Sample records for artificial insemination protocol

  1. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  2. Evaluation of ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination in water buffaloes in Bangladesh

    Full text: A total of 65 water buffaloes (groups A, B, and C) at =>60 days postpartum with a body condition score (BCS) of =>2.5 were selected to evaluate ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination (TAI). The group A buffaloes (n = 25) were treated with a simple ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF alpha - Day 2 - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). The group B buffaloes (n = 22) received PGF2 alpha treatment 12 days before the initiation of simple ovsynch (PGF2 alpha at Day -12 + simple ovsynch; modified ovsynch). The group C buffaloes (n = 18) were treated with a double ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - Day 3 - GnRH - Day 7 - GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - 48 h - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). Milk P4 ELISA was used for tracking ovulation and conception rates. Ovulation rates were higher in buffaloes that received the double ovsynch treatment (group C; 83.3%) than those with simple ovsynch (group A; 72.0%; P < 0.05). The group C cows (44.4%) achieved a higher concentration rate than the cows of groups A (28.0%) and B (36.4%) (P < 0.05) and multiparous buffaloes having BCS of =>3.5 responded better to the ovsynch treatments than the primiparous ones (P < 0.05). The double ovsynch protocol increases both ovulation and conception rates in comparison to the simple and modified ovsynch protocols and is more effective in multiparous cows than in primiparous ones. (author)

  3. Comparing ovulation synchronization protocols for artificial insemination in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    Morrow, C J; Wolfe, B A; Roth, T L; Wildt, D E; Bush, M; Blumer, E S; Atkinson, M W; Monfort, S L


    Ovarian response and pregnancy success in scimitar-horned oryx (n=28) were compared, following treatment with two synchronization protocols and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen. Each oryx received two injections of 500 microg of prostaglandin-F(2alpha) analogue (PGF(2alpha)-only) 11 days apart, and half received PGF(2alpha) in combination with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR11+PGF(2alpha)). Semen was collected by electroejaculation from anaesthetised adult oryx and cryopreserved. Anaesthetised females were transcervically inseminated 56.0+/-1.1 h (+/-S.E.M.) after PGF(2alpha) injection and/or device withdrawal using 28.0+/-1.5x10(6) motile thawed sperm. Ovarian endocrine response was monitored in 20 females by analysing faecal oestrogen and progesterone metabolites. Periovulatory oestrogen peaks were detected in 19/20 (95%) females after synchronization. There were no between-treatment differences in oestrogen concentrations or peak characteristics (P0.05). Luteal development after synchronization was delayed in half the progesterone treated (CIDR11+PGF(2alpha)) females, and faecal progestin excretion profiles indicated that the ovulatory follicle associated with synchronization either failed to ovulate or to fully lutenise. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and/or rectal palpation and was monitored by faecal progestin excretion. More (P=0. 013) pregnancies resulted from the PGF(2alpha)-only treatment (37.5%, 5/14) than from the CIDR11+PGF(2alpha) treatment (0/14), and four healthy scimitar-horned oryx calves were born, three after gestation intervals of 247 days and one after 249 days. PMID:10804277

  4. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J


    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  5. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Knox, R V


    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. PMID:26253434

  6. Training large macaws for artificial insemination procedures.

    Leblanc, Frédérique; Pothet, Géraldine; Saint Jalme, Michel; Dorval, Mathieu; Bovet, Dalila


    For some endangered parrot species, captive breeding may be the only insurance for their survival. However, many individuals in captivity do not reproduce. Artificial insemination (AI) may help overcome reproductive failures or geographic distance. For semen collection in birds, massage is the most commonly used method. However, this process, which usually requires capture and restraint, involves risk of stress and injuries. The aim of this experiment was to train large macaws to accept the physical manipulations of their body parts needed for the artificial insemination process. Within 15 weeks, a male and a female Buffon's macaw (Ara ambiguus) learned to accept handling without apparent stress. A pair of green-winged macaws (Ara chloropterus) progressed more slowly and displayed some signs of stress. This stress highlights the need to monitor the birds' possible signs of discomfort during the training in order to adapt the working protocol. These results demonstrate that it is possible to train the AI behaviors, thus avoiding the capture, restraint, and anesthesia. An added benefit to this is the potential for the training to provide a form of behavioral enrichment. PMID:22044292

  7. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.


    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  8. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Gee, G.F.


    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  9. [Artificial insemination as a legal problem].

    Nesterowicz, M


    This paper which was submitted to the Fifth World Congress on Medical Law, which oonvened in the Philippines July 16-19, 1976, presents some of the as yet unresolved problems in Polish law that may occur in decisions involving artificial insemination. Legal standards must be established, so that when applied to family and inheritance rights, they will not conflict with international law as it affects the individual. Basically Polish law accepts artificial insemination by husband (AIH). Regardless of whether the husband's sperm was used with or without his consent, he is legally obligated as the child's father and must provide for it. He may not disinherit the child. On the other hand artificial insemination by donor (AID) is highly controversial. There ae those who claim it destroys the real meaning of marriage, family and motherhood, and thus should be declared illegal, forbidding doctors to practice it. This is no solution to the problem. The law presently bars the donor from paternal rights since he did not have physical relations with the mother. Under the law, a married woman who has been artificially inseminated by an unknown donor may not claim that her husband has paternal responsibilities toward the child. The wife's husband may accept the child, but legally may not adopt it. If a couple jointly decide to try AID, they should first agreee to financially provide for the child. In the case of a single woman, or a married women who decided on AID without the husband's consent, financial support should perhaps be offered by the Alimony Fund if the mother has insufficient means. Knowing that in the future sperm may be preserved for many years, legal tangles will develop even with AIH if for example the husband has been dead for several years prior to the wife's insemination. As the law stands today, the child could not inherit the father's estate. PMID:896577

  10. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P<0.05). The overall CR to first service was 40.9% (n=8196), the most efficient AI services being the ones in Vietnam (62.1%), Chile (61.9%) and Myanmar (58.9%). The interval between the first and second service was 44.6 ± 44.4 days (n=1959). Progesterone data in combination with clinical findings showed that 17.3% of the services were performed in non

  11. Seasonal distribution in conceptions achieved by artificial insemination by donor


    The distribution of conceptions after artificial insemination from a donor was studied in 259 conceptions at an artificial insemination clinic and found to be seasonal. Conception was not influenced by the number of donors or patients attending the clinic, the frequency of inseminations, or medical skill. Conception was more common from early winter until early spring (October to March) with a peak in November. As variables such as frequency of intercourse and ovulation were irrelevant in the...

  12. AIDA Asia. Artificial Insemination Database Application

    The objectives of AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) and its companion GAIDA (Guide to AI Data Analysis) are to address two major problems in on-farm research on livestock production. The first is the quality of the data collected and the second is the intellectual rigor of the analyses and their associated results when statistically testing causal hypotheses. The solution is to develop a data management system such as AIDA and an analysis system such as GAIDA to estimate parameters that explain biological mechanisms for on-farm application. The system uses epidemiological study designs in the uncontrolled research environment of the farm, uses a database manager (Microsoft Access) to handle data management issues encountered in preparing data for analysis, and then uses a statistical program (SYSTAT) to do preliminary analyses. These analyses enable the researcher to have better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in the data contained within the AIDA database. Using GAIDA as a guide, this preliminary analysis helps to determine the strategy for further in-depth analyse

  13. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.


    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  14. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, J.M.


    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  15. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G


    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  16. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Taponen Juhani


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL were rejected (20.7% while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg. Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130. The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d. Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable.

  17. Uterine leucocyte infiltration after artificial insemination in bitches

    Coelho Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Russiano Vicente, Wilter Ricardo; Apparicio, Maricy; Figueiredo Gadelha, Carla Renata; Alves, Aracelle Elisane; Covizzi, Gabriela Jayme


    In the present study, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were enumerated to evaluate acute uterine inflammation after artificial insemination in the bitch. It was concluded that the canine seminal plasma possessed an immunomodulating action. However, the most commonly used extender for freezing can

  18. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia; Rafael María Roman Bravo; Adelina Díaz de Ramirez; Torres, Leandro J.


    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which w...

  19. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F


    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  20. A field investigation of a modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocol designed for fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers.

    Edwards, S A A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Satake, N; Chandra, K; McGowan, M R


    Pregnancy rates (PR) to fixed-time AI (FTAI) in Brahman heifers were compared after treatment with a traditional oestradiol-based protocol (OPO-8) or a modified protocol (OPO-6) where the duration of intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) was reduced from 8 to 6 days, and the interval from IPRD removal to oestradiol benzoate (ODB) was increased from 24 to 36 h. Rising 2 yo heifers on Farm A: (n = 238 and n = 215; two consecutive days AI); B (n = 271); and C (n = 393) were allocated to OPO-8 or OPO-6. An IPRD was inserted and 1mg ODB i.m. on Day 0 for OPO-8 heifers and Day 2 for OPO-6 heifers. On Day 8, the IPRD was removed and 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24h, for OPO-8 heifers, and 36 h, for OPO-6 heifers, post IPRD removal all heifers received 1mg ODB i.m. FTAI was conducted at 54 and 72 h post IPRD removal for OPO-8 and OPO-6 heifers. At Farm A, OPO-6 heifers, AI on the second day, the PR was 52.4% to FTAI (P = 0.024) compared to 36.8% for OPO-8 heifers. However, no differences were found between OPO-8 and OPO-6 protocols at Farm A (first day of AI) (39.9 vs. 35.7%), or Farms B (26.2 vs. 35.4%) and C (43.2% vs. 40.3%). Presence of a corpus luteum at IPRD insertion affected PR to FTAI (43.9% vs. 28.8%; P < 0.001). This study has shown that the modified ovulation synchronisation protocol OPO-6 may be a viable alternative to the OPO-8 protocol for FTAI in B. indicus heifers. PMID:26282523

  1. Enhancing captive Indian rhinoceros genetics via artificial insemination of cryopreserved sperm.

    Stoops, Monica A; Campbell, Mark K; DeChant, Christopher J; Hauser, Joe; Kottwitz, Jack; Pairan, Randal D; Shaffstall, Wendy; Volle, Kurt; Roth, Terri L


    The objective of this study was to design an artificial insemination (AI) protocol using cryopreserved spermatozoa to obtain pregnancies in captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis). Four methods developed varied by timing and approach, as follows; Method 1: females (n=2) were inseminated pre- and post-ovulation under general anesthesia, Method 2: females (n=2) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via endoscopy, Method 3: females (n=1) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via manual insertion of an insemination catheter, Method 4: females (n=2) were inseminated same as Method 3 with the addition of standing sedation. Semen deposition site varied as a result of changes in AI technology and experience. All females conceived following intrauterine AI using three methods. Four pregnancies (n=3 females) produced via Method 3 and 4 resulted in term births (n=2 male calves, n=2 female calves) at 481.8±12.8days post-AI. Unfortunately, two early pregnancy losses were documented in a fourth female conceiving via Method 2. Pregnancy rates were 0%, 22%, 17%, and 50% for Method 1-4, respectively. Method 3 and 4 rates improved to 29% and 67%, respectively when accounting for AI's conducted only on ovulatory estrous cycles. Spermatozoa (n=5 males) were cryopreserved 0.3-9.3 y prior to successful AI procedures. The lowest dose of frozen-thawed sperm resulting in conception was 500×10(6) motile sperm. Mean time from AI to ovulation in conceptive and non-conceptive cycles was 26±11.8h and 66±80.7h, respectively. PMID:27449405

  2. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    J. Angel


    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  3. AIDA Asia. Artificial Insemination Database Application. User manual. 1

    Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA-Asia) is a computer application to store and analyze information from AI Services (farms, females, inseminated, semen, estrus characteristics, inseminator and pregnancy diagnosis data). The need for such an application arose during a consultancy undertaken by the author for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) under the framework of its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA) which is implementing a project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency' (RAS/5/035). The detailed specifications for the application were determined through a Task Force Meeting of National Consultants from five RCA Member States, organized by the IAEA and held in Sri Lanka in April 2001. The application has been developed in MS Access 2000 and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 6.0. However, it can run as a stand-alone application through its own executable files. It is based on screen forms for data entry or editing of information and command buttons. The structure of the data, the design of the application and VBA codes cannot be seen and cannot be modified by users. However, the designated administrator of AIDA-Asia in each country can customize it

  4. Highlights on artificial insemination (AI technology in the pig

    Tarek Khalifa


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the development of field AI services in the majority of countries concerned with pig production. The objective of this paper is to review: (a the current status of swine AI in the world, (b significance and limitation of AI with liquid and frozen semen, (c the biological traits of porcine semen in relation to in-vitro sperm storage, (d the criteria used for selection of a boar stud as a semen supplier, (e how to process boar semen for liquid and frozen storage in the commercial settings and (f how to improve fertility and prolificacy of boar semen. More than 99% of the inseminations conducted worldwide are made with liquid-stored semen. AI with frozen semen is used only for upgrading the genetic base in a particular country or herd. Determining the initial quality of semen ejaculates along with the selection of the optimum storage extender has a profound effect on the quality and fertility of AI doses. Different procedures have been used for improving the fertility of preserved spermatozoa including colloidal centrifugation of the semen, intrauterine insemination and modulation of the uterine defense mechanism after AI. Development of an efficient protocol for synchronizing the time of ovulation in sows and gilts coupled with improving uterine horn insemination technique will make a breakthrough in the commercial use of frozen boar semen.


    Igor F. Canisso


    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  6. Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia

    Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was

  7. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year

  8. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.


    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  9. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.


    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The...

  10. Controlled breeding and artificial insemination of Angora goats in Turkey

    Experiments were conducted to obtain basic information on the response of the Angora goat to some reproductive management strategies: a comparison of the efficacy of intravaginal progestagen sponge (MAP) and PGF2α (Lutalyse or Prosolvin) to induce a synchronized oestrus during the transition period from anoestrus to oestrus; the application of AI with either fresh or frozen-thawed semen; and the evaluation of the effects of these treatments on fertility. Thirty mature Angora does, aged 3-4 years, were synchronized with MAP, PGF2α (Lutalyse) and the presence of the male (10 animals per treatment): 90%, 80% and 80% respectively of the does were synchronized within 50 +- 4.9 (SD) h, 64.5 +- 14.3 (SD) h and 7.5 +- 3.4 (SD) days respectively and were artificially inseminated with 0.1 mL fresh undiluted semen at least twice per animal. Subsequent conception rates were 66.7%, 100% and 75%, respectively. Washed semen was frozen using skimmed milk as diluent and the viability of this frozen-thawed semen was tested on 15 does at a natural oestrus. Another 11 does were inseminated with frozen-thawed unwashed semen following synchronization of oestrus with PGF2α (Prosolvin); the conception rates were 53.3% and 63.6%, respectively. The use of frozen-thawed semen is thus an effective method when synchronization of oestrus of large numbers of Angora goats is used in a controlled breeding programme. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Comparison between deep intracornual artificial insemination (dIAI and conventional artificial insemination (AI using low concentration of spermatozoa in beef cattle

    Ciro Meirelles


    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the pregnancy rate using the conventional artificial insemination (AI or deep intracornual artificial insemination (DIAI, with low number of spermatozoa (4.0 million sperm in 270 Nelore cows. The animals were divided in two groups (G: G1 (135 cows conventional AI was performed (=semen deposition in the uterine body and in G2 (135 cows to DIAI, in ipsilateral horn where the dominant follicle in the ovary had previously been detected, by ultrasound examinations. For both the methods, a single artificial insemination was carried out after visual estrus observation, checked three times a day (morning, afternoon and evening. The pregnancy diagnosis after 45 days was conducted by ultrasound. Results showed a better pregnancy rate in the DIAI group (67.4% - p<0.01, when compared to conventional AI (48.8% with low spermatozoa concentration.

  12. Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant

    Ismeth Inounu


    The success rate of artificial insemination (AI) technology in Indonesia is still low, especially on small ruminants. At experimental station condition, it was reported that the success rate of intrauterine AI was high (78.9% lambing percentage), while intracervix AI technique was still low (47.6% lambing percentage). Various things that could affect the success rate of AI program are discussed in this paper. Efforts to improve the success of artificial insemination in small ruminants (goats ...

  13. Reproduction Performance of Pelibuey Ewes in Response to Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Northwestern Mexico

    M. Cruz-Villegas; RODRIGUEZ-GARCIA, J; A. Correa-Calderon; R. Rangel-Santos; L. Molina-Ramirez; F.D. Alvarez-Valenzuela; L. Avendano-Reyes; Robinson, P H; Famula, T. R.


    Artificial insemination is a valuable technique for improving reproductive performance in sheep as well as providing a resource to introduce new genetics. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the induction of estrous, gestation length, fertility and prolificacy in Pelibuey ewes in response to Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination (LAI) using frozen semen from 3 hair sheep breeds in a northwest region of Mexico during 2 consecutive years. In year one, 36 Pelibuey ewes were randomly ...

  14. Semen controlled-release capsules allow a single artificial insemination in sows.

    Vigo, D; Faustini, M; Villani, S; Orsini, F; Bucco, M; Chlapanidas, T; Conte, U; Ellis, K; Torre, M L


    Controlled-release capsules containing boar spermatozoa were developed to extend the preservation time of spermatozoa and maximize the efficiency of a single artificial insemination. A large trial (4245 sows) was performed with these capsules using double/triple conventional artificial insemination as a control. The effect of treatment on pregnancy diagnosis, delivery, and born piglets was investigated, with allowance being made for considering season, spermatozoa amount, and the weaning-to-estrus interval as confounding variables. The same pregnancy rate and prolificacy were obtained by two insemination techniques, and a higher parturition frequency was reached with capsules. The reproductive performance in pigs has therefore been optimized by a single instrumental insemination with controlled-release capsules. PMID:19505716


    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*


    The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I) services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4) concentr...


    Ivan Stančić; Blagoje Stančić; Saša Dragin; Ivan Radović; Aleksandar Božić


    Reduced fertility of boars and sows during the warmer period of the year significantly reduces the reproductive efficiency of pigs in intensive production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of intrauterine (postcervical) artificial insemination (AI), with twice reduced dose volume (50 mL) and the number of spermatozoa per dose (2x109), compared to the classical intracervical insemination (dose volume 50 mL with 4x109 spermatozoa), can increase the fertility of sow...

  17. Improving the performance of artificial insemination services through application of radioimmunoassay and computerized data management programmes

    The performance of the national artificial insemination (AI) service in Sri Lanka was assessed by obtaining and analyzing available data, followed by the conducting of a field survey on a sample of artificially-bred cattle kept by smallholder farmers in the mid-country wet zone region and on large scale farms in the up-country wet zone region. Samples of milk were collected from inseminated cows and the concentration of progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The AI service reached only 18.8% of the breedable cattle on a national level and accounted for only 6.3% of the estimated annual calvings. The mean intervals from calving to first service and from calving to conception were 183 ± 87.1 days (n = 211) and 194 ± 93.9 days (n 143), respectively on smallholder farms, and 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n = 133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n = 170), respectively, in large farms. The average conception rate to first service ranged from 33-50% on smallholder farms and from 31-60% on large farms. Based on the findings, action was instituted to (a) develop a monitoring system for quality control of frozen semen; (b) develop intervention protocols for management of repeat breeder cows; (c) provide early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management services to large farms; (d) transfer the technologies by conducting continuing professional development (CPD) programmes for field veterinarians and AI technicians; and (e) introduce and institutionalize three computerized data management. Semen donor bulls at the national AI centre were evaluated for breeding soundness and a routine procedure was established for pre- and post-freezing semen evaluation, including the Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test (HOST). The incidence of repeat breeder cows was higher in smallholder farms (15.2%) than in large farms (6.6%). Only one-third of the repeat breeder animals exhibited clear signs of an abnormality. The use of milk progesterone as a routine procedure for early non-pregnancy diagnosis

  18. Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds

    Gee, G.F.


    Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.

  19. The postoperative nursing experience of 308 cases of patients for pure artificial insemination

    Hua Liu


    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss artificial insemination lie on your back after the surgery time and to obtain ideal pregnancy outcome. Methods: Thisstudy retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing for pure artificial insemination in in Renji Hospital,Shanghai Jiao Tong University School, during 2012-2013. According to different patients after artificial insemination lie low time into three groups,D30min group: 102 cases, D45min groups: 120 cases, D60min groups: 86 cases, comparison of three groups of ages,basal FSH, surgery date intrauterine membrane thickness, statistical analysis of three groups of clinical pregnancy rate, early abortion rate and live-birth rate if there is a difference. Results: Three groups of ages, basal FSH, surgery date intrauterine membrane thickness were of no statistical difference. D30min group, the clinical pregnancy rate was 19.6%, early abortion rate was 5%, the live birth rate was 18.6%. D45min groups, the clinical pregnancy rate was 19.2%, the early abortion rate was 4.3%, the live birth rate was 18.3%. D60min groups,the clinical pregnancy rate was 19.8%, the early abortion rate was 0%,the live birth rate was19.8%. P > 0.05, found no statistical differences. Conclusion: Patients lie long does not increase the clinical pregnancy rate since the implementation of artificial insemination postoperatively. Lying down for 30 minutes enables the patients to achieve ideal artificial insemination pregnancy effect. 

  20. Bitch insemination

    Součková, Michaela


    Summary Insemination is a method ever more frequently used in the world of humans and animals. Opinions concerning dog insemination vary among veterinarians, geneticists and not least among breeders themselves. Despite the fact that artificial insemination should not replace natural mating between a dog and a bitch to a greater degree, it would be a pity not to take advantage of a range of options offered by this method. Artificial insemination enables to get a genetic material of high qua...

  1. Estrus synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep under field conditions of a semi-arid tropical region.

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Sethi, Debabrata; Gulyani, Rajiv; Naqvi, Syed Mohammed Khursheed


    A study was conducted to assess the success of estrus synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in sheep under field conditions of a semi-arid tropical region. A total of 471 ewes belonging to 17 farmers of four villages in Tonk district of Rajasthan (Jelmiya, Dhani Jaisinghpura, Tantiya and Bheepur) were synchronized for estrus during the years 2011 and 2012. Synchronization of estrus was done by AVIKESIL-S, cost-effective intra-vaginal sponges developed by the Institute and eCG protocol. The sponges were kept in situ in the vagina for 12 days and 200 IU eCG (Folligon, Intervet) was administered intramuscularly at the time of sponge withdrawal on the 12th day. Fixed-time cervical insemination was performed twice in ewes exhibiting estrus (restlessness, shaking of tail, slightly swollen vulva, moist and reddish cervical external os), 48 and 56 h after sponge removal, using liquid chilled semen of Patanwadi/Malpura rams containing 100 million sperm per dose. The estrus response recorded was 79.4 % (374/471) and lambing rate was 60.42 % (226/374). It may be concluded from the encouraging results of the present study that FTAI can be used effectively to take advantage of both the genetic improvement and economic benefit that can be realized by the use of estrus synchronization in conjunction with artificial insemination (AI). PMID:25475009

  2. Short communication: Field fertility in Holstein bulls: Can type of breeding strategy (artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination) alter service sire fertility?

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Carvalho, P D; Rivera, H; Cabrera, V; Wiltbank, M C; Baruselli, P S; Souza, A H


    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) from service sires used on artificial insemination after estrus detection (EAI) or timed artificial insemination (TAI) breedings. Confirmed artificial insemination outcome records from 3 national data centers were merged and used as a data source. Criteria edits were herd's overall P/AI within 20 and 60%, a minimum of 30 breedings reported per herd-year, service sires that were used in at least 10 different herds with no more than 40% of the breedings performed in a single herd, breeding records from lactating Holstein cows receiving their first to fifth postpartum breedings occurring within 45 to 375 d in milk, and cows with 1 to 5 lactations producing a minimum of 6,804 kg. Initially 1,142,859 breeding records were available for analysis. After editing, a subset of the data (n=857,539) was used to classify breeding codes into either EAI or TAI based on weekly insemination profile in each individual herd. The procedure HPMIXED of SAS was used and took into account effects of state, farm, cow identification, breeding month, year, parity, days in milk at breeding, and service sire. This model was used independently for the 2 types osires f breeding codes (EAI vs. TAI), and service sire P/AI rankings within each breeding code were performed for sires with >700 breedings (94 sires) and for with >1,000 breedings (n=56 sires) following both EAI and TAI. Correlation for service sire fertility rankings following EAI and TAI was performed with the PROC CORR of SAS. Service sire P/AI rankings produced with EAI and TAI were 0.81 (for sires with >700 breedings) and 0.84 (for sires with >1,000 breedings). In addition, important changes occurred in service sire P/AI ranking to EAI and TAI for sires with less than 10,000 recorded artificial inseminations. In conclusion, the type of breeding strategy (EAI or TAI) was associated with some changes in service sire P/AI ranking, but ranking changes

  3. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.


    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly (P insemination based on forecasted temperatures can improve the success of AI in goats and sheep.

  4. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.


    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly (P AI in spring. It remains to be determined whether scheduling the dates of insemination based on forecasted temperatures can improve the success of AI in goats and sheep.

  5. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.


    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  6. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L


    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear. PMID:25314835

  7. The health experience of single women who have children through artificial donor insemination.

    Frank, D I; Brackley, M H


    Little is known about the health care needs of single women who decide to have children through artificial insemination. An exploratory qualitative research study was conducted to investigate this health experience. A case study design was used, consisting of two single women who had children through artificial donor insemination. Results suggested that the decision to have donor insemination was made after a lengthy process of considering multiple factors. The subjects' relationships and roles were affected, as were future goals and aspirations. Personal perspectives of self-enhancement were evident and feelings of aloneness and vulnerability. Health care needs that can be met by the clinical specialist were identified with emphasis on the decision counseling, direct care, educative, and leadership aspects of this nursing role. Directions for future research were proposed. PMID:2790668

  8. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.


    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  9. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars;


    after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...... insemination before the inoculation takes place. Udgivelsesdato: 1991...

  10. Reproduction Performance of Pelibuey Ewes in Response to Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Northwestern Mexico

    M. Cruz-Villegas


    Full Text Available Artificial insemination is a valuable technique for improving reproductive performance in sheep as well as providing a resource to introduce new genetics. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the induction of estrous, gestation length, fertility and prolificacy in Pelibuey ewes in response to Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination (LAI using frozen semen from 3 hair sheep breeds in a northwest region of Mexico during 2 consecutive years. In year one, 36 Pelibuey ewes were randomly distributed in three groups to be inseminated with three hair sheep breeds (Katahdin, K, n = 11; Dorper, D, n = 13; Pelibuey, P, n = 12. In year two, 43 Pelibuey ewes were randomly distributed in 3 groups using the same breeds (K, n = 14; D, n = 15; P, n = 14. Gestation length and prolificacy were analyzed using analysis of variance and induction of estrus, fertility and fecundity using chi-square tests. All analyses were performed through SAS procedures. Estrus was induced in all ewes of the three different groups. Gestation length was longer (p0.05 to those with D and K semen. Fertility rates of ewes inseminated with D semen (65% were higher (p0.05 in fertility rates between ewes inseminated with D and P semen. Fecundity rate was higher (p< 0.05 in ewes inseminated with D (164% than those with P (131% or K (108%. Pelibuey ewes inseminated with P semen had the lowest (p< 0.05 prolificacy (2.1 lpe than those with K (2.7 and D (2.6 lpe semen. These results suggest that estrus synchronization resulted in an efficient technique to induce estrus in Pelibuey ewes. Also, data from LAI in this desert conditions had similar results in fertility than those in other regions of the world. Although differences were observed in prolificacy, more information is needed to evaluate the convenience of introducing new sheep hair breeds using LAI in northwestern Mexico.

  11. Reproductive performance of dairy cows resynchronized after pregnancy diagnosis at 31 (±3 days) after artificial insemination (AI) compared with resynchronization at 31 (±3 days) after AI with pregnancy diagnosis at 38 (±3 days) after AI

    Pereira, R. V.; Caixeta, L. S.; Giordano, J. O.; Guard, C. L.; Bicalho, R. C.


    An important part of reproductive management programs on dairy farms is identification of nonpregnant cows and early re-insemination to achieve higher pregnancy rates. The objective of this study was to compare the effect on reproductive performance and pregnancy loss of 2 pregnancy diagnosis protocols: (1) pregnancy diagnosis performed 31 ± 3 d after artificial insemination (AI) by ultrasonography (ULTRA), and (2) resynchronization started 31 ± 3 d after AI but with pregnancy diagnosis perfo...

  12. Application of a computer database and progesterone radioimmunoassay for the assessment of factors affecting conception rate in crossbred cows following artificial insemination under field conditions

    The study was conducted to identify various factors affecting the success of artificial insemination (AI) and to improve reproductive efficiency through better management, AI services and application of progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to 568 inseminations in cattle were collected according to the protocol of the Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA). Of these, 149 cows were subjected to clinico-gynaecological examination and milk samples were collected for progesterone assay to determine possible causes of infertility and the success of various interventions. Highest conception rates were obtained when the cows were inseminated during standing oestrus (51.6%), 18-23 h after the onset of oestrus (48.8%), by inseminators with a professional degree (48.7%) and using the best quality semen (51%). The main causes of repeat breeding identified during clinical and laboratory studies were: (a) inappropriate timing of AI in 48% of cows (milk progesterone concentration >1.0 nmol/L at AI); (b) subnormal luteal phase in 15% (plasma progesterone concentration 36 h) in 15%; and (d) sub-clinical microbial endometritis in 18%. Use of poor quality semen also contributed to repeat breeding. (author)

  13. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K


    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. PMID:27155729

  14. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Miguel Mellado


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  15. Improvement of fertility in artificially inseminated ewes following vaginal treatment with misoprostol plus terbutaline sulphate.

    Horta, A E M; Barbas, J P; Marques, C C; Baptista, M C; Vasques, M I; Pereira, R M; Mascarenhas, R D; Cavaco-Gonçalves, S


    The effect of vaginal administration of misoprostol plus terbutaline sulphate 6 h prior to artificial insemination (AI) upon the site of AI (vaginal or cervical) and fertility was studied using a total of 87 estrous synchronized Serra da Estrela ewes (control n = 42 and treated n = 45). Artificial insemination was performed using refrigerated semen at 54-55 h after sponge removal. Lambing rate (fertility) and prolificacy were compared between control and treated ewes. The effect of the site of semen deposition on fertility was also evaluated. Prolificacy rate was not different between control (1.5) and treated (1.59) ewes. The proportion of cervical AI achieved in control (45.2%) and treated (37.8%) ewes was not significantly different. Overall, fertility was significantly lower in control than in treated ewes (42.9% vs 64.4%; p terbutaline sulphate 6 h prior to artificial insemination did not affect the proportion of cervical inseminations but significantly improved the fertility of treated ewes. Although needing confirmation, it was hypothesized that drugs might have induced local secretory modifications leading to an increase of cervical ability to retain more viable spermatozoa for fertilization. PMID:20210884

  16. The effect of intrauterine cephapirin treatment after insemination on conception rate in repeat breeder dairy cows subjected to the progesterone-based Ovsynch protocol

    GÜMEN, Ahmet; MECİTOĞLU, Gülnaz YILMAZBAŞ; KESKİN, Abdulkadir; Karakaya, Ebru; Alkan, Ali; TAŞDEMİR, Umut; Okut, Hayrettin


    Subclinical endometritis contributes to repeat breeder syndrome in dairy cows. This study evaluated the effect of intrauterine cephapirin benzathine administration after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the conception rate (CR) in repeat breeder dairy cows. To determine the antibiotic effects, all cows (n = 335) that had more than 3 services with no clinical abnormalities of the reproductive tract received the same combined synchronisation protocol: an ear implant containing progestagen...


