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Ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus (Le Conte)) and golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan)), in southern Georgia from 1992 to 2003. Because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these pathogens. Cotton mice (n = 202) were parasitized by 19 species of arthropods, whereas golden mice (n = 46) were parasitized by 12 species. Eleven species of arthropods were recovered from both host species, whereas 7 were recorded only from cotton mice, and 1 species only from golden mice. Infestation prevalences (percent of mice parasitized) were significantly higher for 1 species of arthropod (the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) infesting cotton mice and for 4 species (the flea Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox and the mites Glycyphagus hypudaei Koch, Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese), and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese)) infesting golden mice. Mean intensities (mean per infested mouse) were significantly higher for 2 species (the flea Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis Say) infesting cotton mice and for 2 species (G. hypudaei and A. fahrenholzi) infesting golden mice. Ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens were significantly more common on cotton mice than on golden mice. These ectoparasites included the rhopalopsyllid flea Polygenis gwyni (Fox), a vector of the agent of murine typhus; I. scapularis, the principal vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis; and O. bacoti, a laboratory vector of several zoonotic pathogens. However, 2 species of ixodid ticks that can transmit zoonotic pathogens were recovered from both host species. These were the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the principal vector of the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern North America, and Ixodes minor Neumann, an enzootic vector of the agent of Lyme borreliosis. Overall, the cotton mouse was parasitized by significantly more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens than was the golden mouse. These data support the hypothesis that the cotton mouse has greater epidemiological importance for zoonotic vector-borne pathogen transmission than does the golden mouse. PMID:15715219

Durden, Lance A; Polur, Ram N; Nims, Todd; Banks, Craig W; Oliver, James H

2004-12-01

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Ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus (Le Conte)) and golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan)), in southern Georgia from 1992 to 2003. Because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these pathogens. Cotton mice (n = 202) were parasitized by 19 species of arthropods, whereas golden mice (n = 46) were parasitized by 12 species. Eleven species of arthropods were recovered from both host species, whereas 7 were recorded only from cotton mice, and 1 species only from golden mice. Infestation prevalences (percent of mice parasitized) were significantly higher for 1 species of arthropod (the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) infesting cotton mice and for 4 species (the flea Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox and the mites Glycyphagus hypudaei Koch, Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese), and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese)) infesting golden mice. Mean intensities (mean per infested mouse) were significantly higher for 2 species (the flea Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis Say) infesting cotton mice and for 2 species (G. hypudaei and A. fahrenholzi) infesting golden mice. Ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens were significantly more common on cotton mice than on golden mice. These ectoparasites included the rhopalopsyllid flea Polygenis gwyni (Fox), a vector of the agent of murine typhus; I. scapularis, the principal vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis; and O. bacoti, a laboratory vector of several zoonotic pathogens. However, 2 species of ixodid ticks that can transmit zoonotic pathogens were recovered from both host species. These were the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the principal vector of the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern North America, and Ixodes minor Neumann, an enzootic vector of the agent of Lyme borreliosis. Overall, the cotton mouse was parasitized by significantly more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens than was the golden mouse. These data support the hypothesis that the cotton mouse has greater epidemiological importance for zoonotic vector-borne pathogen transmission than does the golden mouse.

Durden LA; Polur RN; Nims T; Banks CW; Oliver JH Jr

2004-12-01

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VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ecological characteristics, the vectors and infective agents, present the accidence for expansion and increasing importance of these infections in national pathology. According to the fact that it is an international port of nautical, continental and air traffic, Montenegro has responsibility for control and management of diseases belonging to the group of the travel and tropical diseases.

Bogdanka Andric; Gordana Mijovic; Dragica Terzic; Brankica Dupanovic

2012-01-01

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Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD) are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000): 571-576

Jay Prakash Gupta; K. P. Shyma; Sanjeev Ranjan; Gyanendra Kumar Gaur; Bharat Bhushan

2012-01-01

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Common themes in changing vector-borne disease scenarios.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of climate change on disease patterns is controversial. However, global burden of disease studies suggest that infectious diseases will contribute a proportionately smaller burden of disease over the next 2 decades as non-communicable diseases emerge as public health problems. However, infectious diseases contribute proportionately more in the poorest quintile of the population. Notwithstanding the different views of the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections this paper reviews the conditions which drive the changing epidemiology of these infections and suggests that such change is linked by common themes including interactions of generalist vectors and reservoir hosts at interfaces with humans, reduced biodiversity associated with anthropogenic environmental changes, increases in Plasmodium falciparum: P. vivax ratios and well-described land use changes such as hydrological, urbanization, agricultural, mining and forest-associated impacts (extractive activities, road building, deforestation and migration) which are seen on a global scale.

Molyneux DH

2003-03-01

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Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID) are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the ‘One Health initiative’ which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health.

Alemka Markoti?, MD, PhD; Lidija Cvetko Krajinovi?, BSc; Josip Margaleti?, PhD; Nenad Turk, DVM, PhD; Marica Mileti?-Medved, MD, PhD; Ljiljana Žmak, MD, PhD; Mateja Jankovi?, MD; Ivan-Christian Kurolt, BSc; Silvija Šoprek, MD; Oktavija Ðakovi? Rode, MD, MSc; Zoran Milas, DVM, PhD; Ivan Puljiz, MD, PhD; Dragan Ledina, MD, MSc; Mirsada Huki?, MD, PhD; Ilija Kuzman, MD, PhD

2009-01-01

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Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID) are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the 'One Health initiative' which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health. PMID:20391390

Markoti?, Alemka; Krajinovi?, Lidija Cvetko; Margaleti?, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Mileti?-Medved, Marica; Zmak, Ljiljana; Jankovi?, Mateja; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Soprek, Silvija; Dakovi? Rode, Oktavija; Milas, Zoran; Puljiz, Ivan; Ledina, Dragan; Huki?, Mirsada; Kuzman, Ilija

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Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall pattern are likely to facilitate the spread and establishment of new vector borne diseases in the Baltic See Region. There are a large number of potential vector borne threats to the area. Existing endemic vector borne diseases are likely to increase and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European outbreaks of important zoonotic mosquito borne infections like Rift Valley Fever in cattle and Japanese Encephalitis in swine. Being able to model the impact of climate and environmental change on the transmission intensity of vector borne diseases is potentially a powerful tool to both monitor and prevent outbreaks in a cost effective way. The recent unexpected outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus in ruminants have been attributed an increase in European temperatures. Mathematical models clearly demonstratethe potential for increased virus transmission at elevated temperatures. however there is little evidence to support the idea that the spread of these tropical viruses in northern Europe is the direct result of climate change. The potential for virus transmission by biting midges was here modeled monthly for the Baltic See Region and the rest of Europe. The results showed that Baltic See Region has a lower transmission potential than most other areas in Europe. And the model identified an increasing trend in transmission potential over the last 25 years. However the model suggested that the climate in the Baltic See Region has always permitted transmission of these diseases. The model therefore suggests that a presently unknown factor until recently prevented introduction and spread in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models to pinpoint the next outbreak of an exotic vector borne disease. A new outbreak will most likely be detected by a veterinarian deciding to submit a sample based on a subjective clinical suspicion. But the question is how far the epidemic will progress before a veterinarian decides to submit this crucial sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones, thus allowing easy access to risk estimates when in the field. Knowing when and where the potential risk for transmission of a specific vector borne disease is high is likely to help veterinarians decide when and when not to submit a sample to a diagnostic laboratory. This may both increase sensitivity of national surveillance and reduce the cost.

BØdker, Rene

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Spatial genetic structure of a vector-borne generalist pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector-borne generalist pathogens colonize several reservoir species and are usually dependent on polyphagous arthropods for dispersal; however, their spatial genetic structure is generally poorly understood. Using fast-evolving genetic markers (20 simple sequence repeat loci, resulting in a total of 119 alleles), we studied the genetic structure of the vector-borne plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in Napa Valley, CA, where it causes Pierce's disease when it is transmitted to grapevines from reservoir plants in adjacent riparian vegetation. Eighty-three different X. fastidiosa multilocus microsatellite genotypes were found in 93 isolates obtained from five vineyards, resulting in an index of clonal fraction closer to 0 and a Simpson's genotypic diversity index (D) closer to a maximum value of 1. Moderate values of Nei's gene diversity (H(Nei); average H(Nei) = 0.41) were observed for most of the X. fastidiosa populations. The low Wright's index of genetic diversity among populations calculated by the FSTAT software (Wright's F(ST) index) among population pairs (0.0096 to 0.1080) indicated a weak or absent genetic structure among the five populations; a panmictic population was inferred by Bayesian analyses (with the STRUCTURE and BAPS programs). Furthermore, a Mantel test showed no significant genetic isolation by distance when both Nei (r = -0.3459, P = 0.268) and linearized (r = -0.3106, P = 0.269) indices were used. These results suggest that the riparian vegetation from which vectors acquire the pathogen prior to inoculation of grapevines supports a diverse population of X. fastidiosa.

Coletta-Filho HD; Bittleston LS; Almeida RP

2011-04-01

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Spatial genetic structure of a vector-borne generalist pathogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne generalist pathogens colonize several reservoir species and are usually dependent on polyphagous arthropods for dispersal; however, their spatial genetic structure is generally poorly understood. Using fast-evolving genetic markers (20 simple sequence repeat loci, resulting in a total of 119 alleles), we studied the genetic structure of the vector-borne plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in Napa Valley, CA, where it causes Pierce's disease when it is transmitted to grapevines from reservoir plants in adjacent riparian vegetation. Eighty-three different X. fastidiosa multilocus microsatellite genotypes were found in 93 isolates obtained from five vineyards, resulting in an index of clonal fraction closer to 0 and a Simpson's genotypic diversity index (D) closer to a maximum value of 1. Moderate values of Nei's gene diversity (H(Nei); average H(Nei) = 0.41) were observed for most of the X. fastidiosa populations. The low Wright's index of genetic diversity among populations calculated by the FSTAT software (Wright's F(ST) index) among population pairs (0.0096 to 0.1080) indicated a weak or absent genetic structure among the five populations; a panmictic population was inferred by Bayesian analyses (with the STRUCTURE and BAPS programs). Furthermore, a Mantel test showed no significant genetic isolation by distance when both Nei (r = -0.3459, P = 0.268) and linearized (r = -0.3106, P = 0.269) indices were used. These results suggest that the riparian vegetation from which vectors acquire the pathogen prior to inoculation of grapevines supports a diverse population of X. fastidiosa. PMID:21317251

Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Bittleston, Leonora S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2011-02-11

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The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis). The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

Day Michael J

2011-01-01

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[Climate- and vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may increase Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10/26

Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.

2009-01-01

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What is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in United States national parks?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

United States national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5-10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks.

Eisen L; Wong D; Shelus V; Eisen RJ

2013-03-01

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Looking the other way: preventing vector-borne disease among travelers to the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Millions of travelers visit the United States every year during warm months when risk of vector-borne disease is highest. The epidemiology and geographic distribution of the principal vector-borne diseases in the United States are reviewed and recommendations for visitors to reduce their risk of disease are described. Travel advice should focus on preventing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis in the northeast and north central States, West Nile virus disease in western plains States, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia in the southeast; other diseases and itineraries requiring particular attention are described. All travelers to the United States should be advised to practice personal protection against arthropod bites, including appropriate use of insect repellents, especially when visiting rural and suburban areas during the warm months.

Hayes EB

2010-09-01

15

SEIR Model and Simulation for Vector Borne Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An epidemic model is a simplified means of describing the transmission of infectious diseases through individuals. The modeling of infectious diseases is a tool which has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread, to predict the future course of an outbreak and to evaluate strategies to control an epidemic. Epidemic models are of many types. Here, SEIR model is discussed. We first discuss the basics of SEIR model. Then it is applied for vector borne diseases. Steady state conditions are derived. A threshold parameter R0 is defined and is shown that the disease will spread only if its value exceeds 1. We have applied the basic model to one specific diseases-malaria and did the sensitivity analysis too using the data for India. We found sensitivity analysis very important as it told us the most sensitive parameter to be taken care of. This makes the work more of practical use. Numerical simulation is done for vector and host which shows the population dynamics in different compartments.

Nita H. Shah; Jyoti Gupta

2013-01-01

16

Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance.

Tatem AJ; Huang Z; Das A; Qi Q; Roth J; Qiu Y

2012-12-01

17

Assessment of arthropod vectors of infectious diseases in areas of U.S. troop deployment in the Persian Gulf.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beginning in August 1990, approximately 800,000 coalition troops were deployed to the Persian Gulf during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. There was substantial concern about arthropod-borne diseases, particularly sand fly fever and cutaneous leishmaniasis, because of high morbidity rates in the Persian Gulf during World War II (WWII). In sharp contrast to WWII, there was no report of sand fly fever among coalition forces and only 31 cases of leishmaniasis among 697,000 U.S. troops. To further evaluate the risk of arthropod-borne diseases, an entomologic survey was conducted in 12 areas of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. A total of 1,556 arthropods was collected during four survey periods in 1992. The suspected vectors of cutaneous Leishmania major infection, sand fly fever, West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever were identified; however, there was no evidence of arboviruses or Leishmania among collected specimens nor from 51 trapped rodents. There are several possible reasons for the low risk of arthropod-borne infectious diseases among Desert Shield/Storm troops in an area where suspected vectors frequently were found: the use of insecticides and repellents, and the deployment of most ground troops to the open desert during the cooler, winter period--conditions least favorable for the transmission of arthropod-borne diseases.

Cope SE; Schultz GW; Richards AL; Savage HM; Smith GC; Mitchell CJ; Fryauff DJ; Conlon JM; Corneil JA; Hyams KC

1996-01-01

18

Vectors and vector-borne diseases of horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most diseases of horses with zoonotic importance are transmitted by arthropods. The vectors belong to two very distantly related groups, the chelicerate Ixodidae (Acari = ticks) and the hexapod Diptera (true flies). Almost all relevant species are predestined for transmitting pathogens by their blood-sucking habits. Especially species of Diptera, one of the megadiverse orders of holometabolan insects (ca. 150.000 spp.), affect the health status and performance of horses during the grazing period in summer. The severity of pathological effect depends on the pathogen, but also on the group of vectors and the intensity of the infection or infestation. Dipteran species but also blood-sucking representatives of Acari (Ixodidae) can damage their hosts by sucking blood, causing myiasis, allergy, paralysis and intoxication, and also transmit various bacterial, viral, parasitic, spirochetal and rickettsial diseases to animals and also humans. The aim of this review was to provide extensive information on the infectious diseases transmitted by members of the two arthropod lineages (Ixodidae, Diptera) and a systematic overview of the vectors. For each taxon, usually on the ordinal, family, and genus level a short characterisation is given, allowing non-entomologists easy identification. Additionally, the biology of the relevant species (or genera) is outlined briefly. PMID:23054414

Onmaz, A C; Beutel, R G; Schneeberg, K; Pavaloiu, A N; Komarek, A; van den Hoven, R

2012-09-30

19

Vectors and vector-borne diseases of horses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most diseases of horses with zoonotic importance are transmitted by arthropods. The vectors belong to two very distantly related groups, the chelicerate Ixodidae (Acari = ticks) and the hexapod Diptera (true flies). Almost all relevant species are predestined for transmitting pathogens by their blood-sucking habits. Especially species of Diptera, one of the megadiverse orders of holometabolan insects (ca. 150.000 spp.), affect the health status and performance of horses during the grazing period in summer. The severity of pathological effect depends on the pathogen, but also on the group of vectors and the intensity of the infection or infestation. Dipteran species but also blood-sucking representatives of Acari (Ixodidae) can damage their hosts by sucking blood, causing myiasis, allergy, paralysis and intoxication, and also transmit various bacterial, viral, parasitic, spirochetal and rickettsial diseases to animals and also humans. The aim of this review was to provide extensive information on the infectious diseases transmitted by members of the two arthropod lineages (Ixodidae, Diptera) and a systematic overview of the vectors. For each taxon, usually on the ordinal, family, and genus level a short characterisation is given, allowing non-entomologists easy identification. Additionally, the biology of the relevant species (or genera) is outlined briefly.

