennifer Y.


    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  17. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    ... diabetes per 100 population (2014) Asian American White Asian American/White Ratio Men 5.8 6.3 0.9 Women 5.7 5.3 1.1 Total 5.8 5.7 1.0 Source: CDC 2016. National Diabetes Surveillance ... Asian American/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asian American/Pacific ...

  18. Intermedial Representations in Asian Macbeth-s

    Wang, I-Chun


    In her article "Intermedial representations in Asian Macbeth-s" I-Chun Wang discusses three Asian versions of Macbeths that exemplify the cultural meanings through the interaction of landscape, body, and spectacles of power. Shakespeare remains one of the most popular playwrights in the Eastern world, and playwrights in the Asian world find Shakespearean plays attractive to the Asian audience. Among Shakespearean plays, Macbeth fascinates its Asian audience with its theme on kingship, territo...

  19. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva; Leong, Frederick T. L.


    This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans rece...

  20. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  1. Pricing American and Asian Options

    Pat Muldowney


    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.


    Saran, Sabrina


    The intention of this paper is to provide an understanding of South Asian Arts as an organization in the Arts industry in Vancouver. Elements of the company and the industry are explored in order to further comprehend the potential target markets and why they are as such. Due to the current surge in popularity of South Asian arts within mainstream culture, there is great potential in this company. Discussion segues into marketing initiatives that are necessary to compete with key players that...

  3. Alcohol and the Asian Glow

    Young, Brian


    Facial flushing is a common hypersensitivity reaction that may be observed in many Asians following low to moderate alcohol consumption. Flushing can be accompanied by other symptoms such as tachycardia, nausea, and dizziness. Recent studies have shown that this flushing reaction is due to the presence of ALDH2*2, an inactive allele for the alcohol dehydrogenase gene found in approximately 50% of Asians. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an important enzyme in alcohol metabolism, and deficienc...

  4. Lessons from the "Asian Flu"

    Bekić, Darko


    What has been underlying the syntagms "Japanese challenge ", " Asian miracle " or " Seven Asian tigers " in the past thirty years or so ? There are a number of economic, sociological and political explanations of the phenomenon. In Asia, the systems of traditional values, modern market economy and state are successfully combined. Some forecasters predicted last year that the future growth of the Chinese economy at a constant rate of between 8 and 12 per cent a year, combined with the Japanese...

  5. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle


    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  6. An Analysis of Southeast Asian Firms' Investment in China



    Economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asian economies is increasingly attracting the attention of policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners. Firms from Southeast Asia have been playing an important role in China's utilization of foreign direct investment, though most of these firms have been viewed as small, labor-intensive, and ordinary in technology. This paper reveals one important dimension of economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asia. It investigates the factors that influence Southeast Asian firms' investments in Guangdong, which is one of the largest provinces in China in terms of utilization of foreign direct investment, and it tries to answer the question of what make Southeast Asian firms invest in China in a large scale and in the way of advancing waves.T he research outcomes contribute to the knowledge of the changing economic relations between China and Southeast Asia.

  7. Why do East Asian children perform so well in PISA? An investigation of Western-born children of East Asian descent

    John Jerrim


    A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate whether children of East Asian descent, who were born and raised in a Western country (Australia), also score highly on the PISA test. I then explore wh...

  8. An Asian perspective on GMO and biotechnology issues.

    Teng, Paul P S


    Of the 102 million hectares that made up the global area of biotech crops in 2006, less than 8% (7.6 million ha) were in Asia. Three biotech crops are currently planted in significant areas in four Asian countries with government regulatory approval; namely, cotton, corn (maize), and canola. However, the amount of GM crop material imported into the Asian region for processing into food and animal feed is very substantial, and almost every country imports GM food. The issues which concern Asian scientists, regulators, and the lay public resemble those of other regions - biosafety, food safety, ethics and social justice, competitiveness, and the "EU" trade question. Most Asian countries now have regulatory systems for approving the commercialization of GM crops, and for approving food safety of GM crops. In Asia, because of the varied cultures, issues concerning the use of genes derived from animals arouse much emotion for religious and diet choice reasons. Because many Asian producers and farmers are small-scale, there is also concern about technology dependency and to whom the benefits accrue. All consumers surveyed have expressed concern about potential allergenic and long-term toxic effects, neither of which is grounded on scientific facts. Because of Asia's growing demand for high volumes of quality food, it is likely that GM crops will become an increasing feature of our diet. PMID:18296345

  9. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection


    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  10. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco


    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  11. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter


    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems. PMID:26049678

  12. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva


    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans.

  13. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    York, Sherry


    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  14. Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Asian Populations.

    Zhou, Mengge; Zhao, Dong


    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal disorder characterized by an elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize information on FH studies in Asian countries, focusing on mean cholesterol level, FH frequency, diagnostic criteria, genotypes, and clinical care of FH patients in Asian populations. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries had lower mean cholesterol levels, with a significant variation between different countries. In the limited studies reported, a frequency of 1/900 was reported in Hokuriku district, Japan in 1977 and a frequency of 1/85 among Christian Lebanese in 1979. Recently, a population study in China reported frequencies of 0.47% and 0.28%. However, the different FH frequencies reported were based on different diagnostic criteria. Of 28 publications from 16 Asian countries or regions, 14 used self-defined FH criteria. Only one specific guideline for FH was available, which was developed by Japanese scientists. Six Asian countries joined the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths program in the late 1990s, and the estimated diagnosis rates of FH ranged from 3% to 10% in these countries. A more recent study explored the awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practitioners in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The study found that the correct rates of these FH-related questions were low and concluded that lack of country-specific criteria and guidelines may contribute to the lack of FH knowledge in the present survey. More attention and resources should be focused on raising awareness, improving care, and increasing FH research in Asian populations. PMID:27075771

  15. Asians on the Rim: Transnational Capital and Local Community in the Making of Contemporary Asian America.

    Dirlik, Arif


    Explores suggested contradictions to grasping contemporary Asian America as a socio-ideological formation. It is suggested that the emergence of Pacific Asian economies in the global economy has had a transformative effect on the Asian American self-image, causing Asian Americans to see themselves as either grounded in local communities or as…

  16. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.