    Ivan Stančić


    Full Text Available Reduced fertility of boars and sows during the warmer period of the year significantly reduces the reproductive efficiency of pigs in intensive production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of intrauterine (postcervical artificial insemination (AI, with twice reduced dose volume (50 mL and the number of spermatozoa per dose (2x109, compared to the classical intracervical insemination (dose volume 50 mL with 4x109 spermatozoa, can increase the fertility of sows inseminated in the warm season of the year. After classical intracervical insemination, farrowing rate was significantly (P0.05, neither depending on the season, or depending on the number of spermatozoa per dose (78% and 75% in warm, or 86% and 83% in cold season of the year. The results show that the use of intrauterine insemination, with doses twice reduced in volume and sperm number, can significantly reduce the negative impact of the warm season on sows fertility.

  18. Investigation of Reproductive Traits and a Computer-Assisted Single Artificial Insemination Procedure in Mares in Subtropical Taiwan

    CHAN, Jacky Peng-Wen; WU, Jui-Te; CHENG, Feng-Pang


    The objective of this study was to report the reproductive traits of mares by ultrasonography and hormone analyses in subtropical Taiwan and the successful artificial breeding of mares using a self-developed computer-assisted single insemination technique. A previously developed computer-assisted image analysis technique at our reproduction centre was employed to determine the optimal time for artificial insemination (AI). In the 8 mares that underwent this AI procedure, ovulations all occurr...

  19. Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant

    Ismeth Inounu


    Full Text Available The success rate of artificial insemination (AI technology in Indonesia is still low, especially on small ruminants. At experimental station condition, it was reported that the success rate of intrauterine AI was high (78.9% lambing percentage, while intracervix AI technique was still low (47.6% lambing percentage. Various things that could affect the success rate of AI program are discussed in this paper. Efforts to improve the success of artificial insemination in small ruminants (goats and sheep can be done through the selection of productive female with good reproductive cycle, accurate dose of hormonal synchronization, followed by proper estrous detection and semen placement at the right time. Each stage is still open for more detailed study in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  20. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel


    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species. PMID:23797622

  1. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    Knox, R V


    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm. PMID:26174925

  2. Comparison of artificial insemination and natural service cost effectiveness in dairy cattle

    Valergakis, G. E.; Arsenos, G.; Banos, G.


    Reproductive efficiency in the dairy herd is the most important factor for its economic success and a major concern for dairy farmers when using artificial insemination (AI) or natural service (NS). Our objectives were to estimate, compare and analyse the costs associated with breeding cattle by do-it-yourself (DIY) AI and NS and identify the factors that influence them, under typical dairy farming conditions in Greece. A simulation study was designed based on data from 120 dairy cattle farms...

  3. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes)

    Michael Lierz; Matthias Reinschmidt; Heiner Müller; Michael Wink; Daniel Neumann


    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (p...

  4. Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID) and the Use of Surrogate Mothers—Social and Psychological Impact

    Davis, Joseph H.; Brown, Dirck W.


    Today families are being created by such procedures as test tube fertilization, artificial insemination and surrogate parenting. In addition to traditional couples, moreover, single persons, gay couples and others are seeking to form family units. In the eagerness to produce an offspring there is often little thought given to the needs or the feelings of the child so produced. There is a need for sociomedical data as well as a more open approach in these situations.

  5. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq


    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  6. Successful nonsurgical artificial insemination and hormonal monitoring in an Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temmincki).

    Lueders, Imke; Ludwig, Carsten; Schroeder, Myriam; Mueller, Karin; Zahmel, Jennifer; Dehnhard, Martin


    Since it is reported to be difficult to establish Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temmincki) breeding pairs in captivity as a result of overaggressive behavior of the male, artificial insemination (AI) may be a desired option by which to achieve pregnancy. This approach was chosen in the present case involving a nulliparous, 6-yr-old female cat that was inseminated transcervically during a naturally occurring estrus, which therefore required only a single general anesthetic procedure. On day 4 of estrus behavior, the male was anesthetized and semen was collected via urethral catheterization (UC) to recover spermatozoa in high concentration followed by electroejaculation (EE) to obtain additional semen and seminal fluid. The fresh UC semen, totaling 180 microl in volume and containing spermatozoa showing 55-70% sperm motility, was inseminated 2.5 hr later via a commercial cat urinary catheter passed through the cervix into the uterus. Immediately afterwards, the EE fraction (100 microl) was inseminated deeply into the dorsal medial fold of the vagina. The GnRH analogue Receptal (0.75 ml, i.m.) was given during anesthesia in an attempt to induce ovulation. Increasing fecal concentrations of progesterone after AI and a significant rise in fecal prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite (PGFM) concentrations (P < 0.0001) from day 45 post-AI indicated that the cat had conceived, and it produced healthy twin cubs after an 84-day gestation. PMID:25000701

  7. The outcomes of artificial insemination by cryopreserved donor semen and analysis of its affecting factors

    Jiang Hong; Ni Feng; He Rui-bing; Pei Hong; Zhu Jie


    Objective:To analyze the outcomes of artificial insemination by frozen-thawed donor's semen(AID)and its affecting factors.Methods:Retrospective analysis of the results of 412 AID cycles performed in 173 couples be-tween February 2002 and December 2003 was presented,to evaluate the influence of female age,methods of insemination,therapeutic regime,post-thaw semen motility and number of treatment cycles on the fecundity of women undergoing AID.Results.Overall pregnancy rate of 31.6%(130/412)and delivery rate of 27.2%(112/412)per cycle and cumulative pregnancy rate of 72.3%(125/173)were achieved,with abortion rate of 13.9%(18/130)and multiple pregnancy rate of 2.68%.In 125 pregnant women,inseminations were performed 1-5 cycles,and 89.2% pregnant women conceived within three treatment cycles with twice AID in each cycle.Some factors such as ovarian stimulation(OS),female age(under 38 years),methods of insemination and luteal phase support bear no significant relations to preg-nancy rate,but the motility of post-thaw semen was significantly related to pregnancy rate.A-mong 115 neonates with weight 2,750~5,000 g,one was found congenital ventricular septal de-fect.Conclusions:Insemination with frozen-thawed semen is safe and effective.In women less than 38 years with normal reproductive function,satisfactory pregnancy rate could be achieved when AID was performed twice per cycle before and after ovulation within 4 consecutive sponta-neous cycles.

  8. Studies on the causes of inefficiency in artificial insemination systems in dairy cattle in Argentina

    Information was obtained on reproductive efficiency and management from 17 dairy farms which use artificial insemination (AI) in Argentina. The methods included use of questionnaires, body condition scoring at calving and AI, measurement of progesterone in milk samples on day of AI (day 0), day 10-12 and day 22-24 by radioimmunoassay, and measurement of milk urea on day 0. The overall conception rate (OCR) from 504 inseminations was 41.5%. There was non-fertilization or early embryo death in 27.8% of cases and late embryo death in 10.4%. Three percent of inseminations were performed on pregnant animals, 8.2% with intermediate progesterone values (1.25-3.18 nmol/L) and more than 2% during anoestrus or with ovarian cysts. Calving season did not affect OCR, but first service conception rate (FSCR) was higher for cows calved during winter and bred in spring. Cows fed pastures and hay (P+H) had lower body condition at the time of AI than those fed pastures plus concentrates with or without hay. The P+H group showed delayed interval to first AI and conception, but higher FSCR. Both groups fed concentrates had higher milk urea that was related to lower OCR. Mean milk urea on the day of AI for cows that conceived was 43.81 ± 1.42 mg/100mL, statistically different from the 48.87 ± 1.58 mg/100mL for those that did not conceive (P<0.05). Inseminators formally trained for more than a month, employed on government farms and paid fixed salaries had better performances than those trained less than a month, employed on commercial farms and paid on the basis of inseminations or conceptions, respectively. OCR was also higher when cows were inseminated into the uterus, when uterine tone was slight, and mucus was clear, compared with those inseminated in the cervix, with marked uterine tone and without the presence of mucus, respectively. Semen of known good quality resulted in higher OCR than semen which was unexamined or without good information on its quality. However, 12

  9. Artificial insemination field data on the use of sexed and conventional semen in nulliparous Holstein heifers.

    Healy, A A; House, J K; Thomson, P C


    This study investigated conception rates and other reproductive outcomes achieved with artificial insemination (AI) of nulliparous Holstein heifers using sexed and conventional semen in a commercial Australian dairy herd in central western New South Wales from January 2004 to April 2009. Retrospective data from on-farm records of 9,870 inseminations of 4,456 heifers were analyzed using several mixed models to assess the effect of temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, insemination sire, artificial insemination technician, service number, and heifer weight and age at breeding on reproductive traits (conception rates, sex ratios, gestation length, and abortion and stillbirth rates). Semen was used from 15 sexed sires and 41 unsexed sires. Sexed semen was primarily used at first and second service. Empirical conception rates of 31.6 and 39.6% were achieved for sexed and unsexed semen respectively, whereas model-based predictions were lower, at 21.3 and 32.1%. Conception rates were significantly affected by insemination sire, sex-sorting, heifer age at breeding, temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, service number, and AI technician. Sexed semen yielded 86% heifers, compared with 48% for conventional semen. Significant predictors of calf sex included semen sexing, gestation length, and insemination sire. Twinning rate was high, at 3.6% for both semen types, and gestation length and heifer weight at breeding were significant predictors of twinning. Abortion rates for sexed and unsexed conceptions were similar at 6.1 and 6.5%, respectively, and were affected by heifer age at breeding. Stillbirth rate was affected by calf sex, twinning, gestation length, and AI technician; semen sorting, age at breeding, and temperature and humidity were marginally significant predictors. No abnormalities were observed in the development of offspring, except for a marginally higher stillbirth rate for sexed calves, a finding that needs further investigation. Many

  10. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  11. Use of progesterone measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    A study was conducted on 924 dairy cows subjected to artificial insemination (AI) in four Tunisian farms. Three milk samples were collected from each cow, at the time of AI (day 0), 12 days after AI and between 22-24 days after AI. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected and progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results from samples collected on day 0 (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper times, when progesterone level was greater than 1 nmol/L. Results from samples collected 12 days after AI (n=948) allowed distinguishing between cycling cows (progesterone >3 nmol/L, 69.4%) and non-cycling cows (progesterone 3.5 nmol/L were categorized as probably pregnant. The accuracy of these predictions was 96.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The data relating to farms, inseminated females, AI technicians and semen batch were analysed using the Artificial Insemination database Application (AIDA). The conception rate to the first service was 24.8% (n=306) and the overall conception rate from 597 services was 28.3%. The interval from calving to first service was 74.9 ± 35.2 days (n=306) and from calving to conception was 141.5 ± 108.1 days. The use of the progesterone assay methodology together with the AIDA computer database were found to be appropriate tools to help farmers to improve the reproductive management and fertility of dairy cattle subjected to AI. (author)

  12. Interventions for improving the fertility of crossbred cows subjected to artificial insemination under field conditions

    As a follow-up to a study that assessed the various factors affecting conception rate in cows bred by artificial insemination (AI), several interventions were tested for their effectiveness in overcoming the major problems that were identified. Treatment of repeat-breeder cows that were diagnosed as having sub-clinical endometritis with 100 μg E.coli lipopolysachharide (LPS) or LPS + autologous serum resulted in reduced incidence of abnormalities in the appearance and consistency of cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) and a significant decrease in pH of CVM from around 7.7 to 7.2. Treatment of repeat-breeder cows that were suspected of having luteal deficiency with two injections of 500 mg progesterone on days 5 and 11 after AI resulted in 30% of the animals conceiving compared with 20% conception in controls. Filtration of frozen and thawed bull semen through Sephadex columns significantly decreased the concentration of dead and abnormal sperms. The CR in cows inseminated with filtered semen was 57%, compared with 22% in cows inseminated with unfiltered semen. A number of refresher training courses were held for reproduction scientists, field veterinarians and farmers on the causes of infertility and to introduce the latest reproductive technologies for improving fertility in dairy animals. (author)

  13. Relationship of sperm morphology assessed by strict criteria and outcome of artificial [intrauterine] insemination

    Vedavathy Nayak


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between sperm morphology assessed by strict criteria and the outcome of artificial insemination. Methods: 495 consecutive intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles done for 417 couples in a 1-year period in Gunasheela IVF Center were studied. In all cases controlled ovarian stimulation and hCG timed IUI were performed. In all cases the inseminating motile sperm count after sperm preparation (at least one sample was 20 million/ml and motility was 90% Grade A. Sperm morphology was assessed by strict criteria. Results: Overall the pregnancy rates were significantly higher in cases with ≥14% normal morphology (23% and in cases with 10-13% normal morphology (14%. This was in contrast to the pregnancy rates in cases with <10% normal morphology group (8%. Further follow up of the outcome of pregnancies between the ≥10% normal morphology and <10% normal morphology groups did not show any increased loss of pregnancies/anomalies in the <10% normal morphology group but this was not statistically significant as the number of pregnancies in the <10% normal morphology group was very less (8 out of 87. Conclusions: These results emphasize the significance of sperm morphology as a predictor of pregnancy outcome (esp. pregnancy rates in the IUI outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(1.000: 58-60

  14. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Sraïri, MT.


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  15. Use of milk progesterone RIA for the monitoring of artificial insemination of dairy cows on smallholder farms in Turkey

    Full text: The technique of artificial insemination (AI) has been widely used in Turkey for several years to improve dairy cattle productivity. The fertility rate resulting from this technique is still low. The objective of this study was to identify causes of artificial insemination inefficiency on smallholder farms in Turkey. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for progesterone in milk samples collected from dairy cows on smallholder farms have been used for monitoring ovarian activity, diagnosis of pregnancy and non-pregnancy, assessment of the accuracy of oestrus detection and for surveying efficiency of artificial insemination services. All raw data were stored and analysed by the computer program AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application). Milk samples were collected on day 0, days 10-12, and days 22-24 after artificial insemination from 220 dairy cows in 10 different regions. Based on the progesterone concentration in three milk samples, the reproductive status of the cows could be identified. Conception rate at first service was 63.0% and overall conception rate was 70.4 %. The mean interval from calving to first service was 85.4 days and the mean interval from calving to conception was 96.1 days. The progesterone concentration on the day of AI was negatively related to conception (P<0.001) and also associated with season. Incidence of incorrect artificial insemination, most likely due to erroneous heat detection, was 11.5%. The results show that important factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms include nutritional management, oestrus detection and season. The quality and efficiency of AI on smallholder dairy cows should be improved by using progesterone RIA. (author)

  16. Influencing factors in the pregnancy rate in obese women undergoing artificial insemination

    Carolina Sánchez-Cruzat Albertín


    Full Text Available The impact of obesity on the outcome of assisted reproduction treatments is debatable. Several studies show that obese women have worse outcomes after undergoing fertility treatment. The researches show a worse response to ovulation induction. In the ovarian stimulation stage these women produce fewer follicles. Fertilization rates are poorer and the embryo quality is lower in young women suffering from obesity. According to some studies, pregnancy rates are lower in obese women and there is an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. Weight loss increases the chance of spontaneous ovulation and conception in women that suffer from overweight and obesity.The aim of this study is to describe the different influencing factors related to body mass index in pregnancy rate achieved by artificial insemination in our population.The results of this study show significant results in patients with higher body mass index was positively associated with duration of infertility, lower levels of luteinizing hormone and intrauterine artificial insemination indication increased .It appears more frequently, but without significant result, anovulation and unexplained cause of infertility among obese women, longer cycles, fewer antral follicles and get fewer mature follicles. The average of pregnancy rates was 12.6% but it did not differ significantly among the body mass index categories.

  17. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 μ g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P≤ 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P≤0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P≤0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed time

  18. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R


    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  19. Analysis of the cost and benefit of bovine artificial insemination in Senegal

    A field survey was conducted to determine the rate of success of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle in Senegal and the benefit obtained by raising the resulting F1 crossbred heifers. The area selected was the first one in which a public AI programme was implemented. A questionnaire was administered to farmers regarding the management of cattle and the costs and benefits of the AI service. Out of 207 inseminations, 80 were successful, resulting in a calving rate of 38.6%. The F1 crossbreds produced 8.9 litres of milk per day, compared with 2 litres per day for the local breeds, and had a lactation length of 13 months. The death rate for crossbred calves during the first year of life was 22.5%. The total cost for an AI was FCFA 48 143 per cow, and was mostly subsidized by the Senegal State. The net profit for the producer was FCFA 35 (Euro 1 = approx. FCFA 660) per litre of milk produced by a crossbred. The proportional costs of the different components of the AI service were 12.5% for the purchase and conservation of semen, 21.9% for the synchronization of heats and 53% for provision of the AI service. The study identified weaknesses and limitations in the dairy production system. Future actions are recommended to improve the results of AI, to reduce the costs and to increase the benefits to producers. (author)

  20. Human resources in artificial insemination of beef cattle: profile of managers and inseminators Recursos humanos na inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte: perfil dos administradores e inseminadores

    Lívia dos Santos Russi


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to outline the profile of managers and inseminators involved in beef cattle artificial insemination programs to characterize the management processes involved in this activity. Additionally, by interviewing managers and inseminators, it was searched to detect particularities concerned to personal life and work that can be used to evaluate the quality of life of inseminators on farms. The open questions were analyzed by frequency of answer, after being grouped by similarity. Accordingly to the results, managers associate the concept of human resource management to work supervision, mainly, prioritizing technical factors such as professional experience and indexes in the selection processes, although problems in interpersonal relationships have been shown as the main reason for dismissal. In general, education level of the inseminators is not good because most of these workers studied only to the first series of primary school. Inseminators prefer conventional artificial insemination although they recognize that fixed-time artificial insemination can make animal handling on the farm easier. The performance of these workers seems to be determined more by interpersonal relationships than by the salaries.Objetivou-se delinear o perfil de administradores e inseminadores envolvidos em programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte no intuito de caracterizar os processos gerenciais envolvidos nesta atividade. Adicionalmente, por meio de entrevistas com administradores e inseminadores, buscou-se detectar fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho que possam ser utilizados como medida da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nas propriedades rurais. As questões abertas foram analisadas por frequência de respostas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade. De acordo com os resultados, os administradores associam o conceito de gestão de recursos humanos principalmente à supervisão do trabalho priorizando

  1. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal


    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  2. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V


    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P < 0.05). Cows with a BCS greater than or equal to 5 had synchronized AI pregnancy rates of 50% compared to 39% for cows with BCS lesser than 5.0. In summary, the modified COS protocol yielded similar synchronized AI pregnancy rates compared to the SSC protocol, and it appears that the modified COS protocol has the potential to be an effective timed-AI protocol in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows. PMID:26631280

  3. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian


    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  4. Artificial insemination with cryopreserved sperm from feline epididymides stored at 4 °C.

    Toyonaga, Mari; Sato, Yuuka; Sasaki, Ayako; Kaihara, Aya; Tsutsui, Toshihiko


    Recovering and storing sperm from the epididymides of males of rare felidae is useful for preserving the species. The objective of the present study was to determine pregnancy rates following artificial insemination (AI) of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm, which were cryopreserved following low-temperature storage of the epididymides. In this study, these sperm were used for unilateral intrauterine AI (UIUAI) or unilateral intratubal AI (UITAI) using 40 × 10(6) and 10 × 10(6) sperm, respectively. The caudal epididymides of 17 cats were stored at 4 °C for 24 h after castration. Artificial insemination of seven female cats was performed on Days 3 or 4 (start of estrus = Day 1) by UIUAI, 20 h after injection of 100 IU hCG to induce ovulation. Furthermore, UITAI at 24 h (UITAI-24) or 30 h (UITAI-30) after hCG were also done (five cats per group). It was noteworthy that AI by UIUAI and UITAI-24 was performed before ovulation, whereas AI by UITAI-30 was performed after ovulation. Pregnancy rates were 28.6% (2/7) by UIUAI, 80% (4/5) by UITAI-24, and 20% (1/5) by UITAI-30. Litter size was one or two by UIUAI, and one to four by UITAI. Spontaneous abortion occurred on Days 25-30 of pregnancy in one of the two female cats pregnant following UIUAI, and in two of five female cats pregnant following UITAI. Based on the high pregnancy rate obtained with 10 × 10(6) sperm in the UITAI-24 group (AI performed before ovulation), we concluded that this was the most appropriate method for AI with frozen-thawed epididymal sperm after initial low-temperature storage of epididymides. PMID:21601266

  5. Antisperm antibodies of the Ig a class in the cervical mucus and sera of artificially inseminated cows

    Lazarević Miodrag


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of anti-sperm antibodies of the Ig A class in the cervical mucus and sera of artificially inseminated cows. Cervical mucus and sera samples were collected on the day of artificial insemination and the animals were divided into four groups of 20 cows each according to the number of previous inseminations. The titer of antibodies was determined by the indirect immunofluorescence method using sperm cells suspended in Tris egg-yolk extender or the commercial extender "Biociphos +". Our results indicate that titers of antisperm antibodies of the Ig A class elevate with the number of artificial inseminations. Mean titer values were higher in the cervical mucus samples than in sera indicating that the local immune response is more relevant for the immunological reactivity to sperm and extender antigens. In addition, the titer of antisperm antibodies was generally higher when sperm cells suspended in Tris egg-yolk extender were used for the test.

  6. Evaluation of a seasonal-breeding artificial insemination programme in Uruguay using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay

    To evaluate artificial insemination (AI) services and reproductive efficiency in dairy herds in Uruguay two surveys were conducted in 1995 and 1996. The 1995 survey was done in 10 dairy farms of 3 regions on 696 lactating Holstein cows. The 1996 survey was done in 5 dairy farms in one region and included 768 cows. Precision of oestrus detection and efficiency of AI services were determined by milk progesterone samples taken at days 0, 10 and 23 after breeding and by analysis of the records. In 1995 and 1996, the intervals from calving to first service were 123 and 101 days, and to conception were 158 and 134 days, respectively. Parity, body weight and body condition at calving influenced these parameters, but not body weight or body condition at breeding nor milk production. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by milk progesterone was 70.4%. Heat detection rate was 37.5% and pregnancy rate was 15.6%. In 1997 a second study was done to determine the factors affecting reproductive efficiency in a seasonal breeding AI programme in 328 lactating cows on 3 dairy farms. Milk progesterone measurement revealed that 12.5% of the cows were anoestrous at the beginning of the season and remained so during the trial. The category mostly affected were first-calf heifers (82%). Also, 8.5% of the cows cycling were never reported in heat and this was influenced by farm. Oestrus detection efficiency for cows determined to be cycling by progesterone profiles was evaluated in three periods of 21 days and overall efficiency was 46.9%. Main factor affecting it was farm, with an effect of parity (67.8% in mature cows and 33.2% in first-calf heifers) but no effect of days postpartum. Mean interval from the beginning of the breeding season to first service was 27.4 days, again with a strong farm variation but no effect of parity or days postpartum. In an attempt to improve reproductive efficiency in lactating dairy cows, a treatment protocol was designed, where 414 cows in two herds were

  7. Pregnancy rate in Bulgarian White milk goats with natural and synchronized estrus after artificial insemination by frozen semen during breeding season

    Stanimir A. Yotov


    Conclusion: The goats with natural estrus and GnRH treatment tend to enhance pregnancy rate after double artificial insemination 8 h apart. The insemination number has no significant impact on pregnancy rate in synchronized goats as the overall pregnancy rate is better than in animals with natural estrus without GnRH administration.

  8. Identification of changes in bovine oviductal mRNA expression by RNAseq from animals with high and low circulating estradiol concentrations during timed artificial insemination

    Timed artificial insemination of beef cows with high concentrations of estradiol at time of insemination are known to impact pregnancy success by 27%±5% compared to animals with low estradiol. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms responsible for this biological variation is key to improving repro...

  9. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Kusuma Diwyanto


    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  10. Non-surgical intrauterine artificial insemination in bitches using frozen semen.

    Wilson, M S


    A total of 46 bitches were inseminated directly into the uterus using non-surgical insemination procedures; the technique used in six bitches involved specially designed metal catheters and abdominal fixation of the cervix, whereas the remainder were inseminated by passing a flexible plastic catheter through the cervix using direct endoscopic visualization to facilitate the process. Twenty-seven bitches were inseminated with semen frozen at the clinic; the remainder were inseminated with imported semen. Insemination timing was based on endoscopic assessment of the vaginal mucosa, vaginal cytology and blood progesterone concentration determined using a rapid, qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Each bitch received between 50 x 10(6) and 200 x 10(6) total spermatozoa per insemination; post-thaw motility varied from 10 to 80%. Two inseminations were performed 48 h apart in the majority of bitches. An overall pregnancy rate of 80% (37/46) was obtained with a mean litter size of 5 +/- 3.14. Subsequent pregnancy rates were comparable for both techniques and both were considered to be effective methods of inseminating frozen semen. Considerably fewer spermatozoa were inseminated in many of these bitches than have previously been reported. In a series of seven bitches using the semen from one dog, each bitch received two inseminations of 30-35 x 10(6) live normal spermatozoa per insemination. A pregnancy rate of 85% (6/7) and a mean litter size of 7.8 was achieved. Rapid ELISA progesterone kits were used to identify the optimum time for insemination. PMID:8229942

  11. De novo assembly and identification of unique contigs in the bovine oviduct from animals with high and low circulating estradiol concentrations during timed artificial insemination

    Reproductive efficiency is a large concern for many cattle producers and understanding the mechanisms responsible for biological variation in reproduction is key to improving reproductive efficiency. Timed artificial insemination of beef cows with high circulating estradiol concentrations at time o...

  12. Radioimmunoassay and related techniques to improve artificial insemination programmes for cattle reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for improvement of cattle production in developed countries. Its use in developing countries is less widespread and the results obtained are far from satisfactory. Under tropical small-farm conditions, a number of socio-economic, organizational, biological and technical factors make the service more difficult to provide and also less efficient. If the major constraints can be identified and overcome, this technology would become more widely adopted and contribute to an increased production of milk and meat, leading to better food security and poverty alleviation. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture therefore convened a consultants meeting in May 1994 to advise on the applicability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy cattle to identify the major causes of conception failure and reproductive wastage when AI is used under the conditions prevailing in developing countries. The consultants recommended the initiation of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) on this topic, and developed a comprehensive technical document including the sampling protocol and the range of information that needs to be recorded in order to obtain conclusive results. A five year CRP on the ''Use of RIA and Related Techniques to Identify Ways of Improving Artificial Insemination Programmes for Cattle Reared Under Tropical and Sub-Tropical Conditions'' was initiated in early 1995. The CRP resulted in the development and standardization of methodologies and protocols, including the computer software program termed AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application), to determine current status and identify constraints. These methodologies and protocols are now being applied on a wider scale in Member States through regional TC projects in Asia and Africa and country TC projects in Latin America. Contributing to the wider application of progesterone RIA for field level problem solving

  13. Reproductive and financial impact of a do-it-yourself artificial insemination programme compared with keeping a bull.

    Shaw, C; Dobson, H


    The fertility of five dairy herds was studied for three years while they initiated a programme of do-it-yourself artificial insemination (DIY AI) and kept a herd bull, and the financial impact of the new programme was assessed. The herds of approximately 100 cows were all Friesian pedigree, changing to Friesian/Holstein. The DIY inseminators each operated within one herd and were all trained at the same centre. Within a herd, each cow inseminated by a bull was paired with a cow inseminated by AI. The paired cows calved during the same week and were of the same lactation number and genetic type. Each year 20 matched pairs, that is 40 cows per herd, were used, giving a total of 600 cow records. During the first two years, in the majority of herds the calving interval decreased in both the cows inseminated by DIY AI and by the bull. There was a higher culling rate for all cows in the first year, resulting in an improved Fertex score and improved profitability in the second year compared with the first. However, in the five herds combined it was only by the third year that the calving interval for the DIY AI cows was shorter (by 17.9 days) than for cows inseminated by the bull (P DIY AI programme was a financial strain for the farmers, but the second and third years showed enough improvement to recover the losses incurred in initiating DIY AI, that is, the capital investment and learning period. PMID:8981735

  14. Improving the reproductive management of dairy cattle subjected to artificial insemination

    Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and

  15. Extended semen for artificial insemination in swine as a potential transmission mechanism for infectious Chlamydia suis.

    Hamonic, G; Pasternak, J A; Käser, T; Meurens, F; Wilson, H L


    Although typically unnoticed, Chlamydia infections in swine have been shown to be both widespread and may impact production characteristics and reproductive performance in swine. Serum titers suggest Chlamydia infection within boar studs is common, and infected boars are known to shed chlamydia in their ejaculates. Although the transmission of viruses in chilled extended semen (ES) is well established, the inclusion of antibiotics in commercially available extender is generally believed to limit or preclude the transmission of infectious bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of ES used in artificial insemination to support transmission of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia suis (C suis) under standard industry conditions. First, the effect of C suis on sperm quality during storage was assessed by flow cytometry. Only concentrations above 5 × 10(5) viable C suis/mL caused significant spermicidal effects which only became evident after 7 days of storage at 17 °C. No significant effect on acrosome reaction was observed using any chlamydial concentration. Next, an in vitro infection model of swine testicular fibroblast cells was established and used to evaluate the effect of chilled storage on C suis viability under variable conditions. Storage in Androhep ES reduced viability by 34.4% at a multiplicity of infection of 1.25, an effect which increased to 53.3% when the multiplicity of infection decreased to 0.1. Interestingly, storage in semen extender alone (SE) or ES with additional antibiotics had no effect on bacterial viability. To rule out a secondary effect on extender resulting from metabolically active sperm, C suis was stored in fresh and expended SE and again no significant effect on bacterial viability was observed. Fluorescent microscopy of C suis in ES shows an association between bacteria and the remaining gel fraction after storage suggesting that the apparent reduction of bacterial viability in the presence

  16. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium).