Onmaz AC; Beutel RG; Schneeberg K; Pavaloiu AN; Komarek A; van den Hoven R

2013-03-01

20

Remote sensing, global warming, and vector-borne disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between climate change and the pattern of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are changes such as global warming, which are continental in scale and occur over periods of years, decades, or longer. At the opposite extreme are changes associated with severe weather events, which can occur at local and regional scales over periods of days, weeks, or months. Key ecological factors affecting the distribution of vector-borne diseases include temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability, and their impact on vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and hosts. Global warming can potentially alter these factors, thereby affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of disease.

Wood, B.; Beck, L.; Dister, S.; Lobitz, B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
21

Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current evidence suggests that inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability have a direct influence on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. This evidence has been assessed at the continental level in order to determine the possible consequences of the expected future climate change. By 2100 it is estimated that average global temperatures will have risen by 1.0-3.5 degrees C, increasing the likelihood of many vector-borne diseases in new areas. The greatest effect of climate change on transmission is likely to be observed at the extremes of the range of temperatures at which transmission occurs. For many diseases these lie in the range 14-18 degrees C at the lower end and about 35-40 degrees C at the upper end. Malaria and dengue fever are among the most important vector-borne diseases in the tropics and subtropics; Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the USA and Europe. Encephalitis is also becoming a public health concern. Health risks due to climatic changes will differ between countries that have developed health infrastructures and those that do not. Human settlement patterns in the different regions will influence disease trends. While 70% of the population in South America is urbanized, the proportion in sub-Saharan Africa is less than 45%. Climatic anomalies associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon and resulting in drought and floods are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. They have been linked to outbreaks of malaria in Africa, Asia and South America. Climate change has far-reaching consequences and touches on all life-support systems. It is therefore a factor that should be placed high among those that affect human health and survival.

Githeko AK; Lindsay SW; Confalonieri UE; Patz JA

2000-01-01

22

Global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health.

Sutherst RW

2004-01-01

23

Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

Ma SK; Wong WC; Leung CW; Lai ST; Lo YC; Wong KH; Chan MC; Que TL; Chow KW; Yuen MC; Lau TW; Simon J

2011-05-01

24

Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98%) had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%). Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%), E. canis in two (4%), and H. canis in one (2%) out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%), November (27%), December (20%), February (13%) and March (9%). Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50%) out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9%) included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected with L. infantum, E. canis or H. canis. Furthermore, this is the first molecular identification of H. canis in dogs from northern Portugal.

Cardoso Luís; Yisaschar-Mekuzas Yael; Rodrigues Filipa T; Costa Álvaro; Machado João; Diz-Lopes Duarte; Baneth Gad

2010-01-01

25

Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98%) had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%). Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%), E. canis in two (4%), and H. canis in one (2%) out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%), November (27%), December (20%), February (13%) and March (9%). Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50%) out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9%) included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected with L. infantum, E. canis or H. canis. Furthermore, this is the first molecular identification of H. canis in dogs from northern Portugal.

2010-01-01

26

Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. RESULTS: Forty-four dogs (98%) had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%). Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%), E. canis in two (4%), and H. canis in one (2%) out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%), November (27%), December (20%), February (13%) and March (9%). Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50%) out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9%) included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. CONCLUSIONS: Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected with L. infantum, E. canis or H. canis. Furthermore, this is the first molecular identification of H. canis in dogs from northern Portugal.

Cardoso L; Yisaschar-Mekuzas Y; Rodrigues FT; Costa A; Machado J; Diz-Lopes D; Baneth G

2010-01-01

27

Impact of climate change in the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in domestic carnivores.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector-borne diseases are medically important in humans and animals but were long considered tropical and known to first affect production animals. This is no longer true and we can see today that they are common in domestic animals and that they are also present in temperate countries, especially in Europe. In recent years, an increase in the diagnosis of vector borne diseases among humans and animals has been observed, which may partly due to the development of diagnostic tools. Their study requires exchanges and collaborations between the many actors involved, especially since the epidemiology seems to be constantly evolving. The veterinary practitioner is the first one to notice the emergence of cases and to implement prevention measures. He also acts as a sentinel to alert epidemiologists. Many factors can explain the epidemiological changes, i.e. all human factors, such as the increase in commercial transportation, but also owners traveling with their pet during the holidays, the development of "outdoor" activities, the increase of individual housings with gardens; to these human factors must be added the ignorance of the risks, linked to animals in general and to wildlife in particular; then the environmental changes: forest fragmentation, establishment of parks; the increase of wild mammal populations (deer, carnivores, rodents, etc.); finally, climate changes. Climate change is a reality which may explain the increase of density of arthropod vectors, but also of their hosts, changes in periods of activity and variations in geographical distribution. The authors show the proof of the climate modifications and then explain how it has an impact in Europe on ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and even fleas. They conclude on the practical consequences for veterinary practitioners, especially with the diagnosis of parasitic diseases or diseases in areas where they usually do not occur. However, not any epidemiological modification should be linked to climate change, since many other factors are involved and often even overriding.

Beugnet F; Chalvet-Monfray K

2013-08-01

28

Predicted and observed mortality from vector-borne disease in small songbirds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous diseases of wildlife have recently emerged due to trade and travel. However, the impact of disease on wild animal populations has been notoriously difficult to detect and demonstrate, due to problems of attribution and the rapid disappearance of bodies after death. Determining the magnitude of avian mortality from West Nile virus (WNV) is emblematic of these challenges. Although correlational analyses may show population declines coincident with the arrival of the virus, strong inference of WNV as a cause of mortality or a population decline requires additional evidence. We show how integrating field data on mosquito feeding patterns, avian abundance, and seroprevalence can be used to predict relative mortality from vector-borne pathogens. We illustrate the method with a case study on WNV in three species of small songbirds, tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor), Carolina wrens (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). We then determined mortality, infectiousness, and behavioral response of wrens and titmouse following infection with WNV in laboratory experiments and compared them to a previous study on WNV mortality in cardinals. In agreement with predictions, we found titmouse had the highest mortality from WNV infection, with 100% of eleven birds perishing within seven days after infection. Mortality in wrens was significantly lower at 27% (3/11), but still substantial. Viremia profiles indicated that both species were highly infectious for WNV and could play roles in WNV amplification. These findings suggest that WNV may be killing many small-bodied birds, despite the absence of large numbers of dead birds testing positive for WNV. More broadly, they illustrate a framework for predicting relative mortality in hosts from vector-borne disease.

Kilpatrick AM; Peters RJ; Dupuis AP 2nd; Jones MJ; Marra PP; Kramer LD

2013-09-01

29

Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism.

Killiny N; Rashed A; Almeida RP

2012-02-01

30

Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism. PMID:22101059

Killiny, Nabil; Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2011-11-18

31

Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector-borne infections (VBI) are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the austere and unstable environments sometimes associated with military operations. In addition to the risk uniquely encountered by military populations, other factors have driven the worldwide emergence of VBIs. Unprecedented levels of global travel, tourism and trade, and blurred lines of demarcation between zoonotic VBI reservoirs and human populations increase vector exposure. Urban growth in previously undeveloped regions and perturbations in global weather patterns also contribute to the rise of VBIs. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) and its partners at DoD overseas laboratories form a network to better characterize the nature, emergence and growth of VBIs globally. In 2009 the network tested 19,730 specimens from 25 sites for Plasmodium species and malaria drug resistance phenotypes and nearly another 10,000 samples to determine the etiologies of non-Plasmodium species VBIs from regions spanning from Oceania to Africa, South America, and northeast, south and Southeast Asia. This review describes recent VBI-related epidemiological studies conducted by AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories within the OCONUS DoD laboratory network emphasizing their impact on human populations.

Fukuda MM; Klein TA; Kochel T; Quandelacy TM; Smith BL; Villinski J; Bethell D; Tyner S; Se Y; Lon C; Saunders D; Johnson J; Wagar E; Walsh D; Kasper M; Sanchez JL; Witt CJ; Cheng Q; Waters N; Shrestha SK; Pavlin JA; Lescano AG; Graf PC; Richardson JH; Durand S; Rogers WO; Blazes DL; Russell KL; Akala H; Gaydos JC; DeFraites RF; Gosi P; Timmermans A; Yasuda C; Brice G; Eyase F; Kronmann K; Sebeny P; Gibbons R; Jarman R; Waitumbi J; Schnabel D; Richards A; Shanks D

2011-01-01

32

Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vector-borne infections (VBI) are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the austere and unstable environments sometimes associated with military operations. In addition to the risk uniquely encountered by military populations, other factors have driven the worldwide emergence of VBIs. Unprecedented levels of global travel, tourism and trade, and blurred lines of demarcation between zoonotic VBI reservoirs and human populations increase vector exposure. Urban growth in previously undeveloped regions and perturbations in global weather patterns also contribute to the rise of VBIs. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) and its partners at DoD overseas laboratories form a network to better characterize the nature, emergence and growth of VBIs globally. In 2009 the network tested 19,730 specimens from 25 sites for Plasmodium species and malaria drug resistance phenotypes and nearly another 10,000 samples to determine the etiologies of non-Plasmodium species VBIs from regions spanning from Oceania to Africa, South America, and northeast, south and Southeast Asia. This review describes recent VBI-related epidemiological studies conducted by AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories within the OCONUS DoD laboratory network emphasizing their impact on human populations.

Fukuda Mark M; Klein Terry A; Kochel Tadeusz; Quandelacy Talia M; Smith Bryan L; Villinski Jeff; Bethell Delia; Tyner Stuart; Se Youry; Lon Chanthap; Saunders David; Johnson Jacob; Wagar Eric; Walsh Douglas; Kasper Matthew; Sanchez Jose L; Witt Clara J; Cheng Qin; Waters Norman; Shrestha Sanjaya K; Pavlin Julie A; Lescano Andres G; Graf Paul CF; Richardson Jason H; Durand Salomon; Rogers William O; Blazes David L; Russell Kevin L

2011-01-01

33

Molecular investigation of transplacental and vector-borne transmission of bovine haemoplasmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out in a herd with concurrent infections of Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus M. haemobos', to investigate if transplacental and/or vector-borne transmission is possible for one or both bovine haemoplasma species. For this purpose blood samples were collected from 38 mother animals and their newborn calves; as well as from 17 uninseminated cows twice three months apart. In addition, 311 mosquitoes and blood-sucking flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae, Muscidae) were cought near the animals. DNA was extracted from all samples, followed by real-time PCR analysis. In 10.5% of neonate calves, that were born to cows harbouring both haemoplasmas, M. wenyonii and/or 'Candidatus M. haemobos' positivity was detected. Copy numbers in positive samples from cows and their calves indicated that - in comparison with M. wenyonii - 'Candidatus M. haemobos'-bacteraemia had usually lower levels. In samples of uninseminated cows the rate of infection with the latter species decreased. These findings may explain why M. wenyonii was significantly more frequently detected in blood-sucking flies, than 'Candidatus M. haemobos'. In conclusion, molecular evidence is provided for the first time on the transplacental transmission of bovine haemoplasmas. Regarding their spread by blood-sucking arthropods, new potential vectors were identified, i.e. the horn fly (Haematobia irritans), the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) and two species of horse flies (Tabanus bovinus, T. bromius). PMID:21605950

Hornok, S; Micsutka, A; Meli, M L; Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R

2011-04-28

34

Molecular investigation of transplacental and vector-borne transmission of bovine haemoplasmas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was carried out in a herd with concurrent infections of Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus M. haemobos', to investigate if transplacental and/or vector-borne transmission is possible for one or both bovine haemoplasma species. For this purpose blood samples were collected from 38 mother animals and their newborn calves; as well as from 17 uninseminated cows twice three months apart. In addition, 311 mosquitoes and blood-sucking flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae, Muscidae) were cought near the animals. DNA was extracted from all samples, followed by real-time PCR analysis. In 10.5% of neonate calves, that were born to cows harbouring both haemoplasmas, M. wenyonii and/or 'Candidatus M. haemobos' positivity was detected. Copy numbers in positive samples from cows and their calves indicated that - in comparison with M. wenyonii - 'Candidatus M. haemobos'-bacteraemia had usually lower levels. In samples of uninseminated cows the rate of infection with the latter species decreased. These findings may explain why M. wenyonii was significantly more frequently detected in blood-sucking flies, than 'Candidatus M. haemobos'. In conclusion, molecular evidence is provided for the first time on the transplacental transmission of bovine haemoplasmas. Regarding their spread by blood-sucking arthropods, new potential vectors were identified, i.e. the horn fly (Haematobia irritans), the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) and two species of horse flies (Tabanus bovinus, T. bromius).

Hornok S; Micsutka A; Meli ML; Lutz H; Hofmann-Lehmann R

2011-09-01

35

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

Otranto Domenico; Dantas-Torres Filipe; Brianti Emanuele; Traversa Donato; Petri? Dusan; Genchi Claudio; Capelli Gioia

2013-01-01

36

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors' opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation. PMID:23324440

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Petri?, Dusan; Genchi, Claudio; Capelli, Gioia

2013-01-16

37

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors' opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

Otranto D; Dantas-Torres F; Brianti E; Traversa D; Petri? D; Genchi C; Capelli G

2013-01-01

38

Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters. In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high predictive power. Furthermore this PhD has provided a new method of estimating the effect of light traps, which can estimate the additive effect of closely placed traps, and determine trap range of individual traps based on emitted light intensity. Moreover there has been devised a method to sample in time which maximizes information about time dependence and is robust to changes.

GræsbØll, Kaare

2012-01-01

39

Using geographic information systems and decision support systems for the prediction, prevention, and control of vector-borne diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. We focus on how advances in mapping, Geographic Information System, and Decision Support System technologies, and progress in spatial and space-time modeling, can be harnessed to prevent and control these diseases. Major themes, which are addressed using examples from tick-borne Lyme borreliosis; flea-borne plague; and mosquito-borne dengue, malaria, and West Nile virus disease, include (a) selection of spatial and space-time modeling techniques, (b) importance of using high-quality and biologically or epidemiologically relevant data, (c) incorporation of new technologies into operational vector and disease control programs, (d) transfer of map-based information to stakeholders, and (e) adaptation of technology solutions for use in resource-poor environments. We see great potential for the use of new technologies and approaches to more effectively target limited surveillance, prevention, and control resources and to reduce vector-borne and other infectious diseases.

Eisen L; Eisen RJ

2011-01-01

40

International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

Ahmed J; Bouloy M; Ergonul O; Fooks A; Paweska J; Chevalier V; Drosten C; Moormann R; Tordo N; Vatansever Z; Calistri P; Estrada-Pena A; Mirazimi A; Unger H; Yin H; Seitzer U

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ocular manifestations of emerging infectious diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emergent and resurgent infectious diseases are major causes of systemic morbidity and death that are expanding worldwide mainly because of climate changes and globalization. Among them, specific diseases have been recently associated with ocular involvement. This review presents the ocular manifestations of selected emerging infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist. RECENT FINDINGS: An array of ocular manifestations, involving mainly the posterior segment, have been recently described in association with specific arthropod vector-borne diseases including rickettsioses, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever, Dengue fever, and Chikungunya. Influenza A (H1N1) virus has also been recently associated with ocular involvement. On the contrary, with advances in laboratory testing applied to ocular fluids, new infectious agents, mainly viruses, are increasingly being found to be associated with uveitis. SUMMARY: Emerging infectious diseases should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuropathy, or any other ocular inflammatory condition in a patient living in or traveling back from a specific endemic area. On the contrary, ocular fluid sampling and analysis for specific new pathogens can be recommended in selected patients with uveitis of unexplained cause.

Khairallah M; Kahloun R

2013-09-01

42

Vector-borne diseases--constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs).The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population.Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians.In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France) in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world.As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.