    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  17. Pursuing the American Dream: The Effect of Immigrant Settlement among Asian Americans and Occupational Disparities in Management

    Hideki Morooka


    Full Text Available It is well established that Asian Americans are fairly represented in professional occupations due to their high educational attainment. However, the representation of Asian Americans in managerial occupations is still small. Despite the dramatic increase of Asian Americans as a percentage of the population in recent decades, not many studies have been conducted to investigate the association between immigrant settlement and occupational disparities in managerial occupations of Asian Americans by ethnicities as well as immigrant generations. In this paper, I examine the characteristics that influence Asian Americans who embark on managerial occupations as compared to other occupations by nativity and the length of their residence in the United States. I also compare trends of native-born Asian Americans with those of native-born non-Hispanic whites to examine whether an occupational disparity has been approaching convergence.

  18. ''Asian BBQ House'' restaurant business plan

    Dhaugoda, Sabina; Dang, Jenny


    Helsinki is becoming a more and more attractive city with diverse food cultures. Asian fusion has been now a long existing trend and is growing fast worldwide including Finland and especially Helsinki. The growing number of Asian fusion restaurants in Helsinki clearly justifies the general likeness of Asian fusion cuisines by people living here. However, the authors observed that the restaurant scene of Helsinki is still missing a proper Asian style barbecue restaurant. The idea of opening an...

  19. Asian Pacific American Women's Health Concerns.

    Pian, Canta

    This paper discusses the adjustment and acculturation problems of Asian Pacific American women and how these problems relate to their health concerns. Information presented in the article is based on the observations of health service providers to the Asian community. The paper suggests that the diversity of Asian Americans (age, ethnic group, and…

  20. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation


    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  1. South Asians in College Counseling

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.


    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  2. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil Isolamento de Microsporum gypseum do pelame de felídeos selvagens sadios mantidos em cativeiro no Brasil

    Henri Donnarumma Levy Bentubo; José Daniel Luzes Fedullo; Sandra Helena Ramiro Corrêa; Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira; Selene Dall' Acqua Coutinho


    Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus) are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken fr...

  3. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G


    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  4. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Kaushik Pandit


    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  5. Augmentation Mammaplasty in Asian Women

    Cheng, Ming-Huei; Huang, Jung-Ju


    With the rapid economic development of Southeast Asia, the demand for cosmetic surgery has increased rapidly. Breast augmentation is among the most frequently performed cosmetic procedures. However, breast augmentation still has “bad press” in Southeast Asia because of not so distant catastrophes caused by direct liquid silicone injection and “Amazing Gel” augmentations. Asian patients have special characteristics that need to be taken into consideration when performing breast augmentation. T...

  6. Lessons from the Asian Crisis

    Mishkin, Frederic S.


    This paper provides an asymmetric information analysis of the recent East Asian crisis. It then outlines several lessons from this crisis. First, there is a strong rationale for an international lender of last resort. Second, without appropriate conditionality for this lending, the moral hazard created by operation of an international lender of last resort can promote financial instability. Third, although capital flows did contribute to the crisis, they are a symptom rather than an underlyin...

  7. Path Integral and Asian Options

    Peng Zhang


    In this paper we analytically study the problem of pricing an arithmetically averaged Asian option in the path integral formalism. By a trick about the Dirac delta function, the measure of the path integral is defined by an effective action functional whose potential term is an exponential function. This path integral is evaluated by use of the Feynman-Kac theorem. After working out some auxiliary integrations involving Bessel and Whittaker functions, we arrive at the spectral expansion for t...

  8. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Ghulam Akhmat; Muhammad Mahroof Khan; Mumtaz Ali


    South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we...

  9. Asian Tigers' Choices: An Overview

    Chow, Hwee Kwan


    This paper considers the choices facing the Asian tiger economies regarding growth strategies that foster trans-Pacific rebalancing. A review of historical data spanning 2000 to 2008 reveals only a slight widening of the overall current account surplus but that there is considerable variation across the countries, with Hong Kong, China exhibiting the biggest increase in the saving and investment (S-I) balance. Meanwhile, cross-correlation coefficient estimates tentatively suggest that changes...

  10. Passives in South Asian languages:

    Chandra, Pritha; Anindita SAHOOA


    Haspelmath (2010) debates whether universal (descriptive) categories of the types that generativists (cf. Newmeyer, 2007) envisage are real and needed for cross-linguistic studies. Instead every language has its own unique set of categories. We raise doubt on this “categorial particularism” position by drawing on underlying similarities of passive constructions of three South Asian languages - Oriya (Indo-Aryan), Malayalam (Dravidian) and Kharia (Austro-Asiatic). Unlike English-type passives,...

  11. The Rise of Asian SMEs


    @@ Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Sore Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs' function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.