    Thijssen, A; Dhont, N; Vandormael, E; Cox, A; Klerkx, E; Creemers, E; Ombelet, W


    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre's website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728

  17. Use of milk progesterone RIA for the monitoring of artificial insemination in dairy cows

    Milk samples were collected on day 0, day 10-12 and day 22-24 after artificial insemination (AI) from 2349 dairy cows in 5 dairy farms. Progesterone concentration was measured by RIA. Based on the progesterone concentration in the three milk samples, the reproductive status of the cows could be identified and they were classified as pregnant (50.9%), non-fertilisation (25.8%), inactive ovary (6.1%), persistent corpus luteum (3.5%), AI at inappropriate time (during luteal phase or luteal cyst, 6.2%) and abnormal oestrous cycles (7.5%). The results and interpretation were sent back to AI technician and veterinarians in the dairy farms as soon as possible. They in turn used this information, together with their findings from rectal palpation, to arrive at a reliable diagnosis of the reproductive status in each cow and, where necessary, to adopt appropriate remedial measures in order to ensure pregnancy at subsequent service. So far, 3477 oestrus cycles have been monitored. For establishing a routine system of milk progesterone monitoring in these dairy farms, an ELISA method would be more practical. (author)

  18. Improving the reproductive management of smallholder dairy cattle and the effectiveness of artificial insemination: A summary

    Economic development is progressing rapidly in Asia. One of the many consequences of this phenomenon is an increased demand for food arising from animal agriculture. This increased demand for animal products creates the possibility for a greater dispersion of economic resources, which to this point has been largely confined to urban areas. Thus, the opportunity for poverty alleviation in rural areas exists, but obstacles to this process must be removed. A high priority of the member states of the RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific) is thus to support research and the adoption of technologies that can help overcome these obstacles. Ironically, population expansion, although increasing demand, can have a net negative effect on livestock farming, by restricting the amount of land available for raising animals. Therefore, one major focus on increasing production of animal products must be the increase in productivity per animal and per unit of land. Improvement of nutrition is an important strategy for improving the output of livestock production and results can be obtained in the short-term. On the other hand, selective breeding is a highly effective and sustainable approach for increasing animal productivity in the long-term. Reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) allow single animals to have multiple progeny, reducing the number of parent animals required and allowing for significant increases in the intensity of selection, and proportional increases in genetic improvement of production

  19. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    O P Verma


    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  20. Intrauterine insemination

    Aboulghar, M.; Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Lambalk, C. B.; Somigliana, E.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Van Steirteghem, A.


    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) with or without ovarian stimulation is a common treatment for infertility. Despite its popularity, the effectiveness of IUI treatment is not consistent, and the role of IUI and in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in practice protocols has not been clarified. Medlin

  1. Use of nuclear techniques for evaluation of first service conception rate in dairy herds with artificial insemination in Chile

    The objective of this study was to identify causes of inefficiency in Artificial Insemination (AI) services in 12 dairy farms located in southern Chile. Milk progesterone concentration was determined on the day of breeding and then 10-12 and 21-22 days after AI. Data for semen and cow inseminated, including physical signs of oestrus, were recorded in a computer database (AIDA). Information from 713 cows with first services was analysed. The mean interval from calving to first service was 88.7 days and the mean interval from calving to conception was 107.9 days. The conception rate at first service was 61.9%. Incidence of incorrect AI, most likely due to erroneous heat detection, was 8.9%. Herd related problems affected efficiency of AI in 15.2%. The results show that important factors affecting reproductive performance include nutritional management, oestrus detection and AI technique. (author)

  2. Artificial insemination, hybridization and pregnancy detection in sika deer (Cervus nippon ).

    Willard, S T; Hughes, D M; Bringans, M; Sasser, R G; White, D R; Jaques, J T; Godfrey, R W; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D


    Artificial insemination (AI) was performed on sika hinds (Cervus nippon ) receiving various dosages of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG; Year 1: 0, 50 and 100 IU; Year 2: 100 and 150 IU) and using semen collected from elk and 1 2 elk x 1 2 sika stags. The time from synchronization device removal (CIDR vs norgestomet) to estrus was determined through observations of mounting activity. Methods for pregnancy detection, serum progesterone (P4), estrone sulfate (E1S), pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) and ultrasonography, following AI (Year 1: AI, Days 28 and 48 after AI; Year 2: AI, Days 42, 53 and 100 after AI) and a 90-d natural breeding season were investigated. From available production data, body weights were compared among sika and 1 4 elk x 3 4 sika hybrids relative to age. Pregnancy rates tended (P treatment and sire; administration of 0 IU PMSG resulted in fewer hinds becoming pregnant to AI than 50 or 100 IU of PMSG. Hinds receiving 100 IU of PMSG had higher (P 0.10) between the CIDR and norgestomet groups. Pregnancy rates 50 d after a 90-d breeding season were similar (P > 0.10) between ultrasound (70.9%) and PSPB (61.6%). Serum P4 after 90 d in breeding groups and 50 d after stag removal were higher (P 0.10) between ultrasound (49.0%) and PSPB (37.3%). Serum P4 28 and 48 d after AI were higher (P 0.10) between ultrasound and PSPB (66.7%). Serum P4 was higher (P sika males tended (P sika males, while 1 4 elk x 3 4 sika females were heavier (P sika females at all ages. In summary, this study documents the use of AI and methods for pregnancy detection in sika hinds as well as preliminary information regarding the production of elk-x-sika hybrids. PMID:16727942

  3. Pregnancy disruption in artificially inseminated domestic horse mares as a counterstrategy against potential infanticide.

    Bartoš, L; Bartošová, J; Pluháček, J


    In a previous study, we suggested that the common practice of transporting a mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment that also contains males that did not sire the fetus may be a major cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses. In this study, we tested whether disruption of pregnancies induced by AI occurs as frequently as after mating with a strange stallion away from home and is affected by the same factors in the home social environment. Based on 77 records, the probability of pregnancy disruption after AI depended on the social environment in which the mare was maintained after mating and the number of foals the mare had delivered in the past. Also after AI, as with natural matings away from home, the probability of pregnancy disruption was higher when the mare had no male company in her enclosure but stallions or geldings were present in an adjacent enclosure than when the mare was sharing the enclosure with geldings (generalized linear mixed model = 8.68, = 0.007, odds ratio = 8.17). These data support the prediction that the mare perceives conception after AI equally to natural mating with a strange stallion. The results suggested pregnancy disruption may be stimulated by the social circumstances of the home environment in mares artificially inseminated as in mares mated naturally away from home. The practical implications of this result is that after AI, to reduce risk of pregnancy disruption and improve welfare, horse breeders should place the pregnant mare into an environment with no stallion or stallions/gelding or geldings or to an enclosure together with the male or males. PMID:26641065

  4. Genetic and non-genetic factors related to the success of artificial insemination in dairy goats.

    Furstoss, V; David, I; Fatet, A; Boissard, K; Clément, V; Bodin, L


    The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic and non-genetic factors influencing artificial insemination (AI) success in French dairy goats. Data analysis, on a total of 584 676 and 386 517 AI records for Alpine and Saanen breed, respectively, collected from 1992 to 2009, was conducted separately on each breed. We used a linear simple repeatability animal model which combined male and female random effect and environmental fixed effects. The most important environmental factor identified was the period within year effect due to the European heat wave of 2003. The estimated values of the annual fertility exhibited a negative trend of 1% loss of AI success per 10 years for Alpine breed only. The range of variation for the flock×within years random effect was 70% and 65% for Alpine and Saanen breeds. The negative effect on AI success of antibody production after repetitive hormonal treatment was confirmed. We observed an important positive relationship between fertility and protein yield expressed as quartile within flock×years of protein 250-day yield for female with lactation number over 1, while this trend was negative for primiparous females. We detected a negative effect of the duration of conservation of semen with a difference of about 4% of AI success between extreme values (2 to 8+ or 9+ years). Heritability estimates for male fertility were 0.0037 and 0.0043 for Alpine and Saanen breed respectively, while estimates for female fertility was 0.040 and 0.049. Repeatability estimates for males were 0.008 and 0.010 for Alpine and Saanen, respectively, and 0.097 and 0.102 for females. With such low values of heritability, selection can hardly affect fertility. PMID:26234382

  5. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    Bradford A. Kolb


    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI.

  6. Effect of performing one and two inseminations per cycle on pregnancy rate in artificial insemination by donor%同一周期单双次授精对供精人工授精妊娠率的影响

    李静; 王兴玲; 杨晓娜; 李真; 于晓娜; 乔洪武; 张文


    Objective To study the effect of performing one and two inseminations per cycle on pregnancy rate in artificial insemination by donor ( AID) .Methods Pregnancy rate was retrospectively analyzed when performing two inseminations per cycle in AID compared with one insemination per cycle among a total of 568 patients undergoing 864 cycles of AID at Reproductive Medical Centre of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University during the period of August 2012 and July 2013.Results Pregnancy rate of performing two inseminations per cycle (36.29%) was significantly higher than that of one insemination per cycle (29.77%) in 864 cycles of AID (χ2 =3.438, P <0.05).Pregnancy rates of performing one insemination and two inseminations per cycle were 19.80% and 34.93% for patients with inseminated motile sperm≥10 ×106 , and they were 10.00% and 31.95% for those with inseminated motile sperm <10 × 106.The pregnancy rate of two insemination was significantly higher than that of one insemination (inseminated motile sperm≥10 ×106:χ2 =8.863,P <0.05; inseminated motile sperm <10 ×106: χ2 =9.759, P <0.05).Conclusion Two inseminations per cycle can enhance the pregnancy rate either inseminated motile sperm≥10 ×106 or inseminated motile sperm <10 ×106 around ovulation .%目的:研究同一周期单次授精和双次授精对供精人工授精妊娠率的影响。方法收集2012年8月至2013年7月在郑州大学第三附属医院生殖医学中心进行的供精人工授精( AID)共568人次864个周期。回顾性分析同一周期单次授精、双次授精及首次注入不同精子数对供精人工授精妊娠率的影响。结果在568人次864个供精人工授精周期中,单次授精、双次授精妊娠率分别为29.77%和36.29%,双次授精妊娠率高于单次授精,差异具有统计学意义(χ2=3.438,P<0.05)。首次注入精子数≥1000万条和<1000万条的两组患者,前者单双

  7. Constraints limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination of cattle in Bangladesh

    The aim of the present study was to identify the factors that influence postpartum intervals to first detected luteal activity, first service and to conception, and the conception rates of cows in the artificial insemination (AI) programme in Bangladesh. A baseline survey (investigations 1, 2 and 3) was made on 444 milking cows of various breeds presented for the first postpartum insemination by 413 farmers living at 182 villages/regions in Mymensingh District to 6 AI centres and sub-centres. Each cow was then examined three times after each AI until she stopped returning to oestrus. Sixty to 120 days after the last AI, the cows were examined per rectum to confirm the pregnancy. Milk progesterone data on Day 0 and Day 21-24 contributed to a clear diagnosis with respect to pregnancy in 82.5% cows indicating a possible use of this progesterone assay schedule for pregnancy diagnosis in AI programmes. The intervals to first service and to conception varied from 31 to 427 days (median = 184; n=444) and 40 to 426 days (median 184; n=232) respectively, and conception rate from 32-58% (average 46.2%; n=444). Prolongation of weaning age of calves resulted in long intervals to first service and to conception (P<0.001); weaning age varied from 6 to 19 months (median = 10). Cows with body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) of 3 or more and cows calved during July to September had shorter intervals to first service and conception than those with BCS less than 3 and those calved during March. The conception rate was influenced by cattle rearing systems (intensive vs. extensive), purpose of rearing cows (dairy vs. dairy + draught), BCS and milk production (P<0.05). The degrees of vulvar swelling, nature of genital discharge, tonicity of uterus, and interval between oestrus and AI had significant effects on the conception rate. Bulls classified as good and poor on the basis of semen evaluation data differed with respect to the conception rate in AI (P<0.001); this indicates a way of

  8. Influence of the number of days spent training in an abattoir with access to live cows on the efficiency of do-it-yourself artificial insemination.

    Howells, H M; Davies, D A; Dobson, H


    Data relating to 35,389 inseminations carried out in the first three years after inseminators were trained were collected by postal questionnaire from 94 do-it-yourself (DIY) artificial inseminators in the UK. The mean calving rate from 14,528 inseminations they carried out on 92 farms in the first year after they were trained was 59.4 per cent (range 5 to 92 per cent). In the second year the mean calving rate from 11,515 inseminations by 64 inseminators was 62.3 per cent (range 33 to 88 per cent), and in the third year the mean calving rate from 9346 inseminations by 49 inseminators was 64.6 per cent (range 41 to 92 per cent). There was an increase of 5.2 per cent in the mean calving rate over the three years with an overall mean calving rate of 61.5 per cent. Each trainee carried out an average of 376 inseminations (range 20 to 800) during the three years. Thirteen instructors were responsible for the tuition and the average time the trainees spent in an abattoir with access to live cows was 2.88 days, with a range from none to five days. For the trainees who spent up to three days training in an abattoir there was an increase of 5.9 per cent in the calving rate they achieved in their first year for every day they spent training with access to live cows (P < 0.005), but there were no significant effects on the outcome of their inseminations in their second or third years. PMID:10212504

  9. Problems and Suggestions of Swine Artificial Insemination%我国猪人工授精存在问题及对策

    张长兴; 徐秋良


    论文立足于生产实践,从技术及服务两方面分析我国猪人工授精存在的问题,就猪人工授精的重要性、人工授精站建设和人工授精技术操作规范以及目前猪人工授精上门服务存在的隐患进行了综述,以期为猪人工授精技术的规范和推广提供借鉴.%In this paper, the problems of swine artificial insemination were analyzed from aspects of technology and service standard on the farm production. The suggestions, importance, standardized operations, and the hidden hazard of door to door service in current situation of artificial insemination were reviewed, expecting to guide the popularizing of swine artificial insemination in Chinese farms.

  10. Artificial insemination of cattle in Sri Lanka: Status, performance and problems

    Artificial insemination (AI) has been accepted as the primary breeding tool in genetic upgrading programmes of cattle in Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted, to determine the coverage and performance of AI at national, provincial and district levels (Study 1), the success rate and factors affecting success rate of AI in wet zone mid-country smallholder farms (Study 2) and in wet zone up-country large multiplier farms (Study 3). The objective was to design, implement remedial measures and/or determine future studies necessary to improve the efficiency of AI services. Study 1 revealed that at national level the AI service reached less than 15% of the breedable cattle and accounted for less than 6% of estimated annual calvings. The coverage reached above 50% of the breedable cattle only in the wet zone while in the intermediate and dry zone areas it was negligible. Study 2 revealed that the mean calving to first service interval (CFSI) in cattle of the wet zone mid-country small holdings was 183 ± 87.1 days (n=211) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) was 194 ± 93.9 days (n=143). The first service conception rate (FSCR) was 45% and the overall conception rate (OCR) was 50.2%, with an average of 1.99 services per conception (S/C). Study 3 showed that the mean CFSI and CCI in wet zone upcountry multiplier farmers were 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n=133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n=170) respectively. The average FSCR and OCR were 50.4% and 53.6% respectively and the average S/C was 1.9. Study 1 showed that the AI coverage of the island is very low and the proportion of calvings from AI is too low to have a significant impact on genetic composition of the national cow population. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the success rate of the AI service in the more favourable and extensively covered wet zone areas was also low. These studies revealed that factors associated with the chain of events from farmer, cow, semen to the technician contributed to poor fertility. (author)

  11. Comparison of artificial insemination and natural service cost effectiveness in dairy cattle.

    Valergakis, G E; Arsenos, G; Banos, G


    Reproductive efficiency in the dairy herd is the most important factor for its economic success and a major concern for dairy farmers when using artificial insemination (AI) or natural service (NS). Our objectives were to estimate, compare and analyse the costs associated with breeding cattle by do-it-yourself (DIY) AI and NS and identify the factors that influence them, under typical dairy farming conditions in Greece. A simulation study was designed based on data from 120 dairy cattle farms that differed in size (range 40 to 285 cows) and milk production level (4000 to 9300 kg per cow per year). Different scenarios were employed to estimate costs associated directly with AI and NS as well as potentially extended calving intervals (ECI) due to AI. Results showed that bull maintenance costs for NS were €1440 to €1670 per year ($1,820 to $2,111). Direct AI costs were higher than those for NS for farms with more than 30 cows and ECI constituted a considerable additional burden. In fact, amongst the factors that affected the amount of milk needed to cover total extra AI costs, number of days open was the dominant one. Semen, feed and heifer prices had a very small effect. When, hypothetically, use of NS bulls results in a calving interval of 12 months, AI daughters with a calving interval of 13.5 months have to produce about 705 kg of additional milk in order to cover the extra cost. Their actual milk production, however, exceeds this limit by more than 25%. When real calving intervals are considered (13.0 v. 13.7 months for NS and AI, respectively) AI daughters turn out to produce more than twice the additional amount of milk needed. It was concluded that even under less than average management conditions, AI is more profitable than the best NS scenario. The efficient communication of this message should be a primary concern of the AI industry. PMID:22444295

  12. Ovarian stimulation protocols (anti-oestrogens, gonadotrophins with and without GnRH agonists/antagonists) for intrauterine insemination (IUI) in women with subfertility

    Cantineau, A. E. P.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.


    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been demonstrated to be an effective form of treatment for subfertile couples. Several ovarian stimulation protocols combined with IUI have been proposed, but it is still not clear which stimulation protocol a

  13. Short communication: Test for nonpregnancy in dairy cows based on plasma progesterone concentrations before and after timed artificial insemination.

    Wilsdorf, L J; Keisler, D H; Poock, S E; Lamberson, W R; Escalante, R C; Lucy, M C


    Timed artificial insemination (AI) programs have increased reproductive efficiency in dairy herds. A low timed AI pregnancy per AI is partially explained by cows that fail to respond optimally to the series of treatments that are designed to synchronize ovulation for AI. We hypothesized that testing cows for plasma progesterone concentrations during a timed AI protocol could be used as an early diagnostic test for nonpregnancy. Lactating Holstein cows (n=160) in 2 confinement-style dairies were used. Cows were treated with Presynch Ovsynch 56 for timed AI. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma were measured at -3, 0, 7, and 25 d relative to timed AI. Progesterone data were analyzed and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated by using logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves for a progesterone test for nonpregnancy on d -3 (PGF2α), 0 (AI), 7, and 25 d relative to timed AI were 0.68, 0.52, 0.55, and 0.89, respectively. The cutpoints and sensitivity (respectively) for the progesterone test were 0.51ng/mL (lower=nonpregnant) and 28.2% for the day of PGF2α, 0.43ng/mL (greater=nonpregnant) and 17.9% for the day of AI, 1.82ng/mL (lower=nonpregnant) and 23.1% for 7 d after AI, and 2.67ng/mL (lower=nonpregnant) and 76.0% for 25 d after AI. The false positive rate was less than 5% for all tests. Analysis of a second data set from a published study gave approximately the same cutpoints and sensitivity. When both studies were combined, approximately 20% of nonpregnant cows could be identified with a single test that was done before or shortly after AI with a false positive rate of less than 5%. When 2 and 3 tests were applied sequentially, the sensitivity for identifying nonpregnant cows increased from 38.4 to 50.5%. The pregnancy per AI for those cows that met the established progesterone criteria was approximately 3 to 4 times greater than those that failed to meet the criteria. The conclusions were that cows destined to be

  14. Serum progesterone concentration and conception rate of beef cows supplemented with ground corn after a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol Concentração sérica de progesterona e taxa de concepção em vacas de corte suplementadas com milho moído após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo

    J.B. Pescara


    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of finely ground corn (FC supplementation to grazing beef cows after fixed-time AI (TAI on serum progesterone (P4 concentrations on day 7 and conception rates on day 28 after TAI were investigated. Three hundred and sixty-four lactating multiparous Brangus cows had follicular and luteal activity synchronized by treatment with estradiol benzoate (Estrogin; 2.0mg IM and insertion of intra-vaginal P4 releasing device (CIDR on day -11, followed by treatment with PGF2α (Lutalyse; 25mg IM on day -4, CIDR and calf removal on day -2, and treatment with GnRH (Fertagyl; 100µg IM TAI and calf return on day 0. On day 0, cows were randomly allotted in one of the following FC supplement treatments: G1 - 2kg/day from day 0 to 21; G2 - 2kg/day from day 0 to 7, and 6kg/day from day 8 to 21; G3 -6kg/day from day 0 to 7, and 2kg/day from day 8 to 21; and G4 -6kg/day from day 0 to 21. Blood samples were collected on day 7, and pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography indicating the presence of a fetus on day 28. Cows supplemented with 2kg/d of FC had higher serum concentration of P4 on day 7 than cows supplemented with 6kg/d (1.58 vs. 1.28ng/mL; PAvaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de ingestão de suplemento com milho moído finamente (MF em vacas de corte, mantidas em pasto, após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona (P4 no dia 7, e sobre a concepção no dia 28 pós IATF. Trezentas e sessenta e quatro vacas Brangus, multíparas lactantes, tiveram as atividades folicular e luteal sincronizadas por tratamento com benzoato de estradiol (Estrogin; 2,0mg IM e inserção de dispositivo intravaginal de P4 (CIDR no dia -11, seguido por tratamento com PGF2 α (Lutalyse; 25mg IM no dia - 4, retirada do CIDR e remoção temporária de bezerros no dia -2, e tratamento com GnRH (Fertagyl; 100 µ g IM, IATF e retorno dos bezerros no dia 0. No dia 0, as vacas foram

  15. Comparative fertility of freshly collected vs frozen-thawed semen with laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination in domestic cats.

    Lambo, C A; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A; Bateman, H l; Newsom, J; Swanson, W F


    Artificial insemination (AI) is potentially invaluable as an adjunct to natural breeding for the conservation management of non-domestic felid populations. The efficacy of AI, however, must be substantially improved for applied use, especially when using frozen semen. Our recent advances in using laparoscopic oviductal AI (LO-AI) with low sperm numbers and freezing of cat semen in a soy lecithin-based cryoprotectant medium suggest that combining these two approaches might improve pregnancy outcomes with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. In this study, our objectives were to (i) assess the effect of two gonadotropin dosages (100 vs 150 IU eCG) on ovarian response in domestic cats and (ii) compare the relative fertility of frozen-thawed and fresh semen in vivo following LO-AI. All 16 females ovulated after gonadotropin treatment and were inseminated with fresh semen from one male and frozen-thawed semen from a second male. There were no differences between gonadotropin dosages in CL number, pregnancy percentage or litter size. Half (8/16) of the females conceived, with seven females giving birth to a total of 36 offspring. Paternity analysis showed that more kittens resulted from LO-AI with fresh (28/36, 78%) than frozen-thawed (8/36, 22%) semen, possibly due to impaired motility and longevity of thawed sperm. These results demonstrated that viable offspring can be produced by AI using semen frozen in a soy lecithin-based medium. Insemination with greater numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa, combined with further refinement of cat sperm cryopreservation methods, may be necessary to optimize pregnancy success with LO-AI in domestic and nondomestic cats. PMID:23279520

  16. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.


    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P inseminations under lower SR values ( P inseminations during the summer were performed under significantly lower maximum T ( P inseminations resulted in pregnancy when they were carried out under higher maximum ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR <1 (SR on AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.


    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R


    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate. PMID:27010281

  18. Tasks Scheduling Model and Algorithm for Artificial Insemination of Dairy Cows%奶牛人工授精任务调度模型与算法研究

    蒋帮镇; 王磊; 江志斌


    规模化养殖环境下牧场每天都有大量人工授精任务,人工授精任务执行具有最佳时机的特性,研究借鉴“提前/拖期调度”理论建立奶牛人工授精任务调度模型,采用惩罚成本函数兼顾奶牛受孕率和产奶量,采用禁忌搜索算法和二次规划方法求解人工授精任务执行序列和开始执行时间,预测奶牛排卵时间和最佳人工授精时间。仿真实验证明了模型和算法的有效性。%There are many artificial insemination tasks in pasture everyday under large-scale cultivation, and implanting artificial insemination task has the character of optimal timing. The earliness/tardiness scheduling theory was adopted to establish task scheduling model for artificial insemination of dairy cows. Based on the tasks’ conception rate and milk yield, the cost function was proposed. Then the tabu search (TS) and the quadratic programming (QP) was used for processing the sequences of operation and the start time of operation for artificial insemination task, and for predicting the optimal time of artificial insemination. The simulation experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of model and algorithm.

  19. Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle

    Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P<0.001). A high percentage of animals selected for OIS programmes (37%) showed a poor BCS (<2.5 on a scale of 1-5). Motility of semen used for AI was low (<30%) in 47% of the samples evaluated. The results from progesterone measurements demonstrated that the reasons for poor fertility were low accuracy in oestrus detection, poor response to treatment for OIS, non-fertilization, embryo mortality and functional disturbances present after treatment. Under our field conditions during the dry season, acyclicity (anoestrus) is a frequent problem in primiparous cows and in those with poor BCS. The BCS in heifers and the quality of different treatments had a significant effect on the conception rate. These results confirm that the use of progesterone measurement together with data management using AIDA is a very appropriate way to evaluate and improve the quality and efficiency of AI in OIS programmes. (author)

  20. Artificial Insemination of the Cherry Valley Duck with Muscovy Drakes%番鸭与樱桃谷鸭人工授精的研究

    陈章言; 杜文兴; 段修军; 赵旭庭; 王建


    [目的] 探讨半番鸭生产中的人工授精技术.[方法] 选用公番鸭和樱桃谷母鸭为试验材料,采用按摩采精法和翻肛输精法进行人工授精试验,探讨输精量、输精间隔时间、输精时间以及稀释液对受精率的影响.[结果] 公番鸭和樱桃谷母鸭自然交配受精率很低,平均受精率为39.58%,人工授精受精率可达74.79%.用磷酸缓冲液和Lake's液稀释精液的受精率比较高,分别为75.24%和75.16%,与原精液组受精率(74.10%)差异不显著.精液稀释后在5 ℃保存24 h后输精,其受精率均较低,分别为23.76%和34.33%.[结论] 在半番鸭生产中,采用人工授精技术可降低精液使用量和提高受精率.%[Objective] To explore artificial insemination technique of mule duck. [Method] Male Muscovy duck and female Cherry Valley duck were selected to conduct artificial insemination. Semens of male Muscovy duck were collected with massage method and inseminated the female Cherry Valley duck with vagina-insemination method. Effects of volume of semen, insemination interval, insemination time and diluent on fertilization rate were studied in series of experiments. [ Result] The average fertilization rate was only 39.58% by natural mating between male Muscovy duck and female Cherry Valley duck, while the average fertilization rate increased to 74.79% by artificial insemination. There were no significant difference between fresh semen and diluted semens by phosphate and Lake's buffer. The fertilization rate of diluted semens by phosphate and Lake's buffer were 75.24% and 75.16% respectively, and the fertilization rate of fresh semen was 74.10%. The semen was diluted by phosphate and Lake's buffer, then stored at 5 ℃ for 24 h. The average fertilization rate of these two diluted semen decreased to 23.76% and 34.33% respectively. [Conclusion] Artificial insemination technology can reduce semen volume and increase the fertilization rate in Mule duck production.

  1. Improving productivity through the use of artificial insemination in dual purpose farms in Costa Rica

    The objective of the present study was to identify the major causes of inefficiency in the AI services provided to dual-purpose farms in the region of Tilaran, Guanacaste. The study included four representative farms from the region, where AI was done on a routine basis in which 80 to 100 first services were done annually. The overall conception rate (CR) was 42.7% (271/635) and was significantly influenced by three variables: lactation, oestrus signs and technician. Cows that were inseminated during their lactation number 5 had 2.17 times greater chance of getting pregnant (P<0.001) than cows inseminated during any other lactation. Cows inseminated after detecting oestrus because they were mounting others had 1.2 less chance to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat, but those cows detected by other signs such as restlessness or bellowing had 1.8 more opportunity to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat. The interval from calving to first service was 114.1 days and three variables had significant (P<0.05) effects on this interval: farm, calving season and lactation. Cows calving during the rainy season had a shorter interval than those calving in the dry season. There was a significant difference between the first lactation and the others. Only lactation had significant effect on first service CR. It was concluded that farm type, lactation, season, and heat signs were the most important factors having an influence on the efficiency of AI. Variables involved are closely related to management and should be targeted in future work aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. (author)

  2. Experience in Improving Cattle Conception Rate with Artificial Insemination%提高黄牛冷配受胎率的体会

    阿尔阿力别克·萨哈巴; 金恩斯汗·那俄斯汗


    In recent years ,Baliqun county has promoted cattle frozen-semen artificial insemination, though castration of inferior bulls, decreasing the number of local breed and increasing the number of superior genetically cattle. In the present paper,experiences of frozen-semen artificial insemination, are summarized.%目前大力推广黄牛冷配工作,去势劣种公牛、淘汰土种牛、增加自繁自育母犊等,我们获得优良冻精和本地品种杂交改良后代。本文介绍了从事黄牛冷配工作中掌握的经验和体会。

  3. Improvement of the efficiency of artificial insemination services through the use of radioimmunoassay and a computer database application

    A study was conducted at several locations in four provinces of Indonesia to evaluate and increase the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services provided to cattle farmers and to improve the feeding and reproductive management practices. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for progesterone measurement was used together with the computer program Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) to monitor the success of AI and for the early diagnosis of non-pregnancy and reproductive disorders in dairy and beef cattle. Baseline surveys showed that the average calving to first service interval (CFSI) ranged from 121.3 ± 78.2 days in West Java to 203.5 ± 118.3 in West Sumatra, and the conception rate (CR) to first AI ranged from 27% in South Sulawesi to 44% in West Java. Supplementary feeding with urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) combined with training of farmers on improved husbandry practices reduced the CFSI from 150.6 ± 66.3 days to 102.3 ± 36.5 days and increased the CR from 27% to 49% in South Sulawesi. Similar interventions in West Java reduced the CFSI from 121.3 ± 78.2 days to 112.1 ± 80.9 days and increased the CR from 34% to 37%. Results from measurement of progesterone in milk or blood samples collected on days 0, 10-12 and 22-24 after AI showed that 25% of the animals were non-cyclic or anovulatory, while 8.7% were pregnant at the time of AI. Investigation of cows with breeding problems using measurement of progesterone in combination with clinical examination revealed a range of problems, including true anoestrus, sub-oestrus or missed oestrus, persistent CL and luteal cysts. The ability to make an accurate diagnosis enabled the provision of appropriate advice or treatment for overcoming the problems. Anti-progesterone serum and 125I-Progesterone tracer for use in RIA were produced locally and were found to have acceptable characteristics. The tracer had good specific activity and stability for up to 12 weeks. The production of standards

  4. Health profile and efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination of cattle herds owned by small-scale producers in the region of Piracicaba

    Alfredo José Ferreira Melo; Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio; Cláudia Del Fava; Edviges Maristela Pituco; José de Sordi Neto; Rafael Herrera Alvarez


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive indices of different cattle herds submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination program (FTAI) in the region of Piracicaba, SP. Twenty herds composed of 10 to 80 crossbred dairy cows were selected to participate in a breeding program through FTAI. First, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of reproductive system diseases in the herds. For this purpose, blood samples were collected randomly from each herd for the se...