Baneth G; Bourdeau P; Bourdoiseau G; Bowman D; Breitschwerdt E; Capelli G; Cardoso L; Dantas-Torres F; Day M; Dedet JP; Dobler G; Ferrer L; Irwin P; Kempf V; Kohn B; Lappin M; Little S; Maggi R; Miró G; Naucke T; Oliva G; Otranto D; Penzhorn B; Pfeffer M; Roura X; Sainz A; Shaw S; Shin S; Solano-Gallego L; Straubinger R; Traub R; Trees A; Truyen U; Demonceau T; Fitzgerald R; Gatti D; Hostetler J; Kilmer B; Krieger K; Mencke N; Mendão C; Mottier L; Pachnicke S; Rees B; Siebert S; Stanneck D; Mingote MT; von Simson C; Weston S; CVBD World Forum

2012-01-01

43

Vector-borne diseases--constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs).The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population.Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians.In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France) in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world.As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs. PMID:22433172

Baneth, Gad; Bourdeau, Patrick; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Bowman, Dwight; Breitschwerdt, Edward; Capelli, Gioia; Cardoso, Luís; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Day, Michael; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Dobler, Gerhard; Ferrer, Lluís; Irwin, Peter; Kempf, Volkhard; Kohn, Babara; Lappin, Michael; Little, Susan; Maggi, Ricardo; Miró, Guadalupe; Naucke, Torsten; Oliva, Gaetano; Otranto, Domenico; Penzhorn, Banie; Pfeffer, Martin; Roura, Xavier; Sainz, Angel; Shaw, Susan; Shin, SungShik; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Straubinger, Reinhard; Traub, Rebecca; Trees, Alexander; Truyen, Uwe; Demonceau, Thierry; Fitzgerald, Ronan; Gatti, Diego; Hostetler, Joe; Kilmer, Bruce; Krieger, Klemens; Mencke, Norbert; Mendão, Cláudio; Mottier, Lourdes; Pachnicke, Stefan; Rees, Bob; Siebert, Susanne; Stanneck, Dorothee; Mingote, Montserrat Tarancón; von Simson, Cristiano; Weston, Sarah; CVBD World Forum

2012-03-20

44

Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum  

Science.gov (United States)

The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs). The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France) in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.

2012-01-01

45

Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious diseases, with SIR models could be seen as an implicit standard in epidemiology. Unfortunately, these models are based on differential equations and, therefore, can become very rapidly unmanageable due to the too many parameters which need to be taken into consideration. For instance, in the case of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in wildlife many different potential host species could be involved in the life-cycle of disease transmission, and SIR models might not be the most suitable tool to truly capture the overall disease circulation within that environment. This limitation underlines the necessity to develop a standard spatial model that can cope with the transmission of disease in realistic ecosystems. Results Computational biology may prove to be flexible enough to take into account the natural complexity observed in both natural and man-made ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a new computational model to study the transmission of infectious diseases in a spatially explicit context. We developed a multi-agent system model for vector-borne disease transmission in a realistic spatial environment. Conclusion Here we describe in detail the general behavior of this model that we hope will become a standard reference for the study of vector-borne disease transmission in wildlife. To conclude, we show how this simple model could be easily adapted and modified to be used as a common framework for further research developments in this field.

Roche Benjamin; Guégan Jean-François; Bousquet François

2008-01-01

46

Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%), followed by L. infantum (12.2%) and E. canis (10.1%). Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR), 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are similar in terms of multiple pathogen infection to the data recorded for dogs from Portugal. Based on these findings the importation of dogs from endemic predominantly Mediterranean regions to Germany as well as travelling with dogs to these regions carries a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Thus we would conclude that pet owners seek advice of the veterinarians prior to importing a dog from an endemic area or travel to such areas. In general, it might be advisable to have a European recording system for translocation of dogs.

Menn Brigitte; Lorentz Susanne; Naucke Torsten J

2010-01-01

47

Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%), followed by L. infantum (12.2%) and E. canis (10.1%). Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR), 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are similar in terms of multiple pathogen infection to the data recorded for dogs from Portugal. Based on these findings the importation of dogs from endemic predominantly Mediterranean regions to Germany as well as travelling with dogs to these regions carries a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Thus we would conclude that pet owners seek advice of the veterinarians prior to importing a dog from an endemic area or travel to such areas. In general, it might be advisable to have a European recording system for translocation of dogs.

2010-01-01

48

Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. RESULTS: 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%), followed by L. infantum (12.2%) and E. canis (10.1%). Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR), 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. CONCLUSIONS: The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are similar in terms of multiple pathogen infection to the data recorded for dogs from Portugal. Based on these findings the importation of dogs from endemic predominantly Mediterranean regions to Germany as well as travelling with dogs to these regions carries a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Thus we would conclude that pet owners seek advice of the veterinarians prior to importing a dog from an endemic area or travel to such areas. In general, it might be advisable to have a European recording system for translocation of dogs.

Menn B; Lorentz S; Naucke TJ

2010-01-01

49

Biology-based mapping of vector-borne parasites by Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Applications of growing degree day-water budget analysis and satellite climatology to vector-borne parasites are reviewed to demonstrate the value of using the unique thermal-hydrological preferences and limits of tolerance of individual parasite-vector systems to define the environmental niche of disease agents in the landscape by modern geospatial analysis methods.

Malone JB

2005-03-01

50

Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario. The most robust vaccination scenarios were all holdings vaccinated and the mandatory vaccination of hosts on pasture. Regional vaccination and trench vaccination display better results under some conditions, but are very sensitive to the incursion route. With this study we intended to test scenarios that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable. Results in this presentation were obtained building upon the model presented in: Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Kaare Græsbøll et al. Scientific Reports. 2:863 (2012).

GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

51

[Vector-borne parasites of dogs on the Islands of Cabo Verde].  

Science.gov (United States)

During an animal welfare campaign on the Islands of Cape Verde (in the capital Praia on the island of Santiago) a total of 57 dogs were examined for ectoparasites and blood parasites. 84% of the animals were infested with arthropods, mostly ticks. Haemotropic parasites were examined via blood smear, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or serology. 23 dogs had single infections, five multiple infections with haemoparasites. In eight dogs Ehrlichia canis and in one Amaplasma phagocytophilum were detected by PCR, while 43.1% and 36.2% respectively were serologically positive. In 23 blood smears Babesia gibsoni, but no Babesia canis could be detected. In four cases Hepatozoon canis was found in the smears. All animals were negative for Dirofilaria larvae or antibodies against Leishmania. Arthropod-infested animals more frequently harboured babesiae (44%), ehrlichiae (19%) or H. canis (8%) compared to non-infested animals (20%, 0%, 0%). In bitches and dogs aged one year or less babesiae were more frequently detected (48% of the bitches and 13% of the male dogs; 45% of animals less than one year and 26% of the older ones). Due to the high infection rates the import of animals from Cabo Verde to Central Europe must be seen as critical, since an endemisation of (sub-)tropical infectious agents cannot be excluded. PMID:19066773

Kirchner, Marlene; Brunner, Adrian; Edelhofer, Renate; Joachim, Anja

2008-01-01

52

Biology-based mapping of vector-borne parasites by geographic information systems and remote sensing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of growing degree day-water budget analysis and satellite climatology to vector-borne parasites will be reviewed to demonstrate the value of using the unique thermal-hydrological preferences and limits of tolerance of individual parasite-vector systems to define the environmental niche of disease agents in the landscape by modern geospatial analysis methods. Applications of geospatial modeling will be illustrated by examples on fascioliasis, malaria, leprosy and leishmaniasis.

Malone JB; Nieto P; Tadesse A

2006-06-01

53

Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

Hongoh Valerie; Hoen Anne; Aenishaenslin Cécile; Waaub Jean-Philippe; Bélanger Denise; Michel Pascal

2011-01-01

54

Public Health and Vector-Borne Diseases - A New Concept for Risk Governance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. PMID:23480672

Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

2013-03-11

55

Public Health and Vector-Borne Diseases - A New Concept for Risk Governance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented.

Schmidt K; Dressel KM; Niedrig M; Mertens M; Schüle SA; Groschup MH

2013-03-01

56

Epidemiological aspects on vector-borne infections in stray and pet dogs from Romania and Hungary with focus on Babesia spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine arthropod-borne infections are of major interest in small animal practice and have been widely investigated in Central and Western Europe. However, only limited epidemiological data are available from South-Eastern European countries, although diseases including babesiosis or dirofilariosis are widely recognised as important canine infections in these countries. A steadily increasing number of dogs imported from South-Eastern Europe into Germany require particular attention by small animal practitioners. In this study, a total of 216 dogs [29 local Romanian pet dogs presented at Salvavet Veterinary Clinic in Bucharest, Romania, and 187 imported stray dogs from Romania (n?=?109) and Hungary (n?=?78) into Germany] were screened by molecular biological, serological and haematological methods for canine arthropod-borne infections. Eleven different parasitic and bacterial vector-borne pathogens-Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Babesia felis-like, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Mycoplasma haemocanis-were detected. Fifty-six percent of the dogs were positive by direct methods. B. canis canis was the most prevalent pathogen in dogs imported to Germany (42.8%) and dogs submitted for clinical consultation in Bucharest (44.8%). Our data strongly suggest the introduction of an adjusted screening panel in dogs from South-East Europe in view of increasing importation of dogs into Germany. PMID:21947342

Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Lescai, Daniel; Pfister, Kurt

2011-09-27

57

Epidemiological aspects on vector-borne infections in stray and pet dogs from Romania and Hungary with focus on Babesia spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canine arthropod-borne infections are of major interest in small animal practice and have been widely investigated in Central and Western Europe. However, only limited epidemiological data are available from South-Eastern European countries, although diseases including babesiosis or dirofilariosis are widely recognised as important canine infections in these countries. A steadily increasing number of dogs imported from South-Eastern Europe into Germany require particular attention by small animal practitioners. In this study, a total of 216 dogs [29 local Romanian pet dogs presented at Salvavet Veterinary Clinic in Bucharest, Romania, and 187 imported stray dogs from Romania (n?=?109) and Hungary (n?=?78) into Germany] were screened by molecular biological, serological and haematological methods for canine arthropod-borne infections. Eleven different parasitic and bacterial vector-borne pathogens-Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Babesia felis-like, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Mycoplasma haemocanis-were detected. Fifty-six percent of the dogs were positive by direct methods. B. canis canis was the most prevalent pathogen in dogs imported to Germany (42.8%) and dogs submitted for clinical consultation in Bucharest (44.8%). Our data strongly suggest the introduction of an adjusted screening panel in dogs from South-East Europe in view of increasing importation of dogs into Germany.

Hamel D; Silaghi C; Lescai D; Pfister K

2012-04-01

58

Feline vector-borne pathogens in the north and centre of Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In recent years, several clinical cases and epidemiological studies of feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have been reported worldwide. Nonetheless, information on FVBD agents and their prevalence in Portugal is scarce. METHODS: Three-hundred and twenty domestic cats presented to 30 veterinary medical centres in the north and centre regions of Portugal were randomly sampled. Blood was assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genera Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, genus Babesia, Hepatozoon canis, Hepatozoon felis, Leishmania infantum and the genus Rickettsia. Babesia-positive samples were further tested for Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli. RESULTS: Eighty (25.0%) out of the 320 cats were positive to at least one vector-borne agent, including seven (2.2%) cats co-infected with two agents. Two cats (0.6%) were infected with Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., four (1.3%) with B. canis, 26 (8.1%) with B. vogeli, 50 (15.6%) with H. felis, one (0.3%) with L. infantum and four (1.3%) with Rickettsia spp. No cat tested positive for H. canis. One cat (0.3%) was co-infected with B. canis and B. vogeli, three (0.9%) with B. vogeli and H. felis, one (0.3%) with H. felis and L. infantum, and two (0.6%) with H. felis and Rickettsia spp. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable prevalence of infection with vector-borne pathogens among the domestic feline population of the north and centre of Portugal has been revealed by the present study. Additionally, this is the first detection of B. vogeli in cats from Europe and of H. felis in cats from Portugal.

Vilhena H; Martinez-Díaz VL; Cardoso L; Vieira L; Altet L; Francino O; Pastor J; Silvestre-Ferreira AC

2013-01-01

59

Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La Re' union and Mayotte (2005-2006) and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995-2007). To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio- demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities' efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious disease. PMID:22460287

Setbon, M; Raude, J

2009-07-31

60

Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La R|[eacute]|union and Mayotte (2005|[ndash]|2006) and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995|[ndash]|2007). To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities|[rsquo]| efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious disease.

M Setbon; J Raude

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La Re' union and Mayotte (2005-2006) and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995-2007). To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio- demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities' efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious disease.

Setbon M; Raude J

2009-01-01

62

Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. This model was examined relative to two mosquito vectors, both competent carriers of dengue fever, a viral, vector-borne disease. Models which incorporate public health considerations can enable decision makers to take proactive steps to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the changing environmental conditions. In this paper we provide a snapshot of our climate initiative and some examples relative to our public health practice work in vector-borne diseases to illustrate how integrated decision support could be of assistance to regional and local communities worldwide.

Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

2011-12-01

63

The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

Palaniyandi M

2012-12-01

64

The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed. PMID:23428518

Palaniyandi, M

2012-12-01

65

Drug resistance in vector-borne parasites: multiple actors and scenarios for an evolutionary arms race.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug-resistant pathogens emerge faster than new drugs come out of drug discovery pipelines. Current and future drug options should therefore be better protected, requiring a clear understanding of the factors that contribute to the natural history of drug resistance. Although many of these factors are relatively well understood for most bacteria, this proves to be more complex for vector-borne parasites. In this review, we discuss considering three key models (Plasmodium, Leishmania and Schistosoma) how drug resistance can emerge, spread and persist. We demonstrate a multiplicity of scenarios, clearly resulting from the biological diversity of the different organisms, but also from the different modes of action of the drugs used, the specific within- and between-host ecology of the parasites, and environmental factors that may have direct or indirect effects. We conclude that integrated control of drug-resistant vector-borne parasites is not dependent upon chemotherapy only, but also requires a better insight into the ecology of these parasites and how their transmission can be impaired. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Vanaerschot M; Huijben S; Van den Broeck F; Jean-Claude D

2013-07-01

66

Vector-borne diseases in client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of various vector-borne pathogens as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. The current study evaluated risk factors, clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Neorickettsia spp., Leishmania spp., and Bartonella spp. infection or exposure in 680 client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain. Our results indicate that a large portion (35.1%) of the cat population of Madrid, Spain, is exposed to at least one of the five vector-borne pathogens tested. We found seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae in 23.8%, to Ehrlichia canis in 9.9%, to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 8.4%, to Leishmania infantum in 3.7%, and to Neorickettsia risticii in 1% of the feline study population. About 9.9% of cats had antibody reactivity to more than one agent. L. infantum DNA was amplified from four cats (0.6%), B. henselae DNA from one cat (0.15%), and B. clarridgeiae DNA from another cat (0.15%).