  12. The Rise of Asian SMEs


    Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Som Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs’function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.Edited excerpts follow

  13. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. Aims of ASNM: 1. To foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed ones. 2. To promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies. 3. To assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes. 4. To work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognized universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. The ASNM works toward a formal training courses leading to the award of a certificate in the long term. The most fundamental job of the ASNM remains the transfer of knowledge from the more developed countries to the less developed ones in the Asian region. The ASNM could award credit hours to the participants of training courses conducted in the various countries and conduct electronic courses and examinations. CME programmes may also be conducted as part of the regular ARCCNM meetings and the ASNM will award CME credit points for such activities

  14. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  15. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye


    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...

  16. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    Oh Gia; Nguyen Tammy; Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Paik Grace; Kustin Brenda


    Abstract Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocer...

  17. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita


    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  18. A putative East Asian business model

    Linda Low


    Purpose – This paper aims to distill from both the Asian “miracle” and the “meltdown” since the Asian crisis, a generic East Asian business model which is changing in the context of globalisation, information communication technology, knowledge-based economy, deregulation and emerging new competition. Design/methodology/approach – The generic business model considers the creative and innovative nature of intellectual capital in a qualitative macroeconomic development model rather than a quant...

  19. A South Asian American diasporic aesthetic community?

    Murthy, Dhiraj


    Abstract In the late 1990s, a diverse group of British South Asian musicians began to gain notoriety in the UK for their distinctive blends of synthesized beats with what were considered South Asian elements (e.g. tabla, sitar and `Hindustani' samples). Following these successes, the British media industries engaged in discourses on whether these South Asian musicians should be labelled under pre-existing musical genres such as acid jazz and electronic music or under an ethnically ...

  20. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine


    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  1. Summary Report: Asian Pacific Islander Workers Hearing

    Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance; AFL-CIO; UCLA Labor Center


    The first ever California State Assembly Hearing on Asian Pacific Islander Workers was convened by the Labor Employment Committee and the Asian Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus, at the request of Assembly member Judy Chu. The Hearing brought together Asian Pacific Islander workers and advocates from all over California. Their stories are a snapshot of millions of workers. The testimonies gave a glimpse of the detrimental impact that worker exploitation has on families and communities. Most...

  2. Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015

    Wong, Vivian


    The dissertation, Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015, examines the kinds of archives produced by Asian American women in single-gender social organizations or Asian Greek-letter sororities, reconceiving them as transformative acts of affects: embodied memory-keeping practices that transmit knowledge, traditions, cultural practices, and social customs as collective identities and communal histories across time and space, among dif...

  3. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Dean Chan


    A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural ...

  4. Counseling Asians: psychotherapy in the context of racism and Asian-American history.

    Toupin, E S


    The historical experience of Asian immigrants to the United States is outlined, and implications for counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans are considered. It is suggested that, in charting therapeutic goals for Asians, three major factors must be taken into account: 1) when and why Asians migrated to the United States, and where they settled; 2) the number of years, and the impact, of public education; and 3) conflicting cultural norms that complicate the acculturation process. PMID:7356003

  5. Job matching for Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants in Canada

    Eric Fong


    Full Text Available Using recently collected data from Toronto, a major city in Canada, we explored job mismatch among Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants. Our study shows that a relatively small percentage of Chinese immigrants, and an even lower percentage of Asian Indian immigrants, work in the same industry and occupation as they did before immigrating. The multivariate analysis suggests that higher education before immigration does help immigrants secure first jobs that match their jobs before immigration. Though other studies have noted that foreign education has a discount effect on earnings and on securing jobs, our findings show that foreign higher education improves the matching of jobs held before and after immigration. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Boxiang Zhang


    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  7. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin


    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  8. Comparative anatomy of the frontal sinuses in the primitive sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia (Felidae, Machairodontinae and similarly sized extant felines

    Morales, J.


    Full Text Available In the present work, the frontal sinuses of the sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia are analysed, in comparison to those of the extant felines Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor and Panthera pardus, of similar body weight. The study was carried out using 3D virtual models obtained from CT Scan images, a non-destructive technique that has revealed as a powerful tool for accessing to all kind of intracranial information. Our study shows that the frontal sinuses of P. ogygia were more similar to those of P. concolor, both in the presence of several struts reinforcing the dorsal part, and in the development of a remarkable caudal expansion. This caudal expansion would act as a thermal insulator of the brain, and would indicate a more open environment than previously supposed for this species, whereas the struts would be related to biomechanical stresses produced during the “canine shear-bite”, the killing method of the machairodontines.En el presente trabajo, se analizan los senos frontales del félido dientes de sable Promegantereon ogygia, en comparación con los de los felinos actuales Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor y Panthera pardus, de similar peso corporal. El estudio se llevó a cabo utilizando modelos virtuales 3D obtenidos por tomografía axial computerizada, una técnica no destructiva que se ha revelado como una poderosa herramienta para acceder a todo tipo de información intracraneal. Nuestro estudio muestra que los senos frontales de P. ogygia eran más similares a los de P. concolor, tanto en la presencia de varios puntales óseos de refuerzo de la parte dorsal, y en el desarrollo de una notable expansión caudal. Esta expansión caudal actuaría como un aislante térmico del cerebro, y podría indicar un entorno más abierto de lo que se supone para esta especie, mientras que los puntales óseos se relacionarían con tensiones biomecánicas producidas durante el mordisco típico de los macairodontinos, el método de ataque

  9. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.


    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  10. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    Rossing, Thomas D.