  5. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data.

    Rutten, C J; Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Huijps, K; Nielen, M; Hogeveen, H


    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first insemination. The parameters considered for the model are readily available on farm at the time a farmer makes breeding decisions. In the first step, variables are selected for the prognostic model that have prognostic value for the likelihood of a successful first insemination. In the second step, farm effects on the likelihood of a successful insemination are quantified and the prognostic model is cross-validated. Logistic regression with a random effect for farm was used to develop the prognostic model. Insemination and test-day milk production data from 2,000 commercial Dutch dairy farms were obtained, and 190,541 first inseminations from this data set were used for model selection. The following variables were used in the selection process: parity, days in milk, days to peak production, production level relative to herd mates, milk yield, breed of the cow, insemination season and calving season, log of the ratio of fat to protein content, and body condition score at insemination. Variables were selected in a forward selection and backward elimination, based on the Akaike information criterion. The variables that contributed most to the model were random farm effect, relative production factor, and milk yield at insemination. The parameters were estimated in a bootstrap analysis and a cross-validation was conducted within this bootstrap analysis. The parameter estimates for body condition score at insemination varied most, indicating that this effect varied most among Dutch dairy farms. The cross-validation showed that the prognosis of insemination success closely resembled the mean insemination success observed in the data set. Insemination success depends on

  6. Single fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts and weaned sows using pLH at estrus onset administered through vulvar submucosal route.

    Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P


    This study evaluated the use of a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in gilts and weaned sows using 2.5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) administered through vulvar submucosal route, at the onset of estrus. In experiment 1 (Exp.1), 318 pubertal gilts were assigned to two groups: control-G-no hormonal application and artificial inseminations (AIs) at 12, 36, and 60 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; and FTAI-G-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 12 hours later. In experiment 2 (Exp. 2), 309 weaned sows were assigned to three groups: Control-S-no hormone application and AIs at 0, 24, and 48 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; FTAI-NH-no hormone application and a single FTAI at 24 hours after the onset of estrus, and FTAI-pLH-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 24 hours later. Transabdominal real time B-mode ultrasonography was performed to determine whether the insemination had been performed within 24 hours before ovulation, considered as the optimal interval. In Exp. 1, ultrasound evaluation (12-hour intervals) was carried out to determine the interval between the onset of estrus and ovulation. In both experiments, 2 × 10(9) sperm cells in 80 mL were used to perform cervical and postcervical deposition of semen in gilts and sows, respectively. Compared with control-G, FTAI-G gilts had shorter (P insemination outside the optimal interval reduced (P inseminated within the optimal interval. In Exp. 2, there were no differences in the AFR (Control-S: 94.1%; FTAI-NH: 86.1%; FTAI-pLH: 88.0%) and TPB (Control-S: 12.8; FTAI-NH: 12.7, and FTAI-pLH: 12.0 piglets) among treatments. The presence of semen backflow reduced (P insemination performed too late relative to ovulation reduced the AFR (P inseminated within the optimal interval. In conclusion, 2.5-mg pLH applied at the vulvar submucosa at the onset of estrus advances the ovulation in

  7. Progesterone supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition after artificial insemination improves conception rates in high-producing dairy cows.

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Helguera, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Paso, V; Tuono, T; Ramon, A; Mur-Novales, R; Tutusaus, J; López-Gatius, F


    This study examines the possible effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition, from Days 15 to 17 post-artificial insemination (AI), on reproductive performance in high-producing dairy cows. Cows in their 15th day post-AI were alternately assigned to a control, no-treatment group (C: n = 257) or treatment group (P4: n = 287) on a weekly rotational basis according to the chronologic order of their gynecologic visit. On the basis of the odds ratio, the interaction treatment × previous placenta retention had a significant effect (P = 0.02) on conception rate. Thus, cows in P4 that had not suffered a retained placenta were 1.6 times more likely to conceive 28 to 34 days post-AI than the remaining cows. In nonpregnant cows, treatment had no effect on subsequent return to estrus or AI interval and neither were any effects of treatment observed on twin pregnancy and early fetal loss rates. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of P4 supplementations during the time of pregnancy recognition after AI in cows without a clinical history of placenta retention. PMID:26786244


    U. Paputungan


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  9. Using GAIDA (Guide to AI Data Analysis) to analyze data collected from artificial insemination programmes for cattle in developing countries

    The objectives of AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) and its companion GAIDA (Guide to AI Data Analysis) are to address two major problems in on-farm research on livestock production. The first is the quality of the data collected and the second is the intellectual rigor of the analyses and their associated results when statistically testing causal hypotheses. The solution is to develop a data management system such as AIDA and an analysis system such as GAIDA to estimate parameters that explain biological mechanisms for on-farm application. The system uses epidemiological study designs in the uncontrolled research environment of the farm, uses a database manager (Microsoft Access) to handle data management issues encountered in preparing data for analysis, and then uses a statistical program (SYSTAT) to do preliminary analyses. These analyses enable the researcher to have better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in the data contained within the AIDA database. Using GAIDA as a guide, this preliminary analysis helps to determine the strategy for further in-depth analyses. (author)

  10. Predictive capacity of sperm quality parameters and sperm subpopulations on field fertility after artificial insemination in sheep.

    Santolaria, P; Vicente-Fiel, S; Palacín, I; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Silvestre, M A; Yániz, J L


    This study was designed to evaluate the relevance of several sperm quality parameters and sperm population structure on the reproductive performance after cervical artificial insemination (AI) in sheep. One hundred and thirty-nine ejaculates from 56 adult rams were collected using an artificial vagina, processed for sperm quality assessment and used to perform 1319 AI. Analyses of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), sperm nuclear morphometry by computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA), membrane integrity by acridine orange-propidium iodide combination and sperm DNA fragmentation using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) were performed. Clustering procedures using the sperm kinematic and morphometric data resulted in the classification of spermatozoa into three kinematic and three morphometric sperm subpopulations. Logistic regression procedures were used, including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and farm, year, month of AI, female parity, female lambing-treatment interval, ram, AI technician and sperm quality parameters (including sperm subpopulations) as independent factors. Sperm quality variables remaining in the logistic regression model were viability and VCL. Fertility increased for each one-unit increase in viability (by a factor of 1.01) and in VCL (by a factor of 1.02). Multiple linear regression analyses were also performed to analyze the factors possibly influencing ejaculate fertility (N=139). The analysis yielded a significant (Psemen variables to predict field fertility was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Sperm viability and VCL showed significant, albeit limited, predictive capacity on field fertility (0.57 and 0.54 Area Under Curve, respectively). The distribution of spermatozoa in the different subpopulations was not related to fertility. PMID:26507945

  11. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle : a cohort study

    Kop, P. A. L.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; de Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M. W.; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H. J. M.; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H. M.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.


    STUDY QUESTION: Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. SUMMARY ANSWER: In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial i

  12. Conception rate, uterine infection and embryo quality after artificial insemination and natural breeding with a stallion carrier of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a case report

    Tiago Guimarães


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause venereal disease and infertility in horses. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa - carrier stallion, often unresponsive to artificial vagina collection, was used to naturally breed mares. Semen collected from the same stallion was also used to perform artificial inseminations. Pregnancy rates, embryo quality and incidence of uterine infection were compared between inseminated or naturally-bred mares. Methods P. aeruginosa was isolated from swabbing of the penis, prepuce and distal urethra of the stallion. Before being bred or inseminated, clitoral/vestibular samples were collected from all mares, and cultured for isolation of P. aeruginosa. At the first observed estrus, endometrial swabs were also collected. All mares subjected to natural mating (NS were re-evaluated for P.aeruginosa by culture of clitoral and endometrial swabs. Artificial inseminations (AI were performed either with fresh-extended semen (11 AI/7 mares or frozen semen (10 AI/7 mares. The stallion was also used to breed 3 mares (4 services. For embryo collection, 2 mares were inseminated with fresh-extended semen (1 AI/mare, and 2 additional mares were inseminated with frozen semen (2 AI/mare. Two mares were naturally-bred with a total of 9 services, for embryo collection. All mares were examined after AI or natural service (NS, for uterine pathologies. Embryo recoveries were attempted passing a catheter with inflatable cuff connected to a sterile flexible 2-way flushing catheter, through the cervix. Flushed media was recovered into an Em-Con filter, and embryos searched using a stereoscope. Embryos were graded from 1 (excellent to 4 (degenerated/dead. Results Pregnancy rates obtained after NS was 50% per cycle. However, more than half of the NS resulted in uterine disease, while uterine pathology was seen only in 22% of the time following AI. Half of the mares bred by NS got positive to P. aeruginosa. Percentage of embryo recovery rates

  13. Improving reproductive efficiency in an artificial insemination programme through early non-pregnancy diagnosis, management and training

    A field survey was conducted on a stratified random sample of the owners of 300 buffaloes and 200 cattle. The main buffalo farming systems were rural subsistence, rural market-oriented, peri-urban and commercial farming, while the main cattle farming systems were rural rain-fed (Barani), rural irrigated, peri-urban and progressive farming. In buffaloes the average age of maturity (first use for breeding) was 34.8 ± 5.7 months and the calving interval (CI) was 17.5 ± 4.7 months. In cattle the average age at maturity was 32.4 ± 6.4 in purebreds, 20.1 ± 7.2 in crossbreds and 35.5 ± 10.4 in indigenous animals, while the CI was 15.9 ± 5.1, 13.1 ± 2.8 and 12.3 ± 6.8 months for the three breed types, respectively. Milk samples were collected for from 137 cattle and buffaloes that were subjected to artificial insemination (AI) on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. The average concentration of progesterone was 0.15 ± 0.02 ng/mL in milk collected on day 0 and 3.26 ± 0.29 ng/mL in those collected 10-12 days later. Based on results from the first two samples, 77% of cows had a low-high progesterone combination, indicating that they had been inseminated at an ovulatory oestrus. Based on results from all three samples, 42% of cows had a low-high-high progesterone combination and were subsequently diagnosed as pregnant by rectal palpation. A lowhigh- low progesterone combination was observed in 19% of cows and all were found non-pregnant on rectal palpation. It was concluded that milk progesterone assay is effective of the early diagnosis of non-pregnancy in cattle and buffaloes. (author)

  14. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was

  15. Effect of manipulating progesterone before timed artificial insemination on reproductive and endocrine parameters in seasonal-calving, pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Lucy, M C; Curran, F; Herlihy, M M; Waters, S M; Larkin, J A; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T


    Fertility to timed AI (TAI) is profoundly affected by progesterone (P4) levels during hormonal synchronization protocols. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in a seasonal-calving, pasture-based production system were randomly assigned to 2 treatments to manipulate P4 before TAI during growth of the preovulatory follicle. Cows in the first treatment (High P4; n=30) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol {Pre-Ovsynch [GnRH; 7 d, PGF2α; 3 d, GnRH] followed 7 d later by Breeding-Ovsynch [GnRH (G1); 7 d PGF2α; 24 h, PGF2α; 32 h, GnRH (G2); 16 h, TAI]}. Cows in the second treatment (n=30; Low P4) received the same Double-Ovsynch protocol but with an additional PGF2α treatment 24 h after G1. Overall, synchronization rate did not differ between treatments and was 92% (55/60). Unexpectedly, 37% of Low P4 cows were detected in estrus ~24 h before scheduled TAI and were inseminated ~16 h before scheduled TAI. Overall, P4 did not differ between treatments at G1, whereas High P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at PGF2α and G2 than Low P4 cows. High P4 cows had the smallest mean follicle diameter at G2, whereas Low P4 cows with no estrus before TAI had intermediate mean follicle diameter at G2, and Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had the largest mean follicle diameter. Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had larger corpora lutea 15 d after TAI than Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI or High P4 cows. In accordance with corpus luteum size on d 15, High P4 cows and Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI had lower P4 from 4 to 46 d after TAI than Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI. Relative mRNA levels of the interferon-stimulated genes ISG15, MX1, MX2, and OAS1 were greater for Low P4 than for High P4 cows, whereas relative mRNA levels of RTP4 were greater for High P4 than for Low P4 cows 18 d after TAI. Treatment did not affect plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations after TAI; however, pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations were

  16. Timed insemination of beef heifers using the 7-11 Synch protocol.

    Eborn, D R; Grieger, D M


    Two experiments were conducted over 3 yr to determine pregnancy rates in beef heifers after a timed AI in response to the 7-11 Synch protocol. In Exp. 1, 179 heifers were either fed melengestrol acetate (MGA; 7-11 Synch) or given an intravaginal progesterone (P4)-releasing insert [controlled intravaginal drug releasing device (CIDR); 7-11 CIDR] for 7 d. Prostaglandin F2αwas administered on the last day of MGA feeding or at CIDR removal followed by the CO-Synch protocol (GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH) beginning 4 d after MGA withdrawal or 2 d after CIDR removal. Heifers received a timed AI with GnRH beginning 48 h after the second PGF2α. Blood samples were collected at d -10, 0 (start of MGA feeding), and 18 (second PGF2α injection). In Exp. 2, 298 beef heifers were treated with the 7-11 Synch protocol with (7-11 Synch) or without (7 Synch) the first GnRH injection. Fixed time AI and GnRH was given 54 h after PGF2α. Blood samples were collected at d -10 and 0 in yr 1 and d -10, 0, 18 and at AI in yr 2. In Exp. 1, no differences were detected between 7 and 11 Synch and 7-11 CIDR for attainment of puberty in noncyclic heifers (94 vs. 78%; P = 0.21), the proportion of heifers that had luteal tissue on d 18 (87 vs. 83%; P = 0.41), or pregnancy rates after timed AI (47 vs. 46%; P = 0.99). In Exp. 2, administration of GnRH 4 d after the last MGA (7-11 Synch) feeding tended (P = 0.07) to induce more prepubertal heifers to cycle (88 vs. 61%) and increased (P MGA for 7 d or applying a CIDR insert for 7 d before a CO-Synch protocol. In contrast, use of GnRH at the beginning of the CO-Synch protocol improved pregnancy rates after a timed AI by inducing more prepubertal heifers to ovulate and increasing the proportion of heifers with luteal tissue at the PGF2α injection. PMID:23230105

  17. Evaluation of reproductive performance of cattle bred by artificial insemination in Myanmar through the use of progesterone radioimmunoassay

    The productivity and reproductive efficiency of cattle were determined in small-scale farms of upper and lower Myanmar, before and after the introduction of interventions, which included training workshops for farmers, refresher courses for artificial insemination (AI) technicians and quality control of frozen semen. The conception rate (CR) to first service increased from 50% before interventions to 75% after interventions, while the mean calving to first service interval (CFI) and the mean calving to conception interval (CCI) remained unchanged at around 110 days and 125 days, respectively. Supplementary feeding of cows and heifers with urea molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) during late pregnancy and the post-partum period resulted in a significant reduction in the interval from calving to onset of ovarian activity and a significant increase in the monthly milk yield. It also reduced the CCI and increased growth rate of calves but the differences were not significant. The economic effects of feeding UMMB were studied on six pilot farms by comparing the feed costs with the income from milk in groups of supplemented and control cows. The cost: benefit ratios ranged from 1:1.4 to 1:7.2 in the different farms. A comparison of reproduction in small-scale farms at three locations and medium scale farms at one location showed that CFI ranged from 113.5 ± 31.4 to 133.6 ± 35.2 days in the former and averaged 192.4 ± 95.7 days in the latter. The CR to first service ranged from 58.2% to 81.1% in small-scale farms and was 52.9% in medium scale farms. At all locations, the CFI and CCI were longer and the CR was lower following the first calving than those following the second and later calvings. (author)

  18. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana


    In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor), ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This proce...

  19. 肉牛人工授精技术网络服务平台的构建%Construction for Networks Service Platform of Beef Cattle Artificial Insemination

    胡大辉; 杜治国; 伏彭辉


    为了在基层畜牧科技人员中推广肉牛人工授精技术,提高基层畜牧科技人员掌握该项技术的能力,利用计算机网络并结合多媒体技术开发出肉牛人工授精网络服务平台.平台利用SQL Server 2008构建后台数据库系统,使用.NET进行前台框架设计,运用Visual Studio.NET进行客户端程序设计.平台建成后投入实际运行,能帮助基层畜牧科技人员随时随地学习肉牛人工授精技术的相关知识,能随时解决基层畜牧科技人员的技术疑问,以便于基层畜牧科技人员更好地为广大农牧民服务.%In order to promote the application of beef cattle artificial insemination technique in scientific and technical personnel in animal husbandry at grassroot level,improve their capability to master the technique,networks service platform of beef cattle artificial insemination was constructed by use of computer networks combined with multi-media technology.The backend database system of this platform was set up by the SQL Server 2008,the front-end framework system was designed based on.NET,client program was designed by Visual Studio.The platform can help the animal husbandry scientific and technical personnel to learn knowledge of beef cattle artificial insemination technique at anytime in anywhere and solve the technical questions.It also can facilitate the animal husbandry scientific and technqcal personnel to service better for the majority of herdsmen.

  20. The association between occurrence and severity of subclinical and clinical mastitis on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service of Holstein cows.

    Fuenzalida, M J; Fricke, P M; Ruegg, P L


    The objective of this prospective study was to determine associations between occurrence and severity of clinical (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SM) during a defined breeding risk period (BRP, 3d before to 32d after artificial insemination) on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service (P/AI1). Dairy cows (n=3,144) from 4 Wisconsin herds were categorized based on the occurrence of one or more CM or SM events during and before the BRP: (1) healthy, (2) mastitis before BRP, (3) SM during BRP, (4) chronic SM, (5) CM during BRP, or (6) chronic CM. Clinical mastitis cases were categorized based on etiology (gram-negative, gram-positive, and no growth) and severity (mild, moderate, or severe). Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.56, 0.67, and 0.75 for cows experiencing chronic CM, CM, or SM during the BRP, respectively. The occurrence of chronic SM was not associated with reduced probability of P/AI1. Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.54 for cows experiencing mild or moderate-severe cases of CM during the BRP, respectively. The odds of pregnancy for cows experiencing CM caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria during the BRP were 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. The occurrence of CM that resulted in no growth of bacteria in cultured milk samples was not associated with reductions in P/AI1. Regardless of etiology, microbiologically positive cases of CM with moderate or severe symptoms were associated with substantial reductions in P/AI1. Etiology, severity, and timing of CM were associated with decreases in the probability of pregnancy at first artificial insemination. Severity of the case was more important than etiology; however, regardless of severity, microbiologically negative cases were not associated with reduced probability of pregnancy. PMID:25795486

  1. Some Experiences on Improvement of Artificial Insemination Conception Rate of Mares%提高母马人工授精受胎率技术要点探讨

    团勇; 李海; 邓海峰; 马江飞


    Many factors affect the pregnancy rate of breeding mares. Based on the statistics and combined with the practical experience of the author for many years engaged in horse breeding work, this paper summarizes how to determine mature follicles and affects of ,mating mare with blood, Insemination number, time and health for insemination conception rate, and proposes detailed measures to improve the artificial insemination conception rate.%影响母马人工授精受胎率的因素很多。本文结合笔者多年从事马人工授精工作的经验和实践统计数据,综述了如何准确的判断成熟期卵泡、母马血配、输精次数、输精时间及卫生状况对受胎率的影响,提出了提高马人工授精受胎率的具体措施。

  2. Pig Artificial Insemination Techniques and Factors Discussed%猪人工授精技术和影响因素讨论



    As technology becomes more sophisticated modern pig insemination, to work in this field technicians put forward higher requirements, requiring mastery of the relevant technology to control the factors that affect the success rate of fertilization. In this regard, elaborated pig semen quality detection technology, breeding sows, semen preservation and insemination techniques, so that the number of swine artificial insemination conception rate and production to reach the expected level in order to provide a reference for future work.%随着现代猪人工授精技术越来越精湛,对从事这方面工作的技术人员提出了更高的要求,要求其熟悉掌握相关技术,能够控制影响授精成功率的因素。对此,阐述了猪精液的质量检测技术、母猪的饲养、精液保存和输精技术等,使猪人工授精的受胎率和生产数达到预期水平,以期为今后工作提供借鉴。

  3. Application value of hysteroscopy in the failure of artificial insemination%宫腔镜检查在人工授精失败患者中的应用

    王宝金; 娄华; 申爱荣


    Objective To investigate the clinical application value of hysteroscopy in the failure of artificial insemination.Methods The hysteroscopic data of 92 infertile patients failing in artificial insemination from January to December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively.Results The positive rate of uterine cavity abnormality detected by hysteroscopy in the group was 60.87% (56/92).The incidences of uterine cavity abnormality in primary infertility and secondary infertility were 68.18% (30/44) and 54.17% (26/48) respectively.Endometritis and endometrial polyp were common causes which results in the failure of artificial insemination.The incidences of endometrial polyp in the primary infertility group was higher than that in the secondary infertility group.There was significant difference in incidences of endometrial polyp and uterine adhesion between primary infertility and secondary infertility.Conclusions Hysteroscopy is a microinvasive and rapid recovery examination,with accuracy,and a failure of artificial insemination can be used as an indication of hysteroscopy.%目的 探讨宫腔镜检查在人工授精失败中的临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析2009年1月至12月92例人工授精失败后行宫腔镜检查患者的病例资料.结果 92例人工授精失败患者中宫腔镜检查异常为56例(60.87%),其中原发性不孕症宫腔镜检查异常为30例(68.18%),继发性不孕症宫腔镜检查异常为26例(54.17%).失败者中子宫内膜炎、子宫内膜息肉是常见原因.原发性不孕症中子宫内膜息肉比例明显高于继发性不孕组,两组在子宫内膜息肉、宫腔粘连方面比较差异有统计学意义,在子宫内膜炎等方面比较差异无统计学意义.结论 宫腔镜检查创伤小、恢复快、准确性高,人工授精失败一次可作为行宫腔镜检查的指征.

  4. Low-dose Artificial Insemination in Horse%马子宫角低剂量人工授精试验研究

    毋状元; 郑新宝; 张国庭; 霍飞; 陈丹盈; 邓海峰; 陈静波


    文章旨在验证马子宫角低剂量浓缩细管精液人工输精方法的可行性.采用直肠触摸检查卵巢的方式确定卵泡的发育状况和输精时间,直肠把握低剂量浓缩细管鲜精子宫角输精,排卵后6h内按同样方法再追精一次.结果表明:此次试验参配母马26匹,平均每匹输精2.1次,每次平均输精2.4 mL,其中18匹马受胎,情期受胎率69.23%.结论:在准确掌握母马卵巢发育水平的前提下,马子宫角低剂量浓缩细管精液人工输精技术上完全可行,在生产上具有较高推广价值.%The aim of this study was to verify the feasibility of low-dose artificial insemination in horse.By rectal touch, ovarian follicle development level and insemination time were determined. A straw of semen was inserted into the pipette and a flexible steel plunger was used to push the straw to the tip of the horn so that the open end of the straw was lodged into a pipette' s tip nipple like protrusion avoiding any back flush of semen into the lumen of the pipettethe.The results showed that the 18 of 26 mares were pregnant, the conception rate was 69.23 % by an average of 2.1 time insemination per horse at an average insemination 2.4 mL.Conclusion: the low-dose artificial insemination is entirely feasible in horse.

  5. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J


    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  6. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  7. Effect of indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin) on the preservation at 15 degrees C of boar semen for artificial insemination.

    Toniolli, R; Bussière, J; Courot, M; Magistrini, M; Combarnous, Y


    In order to extend the duration of boar sperm survival at 15 degrees C for artificial insemination, we tested the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which appeared to be the main sperm protective substance present in the Coco nucifera endosperm (coconut water). Two IAA concentrations (10 and 100 ng/mL) in Beltsville extender (BTS) were studied for their in vitro effects. The motility, the percentage of motile spermatozoa and the acrosome morphology of sperm were recorded each day over 13 days of storage at 15 degrees C, after 5 min and 3 h of incubation at 39 degrees C. The IAA effect on sperm preservation was also studied in vivo at a concentration of 10 ng/mL in BTS by inseminating groups of females twice at 24 h intervals either at D0 (day of sperm collection) and D1 (D0/1) or at D5 and D6 (D5/6). At D0/1, the two groups of females (control and IAA) were inseminated with a total of 6.3 x 10(9) spermatozoa (3.15 x 10(9) at D0 and the same dose at D1) whereas at D5/6, on IAA group was inseminated with a total of 6.3 x 10(9) spermatozoa and another one with 12.6 x 10(9) spermatozoa. The animals in the D5/6 control group were inseminated each with a total of 12.6 x 10(9) spermatozoa. For each group of females (n = 106-140), fertility rate (% farrowing) and prolificacy rate (litter size) were recorded. No effect of IAA in vitro on the motility rate and on the percentage of motile spermatozoa was observed over a 13 day storage. However, IAA (10 ng/mL) had a significant positive effect on the percentage of living spermatozoa with intact acrosomes after 13 days (66 vs 54%, P extender alone did not differ significantly between D5/6 and D0/1 but the total number of inseminated spermatozoa was 12.6 x 10(9) at D5/6 instead of 6.3 x 10(9) at D0/1. When the spermatozoa were stored in the presence of 10 ng/mL IAA for 5-6 days at 15 degrees C, the fertility and prolificacy of the females inseminated with only 6.3 x 10(9) spermatozoa were identical to those of the females

  8. Multivariate analysis on effect factors of clinical outcomes of artificial insemination%影响供精人工授精临床结局多因素分析

    赵华; 王兴玲; 管一春; 李巍巍; 李真; 覃瑶琴


    目的:探讨多种因素对AID治疗结局的影响.方法:回顾2008年11月~2010年5月在生殖中心实施AID助孕治疗的418名妇女639个治疗周期的病例,综合分析不孕妇女的年龄、输卵管情况、治疗周期、促排卵用药及授精次数等因素对AID治疗妊娠结局的影响.结果:AID周期妊娠率为34.90%(223/639),例数妊娠率为53.34%(223/418).临床妊娠率与女方年龄、是否合并输卵管因素、授精与排卵时间等有一定关系.排卵前后短时内单次授精的平均妊娠率反而高于排卵前后双次授精.639个AID周期中,随治疗周期的增加累计妊娠率随之增高,但周期妊娠率下降,第1~3周期临床妊娠率依次为37.08%、31.98%、21.95%.AID促排卵周期妊娠率与自然周期无差异(34.02%、35.63%).结论:不孕妇女的年龄、输卵管情况及授精时机的掌握是影响供精人工授精成功率的重要因素.对超过3周期仍不孕者,可考虑改行供精体外授精-胚胎移植进行助孕.%Objective: To explore the effect of multiple factors on outcomes of artificial insemination with donor semen (AID) .Methods: 639 cycles of 418 women receiving AID in the hospital from November 2008 to May 2010 were analyzed retrospectively; the effects of age of infertile women, oviduct situation, treatment cycle, drug use of ovulation induction and times of insemination on pregnancy outcomes of cases receiving AID were analyzed comprehensively. Results: The pregnancy rate per cycle was 34. 90% (223/639), the case pregnancy rate was 53.34% (223/418); clinical pregnancy rate in a way was related to female age, combining with oviduct factors or not,insemination and ovulation time; the average pregnancy rate of single insemination within short time before and after ovulation was significantly higher than that of double insemination; in 639 cycles, the cumulative pregnancy rate increased with treatment cycle, but the cycle pregnancy rate decreased, the clinical

  9. Fundamental studies of the reproductive biology of the endangered persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) result in first wild equid offspring from artificial insemination.

    Schook, Mandi W; Wildt, David E; Weiss, Rachael B; Wolfe, Barbara A; Archibald, Kate E; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S


    We studied the Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager), an endangered equid subspecies. The objective was to characterize endocrine patterns and ovarian follicular dynamics of females as well as seminal traits and sperm sensitivity to cryopreservation in males as a prerequisite to testing the feasibility of artificial insemination (AI). Urinary progesterone and estrogen metabolite profiles were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 11 females. Serial ultrasonography of ovarian activity was performed for 2 mo in a subset of four females. Females were seasonally polyestrous (June-November). Ovarian morphometry via ultrasonography and urinary progesterone profiles were more reflective of reproductive events than urinary estrogen patterns, and preovulatory follicle size was smaller than reported for other equid species. There was evidence for lactational suppression of estrus for up to 1.5 yr in nursing dams. Electroejaculation allowed recovery of highly motile sperm from 7, anesthetized males on 57% of occasions. Spermatozoa, including motility and acrosomal integrity, were resilient to freeze-thawing. Artificial insemination was successful in 2 of 3 females following detection of a dominant follicle and deslorelin administration, resulting in births of a healthy female and male foal by using fresh/chilled and frozen/thawed sperm, respectively. PMID:23863403

  10. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Alexandre Rouen; Capucine Hyon; Richard Balet; Nicole Joyé; Nino Guy Cassuto; Jean-Pierre Siffroi


    Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC). We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this proced...