Ayllón T; Diniz PP; Breitschwerdt EB; Villaescusa A; Rodríguez-Franco F; Sainz A

2012-02-01

67

Vector-borne diseases in client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of various vector-borne pathogens as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. The current study evaluated risk factors, clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Neorickettsia spp., Leishmania spp., and Bartonella spp. infection or exposure in 680 client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain. Our results indicate that a large portion (35.1%) of the cat population of Madrid, Spain, is exposed to at least one of the five vector-borne pathogens tested. We found seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae in 23.8%, to Ehrlichia canis in 9.9%, to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 8.4%, to Leishmania infantum in 3.7%, and to Neorickettsia risticii in 1% of the feline study population. About 9.9% of cats had antibody reactivity to more than one agent. L. infantum DNA was amplified from four cats (0.6%), B. henselae DNA from one cat (0.15%), and B. clarridgeiae DNA from another cat (0.15%). PMID:22022820

Ayllón, Tania; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel

2011-10-24

68

The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined withgeographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-bornediseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic andenvironmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the informationderived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture,soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of othergeoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classicalstudies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseasescontrol. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation ofthe vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association withgeoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonalvariations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector-borne diseasescan be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

M. Palaniyandi

2012-01-01

69

Climate change and the distribution of vector borne diseases with special reference to African horse sickness virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of climate change, those components of climate that are likely to have major effects upon distribution, seasonal incidence and prevalence of vector borne diseases are described. On the basis of a predicted, mean temperature increase of the order of 1 to 3.5 deg. C., examples are given of the sort of changes that are to be expected by using a range of internationally important human and animal pathogens. Recent dramatic alterations in the epidemiology of the OIE List ''A'' disease, African horse sickness, are drawn upon to put forward the proposition that climate change may already be having a major effect upon some vector borne diseases. (author)

1998-01-01

70

Modelling vertical transmission in vector-borne diseases with applications to Rift Valley fever.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present two ordinary differential equation models for Rift Valley fever (RVF) transmission in cattle and mosquitoes. We extend existing models for vector-borne diseases to include an asymptomatic host class and vertical transmission in vectors. We define the basic reproductive number, ?(0), and analyse the existence and stability of equilibrium points. We compute sensitivity indices of ?(0) and a reactivity index (that measures epidemicity) to parameters for baseline wet and dry season values. ?(0) is most sensitive to the mosquito biting and death rates. The reactivity index is most sensitive to the mosquito biting rate and the infectivity of hosts to vectors. Numerical simulations show that even with low equilibrium prevalence, increases in mosquito densities through higher rainfall, in the presence of vertical transmission, can result in large epidemics. This suggests that vertical transmission is an important factor in the size and persistence of RVF epidemics.

Chitnis N; Hyman JM; Manore CA

2013-01-01

71

Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vector borne disease (VBD) emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends.

Braks Marieta; van der Giessen Joke; Kretzschmar Mirjam; van Pelt Wifrid; Scholte Ernst-Jan; Reusken Chantal; Zeller Hervé; van Bortel Wim; Sprong Hein

2011-01-01

72

Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector borne disease (VBD) emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends.

Braks M; van der Giessen J; Kretzschmar M; van Pelt W; Scholte EJ; Reusken C; Zeller H; van Bortel W; Sprong H

2011-01-01

73

Analysis of the sensitivity properties of a model of vector-borne bubonic plague.  

Science.gov (United States)

Model sensitivity is a key to evaluation of mathematical models in ecology and evolution, especially in complex models with numerous parameters. In this paper, we use some recently developed methods for sensitivity analysis to study the parameter sensitivity of a model of vector-borne bubonic plague in a rodent population proposed by Keeling & Gilligan. The new sensitivity tools are based on a variational analysis involving the adjoint equation. The new approach provides a relatively inexpensive way to obtain derivative information about model output with respect to parameters. We use this approach to determine the sensitivity of a quantity of interest (the force of infection from rats and their fleas to humans) to various model parameters, determine a region over which linearization at a specific parameter reference point is valid, develop a global picture of the output surface, and search for maxima and minima in a given region in the parameter space. PMID:18270149

Buzby, Megan; Neckels, David; Antolin, Michael F; Estep, Donald

2008-09-01

74

Modeling the spread of vector-borne diseases on bipartite networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distribution of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks on mice and lizards from two independent studies are well described by a scale-free distribution compatible with an asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. The commonly used negative binomial, instead, cannot describe the right tail of the empirical distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extreme aggregation of vectors on hosts, described by the power-law decay of the degree distribution, makes the epidemic threshold decrease with the size of the network and vanish asymptotically.

Bisanzio D; Bertolotti L; Tomassone L; Amore G; Ragagli C; Mannelli A; Giacobini M; Provero P

2010-01-01

75

Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem/ Malattie trasmesse da artropodi in Italia: un problema sanitario emergente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in (more) the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

Romi, Roberto

2010-12-01

76

Arthropod origins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reconsideration of the position of trilobite-like arthropods leads to an idea of the last shared ancestor of known (eu)arthropods. The ancestry and morphological evolution is traced back from this form to a hypothetical ciliated and pseudosegmented slug-like ancestor. Evolution logically passed through a lobopodian stage. Extant onychophorans, Cambrian xenusians, and perhaps anomalocaridids with their kin (the Dinocaridida) may represent probable offshoots on the way. As such, these groups are highly derived and not ancestral to the arthropods. Results of molecular studies indicate a relationship to moulting worms, which at first could seem to be in conflict with what was just said. However, if this is correct, the arthropod and moulting worm lineages must have diverged when some 'coelomate' features such as specific vascular and neural systems were still present. The moulting worms would therefore have lost such characters, either only once or several times.

Bergström J; Xian-Guang Hou

2003-01-01

77

Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, ano...

Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Meli, M L; Dreher, U M; Gönczi, E; Deplazes, P; Braun, U; Engels, M; Schüpbach, J; Jörger, K; Thoma, R

78

Transmission dynamics for vector-borne diseases in a patchy environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, a mathematical model is derived to describe the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases over a patchy environment. The model incorporates into the classic Ross-MacDonald model two factors: disease latencies in both hosts and vectors, and dispersal of hosts between patches. The basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is identified by the theory of the next generation operator for structured disease models. The dynamics of the model is investigated in terms of [Formula: see text]. It is shown that the disease free equilibrium is asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text], and it is unstable if [Formula: see text]; in the latter case, the disease is endemic in the sense that the variables for the infected compartments are uniformly persistent. For the case of two patches, more explicit formulas for [Formula: see text] are derived by which, impacts of the dispersal rates on disease dynamics are also explored. Some numerical computations for [Formula: see text] in terms of dispersal rates are performed which show visually that the impacts could be very complicated: in certain range of the parameters, [Formula: see text] is increasing with respect to a dispersal rate while in some other range, it can be decreasing with respect to the same dispersal rate. The results can be useful to health organizations at various levels for setting guidelines or making policies for travels, as far as malaria epidemics is concerned.

Xiao Y; Zou X

2013-06-01

79

How computational studies of mosquito repellents contribute to the control of vector Borne Diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector Borne Diseases (VBD) present a serious threat to millions of people. In this paper various computational approaches towards new drugs design against some of them are reviewed. Malaria attracts particular attention of computational medicinal chemists. A promising strategy of the fight with VBD is usage of insect repellents. N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been the mostly used mosquito repellent for over five decades. Its mode of action is still a matter of intensive studies and debate. A possible mechanism of DEET activity is inactivation of odorant receptor proteins expressed in female mosquitoes, and being critical for finding a prey. In order to check possible interactions of DEET with such a transmembrane protein and to indicate a plausible biophore, we have constructed a hybrid "ab initio" model of Anopheles gambiae Odorant Receptor Protein 1 (AgOR1). The transmembrane regions of AgOR1 were predicted using 10 different bioinformatics algorithms and a consensus approach. A full torsional potential energy surface of DEET was determined using the AM1 method and low energy conformers were further optimized using the HF/6-31G method. DEET and a series of diastereomers of alternative repellent cyclohex-3-enyl 2-methylpiperidin-1-yl ketone (220) was docked to the AgOR1 model using the AutoDock 3.0.5 code, and possible interactions sites inside this GPCR AgOR1 were identified. PMID:24010929

Miszta, Przemyslaw; Basak, Subhash C; Natarajan, Ramanathan; Nowak, Wieslaw

2013-09-01

80

Molecular survey of bovine vector-borne pathogens in Cebu, Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the Philippines. In the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in Cebu, Philippines, for various VBD pathogens using specific PCR assays. The results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Trypanosoma (Tr.) theileri, respectively. In contrast, none of the samples were positive for Trypanosoma (Tr.) evansi, Theileria (Th.) orientalis, and Theileria (Th.) annulata. Mixed infections were observed in 24.2% of the samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the Anaplasma spp. sequences from the present study were genetically close either to Anaplasma marginale or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, B. bovis RAP-1 and Babesia bigemina AMA-1 gene sequences were identical and monophyletic to other known B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences. On the other hand, Tr. theileri cathepsin-L like protein gene sequences shared 97.1-100% identities with those from the USA and Brazil and clustered within a single genotype in the phylogenetic tree. The molecular identification of several VBD pathogens in Cebu cattle calls for the implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of these pathogens to nearby localities or islands, and ultimately, economic losses to the Philippine economy. PMID:23499481

Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Vincoy, Mary Rose Bahian; Tingson, Jocelyn Acido; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Gabotero, Shirleny Reyes; Buchorno, Lyra Paglinawan; Inoue, Noboru; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2013-02-28

 
 
 
 
81

Molecular survey of bovine vector-borne pathogens in Cebu, Philippines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the Philippines. In the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in Cebu, Philippines, for various VBD pathogens using specific PCR assays. The results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Trypanosoma (Tr.) theileri, respectively. In contrast, none of the samples were positive for Trypanosoma (Tr.) evansi, Theileria (Th.) orientalis, and Theileria (Th.) annulata. Mixed infections were observed in 24.2% of the samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the Anaplasma spp. sequences from the present study were genetically close either to Anaplasma marginale or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, B. bovis RAP-1 and Babesia bigemina AMA-1 gene sequences were identical and monophyletic to other known B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences. On the other hand, Tr. theileri cathepsin-L like protein gene sequences shared 97.1-100% identities with those from the USA and Brazil and clustered within a single genotype in the phylogenetic tree. The molecular identification of several VBD pathogens in Cebu cattle calls for the implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of these pathogens to nearby localities or islands, and ultimately, economic losses to the Philippine economy.

Ybañez AP; Sivakumar T; Ybañez RH; Vincoy MR; Tingson JA; Perez ZO; Gabotero SR; Buchorno LP; Inoue N; Matsumoto K; Inokuma H; Yokoyama N

2013-09-01

82

Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (? 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms. PMID:22925024

Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

2012-08-27

83

Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (? 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.

Girard YA; Swift P; Chomel BB; Kasten RW; Fleer K; Foley JE; Torres SG; Johnson CK

2012-11-01

84

Relative susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to vector-borne Xylella fastidiosa through time.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce's disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols. PMID:23424629

Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2013-02-12

85

Relative susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to vector-borne Xylella fastidiosa through time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce's disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols.

Rashed A; Kwan J; Baraff B; Ling D; Daugherty MP; Killiny N; Almeida RP

2013-01-01

86

Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT : Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported.Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

2009-03-26

87

Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed.

Otranto Domenico; Capelli Gioia; Genchi Claudio

2009-01-01

88

Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT : Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported.Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed.

Otranto D; Capelli G; Genchi C

2009-01-01

89

Retrospective evaluation of laboratory data on canine vector-borne infections from the years 2004-2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The detection and therapy of canine vector-borne diseases in imported dogs are of major importance in small animal practice. Over the last years, the import of dogs from the Mediterranean region and Southeast Europe has increased, countries often endemic for a variety of vector-borne diseases such as babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis or ehrlichiosis. This retrospective study presents the evaluation of data from our diagnostic laboratory on vector-borne infections in imported dogs from the years 2004-2008. Specific antibodies were detectable in 20.5% of all samples with individual detection rates of 8.9%, 9.6% and 10.8% for Babesia canis ssp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis. A total of 5.5% of all samples tested by direct methods were positive. Up to 1.1% of Giemsa-stained blood/buffy coat smears were positive for B. canis ssp., Rickettsia spp. or Hepatozoon spp. Microfilariae were detectable by the Knott's Test in 6.4% and heartworm antigen was detectable using the DiroChek-ELISA in 3% of the examined samples. EDTA-blood samples were positive for Leishmania spp.-(14.9%), E. canis- (5.3%) and A. phagocytophilum-DNA (5.0%) by PCR. Therewith, imported dogs have a high chance of being carriers of pathogens. As some diseases may also be of a zoonotic concern, in case of the availability of competent vectors, the key focus in the future should be aimed at the prevention of importing infected dogs or at compulsory diagnostic screening and treatment of infected dogs at the time of import.

Röhrig E; Hamel D; Pfister K

2011-09-01

90

Retrospective evaluation of laboratory data on canine vector-borne infections from the years 2004-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection and therapy of canine vector-borne diseases in imported dogs are of major importance in small animal practice. Over the last years, the import of dogs from the Mediterranean region and Southeast Europe has increased, countries often endemic for a variety of vector-borne diseases such as babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis or ehrlichiosis. This retrospective study presents the evaluation of data from our diagnostic laboratory on vector-borne infections in imported dogs from the years 2004-2008. Specific antibodies were detectable in 20.5% of all samples with individual detection rates of 8.9%, 9.6% and 10.8% for Babesia canis ssp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis. A total of 5.5% of all samples tested by direct methods were positive. Up to 1.1% of Giemsa-stained blood/buffy coat smears were positive for B. canis ssp., Rickettsia spp. or Hepatozoon spp. Microfilariae were detectable by the Knott's Test in 6.4% and heartworm antigen was detectable using the DiroChek-ELISA in 3% of the examined samples. EDTA-blood samples were positive for Leishmania spp.-(14.9%), E. canis- (5.3%) and A. phagocytophilum-DNA (5.0%) by PCR. Therewith, imported dogs have a high chance of being carriers of pathogens. As some diseases may also be of a zoonotic concern, in case of the availability of competent vectors, the key focus in the future should be aimed at the prevention of importing infected dogs or at compulsory diagnostic screening and treatment of infected dogs at the time of import. PMID:21950219

Röhrig, Eva; Hamel, Dietmar; Pfister, Kurt

91

Evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Longitudinal studies evaluating the evolution of clinical, haematological, biochemical findings in young dogs exposed for the first time to multiple vector-borne pathogens have not been reported. With the objective of assessing the evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings, these parameters were serially monitored in naturally infected dogs throughout a 1-year follow-up period. Young dogs, infected by vector-borne pathogens based on cytology or polymerase chain reaction, were examined clinically and blood samples were obtained at seven different follow-up time points. Dogs were randomized to group A (17 dogs treated with a spot-on formulation of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50%) or to group B (17 dogs untreated). In addition, 10 4-month-old beagles were enrolled in each group and used as sentinel dogs. At baseline, Anaplasma platys was the most frequently detected pathogen, followed by Babesia vogeli, Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Co-infections with A. platys and B. vogeli, followed by E. canis and B. vogeli, A. platys and H. canis and A. platys and Bartonella spp. were also diagnosed. In dogs from group B, abnormal clinical signs were recorded at different time points throughout the study. No abnormal clinical signs were recorded in group A dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most frequent haematological alteration recorded in A. platys-infected dogs, B. vogeli-infected dogs and in dogs co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. Lymphocytosis was frequently detected among dogs infected with B. vogeli or co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli. Beagles were often infected with a single pathogen rather than with multiple canine vector-borne pathogens. There was a significant association (p<0.01) between tick infestation and A. platys or B. vogeli, as single infections, and A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. co-infections. This study emphasizes the clinical difficulties associated with assigning a specific clinical sign or haematological abnormality to a particular canine vector-borne disease.

de Caprariis D; Dantas-Torres F; Capelli G; Mencke N; Stanneck D; Breitschwerdt EB; Otranto D

2011-04-01

92

Evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal studies evaluating the evolution of clinical, haematological, biochemical findings in young dogs exposed for the first time to multiple vector-borne pathogens have not been reported. With the objective of assessing the evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings, these parameters were serially monitored in naturally infected dogs throughout a 1-year follow-up period. Young dogs, infected by vector-borne pathogens based on cytology or polymerase chain reaction, were examined clinically and blood samples were obtained at seven different follow-up time points. Dogs were randomized to group A (17 dogs treated with a spot-on formulation of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50%) or to group B (17 dogs untreated). In addition, 10 4-month-old beagles were enrolled in each group and used as sentinel dogs. At baseline, Anaplasma platys was the most frequently detected pathogen, followed by Babesia vogeli, Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Co-infections with A. platys and B. vogeli, followed by E. canis and B. vogeli, A. platys and H. canis and A. platys and Bartonella spp. were also diagnosed. In dogs from group B, abnormal clinical signs were recorded at different time points throughout the study. No abnormal clinical signs were recorded in group A dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most frequent haematological alteration recorded in A. platys-infected dogs, B. vogeli-infected dogs and in dogs co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. Lymphocytosis was frequently detected among dogs infected with B. vogeli or co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli. Beagles were often infected with a single pathogen rather than with multiple canine vector-borne pathogens. There was a significant association (p<0.01) between tick infestation and A. platys or B. vogeli, as single infections, and A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. co-infections. This study emphasizes the clinical difficulties associated with assigning a specific clinical sign or haematological abnormality to a particular canine vector-borne disease. PMID:21106311

de Caprariis, Donato; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Capelli, Gioia; Mencke, Norbert; Stanneck, Dorothee; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Otranto, Domenico

2010-10-16

93

Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine.