    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  11. Changing mobilities in Asian cities

    Boquet, Yves


    Asian countries have experienced tremendous changes in their mobility patterns in recent years. As economic development has allowed a rise in the standards of living of a god part of the population, the rate of motorzation has increased very quickly. At the sametime, cities populations continue to grow at a fast pace, and the spread of the urbanized area requires more and more to be able to travel on distances too long for walking or even bicycling. Given the high density of many central citi...

  12. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG


    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:

  13. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L


    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  14. Asian Studies Unit One: Asian Man and His Environment, Pilot Program; [And] Asian Studies Unit Two: Cultural Patterns of Asian Man, Field Test.

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Two units of Asian materials for secondary students comprise this document. The first unit presents a brief history of Asian man and his environment, including geography, climate, ethnic groups, resources, food, and population. Following the historical narrative are community references and various learning experiences and activities which further…

  15. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Hongo, Garrett


    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  16. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    Mazumdar, Sucheta


    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  17. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males #doses Asian Males ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  18. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine


    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  19. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine


    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  20. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine


    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  1. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine


    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  2. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    唐海燕; 张会清


    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  3. Higher leptin levels in Asian Indians than Creoles and Europids :  a potential explanation for increased metabolic risk

    Lilja, Mikael; Rolandsson, Olov; Shaw, JE; Pauvaday, Vassen; Cameron, Adrian ,; Tuomilehto, J; Alberti, KGMM; Zimmet, Paul; Söderberg, Stefan


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leptin predicts cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, diseases to which Asian Indians are highly susceptible. As a risk marker, leptin's intra-individual and seasonal stability is unstudied and only small studies have compared leptin levels in Asian Indians with other populations. The aim of this study was to explore ethnicity related differences in leptin levels and its intra-individual and seasonal stability. METHODS: Leptin and anthropometric data from the no...

  4. Alternative long term strategies for sustainable development: Rapidly increasing electricity consumption in Asian countries and future role of nuclear energy

    Many people in the world express the concern that global warming will become an increasingly serious problem. A rapid increase in population and demand for energy in the Asian region must be discussed in this context. Despite the forecast of an increase in demand for energy, the Asian region is short of oil and natural gas resources. In addition, only less energy can be supplied by renewable energy sources in the Asian region than in the other regions because of high population density. Nuclear energy is an important energy resource for fulfilling the future increasing energy demand in the Asian region and for contributing to the suppression of carbon dioxide emissions. In the Asian region alone, however, we cannot rely limitlessly on LWR which does not use plutonium. According to a scenario analysis, the total capacity of nuclear power plants in the Asian region would reach large scale and the cumulative amount of demand for natural uranium will increase to about 5 million tons in the Asian region alone. Just the nuclear power plants of this scale in Asia alone will rapidly consume the world's cheap natural uranium resources if we rely only on natural uranium. In the Asian region, few countries have embarked on nuclear power generation and the capacity of equipment is still small. Currently, however, many plans for nuclear power generation are being designed. Many Asian countries obviously consider nuclear power generation as a valid option. Many potential policies must be examined in the light of future uncertainty. In the future, both renewable energy and nuclear energy must be resorted to. When nuclear energy is utilized, the use of plutonium and FBR in the Asian region must be taken into account in order to attain continual growth and development. (author)

  5. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Anoop Misra


    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  6. Institutional Racism and Mental Health: An Asian-American Perspective.

    Chin, Jean Lau

    Positive stereotypes of contemporary Asian Americans have negative consequences for this minority group. The belief that Asian Americans are successful and have overcome prejudice and discrimination obscures the historical fact that legislation has curtailed Asian American civil rights and sanctioned harassment of Asians by public authorities and…

  7. ACE Minority Concerns Report: New Demographics Reveal the "Invisible" Asians.

    Tokuyama, M. Yukie


    The dramatic shift in immigration patterns is discussed. By the end of the 1980s Asian refugees will account for 75.2 percent and Southeast Asians will total 60 percent of immigrants. The new Asians are too often excluded from special programs and scholarships and forced to compete with native-born Asians. (MLW)

  8. Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy

    Lai, Mary H.


    Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

  9. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine


    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  10. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A


    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  11. 48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.


    ... check the category in which its ownership falls: __ Black American. __ Hispanic American. __ Native American (American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with... provision: Small Business Program Representations (MAY 2004) (a)(1) The North American...

  12. Roads for Asian Integration: Measuring ADB's Contribution to the Asian Highway Network

    Madhur, Srinivasa; Wignaraja, Ganeshan; Darjes, Peter


    Against the backdrop of growing momentum for regional cooperation and integration (RCI) in Asia, this paper examines the link between regional roads and Asian Development Bank (ADB) support between 1966 and 2008. The novel methodology used in this paper includes an Asia-wide definition of regional roads that fall on the Asian Highway (AH) network. The AH network is a system of about 140,000 kilometers (km) of standardized roads crisscrossing many Asian countries and with linkages to Europe. T...

  13. Masculine Norms, Avoidant Coping, Asian Values and Depression among Asian American Men

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liao, Liang; Liu, William Ming


    Contrary to the “model minority” myth, growing research indicates that the rates of mental health problems among Asian Americans may be higher than initially assumed. This study seeks to add to the scant knowledge regarding the mental health of Asian American men by examining the role of masculine norms, coping and cultural values in predicting depression among this population (N=149). Results reveal that Asian American men who used avoidant coping strategies and endorsed the masculine norm D...