  11. The use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services of beef cattle in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    The technique of artificial insemination (AI) has been used in Indonesia for several years. The fertility rate resulting from this technique, however, is still lower than that for natural mating. Therefore, two studies were conducted to evaluate the factors that might cause lower efficiency of AI in beef cattle. The first was a survey to evaluate reproductive performance and factors that affect the inefficiency of AI. A total of 652 beef cows inseminated on one large and several small farms were used. Data for farm, cow, inseminator and each insemination were recorded. Serum samples were taken at the day of insemination (day 0), and days 10-12 and 20-22 after AI, and at time of manual pregnancy diagnosis. The second study was conducted to evaluate whether the induction of first postpartum oestrus in suckling cows could be done by hormonal treatments. Two groups of suckling Brahman cows were used, with and without treatment using Controlled Intra-vaginal Drug Release devices (CIDR). CIDR were inserted into the vagina, oestradiol benzoate (OB) was injected, the CIDR were removed after 12 days and two Als were performed at 24 and 72 hr later. The studies were conducted during dry and wet seasons. Mean overall conception rate (CR) for the large and small farms were 23 and 38%, respectively. Season of the year, housing system, type of heat, time of AI, and characteristics of AI technicians (level of education and non-AI work) affected the CR. Oestrus behaviour was detected in 95 and 100% of cows respectively for the first and the second period. However, the proportions of animals showing ovulatory oestrus during the first and second periods were 22 and 48% (P<0.01), and pregnancy rates were 12 and 24%, respectively. These findings show that reproductive rate of cows served by AI in this area is low and that factors related to the cow, farm management and AI technician affect this problem. CIDR treatment can induce oestrus behaviour in suckling cows, but only few of

  12. Constraints on efficiency of artificial insemination and effect of nutrition on reproductive performance of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Viet Nam

    This report is the result of a survey on 564 cows subjected to artificial insemination (AI) from March 1995 to March 1996 in 4 districts around Ho Chi Minh City. Four inseminators filled in questionnaires relating to farms, semen batches, cows and inseminations done. Milk samples were collected and analysed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA). All raw data were stored and analysed by the computer program AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application). Conception rate at first service (FSCR) was 61.7% and overall conception rate (OCR) was 68.4%. The intervals from calving to first service (CSI) and calving to conception (CCI) were 108 days 119 days respectively. Cows with lower percentage of Holstein-Friesian (HF) blood had shorter CSI and CCI than those with higher percentage of HF blood. Other factors which influenced OCR, CSI and CCI were parity, high milk yield (>20 L/cow/day), inappropriate heat signs, slight degree of uterine tone, feeding without green grass, too early or too late intervals from heat signs to AI, time of AI and difficulty in passage of AI pipette. Progesterone measurement in 796 sets of milk samples indicated that AI in 546 cows (68.6%) resulted in conception and they were subsequently diagnosed pregnant, while 24 animals (3%) conceived but underwent late embryo mortality. In 146 cows (18.3%) AI was done in the follicular phase but conception did not occur. There were 73 cows (9.1%) where progesterone values were intermediate (1-3 nmol/L). Ninety-four Holstein crossbred cows (F1 and F2) were assigned into three groups by different metabolisable energy (ME) ratios between demand and supply in order to determine effect of nutritive value of rations on reproduction. The cows in ME-balanced group were also divided into two sub-groups by different quantity of green grass in the ration to evaluate influence of the latter on fertility. Results showed that only cows fed with balanced rations in ME achieved good fertility (calving to first

  13. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira


    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi investigar se a realização exclusiva da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, empregando como indutor da ovulação o benzoato de estradiol (BE, proporciona taxas de prenhez semelhantes a uma associação de IA convencional e IATF com GnRH, em vacas de corte no pós-parto. Duzentos e cinqüenta vacas amamentado receberam um pessário vaginal contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxi-progesterona (MAP e uma injeção intramuscular (IM de 5mg de BE no dia 0. O pessário vaginal permaneceu por sete dias. No dia 6, foram aplicadas 400UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina por via IM e 5mg de análogo de prostaglandina na submucosa vulvar, realizando nesse momento o desmame por 96h. Após a retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos. No grupo BioRep (n=150, as fêmeas foram observadas duas vezes por dia para detecção de estro por 48h e inseminadas 12h após sua manifestação. Os animais que não manifestaram estro nesse período receberam uma injeção IM de 100mg de GnRH, sendo submetidas à IATF, 16 a 18h após. No grupo BE (n=100, as vacas receberam uma injeção de 1mg de BE IM no dia 8 e foram inseminadas em tempo fixo no dia 9. A porcentagem de prenhez no grupo BioRep (54,7% foi maior (PThis experiment was aimed at comparing two estrus induction protocols for cows in post partum period, using either GnRH and two-day artificial insemination (AI or estradiol benzoate (EB and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 250 suckled beef cows received a vaginal device containing 250mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and an injection of 5mg of EB intramuscularly (IM on day 0. The vaginal device was removed on day 7. On day 6, cows were injected with 400IU eCG (IM and 5mg prostaglandin analog (into vulvar submucosa and calves were removed for 96 hours (h. After removing the vaginal devices (day 7, cows were divided in two groups. In the BioRep group (n=150

  14. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Alexandre Rouen


    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  15. Inseminating dose and water volume applied to the artificial fertilization of Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: Brazilian endangered fish

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches


    Full Text Available Abstract The Steindachneridion parahybae is an endangered catfish from Brazil and strategies applied for gametes optimization are necessary. The aim of this study was to assess inseminating doses and water volume upon the fertilization, hatching rates and percentage of normal larvae in S. parahybae . Was used a randomized design in factorial scheme (4×4 with four inseminating doses: 1.0×104, 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107spermatozoa oocyte-1 and four volumes of water: 1, 35, 65 and 95mL of water g-1 of oocytes. The combination of doses and volumes were performed in triplicates (n=48. Each incubator (1.5L of useful volume with 1g of oocytes was considered as an experimental unit. Significant interaction between inseminating doses and volumes of water to the values of the fertilization rates and quadratic effect of doses and volume for the values of hatching rates were observed. The doses and volumes did not influence the percentage of normal larvae (87.70±5.06%. It is recommended the use of 5.5×106 spermatozoa oocyte-1 and 1mL of water g-1 of oocytes during in vitro fertilization procedure. These results allowed us to develop new biotechnological strategies applied to the conservation of S. parahybae .

  16. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier.

    Rouen, Alexandre; Hyon, Capucine; Balet, Richard; Joyé, Nicole; Cassuto, Nino Guy; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre


    Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC). We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10)(q25;p13) reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it. PMID:24587925

  17. Evaluation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone hydrogen chloride at 3 doses with prostaglandin F2α for fixed-time artificial insemination in dairy cows.

    Chenault, J R; Meeuwse, D M; LaGrow, C; Tena, J-K S; Wood-Follis, S L; Hallberg, J W


    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the efficacy and field safety of GnRH HCl administered at 3 doses in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) programs (Ovsynch) in dairy cows. A common protocol was conducted at 6 commercial dairies. Between 188 and 195 cows were enrolled at each site (total enrolled = 1,142). Cows had body condition scores ≥ 2 and ≤ 4, were between 32 to 140 d in milk, and were clinically healthy. Within pen and enrollment day (enrollment cohort), cows were assigned randomly in blocks of 4 to each of 4 treatments: (1) 25mg of PGF2α on d 7 with FTAI 72 ± 2 h later (control); (2) 100 μg of GnRH on d 0, d 7 a dose of 25mg of PGF2α, and the second administration of 100 μg of GnRH (T100) administered either at 48 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α with FTAI 24 ± 2 h later or 56 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α and FTAI 17 ± 2 h later; (3) same as T100 with both injections of 150 μg of GnRH (T150); and (4) same as T100 with both injections of 200 μg of GnRH (T200). Three sites selected the first option and 3 sites selected the second option for the timing of the second injection of all doses of GnRH. Cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and adverse clinical signs. Cows not returning to estrus had pregnancy diagnosis between 42 and 65 d following FTAI. Pregnancies per FTAI (P/FTAI) were analyzed as a binary variable (1 = pregnant, 0 = not pregnant) using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial error distribution and a logit link function. The statistical model included fixed effects for treatment, random effects of site, site by treatment, enrollment cohort within site, and residual. Parity (first vs. second or greater) was included as a covariate. For demonstration of effectiveness, α=0.05 and a 2-tailed test were used. Fifty-two cows were removed from the study because of either deviation from the protocol, injury, illness, culling, or death. Among the remaining 1,090 cows, 33.9% were primiparous and 66.1% were

  18. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    Kolb, Bradford A.; Lane Mercer; Albert J. Peters; Ralph Kazer


    Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI). Case: In this presentation, we report the first case of an ovarian abscess following IUI with the husband's semen. Despite treatment with triple antibiotics, an oophorectomy was required. Surgical as well as pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of an ovarian...

  19. 家蚕人工授精关键技术的研究%Study on Key Technique of Artificial Insemination for Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    张业顺; 张国政; 韦亚东; 夏定国


    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the efficient technique of artificial insemination for silkworm. [Method] Sperms were extracted from bursa copulatrix of female moths mated for 30 min through extruding and centrifugal method, and then the semen was injected into other virgin moths with trypsinase. [Result] A high-effective collection technology of spermatids from silkworm was established successfully, 50 μl semen could be collected by only one person in each hour. The survival rate of spermatids was over 80% in vito after collected from bursa copulatrix, while the obtained semen was quite pure and the average fertilization rate of silkworm was 76.5%. [Conclusion] The establishment of high-effective semen extraction technique of silkworm provides the technical basis for studies on other related techniques for silkworm sperm.

  20. Influence of low-stress handling on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination in Nellore cows

    Rayf Roberto Tirloni


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of low-stress handling (LSH on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI for extensively raised Nellore cows. Multiparous cows (n = 126 were randomly allocated into two groups: G1 (n = 66 and G2, the control group (n = 60. Group G1 was subjected to LSH, in which the animals were handled in a calm and quiet manner, without loud noises or physical aggression, using the point of balance, respecting the flight zone and using flags to supplement handling. Group G2 was handled following the typical procedure, with yelling, kicking and the use of electric prods and sticks. On D0, D8 and D10, FTAI was performed in both groups. Reactivity was scored on D0, D8 and D10 at the squeeze chute, based on the tension score, breathing score, and bellowing score. Using the three criteria above, the reactivity scores were defined as follows: R1 (calm; R2 (slightly reactive; R3 (moderately reactive; R4 (reactive; and R5 (highly reactive. Thirty-five days after artificial insemination, pregnancy was determined using ultrasonography. There was no significant correlation between reactivity score and pregnancy rate in each group or between the pregnancy rates in both groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the G1 and G2 groups with regard to reactivity score (1.62±0.05 vs. 2.12±0.07. Low-stress handling influenced reactivity but did not affect pregnancy rate in extensively raised Nellore cows subjected to FTAI.

  1. Use of sexed sorted semen for fixed-time artificial insemination or fixed-time embryo transfer of in vitro-produced embryos in cattle.

    Pellegrino, C A G; Morotti, F; Untura, R M; Pontes, J H F; Pellegrino, M F O; Campolina, J P; Seneda, M M; Barbosa, F A; Henry, M


    Artificial insemination and in vitro embryo production are powerful tools for disseminating superior genetic qualities and improving the reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle. In conjunction with these biotechnologies, sexed-sorted semen has been used to obtain offspring of a predetermined sex. This study compared the pregnancy rates obtained using in vitro fertilization/timed embryo transfer (IVF/TET) and timed artificial insemination (TAI), both performed using sexed-sorted (Y-chromosome-bearing) semen obtained from the same bull. For the in vitro embryo production, the ovaries of 250 Nelore cows with known histories were collected in the slaughterhouse and used for IVF. After evaluation of the recipients (IVF/TET group; n = 974), the resultant embryos were transferred to the females with corpus luteum (n = 822). The pregnancy-related data for this group were compared with those for the TAI group (n = 974). Ultrasonography was performed at 60 days to determine the pregnancy status and confirm the sex of the fetus. A total of 2008 oocytes produced 1050 embryos, with 52% of them reaching the blastocyst stage. The pregnancy rate and the accuracy in determining the fetal sex were 35.4% (345/974) and 95.07% (328/345), respectively, for the IVF/TET group and 30% (293/974; P < 0.05) and 94.88% (278/293), respectively, for the TAI group. In the present study, we concluded that male calves could be better obtained using IVF/TET rather than TAI; therefore, this strategy can be considered to increase the pregnancy rate of beef cattle. PMID:27068357


    Andre Maciel Crespilho


    Full Text Available Semen cryopreservation is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility when compared to fresh semen. The reasons for the loss of fertility are various and related to irreversible damage caused to the cells during the freeze-thaw process. An alternative to conventional cryopreservation represents the use of chilled bull semen, preventing the damage associated with freezing, thereby guaranteeing greater sperm viability. The aim of this study was to describe the use of cooled bull semen as a strategy to increase the pregnancy for Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination (FTAI of Nellore (Bos indicus cows. One ejaculate of a select Nellore bull obtained by electroejaculation was used; the semen sample was fractioned into two aliquots: one diluted in Botu-Bov® extender containing 6.4% glycerol for cryopreservation (BB-F, frozen group and one diluted in the same extender, free from cryoprotectants and used for cooling (BB-C, cooled semen group. The samples in the BB-C group were chilled to 5°C using an isothermic box and maintained for 24 h prior to use. A total of 349 lactating Nellore cows (70-90 days after birth were synchronized by the insertion of a progesterone releasing device (1.0 g and estradiol benzoate (2.0 mg i.m. on a random day of the estrous cycle (Day 0; FTAI was performed 44-48 h after the removal of the device. The pregnancy rates were 45.71 and 61.49% (P<0.05, respectively, for the cryopreserved or chilled bovine semen groups. In conclusion, the use of bull semen cooled for 24 h represents an alternative to conventionally cryopreserved semen, as determined by the increase the pregnancy per artificial insemination in bovine herds.

  3. Dose inseminante para fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado Insemination dose for artificial fertilization of dourado oocytes

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a dose inseminante adequada para uso na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis. Os ovócitos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, e fertilizados com uma das relações espermatozoides/ovócito 6,0×10³; 6,0×10(4; 6,0×10(5; 6,0×10(6 ou 3,0×10(7, cada uma com quatro repetições. Considerou-se unidade experimental uma incubadora de volume útil de 2,5 L, contendo 2,0 mL de ovócitos não-hidratados. As taxas de fertilização foram mensuradas 8 horas após o início da fertilização. Com intuito de verificar possíveis efeitos da diluição seminal na movimentação dos espermatozoides, realizou-se a mensuração do tempo de duração da motilidade espermática dos espermatozoides de dourado, ativados por meio de diferentes relações de diluição: 6,8×10-5; 6,8×10-4; 6,8×10-3; 6,8×10-2; 3,4×10-1 e 1,0 mL de sêmen por mL de água. O tempo de duração da motilidade foi avaliado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado composto de seis tratamentos e três repetições. As taxas de fertilização apresentaram relação quadrática com o número de espermatozoides por ovócito. As relações de diluição do sêmen tiveram efeito inversamente proporcional sobre a duração da motilidade espermática. A relação que proporcionou melhores taxas de fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis foi de 30.722 espermatozoides por ovócio.The objective of the present study was to determine the proper insemination dose of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis oocytes. The oocytes were placed in a randomized complete design and fertilized with one of the spermatozoa.oocytes-1 ratio, 6.0×10³, 6.0×10(4, 6.0×10(5, 6.0×10(6, 3.0×10(7 SPZ:OOC, each one with four replications. An experimental unit was considered to be an incubator with a 2.5L useful volume containing 2.0 mL non-hydrated oocytes. The fertilization rates were measured eight hours

  4. Improving the reproductive management of smallholder dairy cattle and the effectiveness of artificial insemination services using an integrated approach: A summary

    Economic development is steadily progressing in Africa. One of the many consequences of this phenomenon is an increased demand for food arising from animal agriculture. This increased demand for animal products creates the possibility for a greater dispersion of economic resources, which to this point has been largely confined to urban areas. Thus, the opportunity for poverty alleviation in rural areas exists, but obstacles to this process must be removed. A high priority of the Member States (MS) of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement (AFRA) is thus to support research and the adoption of technologies that can help overcome these obstacles. Ironically, population expansion, although increasing demand, can have a net negative effect on livestock farming, by restricting the amount of land available for raising animals. Therefore, one major focus on increasing production of animal products must be the increase in productivity per animal and per unit of land. Improvement of nutrition is an important strategy for improving the output of livestock production and results can be obtained in the short-term. On the other hand, selective breeding is a highly effective and sustainable approach for increasing animal productivity in the long-term. Reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) allow single animals to have multiple progeny, reducing the number of parent animals required and allowing for significant increases in the intensity of selection, and proportional increases in genetic improvement of production. However, in order to benefit from the advantages of AI, farmers must detect the oestrus periods of their cows accurately, ensure that insemination is done at the correct time in relation to the onset of oestrus and detect any cows that later return to oestrus, so that they can be re-inseminated without delay. Even when these conditions are satisfied, optimum conception rates (CRs) will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good

  5. Control of estrus and ovulation: Fertility to timed insemination of gilts and sows.

    De Rensis, F; Kirkwood, R N


    It is possible to control follicular development in gilts and sows with the use of hormones including the progestogen altrenogest, GnRH, eCG, hCG, and porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH). These hormones can be used to develop protocols for control of estrus with artificial insemination (AI) timed to estrus detection (timed artificial insemination; TAI) or to control estrus and ovulation with insemination at a fixed time without the requirement of estrus detection (fixed-timed artificial insemination; FTAI). In cyclic gilts, double TAI after protocols based on altrenogest and eCG plus hCG administration can achieve a 70% of farrowing rate. Valuable results can be obtained in weaned sows by the utilization of protocols based on eCG administration at weaning and then GnRH or pLH at estrus onset followed by single or double TAI. In cyclic gilts, single or double FTAI regardless of estrus expression can be applied after protocols based on altrenogest administration followed by eCG and then GnRH, hCG, or pLH some hours later; farrowing rates are similar to control animals inseminated at estrus detection. With sows, a protocol based on eCG administration at weaning and hCG, GnRH, or pLH some hours later followed by single or double FTAI can give fertility rates comparable to control animal inseminated at estrus. Most recently, injection or vaginal deposition of GnRH 96 hours after weaning followed by a single FTAI 24 to 30 hours later is resulting in reproductive performance not different to animals subject to multiple inseminations after natural estrus. It is possible to apply FTAI in lactating sows. The protocols are based on eCG during lactation followed by hCG and FTAI. These protocols will induce ovulation during lactation, but pregnancy rates are reduced. However, in the future, a better knowledge on the effect of hormone administration on follicular dynamics during lactation may allow the development of more effective protocols. PMID:27287469

  6. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F


    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals. PMID:22898009

  7. Improvement of cattle production in Myanmar through the use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services

    A survey of Artificial Insemination (AI) status in Myanmar was carried out in the Mandalay region. Most farms are smallholdings with 1-12 breedable cattle per farm. During the survey a total 435 first inseminations carried out by 5 AI technicians were recorded. The conception rate (CR) at first service was 60.7% and the overall CR was 63.3%. Interval from calving to first service was 103.6 ± 40.0 days. Progesterone measurement on the samples collected on the day of AI (day 0) showed that 6.3% of the services were done when progesterone was high (>3nmol/L), indicating that the cows could not have been in oestrus. Most of the farmers detected oestrus based on signs such as mucus discharge, bellowing and mounting. After the preliminary survey a study was conducted to test two intervention measures: to reduce the interval from calving to first service by nutritional supplementation with urea molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB); and to reduce the number of AI done during the luteal phase. In this study 245 first AI were recorded. Interval from calving to first oestrus was 95.8 ± 24.8 days. Incidence of AI at luteal phase declined to 4%. In spite of better heat detection, the conception rate was 55.9%, which is lower than during the survey phase. This could be attributed to lower fertility of semen from certain bulls used in the second phase. Assessment of progesterone values in the samples showed that 3.8% of AI were done during anovulatory oestrous cycles, 7.8% in anoestrous cows and 5.9% in cows with irregular or short oestrous cycles. (author)

  8. Individual versus standard dose of rFSH in a mild stimulation protocol for intrauterine insemination: a randomized study

    la Cour Freiesleben, N; Løssl, Kristine; Bogstad, J;


    BACKGROUND: Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) are often used as the first-line treatment for subfertile couples. To minimize the variability in ovarian response in patients' first treatment cycle, we recently developed a recombinant follicle......-stimulating hormone (rFSH) dosage nomogram. The nomogram has now been tested. METHODS: Multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) including 228 ovulatory patients scheduled for COS and IUI. Patients were randomized to 'individual' (50-100 IU rFSH/day, n = 113) or 'standard' (75 IU rFSH/day, n = 115) dose......' group and 21/115 (18%) in the 'standard' group and the rate of multiple gestations was 1/113 (1%) versus 5/115 (4%), P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: This RCT is the first to clinically test a dosage nomogram in ovulatory IUI patients' first rFSH treatment cycle. Dosing according to the nomogram was superior to...


    José Ricardo Almeida de Andrade


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of artificial insemination on the fertility and calf sex ratio in Nelore heifers (n = 200 submitted a protocol of timed artificial insemination (TAI.  The heifers, distributed into five groups (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 and GT24, presented a mean of 2.5 years old and 342 Kg of body weight. The inseminations were performed in the moments 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 and 24 (GT24 hours after the injection of GnRH. The conception rates were 87.5% (GC, 82.5% (GT6, 77.5% (GT12, 85.0% (GT18 and 77.5% (GT24. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 in the conception rates between the five treatments. The percentage of calved males was 38.2% (GC, 48.5% (GT6, 45.2% (GT12, 55.9% (GT18 and 58.6% (GT24. The male/female ratio was 0.62 (GC, 0.94 (GT6, 0.82 (GT12, 1.27 (GT18 and 1.42 (GT24. Statistical difference was found (p<0.05 in the male/female ratio between the five treatments. The timing of artificial insemination has influence on the sex ratio, showing an increase in the proportion of calved males when the insemination is progressively delayed. Within of the measured interval of time (0-24h after GnRH, the fertility of Nelore heifers is not influenced by the moment of the artificial insemination.

    KEY WORDS: Beef cattle, management, pregnancy test, ultrasound, sexing. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do momento da inseminação artificial (IA sobre a fertilidade e a proporção do sexo da cria de novilhas da raça Nelore (n = 200 submetidas a protocolo de IATF. As novilhas, distribuídas em cinco tratamentos (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 e GT24, apresentavam idade média de 2,5 anos e peso médio de 342 kg. Realizaram-se as inseminações nos momentos 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 e 24 (GT24 horas após a aplicação do GnRH. As taxas de concepção foram de 87,5% (GC, 82,5% (GT6, 77,5% (GT12, 85,0% (GT18 e de 77,5% (GT24. Não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05 entre as taxas de

  10. Research progress on factors affecting the uterine immune response to artificial insemination%影响家畜人工授精诱导子宫免疫反应的因素的研究进展

    李井春; 李雁冰; 张乃博; 刘胜军; 曲永利; 贺显晶; 孙蕊; 舟桥弘晃


    In this paper,the factors affecting livestock artificial insemination induced uterine immune response from the perspective of reproductive immunology were reviewed, such as the distribution of immune cells of the female reproductive tract before and after the artificial insemination, sperm loss in the uterine lumen, effect of semen diluent composition on uterine immune response and how to control the uterine immune response by artificial insemination.%从动物繁殖免疫学的角度分析影响家畜人工授精诱导子宫免疫反应的因素,如母畜生殖道人工授精前后的免疫细胞的分布情况、精子在子宫内损失的原因、精液稀释液成分对子宫免疫反应的影响以及如何控制由人工授精诱导的子宫免疫反应的措施等方面做一综述。

  11. Application of Artificial Insemination Technology with Diluted Semen in Lohmann Pink Breeder%稀释精液人工授精技术在罗曼粉蛋种鸡中的应用

    曹金元; 杨久仙; 李志莲; 方绍桐


    [目的]解决种鸡人工授精生产中常出现的精液不足问题.[方法]应用稀释精液人工授精技术,从精液稀释液的选择、精液稀释比例、稀释液的配制及保存、人工授精技术等方面对其在罗曼粉蛋种鸡中的应用进行了综述.[结果]复方稀释液的效果优于单方稀释液.自制稀释液按照1∶1比例稀释的效果最好.[结论]该研究可为种鸡生产提供参考.%[Objective] The research aimed to solve the problem of deficient semen in the artificial insemination of breeder.[Method] Using artificial insemination technology,its application in Lohmann pink breeder was discussed from the aspects of the selection of semen diluent,the dilution ratio of semen,the preparation and storage of semen,and artificial insemination technology.[Result] The application effects of compound diluent was better than that of single diluent.The best dilution ratio of self-made diluent was 1:1.[Conclusion] The research could provide references for the breeder production.

  12. Reducción a un servicio en los programas de inseminación artificial de hembras bovinas - Reduction to a service in the programs of artificial insemination of bovine females

    Botello, A.


    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo propone reducir a un servicio de Inseminación Artificial (IA en hembras bovinas, para abaratar los costos por concepto de inseminación y disminuir el tiempo de trabajo de los inseminadores. Por un período de tres años (2006-2008 se investigaron 810 hembras bovinas del cruce (Holstein x Cebú con condición corporal mayor e igual a 3,5 y se conformaron dos tratamientos, cada uno compuesto por 405 animales, el primer grupo se le realizó un solo servicio de IA y al segundo dos, a los quese les midió: proporción de gestación y nacimientos. Las comparaciones se realizaron mediante una prueba de hipótesis de Z. Se demostró que no existieron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, en cuanto a la proporción de gestaciones y nacimientos. Se concluye que un solo servicio de IA, es una opción viable para los programas de reproducción animal. SummaryThe present work intends to reduce to a service of Artificial Insemination (IA in bovine females, to reduce the costs for insemination concept and to diminish the time of work of the inseminators. For a three year-old period (2006-2008 810 bovine females of the crossing were investigated (Holstein xCebú with more corporal condition and similar to 3,5 and they conformed to two treatments, each one composed by 405 animals, the first group was carried out a single service of IA and a second two, to those that were measured: gestation proportion and births. The comparisons were carried out by means of a test of hypothesis of Z. It was demonstrated that significant differences didn't exist among the treatments, as for the proportion of gestations and births. You conclude that a single service of I A, is a viable option for the programs of animal reproduction.

  13. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Determination of insemination dose and embryonic development in the artificial fertilization of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    L.V. Leite


    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento do blastóporo foi calculada a taxa de fertilização nas diferentes doses inseminantes. A porcentagem de fertilização aumentou de forma linear segundo a equação Ŷ =0,050 + 0,00000773X (R²=97,5, atingindo um platô em 84% na proporção de 102.486 espermatozoides/ovócito. Os embriões apresentaram segmentação meroblástica discoidal, típica de ovos telolécitos, com eclosão ocorrendo aos 357 horas-grau após a fertilização. Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui obedece ao esperado para peixes com ovos telolécitos e recomenda-se o uso da dose inseminante de aproximadamente 100.000 espermatozoides/ovócito na rotina de fertilização artificial dessa espécie.The objective of this research was to determine the insemination dose for artificial fertilization and describe the embryonic development of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun. The gametes were collected from induced breeding hormonally. An artificial fertilization was performed with different sperm/oocyte ratios of D1-50666, D2-75999, D3-101 332, 126 665-D4, D5-151 998 sperm/oocyte. Embryonic development was monitored through periodic stereoscopic observations until hatching. When embryos reached the blastopore closure stage, the rate of fertilization in different insemination doses was calculated. A regression equation was estimated to determine the ideal proportion of the gametes. The fertilization rate increased linearly according to the equation Ŷ = 0

  14. Reproductive performance following artificial insemination in Sanga and Friesian x Sanga cows in the Accra plains of Ghana

    The performance records of 126 Sanga, and 55 crossbred (Friesian x Sanga) cows bred at the AI Center of the Animal Production Departments' Amrahia dairy farm in the Accra plains of Ghana were assessed between the period January 1998 to December 2007. The Sanga cows were grazed from 08.00 to 15.00 h on natural pastures comprising Panicum maximum, Stylosanthes haemata, Sporobolus and pyramidalis and Vertiveria fulvibarbis. They had access to water from a dam twice daily, in addition to water provided in the animal house ad lib. The crossbreds were zero grazed on panicum maximum, sorghum and spent malt, in addition to a concentrate mixture based on maize, wheat bran, palm kernel cake with or without soya bean meal. Salt lick is always provided. The crossbred had access water in the animal house ad lib. Oestrus (heat) was observed for the two groups of cows twice daily at 06:00h and 18:00 h G.M.T. A cow standing to be mounted (standing heat) was used as the main criteria for the cow to be assumed to be on heat therefore ready for insemination. Parameters studied include interval from calving to first AI service, interval from calving to conception, calving interval and conception rate, The effect of season of calving preceding AI and season of AI on the above parameters were evaluated. The data was analyzed using the general linear models procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems Institute (SAS). The average interval from calving to first AI averaged 158.8 ± 8.9 d in the Sanga and 115.7 ± 19.2 d in the crossbred cows. This delay of first service after calving, particularly in the Sanga cows may be due to prolonged postpartum anoestrus. This is most likely a result of inadequate nutrition and suckling management. The Sanga cows in this study were grazed sole on natural pastures. During the dry season, the limited pasture available on the Accra plains is of poor quality. In addition, there was lack of restriction on suckling by calves. Cows were allowed to suckle

  15. Cattle farmers: profile and speech content analysis while undergoing training to adopt artificial insemination in Goiás State, Brazil

    João Maurício Lucas Gordo


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to verify major issues present in the discourse of cattle farmers when discussing the use of artificial insemination (AI. Seventy-one beef and dairy cattle farmers in the state of Goiás, Brazil, were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires during AI training courses in 2010 and 2011. Data analyses were done using the classic method of textual speech content analysis, performing the pre-analytical, analytical and inferential stages. The written questions were separated in elementary context units (ECU and sorted into similar thematic groups. These groups originated categories and subcategories, which were nominated based on an a posteriori criteria. Overall, personal motivation was the main issue characterizing discourse by farmers about adoption of AI. This motivation stems from the strong points (highlights and positive expectations AI offers. The positive expectations were mainly related to perceptions of farmers of animal phenotype improvement rather than to the financial features of cattle production. Basic necessity was the second major issue, with emphasis on work force, infrastructure and animal handling, followed by social influence, with eminence of the institutions and people involved with AI and with the everyday life of cattle farmers. The little emphasis on human resource management and on the use of scientific knowledge may have affected the impact of AI over the years, explaining discreet indices of adoption of AI in Brazil.

  16. 供精人工授精的伦理与法律浅析%Analysis on Ethics and Law of Artificial Insemination by Donor

    马玲; 林秋华; 杜玉开


    供精人工授精(artificial insemination by donor, AID)是人类辅助生殖技术之一,对于少、弱、畸形精子症,严重遗传病等男性患者,通过非性交方式将供精者的精液放入女性生殖道内,达到生育目的,AID是目前世界各国广为采用的治疗男性不育的技术.这种生育方式使以血缘为基础和纽带的传统亲子关系受到根本性的冲击, 从而引起一系列伦理和法律问题等方面的社会问题.本文就亲子关系的复杂化和AID子女的法律地位、单身妇女可否接受AID、孩子的知情权、精子库管理及近亲繁殖的问题进行探讨.