Hamel D; Silaghi C; Zapadynska S; Kudrin A; Pfister K

2013-02-01

94

Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

2012-09-20

95

Factors associated with the use of protective measures against vector-borne diseases among troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Vector-borne diseases are known threats to deployed troops. We performed a cross-sectional study of troops deployed to Southwest Asia between January 2005 and February 2007 to evaluate practices of personal protective measures and their relationship to self-report of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a marker of vector-borne disease threat. RESULTS: Regular or always N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) use was low (2-5%). Associations for DEET use were command emphasis, branch of service, uniform treatment with permethrin, and duty station. Uniform treatment with permethrin was associated with branch of service, command emphasis, and use of DEET. We identified 22 cases of CL (incidence density of 1.8-3.7 per 100 person-years) with increased risk among Reserve/National Guard components, Air Force and Marine personnel. CONCLUSIONS: Commanders can influence the use of the military insect repellent system. Unit-based treatment of uniforms improves prevalence. CL incidence may be higher than previously reported.

Vickery JP; Tribble DR; Putnam SD; McGraw T; Sanders JW; Armstrong AW; Riddle MS

2008-11-01

96

Prevention of endemic canine vector-borne diseases using imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% in young dogs: a longitudinal field study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent and increasing in distribution worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted in southern Italy to determine the incidence of and protection against CVBD-causing pathogens in dogs treated with a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer). One hundred eleven autochthonous young dogs were divided into group A (n=63) and group B (n=48), both groups containing dogs positive and negative for one or more CVBD-causing pathogens. Additionally, 10 naïve male beagles were introduced in each group in May 2008. Group A was treated with ImPer on day 0 and every 21+/-2 days whereas group B was left untreated. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (March-April 2008) and at the first, second and third follow-up times (July and October 2008 and April 2009). Bone marrow was sampled at baseline and at the third follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect Anaplasma platys, Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum. Ectoparasites (fleas, ticks, and sand flies) were monitored throughout the study. The baseline prevalence of CVBDs was 39.6% with 44 dogs positive for at least one pathogen. A. platys (27.5%) and Babesia spp. (15.6%) were the most prevalent species and co-infections with up to two pathogens were detected in 16 (14.7%) individuals. At the end of the evaluation period, there was a 90.7% reduction in overall CVBD incidence density rate (IDR) in group A, as following: 100% reduction in L. infantum; 94.6% in E. canis; 94.4% in Babesia spp.; and 81.8% in A. platys. Initially positive treated dogs showed significantly lower pathogen prevalence at the third follow-up than untreated ones. At the end of the evaluation period, 8 of the 10 untreated beagles were infected with at least one pathogen whereas one of the treated beagles was A. platys positive at a single time point (second follow-up). Overall efficacy against ticks was 97.9%. In October 2009, samples were collected from the remaining 83 dogs (44 from group A and 39 from group B) to investigate the annual incidence of CVBDs in the same, at this time untreated, dog population. A high year incidence for tick-borne diseases (78.1%) and for L. infantum (13.6%) was detected in dogs from group A, seven months after the treatment had been withdrawn. The results demonstrate that ImPer preventive treatment against arthropods protects autochthonous and naïve beagle dogs against CVBD-causing pathogens.

Otranto D; de Caprariis D; Lia RP; Tarallo V; Lorusso V; Testini G; Dantas-Torres F; Latrofa S; Diniz PP; Mencke N; Maggi RG; Breitschwerdt E; Capelli G; Stanneck D

2010-09-01

97

Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases.

Massad E; Coutinho FA; Lopez LF; da Silva DR

2011-06-01

98

Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease prevalence, complete risk assessments, and impleme t timely preventive medicine and other preventive measures. The lower VBD prevalence rate in the canine samples from Fort Buchanan demonstrates the value of responsible pet ownership and importance of preventive medicine and public health.

McCown ME; Opel T; Grzeszak B

2013-01-01

99

Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease prevalence, complete risk assessments, and impleme t timely preventive medicine and other preventive measures. The lower VBD prevalence rate in the canine samples from Fort Buchanan demonstrates the value of responsible pet ownership and importance of preventive medicine and public health. PMID:23817880

McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

2013-01-01

100

Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least one million deaths annually, with 80% of malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has a large impact upon the incidence of vector-borne diseases; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the environmental conditions. A large ensemble of regional climate model simulations has been produced within the ENSEMBLES project framework for both the European and African continent. This work will present recent progress in human and animal disease modelling, based on high resolution climate observations and regional climate simulations. Preliminary results will be given as an illustration, including the impact of climate change upon bluetongue (disease affecting the cattle) over Europe and upon malaria and Rift Valley Fever over Africa. Malaria scenarios based on RCM ensemble simulations have been produced for West Africa. These simulations have been carried out using the Liverpool Malaria Model. Future projections highlight that the malaria incidence decreases at the northern edge of the Sahel and that the epidemic belt is shifted southward in autumn. This could lead to significant public health problems in the future as the demography is expected to dramatically rise over Africa for the 21st century.

Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andy

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Temperature decreases with latitude, and in the Nordic countries periods of suitable temperatures, the windows of opportunity for transmission, may be very short and only appear in odd years. While average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases, mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread and limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of potential local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) in case an infected vector or host are introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps functions as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of „no possible transmission? and target active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighboring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated from such models is therefore likely to deviate from the true R0. However assuming the models are qualitatively able to rank the estimated R0 correctly, a period resulting in a relatively high estimated R0 will also be a period with a relatively high true R0. This allows the estimated R0 to be used for targeted surveillance by focusing the surveillance on periods and areas with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction factor is obtained that may be used to adjust the model estimates in Denmark, and thus allowing a more quantitative interpretation of the estimated R0. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases and compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia in 2008.

BØdker, Rene

2011-01-01

102

Prevention of endemic canine vector-borne diseases using imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% in young dogs: a longitudinal field study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent and increasing in distribution worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted in southern Italy to determine the incidence of and protection against CVBD-causing pathogens in dogs treated with a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer). One hundred eleven autochthonous young dogs were divided into group A (n=63) and group B (n=48), both groups containing dogs positive and negative for one or more CVBD-causing pathogens. Additionally, 10 naïve male beagles were introduced in each group in May 2008. Group A was treated with ImPer on day 0 and every 21+/-2 days whereas group B was left untreated. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (March-April 2008) and at the first, second and third follow-up times (July and October 2008 and April 2009). Bone marrow was sampled at baseline and at the third follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect Anaplasma platys, Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum. Ectoparasites (fleas, ticks, and sand flies) were monitored throughout the study. The baseline prevalence of CVBDs was 39.6% with 44 dogs positive for at least one pathogen. A. platys (27.5%) and Babesia spp. (15.6%) were the most prevalent species and co-infections with up to two pathogens were detected in 16 (14.7%) individuals. At the end of the evaluation period, there was a 90.7% reduction in overall CVBD incidence density rate (IDR) in group A, as following: 100% reduction in L. infantum; 94.6% in E. canis; 94.4% in Babesia spp.; and 81.8% in A. platys. Initially positive treated dogs showed significantly lower pathogen prevalence at the third follow-up than untreated ones. At the end of the evaluation period, 8 of the 10 untreated beagles were infected with at least one pathogen whereas one of the treated beagles was A. platys positive at a single time point (second follow-up). Overall efficacy against ticks was 97.9%. In October 2009, samples were collected from the remaining 83 dogs (44 from group A and 39 from group B) to investigate the annual incidence of CVBDs in the same, at this time untreated, dog population. A high year incidence for tick-borne diseases (78.1%) and for L. infantum (13.6%) was detected in dogs from group A, seven months after the treatment had been withdrawn. The results demonstrate that ImPer preventive treatment against arthropods protects autochthonous and naïve beagle dogs against CVBD-causing pathogens. PMID:20591573

Otranto, D; de Caprariis, D; Lia, R P; Tarallo, V; Lorusso, V; Testini, G; Dantas-Torres, F; Latrofa, S; Diniz, P P V P; Mencke, N; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E; Capelli, G; Stanneck, D

2010-05-25

103

Canine vector-borne disease pathogens in dogs from south-east Queensland and north-east Northern Territory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD: Babesia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., haemotropic mycoplasmas and Hepatozoon) in Australian dogs; namely, dogs from pounds in south-east Queensland and an indigenous Aboriginal community in the north-east of the Northern Territory. DESIGN AND PROCEDURE: Blood samples were collected from 100 pound dogs and 130 Aboriginal community dogs and screened for the CVBD pathogens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All positive PCR products were sequenced for species confirmation. RESULTS: In total, 3 pound dogs and 64 Aboriginal community dogs were infected with at least one CVBD pathogen. Overall, B. vogeli was detected in 13 dogs, A. platys in 49, M. haemocanis in 23, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in 3 and C. M. haemobos in 1 dog. Co-infections were detected in 22 Aboriginal community dogs. CONCLUSIONS: This study found B. vogeli, A. platys and haemotropic mycoplasma infections to be common in dogs in subtropical and tropical areas of Australia. This study also reports for the first time the prevalence and genetic characterisation of haemotropic mycoplasmas in dogs in Australia.

Hii SF; Kopp SR; Thompson MF; O'Leary CA; Rees RL; Traub RJ

2012-04-01

104

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

Lim S; Irwin PJ; Lee S; Oh M; Ahn K; Myung B; Shin S

2010-01-01

105

Vector-borne infections in the tropics and health policy issues in the twenty-first century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 2 decades scientific advances and evolving strategies have significantly contributed to improved tools for control of vector-borne infections. These are: diagnostics--rapid assessment methods, non-invasive or minimally so yet sensitive and specific; new chemotherapeutics; pyrethroid insecticides and biological insecticidal products; refined strategies, such as combination therapy, rotation of insecticides for resistance management, community-directed treatment, standardized monitoring and evaluation to define programme progress; better epidemiological knowledge through improved identification of parasites and vectors; GIS, remote sensing and climate models which provide tools for epidemic prediction, planning control programmes and permit effective policy analysis; greater involvement of NGDOs (non-governmental development organizations) and CSOs (civil society organizations) in control; advent of donation programmes which involve community-based or directed mass drug distribution. Future problems could be: (1) the over-emphasis on inflexible financing by the insistence of donors on SWAps (sector-wide investment), (2) the over-reliance on pyrethroid pesticides, (3) the over-expectation that basic research will provide new drugs and vaccines for resource-poor settings in the necessary time scales, and (4) the failure to recognize that biological processes have an inherent capacity for change which outstrips the capacity of health services to respond. Malaria is a paradigm of an 'emerging disease'. (5) The challenge of implementing a 'vertical' approach to disease control within national health programmes, in the face of significant donor opposition to such programmes is a challenge even when such approaches will secure a 'public good'.

Molyneux DH

2001-05-01

106

[Climate change influences the incidence of arthropod-borne diseases in the Netherlands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate change is associated with changes in the occurrence of arthropod-borne diseases. It is difficult to foresee which arthropod-borne diseases will appear in the Netherlands due to climate change. Climate change influences the prevalence of ticks and may lead to a further increase in Lyme disease and an increased risk of the introduction of rickettsioses. With further warming of the climate there is a real possibility of settlement of the mosquito Aedes albopictus and introduction of the sandfly in the Netherlands. Whether this will lead to circulation of micro-organisms transmitted by these vectors (e.g. West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Leishmania) is not clear. Continued vigilance is necessary, even for vector-borne diseases that appear to be less relevant for the Netherlands.

Rahamat-Langendoen JC; van Vliet JA; Reusken CB

2008-04-01

107

Global warming and spread of infectious diseases; Globale Erwaermung und Ausbreitung von Infektionskrankheiten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the end of the twentieth century, tropical infectious diseases increased despite earlier successes of eradication campaigns. As a global warming of 1.4-5.8 C is anticipated to occur by 2100, mainly the vector-borne tropical diseases that are particularly sensitive to climate are expected to spread. Although biological reasons seemingly support this hypothesis, ecological and socio-economic factors have in the past proven to be stronger driving forces for the spread of infectious diseases than climate. (orig.)

Ebert, B.; Fleischer, B. [Bernhard-Nocht-Institut fuer Tropenmedizin (BNI), Hamburg (Germany)

2005-01-15

108

Parasitic arthropods of sympatric meadow voles and white-footed mice at Fort Detrick, Maryland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve species of parasitic arthropods (one sucking louse, two fleas, one tick, and eight mites) were recovered from 51 meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord); whereas nine species (one sucking louse, one bot, three fleas, one tick, and three mites) were collected from 48 white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), live-trapped on the grounds of Fort Detrick, Frederick County, MD., during 1990 and 1991. The most commonly collected arthropods from M. pennsylvanicus were the fur mite, Listrophorus mexicanus Fain (approximately 2,720 specimens); the tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst) (987); the laelapid mites, Laelaps kochi Oudemans (733) and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese (322); the sucking louse, Hoplopleura acanthopus (Burmeister) (121); the tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (47); and the chigger mite, Neotrombicula whartoni (Ewing) (45). Arthropod densities were lower on P. leucopus, from which the most frequently recorded species were the sucking louse, Hoplopleura hesperomydis (Osborn) (98 specimens); the fleas, Epitedia wenmanni (Rothschild) (85) and Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) (61); and the mite, A. fahrenholzi (83). Although six species of arthropods parasitized both species of rodents, only two of these, A. fahrenholzi and D. variabilis, were relatively common on both hosts. Therefore, although the habitats of both host species partially overlap, their associated parasitic arthropods remain principally host specific. The potential significance of these findings with respect to vector-borne disease transmission is discussed.

Durden LA

1992-09-01

109

Parasitic arthropods of sympatric meadow voles and white-footed mice at Fort Detrick, Maryland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve species of parasitic arthropods (one sucking louse, two fleas, one tick, and eight mites) were recovered from 51 meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord); whereas nine species (one sucking louse, one bot, three fleas, one tick, and three mites) were collected from 48 white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), live-trapped on the grounds of Fort Detrick, Frederick County, MD., during 1990 and 1991. The most commonly collected arthropods from M. pennsylvanicus were the fur mite, Listrophorus mexicanus Fain (approximately 2,720 specimens); the tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst) (987); the laelapid mites, Laelaps kochi Oudemans (733) and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese (322); the sucking louse, Hoplopleura acanthopus (Burmeister) (121); the tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (47); and the chigger mite, Neotrombicula whartoni (Ewing) (45). Arthropod densities were lower on P. leucopus, from which the most frequently recorded species were the sucking louse, Hoplopleura hesperomydis (Osborn) (98 specimens); the fleas, Epitedia wenmanni (Rothschild) (85) and Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) (61); and the mite, A. fahrenholzi (83). Although six species of arthropods parasitized both species of rodents, only two of these, A. fahrenholzi and D. variabilis, were relatively common on both hosts. Therefore, although the habitats of both host species partially overlap, their associated parasitic arthropods remain principally host specific. The potential significance of these findings with respect to vector-borne disease transmission is discussed. PMID:1404254

Durden, L A

1992-09-01

110

Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of chagas' disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control. PMID:23951018

Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

2013-08-08

111

Identification of Babesia species infecting dogs using reverse line blot hybridization for six canine piroplasms, and evaluation of co-infection by other vector-borne pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canine infection by vector-borne hemoparasites is frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where exposure to hematophageous ectoparasites is intensive. A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was designed to improve the simultaneous detection of all named canine piroplasm species combined with other vector-borne pathogens of dogs including Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum common in the Mediterranean basin. Blood samples of 110 dogs from Spain (n=21), Portugal (n=14) and Israel (n=75) were analyzed. The study evaluated 2 groups of dogs, 49 dogs with piroplasm infection detected by blood smear microscopy from Portugal, Spain and Israel, and 61 dogs surveyed from rural areas in Israel, for which infection status with vector-borne pathogens was unknown. Among the dogs previously diagnosed with piroplasmosis, infection with Babesia canis, Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni and Theileria annae was detected in the Iberian dogs while only B. vogeli was found in Israeli dogs. These differences are attributed to the absence of tick vectors for some piroplasm species such as Dermacentor reticulatus in Israel. Eleven (79%) of the Babesia-positive dogs from Portugal were co-infected with other pathogens including L. infantum, H. canis and E. canis. Eight of 61 (13%) rural Israeli dogs were co-infected with two or more pathogens including B. vogeli, L. infantum, E. canis, and H. canis. Triple infections were demonstrated in 2 dogs. The RLB detection limit for Babesia was 50-fold lower than that of PCR. This study presents a RLB to simultaneously detect and separate the major vector-borne dog pathogens in southern Europe and the Middle East.