  14. Globalisation and the Challenge of Asian Legal Transplants in Europe

    Shah, Prakash


    This article reviews the main patterns of Asian migration to Europe and the ways in which Europe today has become multicultured with Afro-Asian legal diversities. It discusses the limited role which Asian states have played in these processes of emigration and settlement. It further examines the status of the laws transplanted by Asian migrants and their descendants in Europe and the ways in which Asian diasporas in Europe are engaging in new hybrid patterns of socio-legal navigation and reco...

  15. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick


    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnic...

  16. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko


    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  17. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    ... HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and ... heart disease and they are less likely to die from heart disease. In general, Asian American adults have lower rates of being overweight or obese, lower rates of ...

  18. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery


    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  19. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    Chu, Lily


    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  20. The taming of the Asian Tigers

    Equipment manufacturers with investments in Asia are feeling the pinch from the region's ongoing financial crisis. But Asian demand for power is still huge and with China opening its doors to foreign capital, the outlook is not all bad. (author)

  1. Obstacle problem for Arithmetic Asian options

    Laura Monti; Andrea Pascucci


    We prove existence, regularity and a Feynman-Ka\\v{c} representation formula of the strong solution to the free boundary problem arising in the financial problem of the pricing of the American Asian option with arithmetic average.

  2. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    ... Asian-Americans overall are at lower risk. Genes, culture, environment, and access to care play a role ... Mental health problems and suicide Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Stomach cancer Tuberculosis (TB) ...

  3. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing


    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.

  4. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  5. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; D. J. Hill


    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  6. Changing theoretical perspectives on urbanisation in Asian developing countries.

    Lin, G C


    European models of urbanization inadequately capture the process of growth of urban cities in Asian developing countries. The following theoretical issues were presented as illustrations of the inadequacies of European paradigms: 1) the role of cities in regional development, 2) the dual nature of employment in Asian cities, 3) foreign investments, and 4) socialism. The concept of extended metropolitan regions in Asian countries was advanced by the studies of McGee and Ginsburg; metropolitan regions were recognized as unique to Asia. Socioeconomic development led to the blurring of regions into distinct urban and rural areas and to the mixing of agricultural and nonagricultural areas. The city-based model of economic concentration was replaced with a region-based urbanization. There is no universally applicable model of urban transition, although the influence of Euro-Americanism can still be felt in the theories of developing country development. What is not known is whether the new form of urban transition is a viable option or is a compromise between city-biased strategy and the development of intermediate and small towns. The effects of extended metropolitan regions are still unknown. Primary urbanization has its roots in early civilizations. Peterson developed the notions of the transitional stages of industrialization and urbanization: 1) preindustrial with high birth, death, and infant mortality rates of young, small populations; 2) early Western industrialization with reduced mortality and increased births; and 3) modern Western society with low birth and mortality rates and older, larger populations. Kingsley Davis provided the conception of rural-to-urban migration and urban growth, associated with urban economic and social opportunity and a shift from agricultural to nonagricultural employment. McGee postulated demographic, economic, and social transitions as part of the urbanization process. There is an increasing awareness that urban growth and the

  7. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    M. W. Strassburg; B. D. Hamlington; R. R. Leben; P. Manurung; J. Lumban Gaol; B. Nababan; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.


    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated...

  8. Recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices

    Kyungsub Lee


    We derive a recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices with finite observation times in semimartingale models. The method is based on the relationship between the risk-neutral expectation of the quadratic variation of the return process and European option prices. The computation of arithmetic Asian option prices is straightforward whenever European option prices are available. Applications with numerical results under the Black-Scholes framework and the exponential L\\'evy model are...

  9. Asian women medical migrants in the UK

    Raghuram, Parvati


    Introduction: The volume and geographical spread of Asian female migration as well as its impact on the sending countries has led to a rapid growth in research on such migration (Limand Oishi 1996; Yamanaka and Piper 2003). Broadly speaking, there are two strands to this literature, that which focuses on intra-Asian migration (Huang and Yeoh 2003; Wickramasekara 2002; Chin 2003) and that which follows the broad contours of brain drain migration, from countries of the Third World to the First ...

  10. The Migration of Highly Skilled Asian Workers

    Horáková, Jana


    This thesis is focused on migration of highly skilled workforce. The aim of this work to show current migration flows of highly skilled workers and particularly flows of highly skilled Asian migrants. First chapter explains migration terms and examines highly skilled migration causes through migration theories. Second chapter studies international migration flows and their long-term development. Last chapter is focused on migration flows of highly skilled Asians to OECD countries and within A...

  11. Interdependence of South Asian Equity Markets

    Ghulam Ali; Haroon Hussain; Talat Islam


    This Study aimed at exploring the relationship between South Asian Equity Markets. Four major South Asian Equity Markets (Karachi Stock Exchange, Bombay Stock Exchange, Colombo Stock Exchange and Dhaka Stock Exchange) were taken to explore this relationship. Data was taken from the year 1999 to 2009 on monthly basis. Data Analysis was conducted using co-integration Analysis for the long run relationship and VECM (Vector Error Correction Model) for the short run relationship. For the purpose o...

  12. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    Grewal, Amarjit


    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  13. Congenital hypothyroidism: increased incidence in Asian families.

    Rosenthal, M; Addison, G. M.; Price, D. A.


    Screening in the North West health region of England showed a significantly higher incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Asian families--1/918 compared with 1/3391 in non-Asians. This could only in part be explained by consanguinity. No differences were found in birth order, season of birth, gestational age, or birth weight between normal infants and those with congenital hypothyroidism. There was a significantly higher incidence of additional congenital abnormalities (9%) and a significa...