  17. Analysis on the related effect factors of success rate of artificial insemination with donor semen%影响供精人工授精成功率的相关因素分析

    吴穗妹; 钟小英; 宋革; 陈瑞玲; 姜荣华; 郑炜炜


    目的:分析影响供精人工授精成功率的相关因素.方法:回顾性分析2007年4月~2008年4月期间在该院行供精人工授精(artificial insemination with donor semen AID)的840例妇女,共1 478个周期.分析年龄、输卵管通畅情况、子宫内膜类型、AID手术方式与AID成功率的关系.结果:①年龄越大,AID成功率越低,大于35岁的不孕妇女AID成功率明显下降.②输卵管欠畅,AID)成功率明显下降.③子宫内膜A型的病例AID成功率高于其他类型的病例.④宫颈内和宫腔内人工授精的成功率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:不孕妇女的年龄、输卵管治疗史及子宫内摸类型是影响AID治疗成功率的重要因素,在无宫颈因素的妇女中,宫颈内人工授精较宫腔内人工授精操作更简便,成本低,且成功率相似,应该考虑首选宫颈内人工授精.%Objective: To analyze the related effect factors of success rate of artificial insemination with donor semen. Methods: A total of 840 women (1478 cycles) who received artificial insemination with donor semen (AID) in the hospital from April 2007 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship between their age, unobstruction of fallopian tube, types of endometrium, surgical modes of AID and the success rate of AID was analyzed. Results: The older the age was, the lower the success rate was, the success rate of infertile women more than 35 years decreased significantly. The success rate of AID decreased obviously among the women with obstructed fallopian tube. The success rate of AID among the women with type A endometrium was higher than those with the other types of endometrium. There was no significant difference in the success rate between cervical insemination and uterine cavity insemination (P > 0. 05) . Conclusion; Age, prior treatment of fallopian tube, and the types of endometrium are the important effect factors of success rate of AID; a-mong the women without cervical

  18. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of /sup 131/I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)


    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of /sup 131/I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma.

  19. Health profile and efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination of cattle herds owned by small-scale producers in the region of Piracicaba

    Alfredo José Ferreira Melo


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive indices of different cattle herds submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination program (FTAI in the region of Piracicaba, SP. Twenty herds composed of 10 to 80 crossbred dairy cows were selected to participate in a breeding program through FTAI. First, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of reproductive system diseases in the herds. For this purpose, blood samples were collected randomly from each herd for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD, enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL, and neosporosis. The laboratory tests were conducted according to the methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. All herds had at least one animal that tested positive for one or more reproductive system diseases. Brucellosis was detected in 3/20 (15% herds, IBR and BVD in 19/20 (95%, EBL in 20/20 (100%, neosporosis in 13/20 (65%, and tuberculosis in 8/8 (100%. Six months later, cows (n=203 of the different herds were submitted to hormone treatment consisting of estradiol-progesterone and PGF2α for heat synchronization and ovulation and subsequent FTAI. The data were analyzed by logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rates at 30 and 60 days after FTAI were 55.7% and 48.3%, respectively. These rates were not influenced by herd, inseminator, body score, post-calving days, or number of lactations. The calving rate (42.4% differed from the pregnancy rate at 30 (P=0.01, but not at 60 (P=0.27 days after FTAI. The gestation loss until calving was 23.2% (26/112, but no exact cause of this event was identified. Despite the presence (seroreactivity of reproductive diseases, cattle herds owned by small-scale producers exhibit acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI. However, additional prophylactic measures such as vaccination and improvement of livestock management should be adopted.

  20. Tipos e volumes de diluentes para inseminação artificial intrauterina em suínos Types and volumes of diluents for intrauterine artificial insemination in swine

    Ana Luísa Neves Alvarenga


    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes tipos e volumes de diluentes por meio do desempenho reprodutivo de 72 fêmeas suínas inseminadas artificialmente. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 × 2, com três diluentes e dois volumes inseminantes. O sêmen utilizado foi obtido de três machos de fertilidade comprovada. Os ejaculados foram diluídos em partes iguais com os diluentes comerciais A, B e C, constituindo doses com 1,5 bilhão de espermatozoides em volumes de 15 ou 30 mL. As variáveis analisadas foram taxa de parto, índice de retorno ao estro, número total de leitões nascidos, número de leitões nascidos vivos, mumificados e natimortos e peso da leitegada ao nascimento. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as taxas de parto e as taxas de retorno ao estro. As maiores médias de número total de nascidos, nascidos vivos e peso de leitegada foram de fêmeas inseminadas com doses contendo os diluentes B e C. Não houve diferenças entre os volumes inseminantes dentro dos diluentes B e C para nenhuma das variáveis. Para o diluente A, o volume que proporcionou maior tamanho de leitegada e número de leitões nascidos vivos foi o de 15 mL. O número de leitões natimortos e mumificados não diferiu entre os tipos e volumes de diluentes. A inseminação intrauterina de fêmeas suínas de ordem de parto 2 a 5 com doses inseminantes de 15 mL diluídas em diluentes de curta duração (diluentes B ou C permite índices de desempenho reprodutivo satisfatórios.The study was conducted with the objective of evaluate different types and volumes of diluents through the reproductive performance of 72 artificially inseminated sows. A randomized complete design was used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three diluents and two semen volumes. The semen used was obtained from three boars of known fertility. The ejaculates were diluted in equal parts, with the commercial diluents A, B and C

  1. Clinical analysis on the efficacy of in vitro fertilization - embryo transfer after multiple failures of artificial insemination%多次人工授精失败后体外受精-胚胎移植疗效临床分析

    雷亚兰; 刘杰; 郑洁; 海燕; 程毓芝


    Objective: To explore the clinical efficay of in vitro fertilization - embryo transfer (IVF - ET) in treatment of patients after multiple failures of intrauterine artificial insemination. Methods: The related data of patients who received IVF - ET in the hospital from April 2005 to December 2009 because of failures of intrauterine artificial insemination for more than two times were analyzed retrospectively. Results; 136 cases received IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) after multiple failures of intrauterine artificial insemination, 156 COH cycles and 146 fresh embryo transfer cycles were included, 72 cases were pregnant and the clinical pregnancy rate was 49. 32%. Among 136 cases, 134 cases received IVF-ET, and 18 cases failed, accounting for 13.43% ; 2 cases received ICSI, no case failed. A-mong 18 cases failing in IVF - ET, 12 cases were found with primary infertility, accounting for 66. 67% ; the infertile times of 9 cases were more than 5 years (including 5 years), accounting for 50. 00% , after rescue ICSI, no cases got pregnancy. Conclusion; IVF - ET is an effective treatment for the patients after multiple failures of intrauterine artificial insemination; partial patients have disorder of insemination in the course of conventional IVF, ICSI is effective for the patients with disorder of conventional IVF; short - term insemination combined with early rescue ICSI based on comprehensive analysis of infertile causes and time may reduce the risk of complete insemination failure for the patients with multiple failures of intrauterine artificial insemination.%目的:探讨体外受精-胚胎移植技术(IVF-ET)治疗多次宫腔内人工授精(IUI)失败患者的临床效果.方法;对2005年4月~2009年12月在湖北省妇幼保健院因接受2次以上IUI助孕失败后行IVF/ICSI助孕患者的相关资料进行回顾性分析.结果:①136例多次IUI失败后行IVF/ICSI助孕治疗,取卵周期共156周期,新鲜胚胎移植周期共146

  2. Affecting Factors of Pregnancy Rate Using Intrauterine Artificial Insemination%夫精宫腔内人工授精妊娠率影响因素分析

    杨芳; 赵亚琼; 赵静; 刘超


    Objective To investigate the various affecting factors of pregnancy rate using the intrauterine artificial insemination (IUI) with husband sperm. Methods 539 cycles of 315 sterile patients with IUI were retrospectively analyzed. The study focused on the relationships of the age of female patient , sterile reason , sterile age limit , inducing ovulation proposal; the endometrium thickness and type, average diameter of dominant follicles in the day of injecting human chorionic gonadotropin, the numbers of the moving sperm , times of IUI, ovulation number of the same menses cycle, IUI cycle number with the pregnancy rate. Results There were 59 pregnancy cycles in 539 cycles of IUI clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was 10. 95% (59/539) and clinical accumulate pregnancy rate was 18.73% (59/315). There was significant difference in the pregnancy result in different inducing ovulation proposal and IUI cycle number (P <0. 05). Conclusion Inducing ovulation proposal and high repeat intrauterine insemination cycles can improve the pregnant outcomes in IUI cycle.%目的 探讨影响夫精宫腔内人工授精(intrauterine insemination,IUI)妊娠成功率的因素.方法 回顾性分析接受夫精IUI治疗的315例不孕患者539个周期的临床资料,依次分析年龄、不孕类型、不孕原因、不孕年限、诱发排卵方案,注射绒促性素当日内膜厚度及类型、卵泡平均径线,处理后a+b级精子数、同一月经周期行IUI的次数、排卵数、IUI周期数与妊娠率的关系.结果 315例不孕患者共接受539个IUI周期治疗,有59例成功妊娠,周期妊娠率为10.95% (59/539).IUI治疗结局与诱发排卵方案、IUI治疗周期数有关(P<0.05);与年龄、不孕原因、不孕年限、注射绒促性素当日内膜厚度及类型、卵泡平均径线,处理后a+b级精子数、同一月经周期行IUI的次数、排卵数无关(P>0.05).结论 诱发排卵方案、IUI治疗周期数是影响夫精IUI妊娠率的因素.

  3. Comparação entre diferentes métodos de inseminação artificial em suínos Comparison between different methods of artificial insemination in swine

    Luciano Auri dos Santos Flores


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três métodos de inseminação artificial(IA no suíno em relação ao tempo de infusão e perdas por refluxo da DI durante a IA e aos 120 minutos após a IA, bem como dados de operacionalidade medido pelo grau de dificuldade verificado para execução da IA e dados de desempenho reprodutivo. Foram utilizadas 604 matrizes até a parição 7 e IDE 0,05. As taxas de retorno ao estro foram 10,3, 7,4 e 8,5 %, a taxa de parto ajustada foi de 90,8, 94,0 e 91,7% com 10,9, 11,1 e 11,1 leitões nascidos totais em T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. O método auto IA e o método intermediário proporcionam IAs mais rápidas e podem substituir o método tradicional sem prejuízos ao desempenho reprodutivo.This study was performed to compare the Hands-free insemination method, i.e., the high degree automation procedure, with an intermediate method, which allows less participation of the inseminator during the application of the inseminating dose (ID, and the conventional method, which is widely used in Brazil. The comparison was based on infusion time and losses due to semen backflow during AI and 120 minutes after AI, degree of difficulty experienced during AI procedure, and reproductive performance data. A number of 604 sows on the parity up to 7 and a weaning to estrus interval 0.05 in return to estrus rate, adjusted farrowing rate and number of born piglets. The return to estrus rates were 10.3, 7.4 and 8.5%, adjusted farrowing rates were 90.8, 94.0 and 91.7%, with 10.9, 11.1 e 11.1 total born piglets in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The Hands free method and the intermediate method allowed faster AI and can replace the traditional method without influence on the reproductive performance.

  4. Impact of Buserelin Acetate or hCG Administration on the Day of First Artificial Insemination on Subsequent Luteal Profile and Conception Rate in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, Sps; Dhaliwal, G S; Agarwal, S K; Phogat, J B


    This study was designed to investigate the impact of buserelin acetate (BA) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the day of first artificial insemination (AI) on subsequent luteal profile (diameter of corpus luteum (CL) and plasma progesterone) and conception rate in Murrah buffalo. The present experiment was carried out at two locations in 117 buffalo that were oestrus-synchronized using cloprostenol (500 μg) administered (i.m.) 11 days apart followed by AI during standing oestrus. Based on treatment (i.m.) at the time of AI, buffalo were randomly categorized (n = 39 in each group) into control (isotonic saline solution, 5 ml), dAI-BA (buserelin acetate, 20 μg) and dAI-hCG (hCG, 3000 IU) group. Out of these, 14 buffalo of each group were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography on the day of oestrus to monitor the preovulatory follicle and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to monitor CL diameter. On the day of each sonography, jugular vein blood samples were collected for the estimation of progesterone concentrations. All the buffalo (n = 117) were confirmed for pregnancy on day 40 post-ovulation. The conception rate was better (p  0.05) to exhibit stimulatory impact of treatment on luteal profile when compared to control group. In brief, buserelin acetate or hCG treatment on the day of first AI leads to an increase in conception rate; however, an appreciable impact on post-ovulation luteal profile was observed only in hCG-treated Murrah buffalo. PMID:27170495

  5. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS AI. In experiment 3, extended progesterone treatment combined with eCG increased the size of the dominant follicle (P = 0.01). Both extended progesterone treatment (P = 0.02) and eCG (P = 0.03) increased pregnancy per AI. In conclusion, an extended progesterone treatment stimulated follicular growth postpartum and improved fertility only in cows with low BCS. PMID:26944539

  6. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity.

    Soede, N.M.


    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For the pres

  7. The Application of Artificial Insemination Technology in Distant Hybridization Between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica%人工授精技术在柞蚕与栗蚕远缘杂交中的应用

    宿桂梅; 刘凤云; 戚俐; 徐亮; 孟宪民; 焦阳


    研究柞蚕(Antheraea pernyi)与栗蚕(Dictyoploca japonica)的人工授精技术,并应用于柞蚕与栗蚕的种间杂交试验,为利用远缘杂交改良柞蚕的经济性状提供试验技术.从种内交配40~60min的柞蚕雌蛾交配囊中采集精子细胞用于对柞蚕处女蛾的人工授精,其受精蛾率为61.5%,受精卵率为70.5%,孵化卵率为60.8%.栗蚕精子可在种内交配40~75 min的雌蛾交配囊中采集.利用单蛾精液授精和单蛾与多蛾精液互补授精的方法,分别获得了栗蚕♀×柞蚕♂的越冬卵和蚁蚕及柞蚕♀×栗蚕♂的活胚胎.试验结果表明,采用初步建立的人工授精技术,可以进行柞蚕与栗蚕的远缘杂交.%In present study, the artificial insemination technique for tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) and camphor silkworm (Dictyoploca japonica) was studied and applied in interspecific hybridization between tussah silkworm and camphor silkworm to improve economic traits of tussah silkworm through distant hybridization. Sperm cells of tussah silkworm were collected from copulatory pouches of female tussah silkworm moths after 40 to 60 min of intraspecific mating and were used to artificially inseminate the unmated tussah silkworm moths, which could lead to 61.5% of moths fertilized, 70.5% of eggs fertilized, and 60.8% of eggs hatched. Sperm cells of camphor silkworm could be collected from copulatory pouches of female camphor silkworm moths after 40 to 75 min of intraspecific mating. By means of insemination with single moth's sperm and complementary insemination with single and multiple moths' sperm, hibernating eggs of camphor silkworm ♀ xtussah silkworm ♂ and live embryos of tussah silkworm ♀ xcamphor silkworm ♂ were obtained respectively. This result indicated that a distant hybridization between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica can be conducted based on the newly established artificial insemination technology.

  8. EFECTO DEL TIEMPO DE INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL DESPUÉS DE LA DETECCIÓN DE CELO SOBRE LA TASA DE PREÑEZ EN OVINOS CORRIEDALE Effect of time of artificial insemination after estrus detection on Corriedale sheep pregnancy rates

    Camila Muñoz M.


    Full Text Available Un total de 240 ovejas Corriedale fueron sincronizadas con progesterona y asignadas al azar a 4 grupos, según el tiempo transcurrido entre la detección de celo y la inseminación artificial (IA con semen de carneros de la misma raza. Los primeros 3 grupos fueron inseminados luego de 3 y 6, 6 y 12; ó 12 y 18 h de detectado el celo; el cuarto grupo recibió una sola inseminación 18 h después de detectado el celo. El semen fue extraído y congelado en una solución de leche descremada, glicerol y yema de huevo, descongelado y usado, registrándose la profundidad de depositación del semen en el cérvix y la cantidad y naturaleza de la mucosa cervical. Treinta días después se determinó la preñez mediante ecografía. No se detectaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los porcentajes de preñez, que fueron de 22; 31; 22; y 21%, para los grupos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. Tampoco fueron significativas las diferencias en fertilidad con una o dos inseminaciones.A total of 240 adult Corriedale ewes from the Magallanes Region of Chile, were synchronized with progestagens and randomly assigned to one of four groups, according to the time elapsed between estrus detection and artificial insemination (AI with semen obtained from 2 Corriedale rams. The first three groups were inseminated at 3 and 6; 6 and 12; or 12 and 18 h after estrous detection; the fourth group received a single insemination 18 h after estrous detection. Semen was extracted and frozen in a solution of skimmed milk, glycerol and egg yolk, thawed and used, registering the depth of semen placement in the cervix and the quantity and nature of the cervical mucosa. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasound 30 days after insemination. No significant statistical differences were detected among pregnancy rates, which were 22; 31; 22; and 21% for groups 1; 2; 3 and 4, respectively. Nor were there significant differences with one or two inseminations. Results showed that

  9. /sup 131/I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)


    The method of /sup 131/I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma.

  10. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin, and laparoscopic artificial insemination on embryo, endocrine, and luteal characteristics in the domestic cat.

    Roth, T L; Wolfe, B A; Long, J A; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E


    The effects of gonadotropin treatment and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI) on embryo quality, serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and luteal progesterone content were examined in the domestic cat. These data were compared to similar historical data reported for naturally estrual, mated queens. All queens in this study (n = 32) were treated with eCG followed by 1) natural breeding (eCG-NB), 2) NB and hCG (eCG-NB-hCG), 3) NB and a sham AI procedure (eCG-NB-sham AI), or 4) hCG and actual AI (eCG-hCG-AI). Queens ovulating in response to treatment were ovariohysterectomized, and oviducts and uteri were flushed to collect embryos. Ovarian structures were recorded, corpora lutea (CL) were excised and evaluated for progesterone content, and serum was analyzed for estradiol-17beta and progesterone. Follicle and CL numbers ranged from 0 to 28 and 2 to 42 per cat, respectively, and treatment means did not differ (p > or = 0.05) among groups. Embryos were recovered from oviducts and uterine horns in all treatment groups, and recovery ranged from 60-96%. Mean embryo number per queen ranged from 8.2 +/- 2.6 to 23.2 +/- 3.8 and did not differ (p > or = 0.05) among groups. However, the proportions of unfertilized oocytes were greater (p or = 0.05) among treatments. Compared to historical controls (naturally estrual, mated queens), eCG-NB queens produced > 4 times as many good-quality embryos and blastocysts. Similarly, eCG-hCG-AI-treated queens produced > 4 times the number of oocytes and embryos, although a high proportion of these were poor quality and did not develop to blastocysts. Together, these results indicate that queens treated with eCG are capable of consistently producing many good-quality embryos, at least half of which develop to blastocysts in culture. These data support the use of eCG in felids and suggest that other factors are responsible for reduced pregnancy success and small litter sizes following assisted reproduction. PMID:9209095

  11. Analysis on the outcome of intrauterine artificial insemination with donor's sperm%宫腔内供精人工授精结局影响因素分析

    秘祖霞; 徐雯; 卢伟英; 张宇; 马燕琳


    Objective To analyze the parameters affecting the pregnancy rate in intrauterine artificial insemination with donor's sperm (AID-IUI). Methods A total of 345 AID-IUI cycles in our center were selected. Chi-square test and multiple unconditional logistic regression were performed. Results The pregnancy rate of 345 AID-IUI cycles were 24.1%. The pregnancy outcome showed no statistically significant difference between the groups of different age and duration of infertility (P>0.05). Multivariable stepwise logistic regression model revealed that the number of AID-IUI cycles was a risk factor that affected the pregnancy rate of per cycle. The OR value for 2 cycles group and 3 cycles group were 6.78 [95%CI(2.75~16.71)] and 2.87[95% CI(1.12~7.36)], respectively. Conclusion The number of AID-IUI cycles was one of the most important factors affecting the pregnancy rate of per cycle.%目的 探讨多种因素对宫腔内供精人工授精(AID-IUI)治疗结局的影响.方法 回顾性分析在本中心实施的345个AID-IUI治疗周期,对AID-IUI成功率与女方年龄、治疗周期数等因素的关系进行x2检验及非条件逐步Logistic回归分析.结果 345个AID-IUI周期,周期临床妊娠率为24.1%.x2检验显示年龄、不孕年限等因素对AID-IUI结局的影响无统计学意义(P>0.05); Logistic回归分析显示助孕周期次数是影响AID-IUI周期临床妊娠率的危险因素(P<0.01),2次组和≥3次组的OR值分别为6.78 [95%CI (2.75~16.71)]及2.87[95%CI(1.12~7.36)].结论 助孕周期次数是影响AID-IUI周期临床妊娠率的重要因素.

  12. 人工授精技术在辽宁绒山羊改良工作中的重要作用%Importance of artificial insemination in improvement of Liaoning cashmere goats

    薛冰; 刘兴伟; 周孝峰


    人工授精技术在辽宁绒山羊产业中的应用,不仅使优秀种用公羊的利用效率明显提高,同时也极大地促进了我国个体的低产绒山羊的改良工作,可提高绒山羊养殖的经济效益,实现科研推广部门和养殖户利益双赢,具有非常大的发展前景。%The application of artificial insemination technology, not only signifi-cantly improves the utilization efficiency of excellent breeding rams of Liaoning Cashmere goat, but also greatly promotes the improvement work of China's low-yield-ing goats individual. The artificial insemination technology has a great develop-ment prospect in improving the economic benefits of goat farming and achieving the win-win benefits between scientific researches and farmers.

  13. Factors Influencing the Superovulation and Artificial Insemination of Sheep%影响绵羊超数排卵和人工授精效果因素的研究

    汪立芹; 李乃新; 韩冰; 李洪林; 黄俊成


    [目的]获得低成本高效率的绵羊超数排卵处理方案和较好人工授精效果的方法.[方法]使用常规超数排卵和人工授精的方法,从可能影响其效果的FSH激素与海绵栓的组合、发情时间间隔、输精次数、公羊个体等4个方面进行研究分析.[结果]海绵栓结合北京产FSH组合的超排效果最差,显著低于其他试验组(P<0.01),使用宁波生产的FSH,结合海绵栓或者CIDR栓,都能获得较好的超排效果;最后一次注射FSH后12 h发情的细毛羊供体超排效果最好,显著高于36 h组(P<0.01),与0和24 h间没有差异;人工输精2次的怀孕率显著高于输精1次(P<0.01);不同公羊个体的受精效果不同.[结论]使用国产FSH和国产海绵栓的组合,能在不影响超排效果的前提下显著降低成本;选择受精效率高的公羊个体,连续输精2次能获得较好的受胎效果.%[Objective] This study aimed to find out a method for low-cost and highly efficient sheep superovulation treatment and artificial insemination.[Method] The factors those probably influencing the results of conventional superovulation and insemination,such as combination of FSH hormone and sponge suppository,estrus interval,number of insemination,and ram individuals were analyzed.[Result] The combination of sponge suppository and FSH produced in Beijing exhibited the poorest effect to superovulation,significantly worse than that of other combinations (P<0.01).The FSH produced in Ningbo,combined with sponge suppository or CIDR produced better effect to superovulation.The superovulation effect was better when the interval from the last FSH injection to estrus was 12 h,significantly better than that when the interval was 36 h (P<0.01); and there was no difference in the superovulation results when the interval was 0,12 and 24 h.The pregnancy rate of two artificial inseminations was significantly higher than that of only one insemination (P<0.01).Rams themselves

  14. Clinical effect of semen-storing cervical cap on artificial insemination outcome in patients with abnormal anatomical position of cervix%储精式宫颈帽用于宫颈解剖位置异常人工授精的临床效果观察

    陶国振; 胥玉梅; 李娟; 孙林; 刘锦云; 于建春


    目的:观察储精式宫颈帽用于宫颈解剖位置异常人工授精的临床效果.方法:将宫颈解剖位置异常导致不孕的妇女66例随机分成3组,实验组采用储精式宫颈帽夫精人工授精,对照A组采用宫颈管夫精人工授精,对照B组采用宫腔夫精人工授精,比较各组周期妊娠率.结果:周期妊娠率实验组(21.86%,14/65)高于对照A组(8.06%,5/62)(P <0.05),与对照B组(23.21%,13/56)比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:储精式宫颈帽夫精人工授精治疗宫颈解剖位置异常所致不孕与宫腔夫精人工授精临床效果一致,明显高于宫颈管夫精人工授精,是一种简单、方便和有效的人工授精方法.%Objective: To explore the clinical use of self - made semen - storing cervical cap on the outcome of artificial insemination with husband sperm in infertile women with abnormal anatomical position of the cervix. Methods; Sixty - six infertile women with abnormal anatomical position of the cervix were prospectively randomized to 3 groups; the experimental group, control group A and B. Women in the experimental group received underwent artificial insemination with semen - storing cervical cap. And those in control group A and B received cervical artificial insemination and intrauterine insemination, respectively. The pregnancy rate was evaluated. Results o The pregnancy rate of the experimental group and was 21.86% (14/65), significantly higher than that of control group A (8.06% , 5/62, P0.05). Conclusion; The clinical effect of artificial insemination with semen - storing cervical cap is similar with that of intrauterine insemination and higher than that of cervical artificial insemination for patients with abnormal anatomical position of the cervix. It may be a simple, convenient and effective method for artificial insemination.

  15. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L


    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P < 0.0001) interaction between the selection strategy and the AI technique-dose combination was identified for the gross return; meanwhile, significant (P < 0.0001) additive effects of the selection strategy and AI technique-dose combination were observed for the net




    We have investigated the potential advantages of transcervical artificial insemination into the caudal portion of the uterus (corpus uteri), compared with conventional sperm-dose deposition into the posterior region of the cervix. Three experiments was carried out to investigate: (1) the influence of insemination-dose volume, (2) sperm number per dose and (3) type of insemination catheter on sows fertility (farrowing rate and litter size). Classic intracervical insemination was performed in t...

  17. Efeito do intervalo das duas últimas inseminações sobre a fertilidade de éguas inseminadas com sêmen fresco diluído Effect of interval between the two last artificial inseminations on mares fertility inseminated with diluted fresh semen

    Helton Mattana Saturnino


    Full Text Available Sessenta e duas fêmeas eqüinas foram distribuídas ao acaso em dois grupos experimentais de acordo com o intervalo da penúltima à última inseminação artificial de cada ciclo (48h ou 72h. As éguas foram rufiadas e inseminadas às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, a partir do momento em que apresentavam um folículo de 3,0 a 3,5 cm de diâmetro, com sêmen de apenas um garanhão de fertilidade comprovada, diluído para um volume inseminante de 10 mL com diluidor de mínima contaminação. As taxas de concepção referentes ao primeiro ciclo, para os intervalos de 48h e 72h foram de 66,67% (24/36 e 65,22% (15/23, respectivamente, sendo as taxas de concepção/ciclo de 53,45% (31/58 e 56,76% (21/37, na mesma ordem anterior. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se inseminações às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, sem perda da fertilidade.Sixty two mares were randomly assigned to two experimental group, according to two intervals between the penultimate and the ultimate artificial insemination (48 or 72h. The mares were teased and inseminated on monday, wednesday and friday, when a follicle size was equal or greater than 3.0 cm in diameter, with semen from a stallion of proven fertility diluted with minimum contamination extender. The conception rates for the first cycle for the 48h and 72h intervals were 66.67% (24/36 and 65.22% (15/23 respectively, and the conception/cicle were 53.45% (31/58 and 56.76% (21/37, in the same order. Based on these results, one should consider recommending inseminations on monday, wednesday and friday, without fertility loss.

  18. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D


    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  19. Survey Report of Free Artificial Insemination to Cows in Ganzhou District of Zhangye City%张掖市甘州区能繁母牛零费用配种情况实地调查报告

    田春花; 郝鹏


    [目的]为调查落实张掖市基础母牛养殖户补贴政策过程中存在的问题。[方法]张掖市畜牧管理人员随机入乡镇配种站,母牛养殖户,对甘州区基础母牛养殖户补贴政策落实情况进行走访调查,并对调查结果进行了统计、分析。[结果]表明:"零费用配种"政策对养殖户起到了积极作用,但同时存在政策资金不及时到位,会影响养牛生产的矛盾。[结论]"零费用配种"是项补助措施,对稳定母牛养殖有意义,但需进一步完善。%【Objective】 To investigate the existed problems during the implement of subsidy policies for the farmers raising basic cows in Zhangye city.【Method】 Animal Husbandry administrative staff randomly got to the breeding station of townships and farmers raising cows to survey the implement of subsidy policies in Ganzhou district,then statistically analyzed the research result.【Results】The results showed that the free artificial insemination breeding policy to cows had a positive effect to the farmers.At the same time,there still existed the policy fund did not reach in time,which would influence the cattle raising production.【Conclusion】Free artificial insemination to cow was a subsidy measure,which was meaningful for the cow steadily raising,but it needed to be further improved.

  20. 染色体多态性对供精人工授精治疗结局的影响%Influence of chromosomal polymorphism on treatment outcome of artificial insemination by donors

    伍园园; 郑立新; 祝小丽; 舒小妹; 郑炜炜


    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the female chromosome polymorphism and the pregnancy outcome of artificial insemination by donors. Methods; The peripheral blood of patients was cultured rountinely for karotype analysis. Clinical pregnancy rate, cumulative pregnancy rate and early obortion rate were observed by treated patients with chromosomal polymorphism as the research group, and patients with normal chromosome as control group. Results: There was no significant difference in the clinical cycle pregnancy rate ( 19. 80% vs 19. 66% ) , cumulative pregnancy rate (44. 82% vs 41. 77% ) , early abortion rate ( 14. 58% vsl2. 07% ) between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: Chromosomal polymorphism carrier status has no impact on treatment outcome of the patients receiving artificial insemination by donors.%目的 探讨女性染色体多态性与供精人工授精妊娠结局的关系.方法 对接受供精人工授精患者常规抽血行染色体检查,将发现有染色体多态的患者作为研究对象,与染色体正常群体对照,观察临床妊娠率、累积妊娠率和早期流产率.结果 染色体多态性组与正常组比较,临床周期妊娠率(19.80% vs 19.66%),累积妊娠率(44.82%vs 41.77%),早期流产率(14.58% vs12.07%),均无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 染色体多态性携带状态不影响供精人工授精患者的治疗结局.

  1. Cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa: comparison of two freezing extenders based on post-thaw sperm quality and fertility rates after artificial insemination.