Yisaschar-Mekuzas Y; Jaffe CL; Pastor J; Cardoso L; Baneth G

2013-01-01

112

Identification of Babesia species infecting dogs using reverse line blot hybridization for six canine piroplasms, and evaluation of co-infection by other vector-borne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine infection by vector-borne hemoparasites is frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where exposure to hematophageous ectoparasites is intensive. A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was designed to improve the simultaneous detection of all named canine piroplasm species combined with other vector-borne pathogens of dogs including Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum common in the Mediterranean basin. Blood samples of 110 dogs from Spain (n=21), Portugal (n=14) and Israel (n=75) were analyzed. The study evaluated 2 groups of dogs, 49 dogs with piroplasm infection detected by blood smear microscopy from Portugal, Spain and Israel, and 61 dogs surveyed from rural areas in Israel, for which infection status with vector-borne pathogens was unknown. Among the dogs previously diagnosed with piroplasmosis, infection with Babesia canis, Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni and Theileria annae was detected in the Iberian dogs while only B. vogeli was found in Israeli dogs. These differences are attributed to the absence of tick vectors for some piroplasm species such as Dermacentor reticulatus in Israel. Eleven (79%) of the Babesia-positive dogs from Portugal were co-infected with other pathogens including L. infantum, H. canis and E. canis. Eight of 61 (13%) rural Israeli dogs were co-infected with two or more pathogens including B. vogeli, L. infantum, E. canis, and H. canis. Triple infections were demonstrated in 2 dogs. The RLB detection limit for Babesia was 50-fold lower than that of PCR. This study presents a RLB to simultaneously detect and separate the major vector-borne dog pathogens in southern Europe and the Middle East. PMID:23017370

Yisaschar-Mekuzas, Yael; Jaffe, Charles L; Pastor, Josep; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad

2012-09-07

113

Influence of Vectors' Risk-Spreading Strategies and Environmental Stochasticity on the Epidemiology and Evolution of Vector-Borne Diseases: The Example of Chagas' Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M.; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Gourbiere, Sebastien; Menu, Frederic

2013-01-01

114

Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of chagas' disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

Pelosse P; Kribs-Zaleta CM; Ginoux M; Rabinovich JE; Gourbière S; Menu F

2013-01-01

115

Integrated mapping of establishment risk for emerging vector-borne infections: a case study of canine leishmaniasis in southwest France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km). Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R(0) map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R(0) is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R(0) model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases.

Hartemink N; Vanwambeke SO; Heesterbeek H; Rogers D; Morley D; Pesson B; Davies C; Mahamdallie S; Ready P

2011-01-01

116

Potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases: a review and proposed research plan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Because of complex interactions of climate variables at the levels of the pathogen, vector, and host, the potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZDs) is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Climate effects on the nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases are especially obscure and have received scant treatment. OBJECTIVE: We described known and potential effects of climate change on VBZDs and proposed specific studies to increase our understanding of these effects. The nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases have received scant treatment and are emphasized in this paper. DATA SOURCES AND SYNTHESIS: We used a review of the existing literature and extrapolations from observations of short-term climate variation to suggest potential impacts of climate change on VBZDs. Using public health priorities on climate change, published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we developed six specific goals for increasing understanding of the interaction between climate and VBZDs and for improving capacity for predicting climate change effects on incidence and distribution of VBZDs. CONCLUSIONS: Climate change may affect the incidence of VBZDs through its effect on four principal characteristics of host and vector populations that relate to pathogen transmission to humans: geographic distribution, population density, prevalence of infection by zoonotic pathogens, and the pathogen load in individual hosts and vectors. These mechanisms may interact with each other and with other factors such as anthropogenic disturbance to produce varying effects on pathogen transmission within host and vector populations and to humans. Because climate change effects on most VBZDs act through wildlife hosts and vectors, understanding these effects will require multidisciplinary teams to conduct and interpret ecosystem-based studies of VBZD pathogens in host and vector populations and to identify the hosts, vectors, and pathogens with the greatest potential to affect human populations under climate change scenarios.

Mills JN; Gage KL; Khan AS

2010-11-01

117

INSECT/ARTHROPOD TRAP  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An insect and/or arthropod trapping device (1) that generates its own attractants of carbon dioxide (CO2), and ammonia through the chemical reaction of adding a weakly acidic liquid (40) such as vinegar (acetic acid) to solids (48) such as baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), with the optional addition of urea and/or lactic acid. The liquids are mixed over a period of days onto the solids to generate CO2 in the vicinity of an insect/arthropod trap having glue boards that trap the insects and arthropods when they alight on the glue board. The attractants can be used with devices that utilize various combinations of other insect attractants and traps such as sound, light, scent, visual, electrical, chemical, sticky surfaces, mesh nets, etc., to further attract and trap or kill insects and/or arthropods.

MASTERS Edwin; MASTERS Jacqueline; KOLLARS Thomas M. Jr.; KOLLARS Peggy G.

118

Insect/arthropod trap  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An insect and/or arthropod trapping device that generates its own attractants of carbon dioxide (CO2), and ammonia through the chemical reaction of adding a weakly acidic liquid such as vinegar (acetic acid) to solids such as baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), with the optional addition of urea and/or lactic acid. The liquids are mixed over a period of days onto the solids to generate CO2 in the vicinity of an insect/arthropod trap having glue boards that trap the insects and arthropods when they alight on the glue board. The attractants can be used with devices that utilize various combinations of other insect attractants and traps such as sound, light, scent, visual, electrical, chemical, sticky surfaces, mesh nets, etc., to further attract and trap or kill insects and/or arthropods.

KOLLARS THOMAS M; MASTERS EDWIN; MASTERS JACQUELINE; KOLLARS PEGGY G; KOLLARS JR. THOMAS M

119

Insect/arthropod trap  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An insect and/or arthropod trapping device that generates its own attractants of carbon dioxide (CO2), and ammonia through the chemical reaction of adding a weakly acidic liquid such as vinegar (acetic acid) to solids such as baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), with the optional addition of urea and/or lactic acid. The liquids are mixed over a period of days onto the solids to generate CO2 in the vicinity of an insect/arthropod trap having glue boards that trap the insects and arthropods when they alight on the glue board. The attractants can be used with devices that utilize various combinations of other insect attractants and traps such as sound, light, scent, visual, electrical, chemical, sticky surfaces, mesh nets, etc., to further attract and trap or kill insects and/or arthropods.

KOLLARS THOMAS M; MASTERS EDWIN; MASTERS JACQUELINE; KOLLARS PEGGY G; KOLLARS JR. THOMAS M

120

Arthropod cuticles in coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An abundance of scorpion cuticles from Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) coals of Yorkshire is described, and other records of arthropod cuticles in coals are reviewed. The absence of cuticles assignable to arthropod groups other than scorpions is thought to be due to preferential preservation of the unique exocuticle of scorpions; it alone is preserved and appears to retain an organic nature. The cuticle is recovered from all the lithotypes of humic bituminous coals although it is most common in coals rich in inertinite macerals. From the present study it is uncertain whether the scorpions were aquatic or terrestrial. The recognition of arthropod cuticle as a coal maceral could aid environmental interpretations. The abundance of arthropod cuticle in the coals studied indicates its potential use in correlation and in determining the thermal maturity of sediments. 37 refs., 1 fig.

Bartram, K.M.; Jeram, A.J.; Selden, P.A.

1987-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

1999-12-01

122

Control of multiple arthropod vector infestations with subolesin/akirin vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health and thus their control is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. Recent results have suggested that subolesin/akirin (SUB/AKR) is good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here we describe the comparative effect of vaccination with SUB, AKR and Q38 and Q41 chimeras containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on tick, mosquitoes and sand flies vector mortality, molting, oviposition and/or fertility. We demonstrated that SUB vaccination had the highest efficacy (E) across all vector species (54-92%), Q41 vaccination had the highest vaccine E in mosquitoes (99%) by reducing female survival and fertility, and Q38 vaccination had the highest effect on reducing mosquito (28%) and sand fly (26%) oviposition. The effect of vaccination on different developmental processes in several important arthropod vectors encourages the development of SUB/AKR universal vaccines for the control of multiple vector infestations and reduction of VBD.

Moreno-Cid JA; Pérez de la Lastra JM; Villar M; Jiménez M; Pinal R; Estrada-Peña A; Molina R; Lucientes J; Gortázar C; de la Fuente J

2013-02-01

123

Insect/arthropod trap  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A disposable insect and/or arthropod trapping device that generates its own attractants of carbon dioxide (CO2), lactic acid and/or ammonia through the chemical reaction of adding a weakly acidic liquid such as vinegar (acetic acid) to solids such as baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), with the optional addition or substitution of urea and/or lactic acid. The liquids are mixed over a period of hours or days onto the solids to generate CO2 in the vicinity of an insect/arthropod trap having an insect-debilitating surface that traps the insects and arthropods when they alight on the surface. The container may have a cylindrical shape with an upper and lower chamber with fly paper attached to the container. The fly paper may be secured to the base and/or top portions of the container, or there may be fly paper like appendages to trap insects attracted by emitted gases.

MASTERS EDWIN; KOLLARS THOMAS M. JR; WOLF DAVID

124

Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and its implications for the global elimination of the major macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis, by applying a novel Bayesian computer simulation procedure to fit a dynamic model of the transmission of this parasitic disease to field data from nine villages with different ecological and geographical characteristics. Baseline lymphatic filariasis microfilarial age-prevalence data from three geographically distinct endemic regions, across which the major vector populations implicated in parasite transmission also differed, were used to fit and calibrate the relevant vector-specific filariasis transmission models. Ensembles of parasite elimination thresholds, generated using the Bayesian fitting procedure, were then examined in order to evaluate site-specific heterogeneity in the values of these thresholds and investigate the ecological factors that may underlie such variability Results We show that parameters of density-dependent functions relating to immunity, parasite establishment, as well as parasite aggregation, varied significantly between the nine different settings, contributing to locally varying filarial elimination thresholds. Parasite elimination thresholds predicted for the settings in which the mosquito vector is anopheline were, however, found to be higher than those in which the mosquito is culicine, substantiating our previous theoretical findings. The results also indicate that the probability that the parasite will be eliminated following six rounds of Mass Drug Administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole decreases markedly but non-linearly as the annual biting rate and parasite reproduction number increases. Conclusions This paper shows that specific ecological conditions in a community can lead to significant local differences in population dynamics and, consequently, elimination threshold estimates for lymphatic filariasis. These findings, and the difficulty of measuring the key local parameters (infection aggregation and acquired immunity) governing differences in transmission thresholds between communities, mean that it is necessary for us to rethink the utility of the current anticipatory approaches for achieving the elimination of filariasis both locally and globally.

Gambhir Manoj; Bockarie Moses; Tisch Daniel; Kazura James; Remais Justin; Spear Robert; Michael Edwin

2010-01-01

125

Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate), representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

van den Berg Henk; Hii Jeffrey; Soares Agnes; Mnzava Abraham; Ameneshewa Birkinesh; Dash Aditya P; Ejov Mikhail; Tan Soo; Matthews Graham; Yadav Rajpal S; Zaim Morteza

2011-01-01

126

NOXIOUS ARTHROPOD CONTROL COMPOSITION AND NOXIOUS ARTHROPOD CONTROL METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A noxious arthropod control composition comprising spirotetramat and at least one sheath blight disease control compound selected from the group (A). Group (A): consisting of flutolanil, pencycuron, furametpyr and validamycin A.

IWATA ATSUSHI; SAKAMOTO EMIKO

127

NOXIOUS ARTHROPOD CONTROL COMPOSITION AND NOXIOUS ARTHROPOD CONTROL METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A noxious arthropod control composition comprising spirotetramat and at least one blast disease control compound selected from the group (A): a group consisting of ferimzone, fthalide, tricyclazole, kasugamycin hydrochloride, azoxystrobin, thiophanate-methyl, diclocymet, fenoxanil, tebufloquin and pyribencarb.

IWATA ATSUSHI; SAKAMOTO EMIKO

128

Arthropod communities in bat guano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data are presented on the taxonomic composition of arthropod fauna of bat guano in 6 limestone caves of southern Thailand, extracted by Berlese's funnel type trap. There were 2 sampling periods: the first from 29 April to 7 May 1996 and the second from 1 to 4 August 1996. Combined samples of bat guano comprised 4,430 individuals of 32 families of the following: 13 orders(2 classes; Arachnida and Hexapoda) Araneae, Acari, Pseudoscorpiones, Collembola, Blattaria, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Psocoptera, Neuroptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. The two orders Acari and Coleoptera were the largest group of all(>50%).More than 80% of the arthropods collected were in the immature stage. Distribution of the arthropod community in bat guano has a regular pattern. There are different families and numbers of arthropods in each cave. The Megachiroptera bats' caves have more families but fewer arthropods than the Microchiroptera bats' caves. Community structure of arthropods in the bat guano comprised guanophages (Uropodidae, Tenebrionidae), scavengers(Blattellidae, Dermestidae),predators (Myrmeleontidae, Carabidae),parasites (Phoridae) and parasitoids (Chalcididae, Bethylidae).

Chaiyathape, K.; Watanasit, S.; Permkam, S.

2001-01-01

129

Methane production in terrestrial arthropods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have screened more than 110 representatives of the different taxa of terrestrial arthropods for methane production in order to obtain additional information about the origins of biogenic methane. Methanogenic bacteria occur in the hindguts of nearly all tropical representatives of millipedes (Diplopoda), cockroaches (Blattaria), termites (Isoptera), and scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae), while such methanogens are absent from 66 other arthropod species investigated. Three types of symbiosis were found: in the first type, the arthropod's hindgut is colonized by free methanogenic bacteria; in the second type, methanogens are closely associated with chitinous structures formed by the host's hindgut; the third type is mediated by intestinal anaerobic protists with intracellular methanogens. Such symbiotic associations are likely to be a characteristic property of the particular taxon. Since these taxa represent many families with thousands of species, the world populations of methane-producing arthropods constitute an enormous biomass. The authors show that arthropod symbionts can contribute substantially to atmospheric methane.

Hackstein, J.H.P.; Stumm, C.K. (Catholic Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1994-06-07

130

Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected over a 12 month interval. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented.

Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

1980-08-01

131

Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected for 12 months. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae, dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented. 15 references, 2 tables.

Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

1981-01-01

132

Use of radioisotopes to elucidate the role of regurgitation for direct transfer of parasites or disease agents between host organisms through arthropod vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the transmission of parasites and disease agents by bloodfeeding arthropods, the hitherto neglected phenomenon of regurgitation is of the greatest importance. It makes possible the direct transfer of ingested blood, together with these disease agents, within the shortest period of time after intake without the interaction of any circulative or transformative processes in the vector. Owing to such direct transmission from host to host, the epidemiology of vector borne diseases (e.g. arbo-viruses or certain protozoan diseases such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniosis or even malaria) is influenced by additional factors. Regurgitative transmission should be considered in programmes of eradication and procedures of quarantine or isolation. We have examined the occurrence of regurgitation in a systematic way with the use of tracer techniques, in combination with other methods. The main arthropods are ticks (especially Ornithodoros moubata Murray), bloodsucking Hemiptera (e.g. Triatoma phyllosoma Burmeister), bloodsucking Muscidae (mainly Stomoxys calcitrans L.) and also mosquitoes. As can be shown with aphid, in which THO was used as a tracer, immediate transmission occurs in stable flies and soft ticks after labelling with 32P and 14C, and it can even be quantified. Also, the output of saliva secreted into and collected from the crop must be regarded as regurgitation rather than salivation. Since it can mix with previously ingested food (blood plus disease agents), this type of regurgitation can also contribute to the transmission of diseases by arthropods. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

1988-01-01

133

Infectious Arthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

134

Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

Bracha Y. Schindler; Alden B. Griffith; Kristina N. Jones

2011-01-01

135

Molecular bases of plant resistance to arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod-resistant crops provide significant ecological and economic benefits to global agriculture. Incompatible interactions involving resistant plants and avirulent pest arthropods are mediated by constitutively produced and arthropod-induced plant proteins and defense allelochemicals synthesized by resistance gene products. Cloning and molecular mapping have identified the Mi-1.2 and Vat arthropod resistance genes as CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat) subfamily NBS-LRR resistance proteins, as well as several resistance gene analogs. Genetic linkage mapping has identified more than 100 plant resistance gene loci and linked molecular markers used in cultivar development. Rice and sorghum arthropod-resistant cultivars and, to a lesser extent, raspberry and wheat cultivars are components of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Nevertheless, arthropod resistance in most food and fiber crops has not been integrated due primarily to the application of synthetic insecticides. Plant and arthropod genomics provide many opportunities to more efficiently develop arthropod-resistant plants, but integration of resistant cultivars into IPM programs will succeed only through interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:21910639

Smith, C Michael; Clement, Stephen L

2011-09-09

136

Molecular bases of plant resistance to arthropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropod-resistant crops provide significant ecological and economic benefits to global agriculture. Incompatible interactions involving resistant plants and avirulent pest arthropods are mediated by constitutively produced and arthropod-induced plant proteins and defense allelochemicals synthesized by resistance gene products. Cloning and molecular mapping have identified the Mi-1.2 and Vat arthropod resistance genes as CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat) subfamily NBS-LRR resistance proteins, as well as several resistance gene analogs. Genetic linkage mapping has identified more than 100 plant resistance gene loci and linked molecular markers used in cultivar development. Rice and sorghum arthropod-resistant cultivars and, to a lesser extent, raspberry and wheat cultivars are components of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Nevertheless, arthropod resistance in most food and fiber crops has not been integrated due primarily to the application of synthetic insecticides. Plant and arthropod genomics provide many opportunities to more efficiently develop arthropod-resistant plants, but integration of resistant cultivars into IPM programs will succeed only through interdisciplinary collaboration.

Smith CM; Clement SL

2012-01-01

137

Analyzing arthropods for the presence of bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacteria within arthropods can be identified using culture-independent methods. This unit describes protocols for surface sterilization of arthropods, DNA extraction of whole bodies and tissues, touchdown PCR amplification using 16S rDNA general bacteria primers, and profiling the bacterial community using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

Andrews ES

2013-02-01

138

Infectious neuropathies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infectious neuropathies are heterogeneous neuropathies with multiple causes. They still represent an important world health burden and some of them have no current available therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Leprosy incidence has decreased by 50% during the last years, but leprosy-related neuropathies still cause severe disability. The pure neuritic leprosy is a diagnostic challenge that may require nerve biopsy or nerve aspiration cytology. The treatment itself may lead to a 'reversal reaction', which further causes injuries to the nerve. HCV-related neuropathies may be related or not to the presence of cryoglobulins. The absence of vasculitis, the most frequent form is a peripheral sensory neuropathy involving small nerve fibers, and more accurately diagnosed by pain-related evoked potentials. HIV-related neuropathy has become the major neurological complication of HIV infection. Both HIV-induced neuropathy and antiretroviral toxic neuropathy are clinically indistinguishable. The existence of an isolated chronic polyneuropathy due to Borrelia burgdorferi remains highly controversial. Lastly, an active infectious ganglioneuritis caused by varicella zoster virus, producing shingles, is the most frequent infectious neuropathy in the world and may cause various neurological complications. Zoster sine herpete remains frequently undiagnosed. SUMMARY: Recent data have improved our knowledge and diagnostic tools of infectious neuropathies. Treatment of the injured nerves is not yet available, and prevention and rapid diagnosis remain the main priorities for the clinician.

Sindic CJ

2013-10-01

139

Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Declines in species diversity resulting from anthropogenic alterations of the environment heighten the need to develop management strategies that conserve species and ecosystem services. This study examined how native plant species and their diversity influence the abundance and richness of beneficial arthropods, a functionally important group that provides ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest suppression. Beneficial arthropods were sampled in replicated study plots containing native perennials planted in one-, two-, and seven-species mixtures. We found plant diversity had a positive impact on arthropod richness but not on arthropod abundance. An analysis of arthropod community composition revealed that each flower species attracted a different assemblage of beneficial arthropods. In addition, the full seven-species mixture also attracted a distinct arthropod community compared to single-species monocultures. Using a multivariate approach, we determined whether arthropod assemblages in two- and seven-species plots were additive and could be predicted based on assemblages from their component single-species plots. On average, assemblages in diverse plots were nonadditive when compared to assemblages predicted using single-species plots. Arthropod assemblages in two-species plots most closely resembled those of only one of the flower species in the mixture. However, the arthropod assemblages in seven-species plots, although statistically deviating from the expectation of an additive model, more closely resembled predicted communities compared to the assemblages found in two-species plots, suggesting that variability in arthropod community composition decreased as planting diversity increased. Our study demonstrates that careful selection of plants in managed landscapes can augment beneficial arthropod richness and support a more predictable arthropod community, suggesting that planning and design efforts could shape arthropod assemblages in natural as well as managed landscapes to meet targeted conservation or management goals.

Bennett AB; Gratton C

2013-01-01

140

Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

Joseph R. Coelho

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

Rosemary A. McFarlane; Adrian C. Sleigh; Anthony J. McMichael

2013-01-01

142

Evolutionary history and diversity of arthropod hemocyanins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemocyanins are copper-containing, multi-subunit proteins that transport oxygen in the hemolymph of many molluscs and arthropods [Markl and Decher, Adv. Comp. Environ. Physiol. 13 (1992) 325; 15563]. Arthropod hemocyanins originated more than 550 million years ago from oxygen-consuming phenoloxidases. Hemocyanins are present in various Onychophora, Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Hexapoda, but subunit evolution differs striking in these arthropod subphyla. Hemocyanins also gave rise to non-respiratory proteins (crustacean pseudo-hemocyanins, insect hexamerins, and hexamerin receptors), which most likely have storage functions.

Burmester T

2004-01-01

143

The accuracy of the National Equine Database in relation to vector-borne disease risk modelling of horses in Great Britain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: The National Equine Database (NED) contains information on the size and distribution of the horse population, but the data quality remains unknown. These data could assist with surveillance, research and contingency planning for equine infectious disease outbreaks. OBJECTIVES: 1) To assess the extent of obsolete and missing data from NED, 2) evaluate the extent of spatial separation between horse and owner location and 3) identify relationships between spatial separation and land use. METHODS: Two questionnaires were used to assess data accuracy in NED utilising local authority passport inspections and distribution of questionnaires to 11,000 horse owners. A subset of 1010 questionnaires was used to assess horse-owner geographic separation. RESULTS: During 2005-2010, 17,048 passports were checked through local authority inspections. Of these, 1558 passports (9.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7-9.5%) were noncompliant, with 963 (5.6%; 95% CI 5.3-6.0%) containing inaccurate information and 595 (3.5%; 95% CI 3.2-3.8%) classified as missing. Of 1382 questionnaires completed by horse owners, 380 passports were obsolete (27.5%; 95% CI 25.2-29.9%), with 162 (11.7%; 95% CI 10.0-13.4%) being retained for deceased horses and 218 (15.8%; 95% CI 13.9-17.7%) having incorrect ownership details. Fifty-three per cent (95% CI 49.9-56.1%) of owners kept their horse(s) at home and 92% (95% CI 90.3-93.7%) of horses resided within 10?km of their owners. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Data from a small sample survey suggest the majority of data on NED are accurate but a proportion of inaccuracies exist that may cause delay in locating horses and contacting owners during a disease outbreak. The probability that horses are located in the same postcode sector as the owner's home address is larger in rural areas. Appropriate adjustment for population size, horse-owner spatial separation and land usage would facilitate meaningful use of the national horse population derived from NED for risk modelling of incursions of equine diseases into Great Britain.

Robin CA; Lo Iacono G; Gubbins S; Wood JL; Newton JR

2013-05-01

144

Arthropods (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255) is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al.), conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems) and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc.) and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc.) on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

arthropods@iaees.org

145

Infectious myelitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections are an uncommon but very important etiology of myelitis as a correct diagnosis would allow for timely treatment and recovery. The term "myelitis" is generally used to describe an inflammatory pathologic process affecting the spinal cord and causing an interruption of the ascending and descending pathways, and, therefore, partial or complete loss of function. The onset may be acute or subacute, and the etiology may be cumbersome to determine. This article will review the most recently published literature regarding the infectious agents causing myelitis with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22927022

Mihai, Cornelia; Jubelt, Burk

2012-12-01

146

Cambrian bivalved arthropod reveals origin of arthrodization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extant arthropods are diverse and ubiquitous, forming a major constituent of most modern ecosystems. Evidence from early Palaeozoic Konservat Lagerstätten indicates that this has been the case since the Cambrian. Despite this, the details of arthropod origins remain obscure, although most hypotheses regard the first arthropods as benthic predators or scavengers such as the fuxianhuiids or megacheirans ('great-appendage' arthropods). Here, we describe a new arthropod from the Tulip Beds locality of the Burgess Shale Formation (Cambrian, series 3, stage 5) that possesses a weakly sclerotized thorax with filamentous appendages, encased in a bivalved carapace, and a strongly sclerotized, elongate abdomen and telson. A cladistic analysis resolved this taxon as the basal-most member of a paraphyletic grade of nekto-benthic forms with bivalved carapaces. This grade occurs at the base of Arthropoda (panarthropods with arthropodized trunk limbs) and suggests that arthrodization (sclerotization and jointing of the exoskeleton) evolved to facilitate swimming. Predatory and fully benthic habits evolved later in the euarthropod stem-lineage and are plesiomorphically retained in pycnogonids (sea spiders) and euchelicerates (horseshoe crabs and arachnids). PMID:23055069

Legg, David A; Sutton, Mark D; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Caron, Jean-Bernard

2012-10-10

147

Cambrian bivalved arthropod reveals origin of arthrodization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extant arthropods are diverse and ubiquitous, forming a major constituent of most modern ecosystems. Evidence from early Palaeozoic Konservat Lagerstätten indicates that this has been the case since the Cambrian. Despite this, the details of arthropod origins remain obscure, although most hypotheses regard the first arthropods as benthic predators or scavengers such as the fuxianhuiids or megacheirans ('great-appendage' arthropods). Here, we describe a new arthropod from the Tulip Beds locality of the Burgess Shale Formation (Cambrian, series 3, stage 5) that possesses a weakly sclerotized thorax with filamentous appendages, encased in a bivalved carapace, and a strongly sclerotized, elongate abdomen and telson. A cladistic analysis resolved this taxon as the basal-most member of a paraphyletic grade of nekto-benthic forms with bivalved carapaces. This grade occurs at the base of Arthropoda (panarthropods with arthropodized trunk limbs) and suggests that arthrodization (sclerotization and jointing of the exoskeleton) evolved to facilitate swimming. Predatory and fully benthic habits evolved later in the euarthropod stem-lineage and are plesiomorphically retained in pycnogonids (sea spiders) and euchelicerates (horseshoe crabs and arachnids).

Legg DA; Sutton MD; Edgecombe GD; Caron JB

2012-12-01

148

Advanced megaesophagus (Group III) secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant/ Lactente de um ano e oito meses de idade com megaesôfago (Grupo III) por doença de Chagas adquirida vetorialmente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam um caso de lactente com megaesôfago do Grupo III por doença de Chagas vetorialmente adquirida, responsável por acentuada desnutrição, da qual se recuperou com a cirurgia de Heller. Submetida em seguida a tratamento da infecção chagásica com benzonidazol, logrou cura, parasito e sorologicamente demonstrada. Seguiram-se anos sem qualquer incidente, com desenvolvimento pondo-estatural normal. Teve seu primeiro filho aos 23 anos, em quem as provas s (more) orológicas para doença de Chagas resultaram negativas. Decorridos 30 anos após o atendimento inicial, continuava com eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma e/ou exame radiológico do coração normais. Abstract in english The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III) megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique). The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, (more) the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

Rassi, Anis; Rezende, Joffre Marcondes de; Rassi Junior, Anis

2012-04-01

149

Key to marine arthropod larvae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

John A. Fornshell

2012-01-01

150

Fight against infectious disease =: ???? : ?????.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

??? Dean's message 2 , ?????? Infectious diseases in Hong Kong 4 , ??????? The Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong 5 , ??????? Research in infectious diseases , ???????? Local and international collaborations 40 , ?????? Emerging infectious diseases 6 , ??????? Respiratory infections 18 , ?? Hepatitis 22 , ?...

151

Simulation of arthropod abundance from plant composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between arthropod abundance and plant composition is extremely complex. It is very hard to develop a mechanistic model to describe the relationship. This study aimed to simulate arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland using an artificial neural network developed by the author, and to compare simulation performances between the neural network and conventional models. The results revealed that there were complex interactions between plants and arthropods, and the arthropod abundance on grassland was significantly determined of plant families and their cover-degrees rather than plant species and their cover-degrees. Neural network exhibited a better simulation performance than multivariate regression and response surface model. Cross validation indicated that prediction performance of neural network was also superior to these models. It was concluded that neural network is an effective tool to model arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland. A moderate dimensionality for input space may be determined to produce a reasonably trained neural network. Such procedures for dimensionality reduction as PCE, etc., were suggested being used in the data treatment in neural network modeling. A high dimensionality for input space and a few samples in the input set would result in the deficient learning of neural network. Randomization procedure for sample submission would help to eliminate the sequence correlation but may result in a worse performance in simulation and prediction. It was suggested that randomization procedure could be used to the sample submission for these situations with a lot of samples and a lower dimensionality.

WenJun Zhang

2011-01-01

152

Reevaluating the arthropod tree of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropods are the most diverse group of animals and have been so since the Cambrian radiation. They belong to the protostome clade Ecdysozoa, with Onychophora (velvet worms) as their most likely sister group and tardigrades (water bears) the next closest relative. The arthropod tree of life can be interpreted as a five-taxon network, containing Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Hexapoda, the last two forming the clade Tetraconata or Pancrustacea. The unrooted relationship of Tetraconata to the three other lineages is well established, but of three possible rooting positions the Mandibulata hypothesis receives the most support. Novel approaches to studying anatomy with noninvasive three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, the application of these techniques to new and old fossils, and the so-called next-generation sequencing techniques are at the forefront of understanding arthropod relationships. Cambrian fossils assigned to the arthropod stem group inform on the origin of arthropod characters from a lobopodian ancestry. Monophyly of Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Tetraconata, and Hexapoda is well supported, but the interrelationships of arachnid orders and the details of crustacean paraphyly with respect to Hexapoda remain the major unsolved phylogenetic problems.