  14. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Lee, Oh Young


    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  15. Strategic Relevance of Asian Economic Integration

    Eric Teo Chu Cheow


    As the spread of SARS had shown last year, the longer-term goal of an East Asian Community (ASEAN, China, Japan and South Korea) may already be crystallizing much faster than was initially thought, thanks to increasing people-to-people contacts and the freer movement of goods, services, tourists and expatriates across the whole region. India appears poised to be joining this Asian movement too.

  16. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine


    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  17. Birth weights of infants of first generation Asian women in Britain compared with second generation Asian women.

    Dhawan, S


    OBJECTIVES--To compare birth weights of infants of first generation Asian women (women born in the Indian subcontinent) with those of infants of second generation Asian women (born in the United Kingdom). DESIGN--Retrospective case note study. SETTING--Bolton District General Hospital. SUBJECTS--331 Asian women who gave birth between January 1989 and December 1989: 220 of these women were first generation Asians and 111 were second generation Asians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Birth weights of bab...

  18. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    Oh Gia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocery Store based cancer education program evaluation data provided an opportunity to compare data collected under identical circumstances from members of six Asian American cultural groups. Methods A convenience sample of 1,202 Asian American women evaluated the cultural alignment of a cancer education program, completing baseline and follow-up surveys that included questions about their breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. Participants took part in a brief education program that facilitated adherence to recommended screening guidelines. Results Unique recruitment methods were needed to attract participants from each ethnic group. Impressions gained from the aggregate data revealed different insights than the disaggregate data. Statistically significant variations existed among the subgroups' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors that could contribute to health disparities among the subgroups and within the aggregate Pan Asian community. Conclusion Health promotion efforts of providers, educators, and policy makers can be enhanced if cultural differences are identified and taken into account when developing strategies to reduce health disparities and promote health equity.

  19. A Classroom of Bunnies, Blimps, and Werewolves: Teaching Asian Religions Online in Second Life

    M. Alyson Prude


    Full Text Available Virtual environments promise a myriad of exciting opportunities for college and university online teaching, but how much do they actually deliver? This evaluation of the use of Second Life in an Asian religions course contributes to the small but growing body of literature addressing the incorporation of online virtual worlds into higher education. It discusses benefits and drawback of teaching in Second Life and suggests Asian-inspired Second Life locations that can be useful in the classroom. Given instructor commitment to making use of the unique possibilities Second Life offers, including synchronous communication, virtual world fieldtrips, animations, and the potential for guest lectures and international participation, Second Life can provide a lively and interesting alternative for online Asian-content courses.

  20. Chemical peels for acne and acne scars in asians: Evidence based review

    Evangeline B Handog


    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients.

  1. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel


    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  2. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  3. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Dean Chan


    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  4. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (author)

  5. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Ghulam Akhmat


    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.


    Charalambos Tsardanidis


    Full Text Available This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike other communities with a strongpresence in the country (i.e Albanians, Asians seek to differentiate themselves from their welcoming society by emphasising the ethnic nature of their business so as to specifically lend added value to their entrepreneurial practices. This creates new economic structures that have a positive impact on the Greek economy, which is invigorated by an increase in the number of workers, companies and taxpayers, at the same time as it transforms the urban landscape by revitalising (for example some of Athens’ most depressed neighbourhoods. These Asian diasporas, even though they display several common features, also have great differences which determine both their strategies for progressing in the welcoming society and their chances of achieving same. The underlying argument in the analysis is that the presence of the Asian diaspora represents a positive element for the Greek economy, in view of which the government should react by encouraging their integration and maximising their potential.

  7. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Arup BARMAN


    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  8. An Asian Regional Architecture for Energy Security

    Xia Liping


    @@ Introduction Non-traditional security issues such as energy security have been becoming more and more important in Asia and worldwide in recent years.It is increasingly difficult for a single country to guarantee its energy security in the globalized world of today.Asian countries have made some progress in bilateral and multilateral dialogues to promote cooperation and coordination in the energy field.However, they are still far from establishing a regional architecture of energy security.The Asian countries must therefore make greater efforts to realize a regional mechanism of energy cooperation.In the future, there should be a multi-level(regional, sub-regional, and trans-regional, and bilateral),multi-channel, and multi-model Asian regional architecture of energy security.

  9. Indian psychiatry, research and Asian countries.

    Trivedi, J K; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Saha, Rahul


    Asia has some of the largest conglomerations of human populations and also the fastest growing economies of the world. About 23% of the world's population lives in the South Asian region, and one-fifth of psychiatrically ill patients in the world live in this part of the world. Despite vast cultural, religious, geographical, and political diversities, the factors influencing mental health remain the same throughout this wide region, as highlighted at the recently concluded Asian summit, where the slogan, 'One vision, one identity, one community,' was launched. Thus, the need to strengthen regional cooperation in the field of mental health has always been felt. This article highlights facts about influence of Indian Psychiatry research as well as of some Asian countries in the world psychiatry and vice versa. PMID:21836718

  10. Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience.