    Dorado, J; Rodríguez, I; Hidalgo, M


    TRIS-glucose or skim milk extenders are most commonly used for cryopreserving goat sperm. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of two extenders based on TRIS and skimmed milk buffer to maintain sperm viability after cryopreservation. Goat semen samples (n=110) were frozen with TRIS and with milk extender and thaw. Sperm motion parameters, morphology and acrosomal integrity were assessed in fresh and frozen-thawed samples by Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA) and Diff-Quik and Spermac staining techniques. Pregnancy rates were obtained after cervical insemination with frozen semen doses. The cryopreservation process had a significant effect on acrosome and kinematic parameters. TRIS extender provided more effective preservation of total motility, velocity parameters and amplitude of lateral head displacement after freezing. The percentage of acrosome intact spermatozoa was significantly higher in samples diluted with milk extender. In the insemination doses, mean values of velocity parameters and lateral head displacement were higher in doses processed in TRIS. Spermatozoa frozen in milk extender was mathematically greater than for those frozen with TRIS extenders, though no significant difference exists. We conclude that post-thaw kinematic parameters and acrosome integrity assessed after 1h of incubation was acceptable in both extenders which indicated the feasibility of cryopreserving goat spermatozoa. TRIS extender results in better in vitro performance compared to milk, though these improvements were not reflected in fertility results. Semen doses cryopreserved in milk extender provided greater pregnancy rates after intra-cervical insemination compared to those in TRIS extender (52.4% versus 42.9%). PMID:17532460

  2. Analysis on clinical factors related to artificial insemination with husband sperm in 1 382 cycles%1382周期宫腔内夫精人工授精临床因素分析

    孙婧; 权孝珍; 谢明霞; 徐蓓; 曾丹; 刘玉芹; 艾继辉


    目的:对官腔内夫精人工授精患者的临床资料进行分析,评估相关因素对夫精人工授精妊娠率的影响.方法:选择2007年1月~2009年3月因不孕于同济医院生殖医学中心进行官腔内人工授精(IUI)治疗的夫妇943对,共1 382个周期.分析女性年龄、不孕年限、不孕原因、IUI治疗周期数及促排卵方案等临床因素和妊娠率之间的关系.结果:①年龄超过40岁妊娠率明显下降(P<0.05);不孕年限超过10年的妊娠率明显下降(P<0.05).②继发性不孕的妊娠率高于原发性不孕的妊娠率(P<0.05).③女方因素中,妊娠率最高的是多囊卵巢综合征,最低的是子宫内膜异位症;男方因素中,以性功能障碍和精液液化不良的妊娠率最高,畸精症的妊娠数为0.④促排卵周期的妊娠率高于自然周期,但差异无统计学意义.结论:在夫精人工授精中,患者年龄、不孕年限、不孕类型、不孕原因和促排方案均可影响妊娠率,治疗时应综合考虑多种因素的影响.%Objective: To analyze the clinical data of patients receiving intrauterine insemination with husband sperm, evaluate the effect of relative factors on pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination. Methods: 943 infertile couples who received intrauterine insemination in the hospital from January 2007 to March 2009 were selected, 1 382 cycles were included. The relationship between clinical factors including maternal age, infertile time, infertile causes, cycles of intrauterine insemination, ovulation induction protocol and pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results: The pregnancy rate of the patients more than 40 years decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ) . The pregnancy rate of the patients with infertile time > 10 years decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ) . The pregnancy rate of the patients with secondary infertility was significantly higher than that of the patients with primary infertility (P < 0. 05) . Among female factors, the


    Bertolini, L.R


    Full Text Available The urge for the control of reproductive processes in animals has propelled a great gain in knowledge, also setting off the development of four generations of assisted reproductive technologies (AR T for humans and animals. The use of assisted reproductive techniques has been of great importance in livestock production. In general terms, the main first three generations of ARTs, including 1 artificial insemination (AI and gamete and embryo freezing, 2 multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET and 3 in vitro fertilization (IV F procedures, have matured into successful commercial applications, facilitating the increase in production through genetics, the reduction in generation intervals, the control of diseases, and the cutback in production costs. The fourth generation of AR T encompasses processes that are still more experimental, comprising cloning by nuclear transfer (NT of embryonic or somatic cells, transgenesis, and stem cell biology. Such technologies are intertwined with one another and with currently available molecular tools, being completely dependent upon the previous generations of technologies. However, many reproductive challenges still hinder maximal livestock reproductive performance, affecting productivity and profitability. It is clear that the application of such technologies as lucrative activities will remain questionable if not associated with other components of animal production, such as animal health, nutrition and adequate animal husbandry practices.El afán por controlar los procesos reproductivos en animales ha llevado a una gran ganancia en conocimiento, impulsando el desarrollo de cuatro tecnologías reproductivas asistidas (AR Ts para animales y humanos. El uso de AR Ts ha sido de gran importancia en la producción ganadera. En términos generales, las tres principales generaciones de AR T, incluyendo 1 inseminación artificial (AI y congelación de gametos y embriones, 2 superovulación y transferencia de

  4. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges; Rogério Ferreira; Lucas Carvalho Siqueira; Rodrigo Camponogara Bohrer; Jacson William Borstmann; João Francisco Coelho de Oliveira; Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves


    The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI) system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227), 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg) and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0). On day six, cloprostenol (125µg) and eCG (400IU) were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group) or on day eight (TAI group). All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit sta...

  5. Pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1.

    Odhiambo, J F; Poole, D H; Hughes, L; Dejarnette, J M; Inskeep, E K; Dailey, R A


    Reduced capability of the uterus to support pregnancy in the absence of its interaction with secretions from male accessory glands has been demonstrated in rodents and to some extent in pigs. However, in cattle, the role of postmating inflammatory response on pregnancy success has not been studied. The current study examined the influence of uterine presensitization with seminal antigens at breeding on pregnancy outcome in cows. Lactating beef (n=1090) and dairy (n=800) cows received 0.5 mL seminal plasma (SP), 40 ng recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1), or 0.5 mL bovine serum albumin (BSA), or were left untreated before or at insemination. Semen was deposited into the anterior cervix using a second insemination gun. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 35 to 40 d postinsemination by transrectal ultrasonography or from records of calves born the subsequent calving season. Pregnancy rates in beef cows did not differ among treatments but differed among trials (69.8%, 52.5% vs. 40.3%; Pplasma on pregnancy outcome in lactating dairy or beef cows but realized marginal improvements when pregnancy rates were below 50% (compromised fertility). PMID:19501392

  6. The applications of timed artificial insemination and timed embryo transfer in reproductive management of dairy cattle Aplicação da inseminação artificial e transferência de embrião em tempo fixo no manejo reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras

    Divakar Justus Ambrose


    Full Text Available Fertility of dairy cattle is generally decreasing. Overall estrus detection efficiency in lactating dairy cattle is low, as expression of estrus is often compromised. Consequently, undetected estrus, low AI-submission rates, and long inter-breeding intervals are the main contributors to poor reproductive efficiency. Although failure to become pregnant is the most common reason for culling dairy cattle, pregnancy rates could be improved by increasing the AI-submission rate through increased estrus detection efficiency, timed insemination (Timed-AI, or timed embryo transfer (Timed-ET. In these protocols, ovarian follicular development and luteolysis are controlled, culminating in synchronous ovulation in most cows. There are several modifications to improve pregnancy rates in Timed-AI protocols, e.g. presynchronization with 2 doses of PGF2a 14 d apart, and starting the Ovsynch protocol 12 d after the 2nd PGF2a. Timed-AI programs ensure a timely first breeding; this should be followed with early pregnancy diagnosis to identify nonpregnant cows, and prompt re-insemination. However, in a recent field study involving 23 dairy herds, the mean interval between 1st and 2nd breeding was 42 d; only 28% of the cows were rebred within 24 d after 1st breeding. Fortunately, there are several resynchronization protocols to reduce inter-breeding intervals. Anestrus cows, or those with cystic ovarian follicles, have a good chance of conceiving when subjected to synchronization of ovulation and Timed-AI. Furthermore, Timed-ET is a practical and viable option for synchronizing and selecting recipient cattle for embryo transfers. In summary, systematic and judicious use of Timed-AI and Timed-ET protocols can greatly enhance reproductive performance, and improve herd productivity.A fertilidade em vacas de leite está em decréscimo e, de modo geral, a detecção eficiente do estro em vacas lactantes é baixa, já que a expressão do estro é frequentemente

  7. Library design and screening protocol for artificial metalloenzymes based on the biotin-streptavidin technology.

    Mallin, Hendrik; Hestericová, Martina; Reuter, Raphael; Ward, Thomas R


    Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) based on the incorporation of a biotinylated metal cofactor within streptavidin (Sav) combine attractive features of both homogeneous and enzymatic catalysts. To speed up their optimization, we present a streamlined protocol for the design, expression, partial purification and screening of Sav libraries. Twenty-eight positions have been subjected to mutagenesis to yield 335 Sav isoforms, which can be expressed in 24-deep-well plates using autoinduction medium. The resulting cell-free extracts (CFEs) typically contain >1 mg of soluble Sav. Two straightforward alternatives are presented, which allow the screening of ArMs using CFEs containing Sav. To produce an artificial transfer hydrogenase, Sav is coupled to a biotinylated three-legged iridium pianostool complex Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl (the cofactor). To screen Sav variants for this application, you would determine the number of free binding sites, treat them with diamide, incubate them with the cofactor and then perform the reaction with your test compound (the example used in this protocol is 1-phenyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline). This process takes 20 d. If you want to perform metathesis reactions, Sav is coupled to a biotinylated second-generation Grubbs-Hoveyda catalyst. In this application, it is best to first immobilize Sav on Sepharose-iminobiotin beads and then perform washing steps. Elution from the beads is achieved in an acidic reaction buffer before incubation with the cofactor. Catalysis using your test compound (in this protocol, 2-(4-(N,N-diallylsulfamoyl)phenyl)-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium iodide) is performed using the formed metalloenzyme. Screening using this approach takes 19 d. PMID:27031496

  8. Identification of constraints and implementation of corrective measures for improving the efficiency of artificial insemination services in dairy cattle through the use of progesterone RIA

    Reproductive parameters were determined in seven dairy farms with intensive system of management in Lima, Peru. Calving to first service interval (CSI) was determined in 552 dairy cows and calving to conception interval (CCI) in 249 cows, in relation to the effects of parity (uniparous and multiparous), breed (Holstein and Brown Swiss), farm and calving season (G1: summer, December to April; G2: winter, May to August; G3: spring, September to November). Data was analyzed by General Linear Model (GLM), and Survival Analysis. The overall CSI (Mean ± SD) was 81.1 ± 35 days (n=552) and CCI was 113 ± 61 days (n=249). Parity and calving season significantly influenced CSI. CSI was 89.9 ± 3.80 days (LS ± SE) in uniparous cows (n=148) and 81.3 ± 2.65 days in multiparous cows (n=404; P<0.01), while it was 87.3 ± 2.72, 68.8 ± 2.87 and 100.9 ± 5.72 days for G1 (n=271); G2 (n=215) and G3 (n=66), respectively (P<0.01). CCI for the same groups were 117.4 ± 4.6, 95.0 ± 6 and 154.6 ± 12 days, respectively, with significant differences between G2 and the other groups (P<0.01). Parity had no significant influence on CCI. Calving to ovulation interval (COI) was 45 ± 19.9 days (n=65) and there were significant effects of body condition score at calving, season of calving and farm. The COI was 42.8 ± 2.6 days for cows calving during spring, while it was 23.2 ± 6.1 days for those calving during summer. Cows inseminated during spring had 3.0 more risk probability of wrong insemination. Overall conception rate and first service conception rate were influenced by study period, calving season, service number and origin of semen. Cows calving from September to April had the poorest reproductive indices and should be included in a special breeding management program to improve their performance. (author)

  9. Eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial prefixada em rebanhos Bos taurus e Bos indicus Efficacy of the Ovsynch treatment associated to fixed-time artificial insemination in Bos taurus and Bos indicus herds

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial em tempo prefixado em vacas Bos taurus e Bos indicus. Foram utilizados rebanhos das raças Holandesa, Caracu, Nelore e Mantiqueira. Também foi incluído um rebanho de vacas Gir, com problemas de fertilidade. Cada rebanho foi dividido em três grupos. O grupo 1 recebeu o tratamento Ovsynch e foi inseminado em tempo prefixado. O grupo 2 foi inseminado no cio induzido com cloprostenol. O grupo 3 foi inseminado no cio natural. As taxas de concepção e de prenhez foram determinadas por ultra-sonografia. Não existiu interação significativa das variáveis reprodutivas analisadas para rebanho, idade, período pós-parto, número de parição e presença do bezerro. A taxa de concepção não diferiu (P>0,05 entre os grupos, ao passo que a taxa de prenhez foi superior (PThe present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Ovsynch treatment associated with prefixed-time artificial insemination on Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows. Herds of Holstein, Caracu, Nelore and Mantiqueira breeds were used. A herd of Gir cows with poor reproductive performance was also included. Each breed was divided in tree groups. Group 1 received Ovsynch treatment and was inseminated at prefixed time. Group 2 was induced to estrus with cloprostenol and inseminated thereafter. Group 3 was inseminated at natural heat. Conception and pregnancy rates were determined by ultra-sound. No significant interactions were detected among breeds, age, parity, postpartum period and lactating cows with or without their calves. Conception rates did not differ (P>0.05 among groups while pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.05 for group 1 and 2 comparing to group 3. In the Gir herd Ovsynch treatment did not enhance conception nor pregnancy rates. Independently of breed, conception rate is similar after Ovsynch, cloprostenol and control treatments, and pregnancy rate can be improved with

  10. 猪0.5mL细管冷冻精液的人工授精试验%Studies on artificial insemination with 0.5 mL straws frozen semen in boar

    张渭斌; 孙世铎; 刘丑生; 朱芳贤; 谷合勇


    【Objective】 0.5 mL straws frozen boar semen were produced to observe the result of artificial insemination.【Method】 Thirty-six sows were randomly divided into eight groups.Group A-1(n=5) and A-2(n=5) sows were inseminated with fresh semen with a dose of 4×109 spermatozoa,using 80 mL A-1 using conventional AI and A-2 using IUI catheter.Group B-1(n=4) and B-2(n=4) sows were used for intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with 20 mL extender.B-1 with a dose of 1×109 spermatozoa and B-2 with a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa.Group C-1(n=5) and C-2(n=5) sows were used for intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa,C-1 using 60 mL extender and C-2 using 80 mL extender.Group D-1(n=4) and D-2(n=4) sows were used to intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with a dose of 4×109 spermatozoa,C-1 using 60 mL extender and C-2 using 80 mL extender.The pregnancy rate(PR),farrowing rate(FR) and total number of piglet born(TNB) were recorded.【Result】 The above procedures yielded the highest post-thaw motility of(42.4±0.9)% and the plasma integrity of(47.2±0.3)%,together with the normal acrosome was(46.8±0.4)%.Inseminations with fresh semen yielded a pregnanty rate of 100% and a mean litter size of 9.00±0.63 NBA(Number boar alive) piglets.Insemination with frozen semen yieled a pregnancy rate of 72% and a mean litter size of 6.64±0.82 NBA piglets.Compared fresh with frozen semen,the pregnancy and farrowing rates were higher than those in frozen semen groups.【Conclusion】 Artificial insemination with fresh sperm was better than frozen semen.Frozen semen diluted with 60 and 80 mL volume had no significant effect on the birth rate,and the number born alive.In conclusion,frozen boar semen can be used successfully by using IUI catheter at a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa,diluted with 60 mL of semen extender.%【目的】制备猪0.5mL细管冷冻精液,并

  11. Synchronized ovulation for first insemination improves reproductive performance and reduces cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers.

    Silva, T V; Lima, F S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P


    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of synchronizing estrus and ovulation to implement a timed artificial insemination (AI) at first insemination on reproductive performance and cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers. Six hundred eleven Holsteins heifers at approximately 400 d of age from 3 farms were enrolled in the study. Six days before moving to the breeding pens, heifers were allocated randomly to AI after detected estrus from study d 0 to 84 (CON, n=306), or to timed AI for first AI followed by detected estrus for the remainder of the 84-d study (TAI, n=305). Heifers receiving TAI were enrolled in the 5-d timed AI protocol on study d -6 (d -6, GnRH and a progesterone insert; d -1, PGF2α and insert removal; d 0, PGF2α; d 2, GnRH + AI), and they were allowed to be bred the day before scheduled timed AI if detected in estrus. Starting on study d 0, estrus was detected daily. Heifers in estrus were inseminated on the same morning as detected estrus. Control heifers not inseminated by study d 7 received PGF2α and this treatment was repeated every 2 wk until AI. The study lasted 84 d to allow a period of breeding equivalent to four 21-d estrous cycles. A herd budget accounting for inputs for both treatments was created to determine the cost per pregnancy. Sensitivity analysis compared economic differences between the 2 treatments under different input scenarios when detection of estrus after the first AI varied from 50 to 80%. Interval to first AI was 8 d shorter for TAI than for CON. Pregnancy at first AI did not differ between treatments (CON=58.3 vs. TAI=62.8%). In contrast, TAI increased pregnancy per AI (P/AI) compared with CON in heifers inseminated with sex-sorted semen (CON=31.6 vs. TAI=54.8%). The 21-d cycle insemination rate was greater for TAI (91.4%) than for CON (82.4%), even when evaluated after the first 21 d in the study (CON=68.2 vs. TAI=77.1%). The increased insemination rate improved the 21-d cycle pregnancy rate from 47.9% in CON to 57

  12. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

    Danilo Demeterco


    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  13. Athermal exploration of Kagome artificial spin ice states by rotating field protocols

    Artificial Kagome spin ice arrays consisting of nanomagnets are model systems for the study of geometrical frustration, for which field demagnetization methods are insufficient to drive them in their ground states. Here the efficiency of different demagnetization protocols (involving rotation) is studied by micromagnetic simulations. The hysteresis loop of each element is greatly influenced by the magnetic state of the nearest neighbors, not only by the expected shift due to dipolar interaction bias, but as it regards the loop shape and width itself, which presents a correction to the usual macrospin calculation assumptions. It is shown that rotation in angular steps a little less than 180° is the most effective process in accessing the largest possible number states before ending up near the ground state even in the absence of any disorder which is shown to represent the most unfavorable case. - Highlights: • Optimized athermal demagnetization process for a two-dimensional artificial kagome spin ice. • States with flux closure in small groups of elements difficult to obtain athermally in systems with N·30. • The dipolar interaction field not only biases but also changes the loop width. • Interactions lead to array size dependent remanence enhancement

  14. Impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of cows nellore under pasture in fixed time artificial insemination (tai programImpacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas da raça nelore sob regime de pasto em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (iatf

    Marcelle Christine Nascimento Ferreira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of Nellore cows, commercial herd undergoing artificial insemination programs in fixed time (TAI. 181 cows were used multiparous Nellore, the coastal plains region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, with more than one hundred days after birth, kept on pasture and divided into two groups subjected to the same synchronization protocol for TAI (D0-2 , 0 mg of estradiol benzoate + device with 1.0 g bovine intravaginal progesterone implant removal D8-250?g of cloprostenol + + 300 IU of eCG, D9-Bz 1.0 mg. Estradiol, D10-TAI. The groups were divided according to body condition score (BCS with scale of 1-5 in Group I, n=96: BCS ? 3,0, Group II, n=85: BCS ? 2.5 ? 2.0. All females were exposed to bulls, from 24 hours to pass after TAI, remaining with them until the end of the breeding season. The overall pregnancy rate was 86.5% (83:96 and 65.9% (56:85 for group I and group II, respectively. Data were evaluated by chi-square analysis and the results show a statistically significant difference (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas Nelore, rebanho comercial, submetidas a programas de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 181 vacas multíparas da raça Nelore, na região das baixadas litorâneas do estado do RJ, com mais de cem dias decorridos do parto, mantidas em regime de pasto e divididas em dois grupos submetidos ao mesmo protocolo de sincronização para IATF (D0- 2,0mg de benzoato de estradiol + dispositivo intravaginal bovino com 1,0g de progesterona, D8- retirada do implante + 250?g de cloprostenol sódico+ 300 UI de eCG, D9- 1,0mg Bz. Estradiol, D10- IATF. Os grupos foram divididos segundo escore de condição corporal (ECC com escala de 1-5 em: grupo I, n=96: vacas com ECC ? 3,0 e grupo II, n=85: vacas com ECC ? 2,5 ? 2,0. Todas as fêmeas foram expostas aos touros, a partir

  15. Enhance of the estrus and ovulation sychronism in ewes using protocols with progesterone

    Estrous synchronization in combination with artificial insemination is an important biotechnology that enables greater and more efficient use of cryopreserved germplasm. However, when using this technology fertility rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) still exist because of variati...

  16. Sperm concentration on the intrauterine artificial insemination in swine Concentrações espermáticas na inseminação artificial intra-uterina suína

    Joana Miller


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the intrauterine insemination (IUI in swine, considering the conception rate, farrowing rate, litter size (alive born pigs. For the IUI, the females had been insemination at 24 and 48 hours after the estrus detection, and the inseminating doses of 500 million, 1 billion, 1.5 billion and 2 billion spermatozoa in 20 mL extender had been used. The procedure of catheter insertion through the cervical canal was successfully performed in 97.9% of the females. The conception rate was 6.3% in the IUI. The farrowing rate in IUI was 87.2% but the farrowing rate was 100% for the sperm concentration of 500 million. Regarding the number of born pigs and alive born pigs observed in females inseminated with IUI, no significant difference was observed (p > 0.05. The concentration of 500 x 10(6 spermatozoa in 20 mL extender in the intrauterine insemination resulted in an optimal reproductive performance.Conduziu-se este estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da inseminação intra-uterina (IIU em suínos, considerando as taxas de retorno ao estro, aborto, parto, além do tamanho da leitegada (número de leitões nascidos e nascidos vivos. Na IIU, as fêmeas foram inseminadas nos tempos de 24 e 48 horas após a detecção do estro, utilizando-se as concentrações de 500 milhões, 1 bilhão, 1,5 bilhão e 2 bilhões de espermatozóides, em 20mL de diluente. A passagem do cateter de IIU através da cérvix foi possível em 97,9% das fêmeas. Foi realizado diagnóstico de retorno ao estro a partir do 18º dia e diagnóstico de gestação por ultrassonografia transcutânea entre o 28º e 30º dias após a inseminação. A taxa de retorno ao estro foi de 6,3% na IIU. A taxa de parto na IIU foi de 87,2%, sendo a taxa de parto para a concentração de 500 milhões de 100%. Com relação ao número de leitões nascidos totais e nascidos vivos, não houve diferenças, entre as diferentes concentra




    Full Text Available We have investigated the potential advantages of transcervical artificial insemination into the caudal portion of the uterus (corpus uteri, compared with conventional sperm-dose deposition into the posterior region of the cervix. Three experiments was carried out to investigate: (1 the influence of insemination-dose volume, (2 sperm number per dose and (3 type of insemination catheter on sows fertility (farrowing rate and litter size. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Significant greater farrowing rate (88% and live born piglet per litter (10,77 or 11,86 was found after intrauterine insemination, then after intracervical insemination (76 or 72% farrowing rate, and 10,42 or 9,89 live born piglets per litter. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with different catheter type. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with 5x109,3,7x109 or 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. No significant differences in farrowing rate was found between intracervical and intrauterine insemination (83,3 to 86,7%. Significant greater live born piglet per litter was found after intrauterine insemination with 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. Obtained results suggest that intrauterine insemination can be performed by significant reduction of insemination dose volume and sperm number in dose, without decreasing sows fertility. It can result in significant increasing of boar reproductive efficiency.

  18. Uterine lavage is efficient to recover endometrial cytology sample and does not interfere with fertility rate after artificial insemination in cows.

    Thomé, Helder Esteves; de Arruda, Rubens Paes; de Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins; Maturana Filho, Milton; de Oliveira, Guilherme Cain; Guimarães, Carina de Fátima; de Carvalho Balieiro, Júlio César; Azedo, Milton Ricardo; Pogliani, Fábio Celidônio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho


    Productivity rates directly depend on the fertility of a herd, which in turn can be influenced by many factors. Semen deposited in the female reproductive tract is foreign to the body and, in response to this invasion, produces an inflammatory reaction, which is characterized by rapid infusion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Techniques to obtain an endometrial sample are usually invasive and can mask the true inflammatory response. Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique and can contribute to the diagnosis of postartificial insemination (AI) inflammatory response in cattle. The present study was divided into two experiments. The aim of experiment 1 was to compare two methods of endometrial cytology collection, uterine cytobrush (UC) and uterine lavage (UL), and their effects on uterine hemodynamics that provide information about blood flow. The two methods were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound using the spectral and color modes. For that purpose, 19 Nellore cows were synchronized for timed AI and subjected to UC (n = 9) or UL (n = 10). The techniques were performed 4 hours after AI. The results showed that both techniques allow collection of a good quality sample and with enough PMN cells to perform counting. More PMN cells were obtained by UL than UC. There was no difference in uterine blood flow between the UC and UL groups in any of the periods evaluated (34 hours before and 4, 24, and 48 hours after collection of uterine sample). On the basis of results of experiment 1, the effect of UL on fertility was studied in experiment 2. A total of 128 Nellore cows were synchronized for TAI; 35 cows were subjected to endometrial cytology by UL 4 hours after AI, and 93 were not submitted to any procedure (control). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasound 30 days after AI. Pregnancy rates did not differ between UL (54.29%) and control (56.99%) groups. The results of this study showed that UL allows the collection of more representative cells of

  19. Evaluación de los cambios ocasionados en espermatozoides bovinos por variaciones en el manejo de las dosis durante su manipulación en inseminación artificial Evaluation of changes ocassioned by changes in bovine sperm in the management of dose during handling artificial insemination

    S.F. Bernardi


    Full Text Available Considerando el disímil manejo al que las dosis son sometidas durante el descongelado y antes de la inseminación, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto que estos cambios producen sobre distintas características morfológicas y funcionales de los espermatozoides afectando la calidad del semen a inseminar. Se utilizaron muestras de un toro Holando Argentino, procesadas y congeladas en pajuelas de 0,5 cc utilizando un diluyente semidefinido. El análisis de la motilidad se realizó mediante el uso de Sperm Vision, la funcionalidad de la membrana plasmática mediante una prueba HOST y la integridad del acrosoma bajo microscopio de contraste de fases. Los cambios de protocolo que llevaron a una calidad no aceptable para inseminar (según normas ISO 9002 se refirieron a cambios bruscos de temperatura de descongelado y del tiempo de inmersión, así como demoras en efectivizar la inseminación una vez descongelada la dosis y en retirar la pajuela del termo de nitrógeno. Esta misma situación se evidenció al analizar la funcionalidad de la membrana plasmática. La integridad del acrosoma fue mayor al descongelar utilizando temperaturas altas (55, 75 y 95°C.The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the changes that doses undergo during thawing and before insemination due to a dissimilar handling of them. Focus was placed on the effects on various morphological and functional characteristics of spermatozoa which affect the quality of the semen to be inseminated. Samples from an Holando Argentine bull were employed, processed and frozen in 0.5cc straws using a semidefined diluent. Sperm motility was performed with Sperm Vision, plasmatic membrane functionality was tested with a HOST test and acrosome integrity under phase contrast microscope. Protocol changes that led to an unacceptable quality for insemination -according to ISO 9002- were related to abrupt thawing temperature changes and immersion time as well as to

  20. Insemination of Honey Bee Queens

    SOJKOVÁ, Lada


    Instrumental insemination honey bee queen is in Czech Republic only possibility, how make controlled mating bees. Main significance lies in expanding desirable feature in the bee colony. Instrumental inseminations are thus obtained the required feature, that are the mildness of bees, sitting on the comb, or resistance to disease. Insemination must precede controlled breeding drones and controlled breeding queens. That drones were sexually mature at the time of insemination must be breeding dr...

  1. An analysis of clinic outcomes of 620 intrauterine artificial insemination cycles%620个宫腔内人工授精周期临床妊娠结局探讨

    曹善仁; 张军强; 凌秀凤; 李秀玲; 黄美玲; 赵静; 童国庆


    目的 探讨患者年龄,周期数和注入宫腔内前向运动精子总数(NMSI)对宫腔内人工受精(IUI)临床妊娠率的影响.方法 339对夫妇的620个IUI周期,按年龄分为:≤35、35~40、≥40岁组;按周期数分为:第1个、第2个、第3及>第3个周期;按处理后NMSI分为:20×106组,分别比较各组间的临床妊娠率差别,分析各因素对IUI临床妊娠结局的影响.结果 年龄≤35、35~40及≥40岁组临床妊娠率分别为14.52、17.85及0.00%;第1、第2、第3及>3个周期临床妊娠率分别为13.86%、18.82%、12.64%及0.00%;NMSI20×106 组临床妊娠率分别为3.13%、18.18%、13.21%、14.83%及16.00%.结论 年龄>40岁,处理后前向运动精子总数低于2×106,以及3~4次IUI尝试仍未成功的患者,不适合继续尝试IUI治疗.%Objective: To explore the effects of female patients'age, number of intrauterine artificial insemination (IUI) cycle and number of motile spermatozoa inseminated (NMSI) on the clinical pregnancy outcomes of IUI treatment.Methods: A total of 620 IUI cycles of 339 couples accomplished in this Center were retrospectively studied. The cycles were grouped according to patients' age (≤35, 35-40 and ≥40 years), number of IUI cycle (the first, the second, the third cycle and more than 3 cycles) and NMSI (<2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20 and >20× 106), respectively. The pregnancy rates between groups were compared.Results: The pregnancy rates of the patients aged ≤35, 35-40 and ≥40 years were 14. 52%,17.85% and 0.00%, respectively. The pregnancy rates in the groups of the first cycle, the second cycle, the third cycle and more than 3 cycles were 13.86%, 18.82%, 12.64% and 0. 00%, respectively. The pregnancy rates in the groups with NMSI <2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20 and >20× 106 were 3. 13%, 18. 18%, 13. 21%,14.83% and 16.00%, respectively.Conclusions: The patients over 40 years of age, or with <2 × 106 total motile spermatozoa counts for insemination

  2. Desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas suínas submetidas à inseminação artificial intra-uterina ou à tradicional Reproductive performance of sows submitted to intrauterine or tradicional artificial insemination

    Paulo Eduardo Bennemann


    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 298 fêmeas pluríparas Camborough 22® distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 (n=154, inseminação intra-uterina (IAU com dose inseminante (DI contendo 0,5 bilhão de espermatozóides em volume total de 20ml; e T2 (n=144, inseminação tradicional (IAT, com DI contendo 3,0 bilhões de espermatozóides em volume total de 90ml. Foi possível a realização da IAU em 98,1% das fêmeas. A presença de sangue na extremidade do cateter ou espiral da pipeta de IAU foi observada em 8,4% das fêmeas. As taxas de prenhez (TPr e de parto ajustada não diferiram (P>0,05 entre a IAU e IAT. O tamanho da leitegada (TL diferiu entre os tratamentos (PA total of 298 Camborough 22® sows was distributed in two treatments: T1 (n=154: intrauterine insemination (IUI with 0.5 billion sperms in 20ml total volume; T2 (n=144: traditional insemination (TAI with 3.0 billion sperms in 90ml total volume. It was possible to perform the IUI in 98.1% of sows. It was observed presence of blood on the catheter tip or pipete in 8.4% of IUI sows. The pregnancy (PR and adjusted farrowing rates did not differ (P>0.05 among treatments. Litter size (LS differ among treatments (P<0.05, being observed a reduction of 0.8 piglet in IUI. The blood presence in the IUI did not affect the PR significantly, but resulted in a reduction of 2.6 piglets per litter.