    Sue, Derald Wing; Bucceri, Jennifer; Lin, Annie I; Nadal, Kevin L; Torino, Gina C


    Racial microaggressions were examined through a focus group analysis of 10 self-identified Asian American participants using a semistructured interview and brief demographic questionnaire. Results identified 8 major microaggressive themes directed toward this group: (a) alien in own land, (b) ascription of intelligence, (c) exoticization of Asian women, (d) invalidation of interethnic differences, (e) denial of racial reality, (f) pathologizing cultural values/communication styles, (g) second class citizenship, and (h) invisibility. A ninth category, "undeveloped incidents/responses" was used to categorize microaggressions that were mentioned by only a few members. There were strong indications that the types of subtle racism directed at Asian Americans may be qualitatively and quantitatively different from other marginalized groups. Implications are discussed. PMID:17227179

  11. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine GENERAL


    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropica)Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and aims to set up an academic communicating plaflorm for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine

  12. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E


    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans. PMID:11294169

  13. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    ... NCHS Home Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... U.S. Live births for Asian or Pacific Islander population Number of births: 282,723 Births per 1, ...

  14. South Asian diets and insulin resistance.

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Isharwal, Sumit; Bhardwaj, Swati


    A role of dietary nutrients in relation to insulin resistance has been suggested but conclusive evidence in human beings is lacking. Asian Indians and South Asians are prone to develop insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In the present paper, data pertaining to nutrient intake, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians and South Asians have been reviewed. In these populations, several dietary imbalances have been reported: low intake of MUFA, n-3 PUFA and fibre, and high intake of fats, saturated fats, carbohydrates and trans-fatty acids (mostly related to the widespread use of Vanaspati, a hydrogenated oil). Some data suggest that these nutrient imbalances are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and subclinical inflammation in South Asians. Specifically, in children and young individuals, a high intake of n-6 PUFA is correlated with fasting hyperinsulinaemia, and in adults, high-carbohydrate meal consumption was reported to cause hyperinsulinaemia, postprandial hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA leads to an improved lipid profile but not insulin sensitivity. Inadequate maternal nutrition in pregnancy, low birth weight and childhood 'catch-up' obesity may be important for the development of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Even in rural populations, who usually consume traditional frugal diets, there is an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome due to changes in diets and lifestyle. Nationwide community intervention programmes aimed at creating awareness about the consequences of unhealthy food choices and replacing them by healthy food choices are urgently needed in urban and rural populations in India, other countries in South Asia and in migrant South Asians. PMID:18842159

  15. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Ghulam Akhmat


    Full Text Available South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we will give an overview of urbanisation problems in South Asia. We will also suggest some key interventions for sustainable development in the region. Urbanisation problems in South Asia are manifested in the form of lopsided urbanisation and faulty urban planning with poor economic base. Urban poverty has been increasing in the region, resulting in the growth of a massive number of slums. As a manifestation of social injustice and the social divide, slums exclude the poor from accessing the basic amenities. South Asia has the highest regional urbanisation of poverty at any given overall urbanisation. Concerted government efforts with long-term commitment at the highest political levels are required to reduce urban poverty and deprivation. The way cities are growing in the region is not at all sustainable, with a clear imbalance between economic, environmental, socio-political and technological aspects. Sustainable communities can be established by focusing on social and human development programmes to develop intangible assets in the community such as inclusion, tolerance, public participation, and democratic governance, which do not depreciate through use but rather become more valuable the more they are used. Place matters in different ways, which have yet to be fully appreciated and incorporated into how planners teach place. But it needs to directly adopt the Bottom-up Approach to provide solutions for the problems going on in the cities of the region

  16. Passives in South Asian Languages

    Pritha CHANDRA


    Full Text Available Haspelmath (2010 debates whether universal (descriptive categories of the types that generativists (cf. Newmeyer, 2007 envisage are real and needed for cross-linguistic studies. Instead every language has its own unique set of categories. We raise doubt on this “categorial particularism” position by drawing on underlying similarities of passive constructions of three South Asian languages - Oriya (Indo-Aryan, Malayalam (Dravidian and Kharia (Austro-Asiatic. Unlike English-type passives, they retain subject properties for their logical subjects and object properties for their logical objects, suggesting commonalities that a “categorial particularism” approach would not allow us to posit. Our further contention is that like English passives, they too satisfy Shibatani’s (1985 minimal condition for passives – the underscoring or the optionality of agents. Passive voice must therefore be a universal found in all languages primarily resulting in the optionality of agents. We also show how adopting this approach helps us re-analyse Meitei and Ao (Tibeto-Burman as languages involving passives. ----- Haspelmath (2010 se v svoji razpravi sprašuje, ali so univerzalne kategorije, ki jih obravnavajo generativisti (prim. Newmeyer, 2007, resnične in potrebne za medjezikovne raziskave. Namesto tega naj bi imel vsak jezik svoje lastne kategorije. Članek se ne strinja s konceptom “specifičnih kategorij”, kar prikaže na primeru podobnih pasivnih konstukcij v treh jezikih Južne Azije: v indoarijskem jeziku orija, dravidskem jeziku malajalam in avstroazijskem jeziku karija. Z razliko od pasivov, ki so značilni za angleščino, pasivi v teh jezikih ohranjajo značilnosti osebka za logične osebke in značilnosti predmeta za logične predmete. V okviru koncepta “specifičnih kategorij” to ne bi smelo biti mogoče. Sledi utemeljitev, da enako kot v angleščini tudi tu omenjene oblike pasiva ustrezajo mininalnim pogojem za pasiv, kot jih

  17. The global feed market: Asian perspectives

    Zhou, Zhang-Yue


    Global demand for feed, especially cereal feed, is expected to increase in the decades to come. At the global level, demand for cereal feed will be met by the supply. There are, however, disparities between regions. As a result of strong livestock industry development, the Asian region as a whole will have a shortage of cereal feed and will become a major cereal feed importer. This paper examines existing projections of feed demand and supply in the Asian region. It also sheds light on the im...

  18. Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation

    Nuclear reaction data are essential for research and development in nuclear engineering, radiation therapy, nuclear physics and astrophysics. Experimental data must be compiled in a database and be accessible to nuclear data users. One of the nuclear reaction databases is the EXFOR database maintained by the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Recently, collaboration among the Asian NRDC members is being further developed under the support of the Asia-Africa Science Platform Program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We report the activity for three years to develop the Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation. (author)

  19. China and Central Asian Energy Geopolitics

    Zafar Javed


    Full Text Available China is immediate neighbour of Central Asian States and has very long history of engagement with the region. A brief history of Chinese engagementis discussed in given paper. China is world largest economy and dependent of imported oil and gas form different part of world and this oiland gas supply is expensive and vulnerable because of various reasons, therefore China is focusing on Central Asia as this region has vast amountof hydrocarbons. Chinese policies and strategies to grab Central Asian oil and gas are also examined in given paper.

  20. Characterization and experimental infection of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer

    Ransangan, J.


    Full Text Available Aims: Vibrio harveyi causes vibriosis to Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. The disease spreads rapidly among fish stocked in the same cage. It causes high mortality especially in weak and small sized fish stocked at high density in poorly managed net cage. Study to determine the virulence levels of the bacterial pathogen in various aquaculture animals is a key to prevent vibriosis in marine aquaculture. Methodology and Result: Isolation of bacteria from diseased Asian seabass was done using tryptic soy agar (TSAand thiosulphate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS plates. Virulence of two strains of Vibrio harveyi (VHJR4 and VHJR7was tested against clinically healthy aquaculture animals. The analysis revealed that the two bacterial strains differ in pathogenicity. The V. harveyi strain VHJR7 was virulent to Asian seabass at 1.40 x 104 c.f.u. g-1, humpback grouper(Cromileptis altivelis at LD50 8.33 x 103 c.f.u. g-1 and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon at LD50 3.26 x 104 c.f.u. g-1,respectively. The V. harveyi strain VHJR4 was not virulent to Asian seabass and humpback grouper but it caused mortality to black tiger shrimp at LD50 1.32 x 106 c.f.u. g-1. Phenotypically, the two strains shared most of the biochemical features except that the V. harveyi strain VHJR7 was a urease positive and grew at 8.5 % NaCl, and at 10 °C. The percentage similarity of nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA in V. harveyi VHJR4 and V. harveyi VHJR7 was higher (99% but reduced at 95 % in hemolysin gene. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Pathogenic strain of V. harveyi causes mortality and affects aquaculture production of Asian seabass. Hence, vaccine development against the bacterial pathogen is urgently needed for sustainability of Asian seabass aquaculture in Malaysia.

  1. Suspended Subjects: The Politics of Anger in Asian American Literature

    Ma, Nan


    Examining a diverse set of Asian American literary texts, this project explores the ways in which discourses of race, gender, class, sexuality and citizenship shape the articulation of emotions in Asian American Literature. While figures of the angry black man, the Latino gangster, and the Native American warrior abound in dominant American cultural narratives, Asian Americans have been constructed as the polar opposite: subdued, submissive, and accommodating. The figure of the angry Asian ...

  2. English Language Proficiency and Smoking Prevalence among California's Asian Americans

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S.


    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the ...

  3. Cyborg Dreams in Asian American Transnationality: Transgression, Myth, Simulation, Coalition

    Song, Mary


    By deploying a cyberculture theory of cyborg politics in my literary analyses of Asian American literature, I deconstruct Asian American subjectivity through the trope of transnationality. In the Asian American transnational, I locate four prominent traits of Donna Haraway's socialist feminist cyborg: boundary transgression, the recognition and re-scripting of myth, simulations of identity, and coalitions of affinity. By adopting the language of cyberculture, I envision Asian American literat...

  4. Assessment of Anxiety and Depression in Asian American Youth

    Gee, Christina B.


    This article reviews the current state of research on the assessment of anxiety and depression in Asian American children and adolescents. Contrary to lay perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority," research indicates that rates of depression and anxiety among Asian American adults are comparable to those found among European American…

  5. Asian American Youth Language Use: Perspectives across Schools and Communities

    Shankar, Shalini


    Recent studies of Asian American youth language practices have presented compelling insights about the identities and migration experiences of young people of Asian descent. This article offers a detailed examination of the relationship between language use and select issues concerning Asian American youth, including social life, schooling,…

  6. Asian American Media and Audiences: An Institutional and Audience Analysis.

    Hur, K. Kyoon

    Noting that despite increasing research into ethnic minority media and audience analysis, specific Asian American populations and the media serving them have been largely ignored, this paper identifies and examines the media organizations serving various Asian American populations. The first part of the paper reviews the growth of Asian American…

  7. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick


    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans. PMID:27413687

  8. A 16-Year Examination of Domestic Violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the Empirical Knowledge Base: A Content Analysis

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody


    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…

  9. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.


    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  10. An Experimental Evaluation of "Culture and Coping: Asian American Approaches"--A Psychoeducational Curriculum to Enhance Asian American Student Coping

    Lee, Caroline Chin-I


    Few mental health resources focus on Asian American students in higher education. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of "Culture and Coping: Asian American Approaches," a culturally-tailored, cognitive-behavioral psychoeducational course. The course was based on a curriculum which was created to give Asian and Asian…