  3. Study on the psychological health status and interventional measures among the patients treated with artificial insemination of husband%AIH治疗患者心理健康状态及心理干预措施研究

    王秀平; 郑虔


    Objective; To explore the effect of psychological intervention nn psychological status and pregnancy outcome of the patients after artificial insemination of husband (AIH) . Methods: SCI, -90 was used to survey the infertile women after AIH treatment. The scores of self - evaluation questionnaire of the respondents and norm were compared, the psychological health status of the patients after AIH was analyzed. AH the patients were divided into four groups according to the opportunity and frequency of psychological intervention, the psychological status and clinical pregnancy rates in the four groups were compared after five weeks. Results: There was significant difference in psychological health status between the respondents and norm. After psychological intervention, the psychological health status of the respondents was improved, especially depressive factor, there was significant difference (P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion; The patients after AIH treatment have psychological subhealth problems at different degrees; systematic psychological intervention can improve psychological status of the patients and achieve high clinical pregnancy rate.%目的:探讨心理干预对接受夫精人工授精(Artificial Insemination of Husband AIH)治疗的患者心理状态及妊娠结局的影响.方法:采用90项症状自评量表(SCL - 90)对符合并接受AIH治疗的不孕妇女进行问卷凋查.比较受调查者和国内常模间的自评量表得分,分析AIH患者的心理健康状态.按照心理干预时机及干预频率的不同,将患者随机分为4组,实施AIH后5周比较4组患者心理状态及临床妊娠率.结果:受调查者的心理健康状态与国内常模相比差异有统计学意义.心理干预后受调查者的心理健康状态较干预前得到改善,其中以抑郁因子改善最为明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).4组患者中,C组妊娠率最高,A组、B组次之,但组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:接受AIH治疗的患

  4. Inseminação artificial de éguas Percheron e Bretão com sêmen fresco diluído em água de côco e leite em pó desnatado Artificial insemination of Percheron and Breton breed mares with fresh semen diluted in extenders with skimmed powder milk and coconut water

    Luiz Paulo Rigolon


    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Reprodução Animal e no Setor de Eqüideocultura da Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no período de setembro/97 a março/98, com o objetivo de testar os efeitos de dois diluidores na inseminação artificial de éguas das raças Percheron e Bretão. Foi utilizado um garanhão da raça Percheron e dezesseis éguas, as quais foram inseminadas com sêmen fresco, diluído em meios formulados à base de leite de vaca em pó desnatado (LD e à base de água de côco (AC. As inseminações foram realizadas quando se observaram folículos ovarianos com 3,5 cm de diâmetro. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito éguas em cada tratamento. Para as análises utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e análise de variância. A análise dos dados mostrou que não houve diferença (P > 0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o índice de prenhez das éguas no primeiro, segundo e terceiro ciclos estrais, no número de inseminações artificiais fecundas e não-fecundas, na prenhez/inseminação artificial (IA, no índice de prenhez total, na IA/prenhez e entre a motilidade progressiva e o vigor dos espermatozóides após diluição. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que os dois meios foram eficientes na inseminação artificial dessas raças de éguas, utilizando-se o sêmen fresco.This experiment was carried out at Animal Reproduction Laboratory and Equine Section of the Experimental Farm of Universidade Estadual de Maringá, in the period of September 97 trough March 98. The objective was to study the effects of two extenders on artificial insemination (AI of Percheron and Breton breeding mares. One Percheron stallion and sixteen mares were used. The mares were inseminated with fresh semen diluted in two extenders formulated with skimmed powder cow milk (LS and coconut water (AW on the day ovarian follicles with 3.5 cm of diameter were observed. They. were alloted in a

  5. Program of Ovulation Induction Drugs and Protocols for Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)%人工授精周期诱导排卵药物及方案的研究进展

    刘金勇; 王媁


    诱导排卵联合宫腔内人工授精是广泛应用的一项辅助生育技术.诱导排卵目的是形成单一卵泡的发育成熟,尽可能地减少发生多胎妊娠和卵巢过度刺激综合征的风险.抗雌激素类和芳香化酶抑制剂因口服方便而广泛应用,单独使用妊娠率较低.促性腺激素类药物可以获得较高的临床妊娠率,采用小剂量递增的温和方案不但能够保证较高的单卵泡发育还能够明显的减少并发症的发生.关于促性腺激素促排卵治疗中卵巢反应预测因子还有待于进一步研究.%Intrauterine insemination combined with ovarian stimulation has been demonstrated to be a widely used form of treatment for subfertile couples. The purpose of ovulation induction is the formation of mono-follicular maturation, as much as possible to reduce the risk of occurrence of multiple pregnancies and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Anti-oestrogens and aromatase inhibitors have been widely applied although the pregnancy rate is lower when used alone. Gonadotrophin is better for anovulatory women to get mono-follicular development and higher clinical pregnancy rate, low-dose protocols can reduce the complication rate. Predictors of ovarian response need further studies.

  6. Transcervical Versus Laparoscopic Insemination in Nulliparous and Multiparous Ewes After Estradiol Cypionate Treatement

    Gage, Tami L.


    The only practical method for artificially breeding ewes with frozen semen is laparoscopic insemination into the lumen of the uterine horn. Like all surgical procedures, however, laparoscopic artificial inseminatiom has limitations. The procedure requires surgical skill and costly equipment. Repeated passage of the laparoscope through the abdominal wall causes adhesions. Depositing frozen/thawed semen at the os cervix results in low conception rates. The inability to pass an insemination pipe...

  7. The Effect of Transcervical Intrauterine and Intravaginal Insemination Methods on Fertility in Dogs

    DAŞKIN, Ali; TEKİN, Necmettin; AKÇAY, Ergun


    This study was carried out to determine the effect of transcervical and intravaginal artificial insemination on the pregnancy rate in dogs. Semen was collected by the massage method from dogs brought to our department. Collected semen was examined in the laboratory and stored in liquid nitrogen after dilution with Tris extender. During the study 31 bitches brought to our department for artificial insemination were used. One of the bitches was not evaluated. Oestrus was detected by vaginal c...

  8. Andrology: Effect of Inseminated Volume on Intrauterine Insemination

    Amaral, Vivian Ferreira do; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Reis, Rosana Maria dos; de Sala, Maria Matheus; De Moura, Marcos Dias


    Purpose: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a method for the treatment of marital infertility involving the intrauterine or fallopian deposition of washed spermatozoa, depending on the amount of inseminated semen. In view of the divergent opinions about the inseminated volume, the objective of this study was to compare the two techniques (3.0 mL or 0.5 mL) in two groups of patients.

  9. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) Determination of insemination dose and embryonic development in the artificial fertilization of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    L.V. Leite; M.A.P. Melo; F.C.E. Oliveira; J.P.S. Pinheiro; C.C. Campello; J.F. Nunes; C.S.B. Salmito-Vanderley


    Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento d...

  10. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination through the use of progesterone RIA in Venezuela and its improvement with temporary calf removal and progesterone implants

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination (AI). Defatted milk samples were taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay at the moment of AI (day 0), 10 days and 22 days after AI and at manual pregnancy diagnosis. Six farms located in the western region of Venezuela were used in this study and a total of 600 AI were included. The calving to first service interval (CFSI) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) showed no significant differences between the hand milking (suckling) and machine milking (non suckling) systems. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found among farms within the traditional and hand milking system. The mean (± SEM) CFSI for first calving heifers and for cows with second or higher parity was 141.9 ± 6.9 and 71.8 ± 4.2 days (P<0.05), and the CCI for these two groups was 154 ± 8.9 and 80.8 ± 5.5 days (P<0.05), respectively. Cows calving in the dry season had CFSI and CCI of 115.4 ± 5.2 and 123.8 ± 6.8 days, while for those calving in the rainy season the intervals were 98.3 ± 5.5 and 111.1 ± 7.2 days respectively (P<0.05). Predominantly Bos indicus cows had shorter CFSI and CCI (P<0.05) than predominantly Bos taurus cows. Overall conception rate, analyzed by Chi-square, showed significant differences due to predominant breed and parity. Correct heat detection, as determined by low progesterone levels at AI, was 95.5% in the best farm and 83.3% in the worst farm. The results of this study identify a postpartum anoestrus problem, especially in the first calf heifers with an important effect of season, breed, farm, and heat detection on the reproductive efficiency of farms under AI. After this survey a study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of calf removal for 96 hours compared with treatment using norgestomet implants and PMSG for oestrus induction and fertility in crossbred primiparous acyclic zebu. cows which were suckled twice a day

  11. Reproductive cycle of dogs and artificial insemination

    Zvolská, Helena


    The first sexual cycle of a bitch begins in the period of pubescence, approximately between 6th and 24th month of life. Considering breed and individuality, estrus is repeated mostly twice a year. The whole cycle is divided into 4 stadiums: proestrus (5 – 20 days), estrus (3 – 21 days), metestrus (diestrus, 50-80 days) and anestrus (80 – 240 days). The cycle is initiated due to the evaluation of inner and extinor impulses by the central nervous system. In the first stadium of the cycle, ...

  12. Efeito da concentração espermática e do número de inseminações artificiais sobre a fertilidade de éguas inseminadas com sêmen fresco diluído Effects of sperm concentration and number of artificial inseminations on fertility of inseminated mares with diluted fresh semen

    F.Z. Brandão


    Full Text Available Sessenta e duas fêmeas eqüinas (tipo militar foram distribuídas, ao acaso, em dois grupos experimentais para estudar o efeito da concentração espermática (200× 10(6 e 400× 10(6 de espermatozóides progressivamente móveis/dose inseminante e do número de inseminações/ciclo (duas, três e quatro ou mais inseminações sobre a fertilidade. As éguas foram rufiadas e inseminadas às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, a partir de um folículo de 3,0 a 3,5cm de diâmetro, com sêmen de apenas um garanhão com fertilidade comprovada, diluído para um volume inseminante de 10ml com diluidor de mínima contaminação. As taxas de concepção ao primeiro ciclo para as concentrações de 200 e 400 milhões foram de 66,7% (20/30 e 65,5% (19/29, e as taxas de concepção/ciclo, após quatro ciclos, de 52,0% (26/50 e 57,8% (26/45, respectivamente (P>0,05. As taxas de concepção ao primeiro ciclo para os grupos com duas, três e quatro ou mais inseminações/ciclo foram, respectivamente, 72,0% (18/25, 65,2% (15/23 e 54,6% (6/11, sem que se observassem diferenças entre elas (P>0,05. Após quatro ciclos, as taxas de concepção foram de 59,0% (23/39, 52,5% (21/40 e 50,0% (8/16, respectivamente, na mesma ordem de citação (P>0,05. Com base nos resultados, recomendam-se inseminações às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, utilizando-se a concentração de 200×10(6 SPTZ/dose inseminante, sem que haja perda da fertilidade, independente do número de inseminações/ciclo.This work aimed to study the effects of spermatic concentrations (200× 10(6 and 400×10(6 spermatozoa/inseminated dose and number of inseminations (two, three and four or more on the fertility of 62 mares (military type. Mares were teased and inseminated on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays with diluted semen from only one stallion of proven fertility. The conception rates during the first cycle for the two spermatic concentrations were, respectively, 66.7%(20/30 and 65.5%(19/29 and

  13. 来曲唑等4种促排卵药物用于宫腔内人工授精的疗效比较%Effect Comparison of Four Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for Intrauterine Insemination

    耿蔷; 全松; 郭遂群; 邢福祺


    Objective:To compare the effects of four different ovarian stimulation protocols on intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods:A retrospective review was done to analyze the 565 IUI cycles from January 2006 to June 2010 at the Reproductive Center of Nanfang hospital. According to different ovulation stimulation protocols, patients were dedived into 5 groups.. NC( natural cycle) group; LE(Letrozole) group; CC (Clomiphene citrate) group; HMG( Human menopausal gonadotrophin) group; u-FSH( urinary follicle stimulating hormone) group. Results:The pregnancy rates were 4.1%, 13.4%, 8.7%, 16.1%, 13.8% respectively for the five groups, also the pregnancy rate of every ovarian stimulation group was significantly higher than that of NC group ( P < 0. 05), while no statistical differences of pregnancy rates were found among the four groups( P>0. 05). The number of dominent follicles, the number of ruptured follicles and endometrium thickness at HCG day in LE group were no significant difference compared with those in NC group. Conclusions:Ovulation stimulation can increase the pregnancy rate in IUI cycle. Letrozole can provide mild ovarian stimulation and the similar pregnancy rate per cycle compared with Iow dose HMG or uFSH, so it is safe and effective in IUI cycle.%目的:比较来曲唑等4种促排卵药物用于宫腔内人工授精的疗效.方法:回顾分析南方医院生殖医学中心2006年1月至2010年6月采用自然周期(NC)和来曲唑(LE)、氯米芬(CC)、尿促性素(HMG)、尿促卵泡素(u-FSH)4种促排卵药物用于夫精宫腔内人工受精(IUI),共565个周期的临床资料进行比较分析.结果:5组临床妊娠率分别为4.1%、13.4%、8.7%、16.1%、13.8%,促排卵各组妊娠率均高于自然周期组(P均0.05).LE组优势卵泡数、排卵数及绒促性素(HCG)日子宫内膜厚度与NC组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:促排卵治疗增加IUI妊娠率.LE促排卵作用温和,妊娠率与低剂量HMG和u

  14. First results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia

    Ljupche Kochoski


    Full Text Available Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2x106 spermatozoa per dose imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively. All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75% were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.

  15. Insemination factors affecting the conception rate in seasonal calving Holstein-Friesian cows

    Buckley, Frank; Mee, John; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Evans, Ross; Berry, Donagh; Dillon, Pat


    Differences in conception rate to first service between artificial inseminations (AI) carried out by commercial AI operators (CAI) or do-it-yourself operators (DIY), between natural service (NAT) and AI, between different AI sires, and between fresh and frozen-thawed semen, on Irish commercial dairy farms, were studied using logistic regression. The study comprised 12 933 potential first inseminations from 77 spring-calving dairy herds. The data were recorded during 1999 and 2000. Amongst the...

  16. Feeling the ovaries prior to insemination. Clinical implications for improving the fertility of the dairy cow.

    López-Gatius, F


    During the periovulatory period in dairy cattle, the largest ovarian follicle can be felt by palpation per rectum as a firm/soft follicle (young preovulatory follicle), a very soft follicle separating it from the remainder of the ovary (mature preovulatory follicle), or an evacuated follicle (follicle associated with ovulation). Because any one of these three follicle types may be present at the time of artificial insemination, the objective of this study was to identify possible differences between the effects of a firm/soft, very soft, or evacuated ovarian follicle on fertility. Out of a study sample of 2365 inseminations, very soft, firm/soft, and evacuated follicles were recorded in 1689 (71%), 593 (25%), and 83 (3.5%) inseminations, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated no significant effects of largest follicle type, vaginal discharge, season, days in milk, parity, synchronized or natural estrus, and semen-providing bull on the pregnancy rate. The only variable included in the final logistic regression model was the interaction season-follicle type. This interaction determined that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased significantly by factors of 0.86 or 0.82 in cows with a firm/soft follicle inseminated during the cool or warm period, respectively, and by a factor of 0.09 in cows with evacuated follicles inseminated during the warm period, using as reference cows with a very soft follicle inseminated during the cool period (yielding the highest pregnancy rate). As an overall conclusion, the state of the periovulatory follicle at insemination was clearly related to fertility and masked the effects of factors commonly affecting fertility such as parity, days in milk at AI and inseminating bull. More importantly they suggest that by including ovarian follicle checks in artificial insemination routines, the success of this procedure could be improved. PMID:21458050

  17. Relación entre el lapso detección del celo-inseminación y el porcentaje de preñez en vacas lecheras Celo-inseminación y porcentaje de preñez Relationship between the time elapsed from estrus detection to artificial insemination and pregnancy in dairy cows

    P.R. Marini


    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la relación entre la duración del período transcurrido desde la detección del celo hasta la inseminación y la tasa de preñez en vacas lecheras y si, de existir, dicha relación se ve afectada por la identidad del toro donante del semen y/o por la época del año en que se lleva a cabo la inseminación. En un estudio de carácter retrospectivo se evaluó información disponible sobre 755 períodos celos-servicios correspondientes a 755 vacas lecheras Holando Argentino. En función de esta información las vacas se categorizaron de acuerdo al lapso en horas transcurrido, entre la detección del celo y su inseminación en tres grupos: The aim of this work was to study the relationship between the duration of the period of time between heat detection and insemination and pregnancy rate in dairy cows and whether, if any, this relationship is affected by the season of the year or the bull. A retrospective observational study on 755 periods of time elapsed from estrus detection to artificial insemination of Holstein dairy cows was performed. Based on the duration of the aforementioned period cows were categorized into the three following groups: <6 hours, 6 to 12 hours and 12 to 18 hours. Independently of the low pregnancy rates observed during the four seasons all comparisons were statistically not significant either among periods within season or between seasons within period or between bulls within period. It is concluded that the effectiveness of artificial insemination would not be affected by the time elapsed since heat detection and that this homogeneous behavior described for pregnancy rates is not affected by the season of the year or the source of the semen (bull used.

  18. State estimation for a class of artificial neural networks with stochastically corrupted measurements under Round-Robin protocol.

    Luo, Yuqiang; Wang, Zidong; Wei, Guoliang; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Hayat, Tasawar


    This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of artificial neural networks (ANNs) without the assumptions of monotonicity or differentiability of the activation functions. The measured outputs are corrupted by stochastic noise signal whose intensity is quantified by a nonlinear function. In order to accommodate the bandwidth limit of the communication channel between the ANN and the state estimator, an equal allocation scheme (i.e. Round-Robin protocol) of the communication resource is employed to effectively mitigate data congestions and save energies. A set of zero-order holders (ZOHs) is utilized to store the received measurements, such that the utilization of the received measurements can be maximized. An update matrix approach is developed to handle the time-varying yet periodic time-delays resulting from the adoption of the Round-Robin protocol. The aim of the proposed problem is to design a state estimator such that the error dynamics is exponentially ultimately bounded. A combination of the Lyapunov stability theory and the stochastic analysis technique is used to derive some easy-to-test conditions for the existence of the desired state estimator. The estimator gains are characterized by the solution to a convex optimization problem that is solved via the semi-definite programme method. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed estimation approach. PMID:26930589

  19. Fertility assesment of sows after cervical insemination and intrauterine insemination

    BRÁZDOVÁ, Ivana


    The objective of the thesis was to analyse the reproductive traits of sows on a particular farm with regard to the method used, as observed during the period of one year. The highest rate of live-born piglets per the first litter (12.4) was reached in nucleus breeding. Regarding the mating method, the highest number of piglets born in the first litter (12.7) was reached through natural mating, followed by intrauterine insemination (12.3) and cervical insemination (11.6). During the one-year p...

  20. Artificial Bee Colony based Energy Aware and Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    J. Janet


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network becomes very important technology in the day to day life style of modern computer era, in which the wireless communication become very popular for the last few years. In the same manner, the other wireless network, i.e., ado network is very popular among the researchers in the past few decades. Approach: The Ad hoc networks are defined as a multi-hop radio relaying and are capable of operating without the support of any fixed infrastructure. Identification of optimal route for data communication, efficient utilization of energy, clustering, providing congestion free communication, offering scalability, maintaining the Quality of Service (QoS are few research issues in the Adhoc Network. Results: This study is focusing the review of current research and the requirements, characteristics and design of wireless ado routing protocol. Conclusion: The results of the proposed work show that the proposed swarm intelligence based algorithm will provide optimality than existing systems.

  1. Birth of puppies after intrauterine and intratubal insemination with frozen-thawed canine semen

    Kim, Hye Jin; Oh, Hyun Ju; Jang, Goo; Kim, Min Kyu


    The present study was performed to assess the fertility of frozen-thawed dog semen prepared by freezing with 6% glycerol and thawing at 70℃ for 8 sec, and to evaluate the least number of post-thaw spermatozoa necessary to achieve pregnancy by intrauterine or intratubal artificial insemination. It was found that the pregnancy rate of intrauterine artificial insemination was 100% using 6% glycerol buffer and thawing at 70℃ for 8 sec with 5 × 107 spermatozoa. Even though the pregnancy rate (80%)...

  2. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges


    Full Text Available The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227, 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0. On day six, cloprostenol (125µg and eCG (400IU were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group or on day eight (TAI group. All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit standing estrus received GnRH (100µg on day 9. In experiment I, the follicular growth was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasound exams, from day 6 to day 9. The average size of the dominant follicle on day nine was 11.1±0.99mm (BioRep, n=7 and 11.5±0.65mm (TAI, n=7 and all animals ovulated. In experiment II, the BioRep group cows (n=106 were observed for estrous behavior after withdrawal of the device, twice a day for 48h, and inseminated 12h after detection. In the TAI group (n=107, the devices were withdrawn on day eight and after 24h these cows and those from the BioRep group, which were not stand in estrus, received 100µg of GnRH and TAI 16h later. The pregnancy rates were 57.6% (BioRep and 52.3% (TAI. In conclusion, an increase on MPA exposure time did not affect the follicular dynamics and pregnancy rates and allow TAI without estrous observation. Furthermore, the treatment for eight days provides an efficient TAI system in suckled beef cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo de inseminação artificial com tempo fixo (IATF em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação, avaliando o intervalo entre a retirada do progestágeno e a aplicação de GnRH sobre a dinâmica folicular e a prenhez. Para tanto, vacas (n=227 em pós-parto de 60 a 80 dias receberam benzoato de estradiol (5mg e um pessário vaginal de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (250mg MAP; dia 0. No dia seis, os animais receberam cloprostenol sódico (125µg, gonadotrofina

  3. Nascimento de bezerros normais após inseminação artificial utilizando espermatozóides criopreservados obtidos de epidídimos refrigerados de bovinos após a morte Birth of normal calves after artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa obtained from refrigerated epididymides of death bovine

    Priscila de Melo Costa


    epidydimides for long periods and cryopreserved. Bovine testicles were collected in abattoir, transported to the laboratory and stored at 5°C for 0, 24, 48h e 72 hours (n=10 for each storage time treatment group. The spermatozoa were retrieved from each epidydimides, evaluated and diluted in tris-egg yolk-glycerol 7% medium and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The morphological and functional characteristics of the spermatozoa were analyzed in vitro, by microscopic evaluation and in vivo, using artificial insemination. Morphological alterations as sperm immaturity and motility reduction decreased after 72h of epididymides refrigeration and after thaw sperm were observed. The membrane and acrosome integrity were only affected in G48 and G72 groups after cryopreservation. However, the sperm capacity of fertilization post-cryopreservation was sufficient to promote two pregnancies and birth of healthy calves from G24 h and G72h groups. These results indicated that recovery and cryopreservation of chilled epididymal sperm until 72h from dead animals is a viable option to preserve male gametes to compose a germplasm bank.

  4. Deep freezing of concentrated boar semen for intra-uterine insemination: effects on sperm viability.

    Saravia, Fernando; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Johannisson, Anders; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto


    The use of deep-frozen boar semen for artificial insemination (AI) is constrained by the need for high sperm numbers per dose, yielding few doses per ejaculate. With the advancement of new, intra-uterine insemination strategies, there is an opportunity for freezing small volumes containing high sperm numbers, provided the spermatozoa properly sustain cryopreservation. The present study aimed to concentrate (2 x 10(9) spz/mL) and freeze boar spermatozoa packed in a 0.5 mL volume plastic medium straw (MS) or a multiple FlatPack (MFP) (four 0.7 mL volume segments of a single FlatPack [SFP]) intended as AI doses for intra-uterine AI. A single freezing protocol was used, with a conventional FlatPack (SFP, 5 x 10(9) spz/5 mL volume) as control. Sperm viability post-thaw was monitored as sperm motility (measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis, CASA), as plasma membrane integrity (PMI, assessed either by SYBR-14/PI, combined with flow cytometry, or a rapid hypo-osmotic swelling test [sHOST]). Sperm motility did not differ statistically (NS) between test-packages and control, neither in terms of overall sperm motility (range of means: 37-46%) nor sperm velocity. The percentages of linearly motile spermatozoa were, however, significantly higher in controls (SFP) than in the test packages. Spermatozoa frozen in the SFP (control) and MFP depicted the highest PMI (54 and 49%, respectively) compared to MS (38%, P flow cytometry. In absolute numbers, more viable spermatozoa post-thaw were present in the MFP dose than in the MS (P boar variation was present, albeit only significant for MS (sperm motility) and SFP (PMI). In conclusion, the results indicate that boar spermatozoa can be successfully frozen when concentrated in a small volume. PMID:15725440




    Full Text Available The observations were made, through a year, at SD Timisoara on cows fromHolstein-Friesian and Fleckvieh breed. The puerperal period was observed, theincidence of the endometrites was recorded and there were calculated tworeproduction parameters: the Insemination Index (Ig and the Uterine Reposeduration (UR (Open days. The Insemination Index (service/conception (Igrepresents the mean number of artificial inseminations performed in order to obtaina pregnancy. Uterine Repose represents the time interval, in days, from calving untilthe fecund insemination. The Uterine Repose has two components: VoluntaryWaiting Period (VWP (time interval from calving until the introduction of thefemale to reproduction and Service Period (SP (time interval from the end of theVWP until the fecund insemination. There were noticed that the incidence of theuterine infections were significant higher (p<0.05 at cows from Holstein-Friesianbreed (63.3%, compared to the cows from Fleckvieh breed (41.3%. TheInsemination Index was significant lower (p<0.05 at cows without uterine infections(1.9, compared to the cows with uterine infections (2.5. The mean duration of theUterine Repose was significant lower (p<0.05 at healthy cows (114.7 days,compared with cows with uterine infections after calving (182.2 days. It seams thatthe cows from Fleckvieh breed are more resistant to the exploitation conditions formilk production than compared with cows from Holstein-Friesian breed.

  6. Clinical effect of adjuvant therapy of Shoutai decoction in artificial insemination and its impact on hormane%寿胎丸加味方辅助治疗对人工授精的临床疗效及激素水平研究

    周薇; 雷磊


    Objective To explore the impact of adjuvant therapy of Shoutai decoction in the artificial insemination ( AI ) rate of follicle , oocyte , embryo and embryo quality.Methods Ninety patients who re-ceiving the adjuvant therapy were randomly divided into control group and treatment group , 45 cases each group.Control group treated by artificial insemination method , treatment group was treated by routine intrauterine insemination ( IUI) method before taking the Shoutai decoction.The va-ginal bleeding duration , gestational sac area , progesterone ( P ) , estradiol ( E2 ) , human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG ) levels were compared between the two groups.Results The implantation rate , ex-cellent embryo rate , cleavage rate , fertilization rate and pregnancy rate of treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group ( P<0.05); the index like scores of embryo and number of oocyte of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group ( P<0.05).Conclusion The adjuvant therapy of Shoutai decoction has an obvious clinical effect , can greatly improve the embryo quality in the ovulatory cycle as well as the pregnancy rate.%目的:观察寿胎丸加味方辅助治疗在人工授精中的临床疗效及不同阶段的激素水平。方法90例进行辅助生育技术的患者用随机数字表法分为对照组和试验组,每组45例。对照组进行宫腔内人工授精法,试验组在常规宫腔内人工授精法前服用寿胎丸加味方2~3个疗程,比较2组的阴道流血持续时间,孕囊面积,孕酮,雌二醇,人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG )水平。结果试验组的阴道流血持续时间、孕囊面积显著优于对照组( P<0.05);试验组在妊娠5周时激素水平均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),妊娠8周时,孕酮、雌二醇均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),妊娠12周时,孕酮水平高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论人工授精中应用寿胎丸加味方

  7. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J


    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  8. Effects of different protocols on the success rate of pregnancy in 322 cycles of intrauterine insemination%不同方案对322个夫精人工授精周期妊娠率的影响

    李美玲; 梁元姣; 姚兵


    目的 目前临床上认为促排卵治疗可显著提高宫腔内人工授精(intrauterine insemination,IUI)的临床妊娠率.文中分析不同治疗方案对IUI临床妊娠率的影响. 方法 回顾性分析行IUI的189例患者,共322个治疗周期的临床资料,探讨应用自然周期(natrual circle,NC)组、克罗米芬(clomifene citrate,CC)+人绝经尿促性腺素(human menopausal gonadotrophin,HMG)组、CC组及来曲唑(letrozole,LE)+ HMG四种不同治疗方案对临床妊娠率的影响. 结果 自然周期(natrual circle,NC)组、克罗米芬(Clomifene Citrate,CC)+人绝经尿促性腺素(human menopausal gonadotrophin,HMG)组、CC组及来曲唑(Letrozole,LE)+ HMG组的临床妊娠率分别为6.30%、26.32%、11.11%、16.28%,4组妊娠率差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);其中CC+ HMG组较NC组妊娠率显著升高(P<0.05). 结论 不同治疗方案对IUI妊娠率有影响,CC+ HMG促排方案可显著提高IUI妊娠率.

  9. Investigation and nursing of mental state in intrauterine artificial insemination patients%宫腔内人工授精患者心理状态的调查及护理

    冯健怀; 李冰; 杨翠莲; 吴华利


    Objective To investigate the psychologic status of irritability, depression and anxiety in patients who underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) and to provide mental nursing care. Methods This study included 120 infertile patients who underwent IUI treatment from August 2008 to September 2009 in infertility clinics. All patients were divided into two groups randomly and assessed with the Irritability,Depression and Anxiety Scale (IDA). The 60 patients in control group were treated according to the standard IUI procedure, while the patients in study group were given mental nursing additionally. IDA scores before and after psychological intervention and clinical pregnancy rate were compared between the two groups. Results The IDA scores decreased obviously after mental nursing in study group (P <0.05 ). The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was much higher in study group than that in control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusions IDA can be applied to the psychological investigation of IUI patients. Efficient mental nursing care is beneficial to the success of IUI.%目的 调查官腔内人工授精患者激惹、抑郁和焦虑的心理状况并给予心理护理.方法 选择2008年8月至2009年9月在我院不孕专科门诊就诊进行官腔内人工授精(IUI)的120例不孕症患者,随机分为两组.两组患者均填写激惹、抑郁和焦虑量表(IDA)进行评分.对照组60例按常规IUI方案进行治疗;研究组60例另外给予心理护理,比较心理干预前后IDA量表评分及两组患者的临床妊娠情况.结果 研究组患者经心理治疗后,IDA量表评分明显降低(P<0.05).研究组患者周期妊娠率明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 IDA量表可应用于人工授精患者的心理调查,有效的心理护理有助子宫腔内人工授精的成功.

  10. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C;


    profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... and the length of follicular and luteal phase and (2) from the estrous cycle following insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone and days from estrus to post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone. A discriminant analysis did not reveal clear...