Giribet G; Edgecombe GD

2012-01-01

153

Landscape epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Landscape epidemiology describes how the temporal dynamics of host, vector, and pathogen populations interact spatially within a permissive environment to enable transmission. The spatially defined focus, or nidus, of transmission may be characterized by vegetation as well as by climate, latitude, elevation, and geology. The ecological complexity, dimensions, and temporal stability of the nidus are determined largely by pathogen natural history and vector bionomics. Host populations, transmission efficiency, and therefore pathogen amplification vary spatially, thereby creating a heterogeneous surface that may be defined by remote sensing and statistical tools. The current review describes the evolution of landscape epidemiology as a science and exemplifies selected aspects by contrasting the ecology of two different recent disease outbreaks in North America caused by West Nile virus, an explosive, highly virulent mosquito-borne virus producing ephemeral nidi, and Borrelia burgdorferi, a slowly amplifying chronic pathogen producing semipermanent nidi. PMID:19737082

Reisen, William K

2010-01-01

154

Landscape epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Landscape epidemiology describes how the temporal dynamics of host, vector, and pathogen populations interact spatially within a permissive environment to enable transmission. The spatially defined focus, or nidus, of transmission may be characterized by vegetation as well as by climate, latitude, elevation, and geology. The ecological complexity, dimensions, and temporal stability of the nidus are determined largely by pathogen natural history and vector bionomics. Host populations, transmission efficiency, and therefore pathogen amplification vary spatially, thereby creating a heterogeneous surface that may be defined by remote sensing and statistical tools. The current review describes the evolution of landscape epidemiology as a science and exemplifies selected aspects by contrasting the ecology of two different recent disease outbreaks in North America caused by West Nile virus, an explosive, highly virulent mosquito-borne virus producing ephemeral nidi, and Borrelia burgdorferi, a slowly amplifying chronic pathogen producing semipermanent nidi.

Reisen WK

2010-01-01

155

COMPOSITION FOR PREVENTING/CONTROLLING HARMFUL ARTHROPODS AND METHOD FOR PREVENTING/CONTROLLING HARMFUL ARTHROPODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The disclosed composition for preventing/controlling harmful arthropods contains: flonicamid tricyclazole and at least one type of compound for preventing/controlling plant diseases that is selected from the group consisting of flutolanil, pencycuron, and kasugamycin.

SAKAMOTO NORIHISA; SAKAMOTO EMIKO

156

Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne) disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4). The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected host and then feeds on a person who is uninfected. There is no vaccine or cure for dengue fever. Dengue fever is a growing cause for concern in The Bahamas. This year the incidence of dengue fever reached epidemic proportions in The Bahamas. This article will explore the etiology and epidemiology of dengue fever, and offer some insight into how future the Bahamas can begin to develop strategies for the eradication of dengue fever.

Bain, Sherrie Valarie

2011-01-01

157

Trilobites and the origin of arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the question of whether the Arthropoda represent more than one phylum of animals is debatable, the jointed exoskeleton, a fundamental feature of arthropods, evolved independently in two groups that shared a worm-like common ancestor. The two major branches of Arthropoda, the primitively marine TCC and the primitively terrestrial (with one exception) Uniramia, independently arrived at arthropodization as the solution to the same problems of adaptation of the body mechanical system. New discoveries on trilobite anatomy show the unity of TCC as a group that shared a trilobite-like ancestor near the beginning of the Cambrian. With change in the constituency of Arthropoda through geologic time, the ways in which it would be categorized as a taxonomic group have also changed. The seeming isolation of the major modern arthropod groups is in large part an artifact of extinction of primitive intermediate forms such as trilobites which, in the Early Paleozoic, made the Arthropoda more diverse in basic modes of body organization than the group is at present. The appearance of fossilizable hard parts in arthropods resulted from shift in supporting function from the body cavity, primitively a hydrostatic skeleton, to the cuticle, which came to be strengthened in becoming an exoskeleton. Energetic efficiency, more than protection from predators or evolutionary size increase in itself, was probably the impetus behind the transition. On the scale provided by the general evolutionary trend toward progressive specialization of segments, TCC became arthropodized at earlier stages than did Uniramia. Among TCC, the shift may have been driven by the evolution of locomotory and feeding mechanisms that were exclusively geared to an aqueous medium. PMID:17818086

Cisne, J L

1974-10-01

158

Trilobites and the origin of arthropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the question of whether the Arthropoda represent more than one phylum of animals is debatable, the jointed exoskeleton, a fundamental feature of arthropods, evolved independently in two groups that shared a worm-like common ancestor. The two major branches of Arthropoda, the primitively marine TCC and the primitively terrestrial (with one exception) Uniramia, independently arrived at arthropodization as the solution to the same problems of adaptation of the body mechanical system. New discoveries on trilobite anatomy show the unity of TCC as a group that shared a trilobite-like ancestor near the beginning of the Cambrian. With change in the constituency of Arthropoda through geologic time, the ways in which it would be categorized as a taxonomic group have also changed. The seeming isolation of the major modern arthropod groups is in large part an artifact of extinction of primitive intermediate forms such as trilobites which, in the Early Paleozoic, made the Arthropoda more diverse in basic modes of body organization than the group is at present. The appearance of fossilizable hard parts in arthropods resulted from shift in supporting function from the body cavity, primitively a hydrostatic skeleton, to the cuticle, which came to be strengthened in becoming an exoskeleton. Energetic efficiency, more than protection from predators or evolutionary size increase in itself, was probably the impetus behind the transition. On the scale provided by the general evolutionary trend toward progressive specialization of segments, TCC became arthropodized at earlier stages than did Uniramia. Among TCC, the shift may have been driven by the evolution of locomotory and feeding mechanisms that were exclusively geared to an aqueous medium.

Cisne JL

1974-10-01

159

Climate change and infectious diseases of wildlife: Altered interactions between pathogens, vectors and hosts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host, pathogens, and, in the case of vector-borne diseases, also vectors. The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions. Environmental change, therefore, will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and, consequently, the distribution, intensity, and dynamics of infectious diseases. Here, we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution, life cycle, and physiological status of hosts, pathogens and vectors. While a change in either host, pathogen or vector does not necessarily translate into an alteration of the disease, it is the impact of climate change on the interactions between the disease components which is particularly critical for altered disease risks. Finally, climate factors can modulate disease through modifying the ecological networks host-pathogen-vector systems are belonging to, and climate change can combine with other environmental stressors to induce cumulative effects on infectious diseases. Overall, the influence of climate change on infectious diseases involves different mechanisms, it can be modulated by phenotypic acclimation and/or genotypic adaptation, it depends on the ecological context of the host-pathogen-vector interactions, and it can be modulated by impacts of other stressors. As a consequence of this complexity, non-linear responses of disease systems under climate change are to be expected. To improve predictions on climate change impacts on infectious disease, we suggest that more emphasis should be given to the integration of biomedical and ecological research for studying both the physiological and ecological mechanisms which mediate climate change impacts on disease, and to the development of harmonized methods and approaches to obtain more comparable results, as this would support the discrimination of case-specific versus general mechanisms [Current Zoology 59 (3): 427–437, 2013].

Milena GALLANA, Marie-Pierre RYSER-DEGIORGIS, Thomas WAHLI, Helmut SEGNER

2013-01-01

160

Non-Infectious Meningitis  

Science.gov (United States)

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Non-Infectious Meningitis On This Page Causes Transmission Signs & Symptoms Causes Non–infectious meningitis causes include Cancers Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) Certain ...

 
 
 
 
161

Middle cambrian arthropod embryos with blastomeres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A phosphatized Middle Cambrian ( approximately 510 million years ago) fauna from Duyun, southern China, has yielded fossil embryos that may be of arthropod affinity and could belong to the co-occurring eodiscid trilobite Pagetia sp. The shell was most likely flexible and possessed at least two thin layers. Four embryos reveal blastomeres, and two embryonic stages are represented. These embryos demonstrate that the basic paradigm for the growth of the invertebrate embryo has not changed in more than half a billion years.

Zhang XG; Pratt BR

1994-10-01

162

Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The occurrence of arthropods in amber exclusively from the Cretaceous and Cenozoic is widely regarded to be a result of the production and preservation of large amounts of tree resin beginning ca. 130 million years (Ma) ago. Abundant 230 million-year-old amber from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of northeastern Italy has previously yielded myriad microorganisms, but we report here that it also preserves arthropods some 100 Ma older than the earliest prior records in amber. The Triassic specimens are a nematoceran fly (Diptera) and two disparate species of mites, Triasacarus fedelei gen. et sp. nov., and Ampezzoa triassica gen. et sp. nov. These mites are the oldest definitive fossils of a group, the Eriophyoidea, which includes the gall mites and comprises at least 3,500 Recent species, 97% of which feed on angiosperms and represents one of the most specialized lineages of phytophagous arthropods. Antiquity of the gall mites in much their extant form was unexpected, particularly with the Triassic species already having many of their present-day features (such as only two pairs of legs); further, it establishes conifer feeding as an ancestral trait. Feeding by the fossil mites may have contributed to the formation of the amber droplets, but we find that the abundance of amber during the Carnian (ca. 230 Ma) is globally anomalous for the pre-Cretaceous and may, alternatively, be related to paleoclimate. Further recovery of arthropods in Carnian-aged amber is promising and will have profound implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial members of the most diverse phylum of organisms.

Schmidt AR; Jancke S; Lindquist EE; Ragazzi E; Roghi G; Nascimbene PC; Schmidt K; Wappler T; Grimaldi DA

2012-09-01

163

Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of arthropods in amber exclusively from the Cretaceous and Cenozoic is widely regarded to be a result of the production and preservation of large amounts of tree resin beginning ca. 130 million years (Ma) ago. Abundant 230 million-year-old amber from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of northeastern Italy has previously yielded myriad microorganisms, but we report here that it also preserves arthropods some 100 Ma older than the earliest prior records in amber. The Triassic specimens are a nematoceran fly (Diptera) and two disparate species of mites, Triasacarus fedelei gen. et sp. nov., and Ampezzoa triassica gen. et sp. nov. These mites are the oldest definitive fossils of a group, the Eriophyoidea, which includes the gall mites and comprises at least 3,500 Recent species, 97% of which feed on angiosperms and represents one of the most specialized lineages of phytophagous arthropods. Antiquity of the gall mites in much their extant form was unexpected, particularly with the Triassic species already having many of their present-day features (such as only two pairs of legs); further, it establishes conifer feeding as an ancestral trait. Feeding by the fossil mites may have contributed to the formation of the amber droplets, but we find that the abundance of amber during the Carnian (ca. 230 Ma) is globally anomalous for the pre-Cretaceous and may, alternatively, be related to paleoclimate. Further recovery of arthropods in Carnian-aged amber is promising and will have profound implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial members of the most diverse phylum of organisms. PMID:22927387

Schmidt, Alexander R; Jancke, Saskia; Lindquist, Evert E; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Roghi, Guido; Nascimbene, Paul C; Schmidt, Kerstin; Wappler, Torsten; Grimaldi, David A

2012-08-27

164

COMPOSITION FOR PREVENTING/CONTROLLING HARMFUL ARTHROPODS AND METHOD FOR PREVENTING/CONTROLLING HARMFUL ARTHROPODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The disclosed composition for preventing/controlling harmful arthropods contains flonicamid, at least one type of compound for controlling the growth of insects that is selected from Group (A) consisting of methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and chromafenozide, and at least one type of compound for preventing/controlling sheath blight selected from Group (B) consisting of flutolanil, pencycuron, N-[2-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)phenyl]-5-fluoro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide, furametpyr, and validamycin A, and has an excellent effect of preventing/controlling harmful arthropods.

SAKAMOTO NORIHISA; SAKAMOTO EMIKO

165

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in §...

2009-07-01

166

Middle cambrian arthropod embryos with blastomeres.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phosphatized Middle Cambrian ( approximately 510 million years ago) fauna from Duyun, southern China, has yielded fossil embryos that may be of arthropod affinity and could belong to the co-occurring eodiscid trilobite Pagetia sp. The shell was most likely flexible and possessed at least two thin layers. Four embryos reveal blastomeres, and two embryonic stages are represented. These embryos demonstrate that the basic paradigm for the growth of the invertebrate embryo has not changed in more than half a billion years. PMID:17793458

Zhang, X G; Pratt, B R

1994-10-28

167

Ecophysiology of Desert Arthropods and Reptiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second book of a Springer series on the adaptations of desert organisms (the first was R.T. Wilson's Ecophysiology of the Camelidal! and Desert Ruminants in 1989). It is entirely appropriate to deal with arthropods and reptiles together: both are in a sense pre-adapted to desert living because they possess relatively waterproof integuments, excrete insoluble nitrogenous waste, are ectotherms with low metabolic rates, and are small enough to escape from enviromnental extremes. Both groups are highly successful in deserts throughout the world, and desert lizards in particular have had a major influence on the discipline of ecophysiology.

Sue Nicolson

2012-01-01

168

Transgenic arthropods for pest management programs: risks and realities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to genetically engineer arthropods using recombinant DNA methods opens new opportunities for improving pest management programs but also creates new responsibilities, including evaluation of the potential risks of releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment. It is now becoming easier to transform diverse species of arthropods by a variety of recombinant DNA methods. Useful genes and genetic regulatory elements are being identified for pest arthropods, but less effort is being expended to identify genes that could improve the efficacy of beneficial arthropods. A transgenic strain of the natural enemy Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was developed using a method termed maternal microinjection. This transgenic strain was released into an experimental site on the campus of the University of Florida in 1996 after extensive reviews by the University of Florida Biosafety Committee, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The short term releases established a precedent for releasing a transgenic arthropod but, at present, no guidelines are available that would allow transgenic arthropods to be released permanently into the environment. Several scientific, environmental, and policy issues must be resolved before transgenic pests or beneficial arthropods can be deployed in practical pest management programs.

Hoy MA

2000-01-01

169

Selenium hyperaccumulation reduces plant arthropod loads in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

The elemental defense hypothesis proposes that some plants hyperaccumulate toxic elements as a defense mechanism. In this study the effectiveness of selenium (Se) as an arthropod deterrent was investigated under field conditions. Arthropod loads were measured over two growing seasons in Se hyperaccumulator habitats in Colorado, USA, comparing Se hyperaccumulator species (Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata) with nonhyperaccumulators (Camelina microcarpa, Astragalus americanus, Descurainia pinnata, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus pumilus). The Se hyperaccumulating plant species, which contained 1000-14 000 microg Se g(-1) DW, harbored significantly fewer arthropods (c. twofold) and fewer arthropod species (c. 1.5-fold) compared with nonhyperaccumulator species that contained 10-fold lower Se concentrations than their hyperaccumulator hosts. Several arthropod species contained > 100 microg Se g(-1) DW, indicating Se tolerance and perhaps feeding specialization. These results support the elemental defense hypothesis and suggest that invertebrate herbivory may have contributed to the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation. PMID:18028291

Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Bennett, Lindsay E; Freeman, John L; Kondratieff, Boris C; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2007-11-17

170

Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each.

Warrant E; Dacke M

2010-01-01

171

Soil arthropods as test organisms for ecotoxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of arthropods - organisms which usually grow in masses - for soil biology depends on their capacity to participate in the continuous transformation of organic substances within the relevant biocenosis and thus to take part in the maintenance of the ecological balance. In ecotoxicology, i.e. the science of substances having a detrimental effect on the natural balance of ecosystems, we try to find ways to evaluate risk of substances hazardous to the environment. In principle, biocenoses would offer themselves in their entirety as appropriate test objects for ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals. Since it will not yet be possible in the near future to carry out this kind of studies, individual organisms proved as representatives of terrestial biotopes have to be chosen for these purposes. Primarily, Collembola, Coleoptera, and Diptera (larvae) are part of the meso- and macrofauna of soil arthropods or soil insects according to the experience made up to now in respect of their importance for soil biology. Representatives of such organisms should be used to develop test procedures to indicate damage even of a subacute, chronic nature or the impairment of their functional performance the maintance of which is a prerequisite for the ecological balance.

Iglisch, I.

1981-02-01

172

Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

173

COMPOSITION FOR CONTROLLING HARMFUL ARTHROPODS AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING HARMFUL ARTHROPODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition for controlling harmful arthropods which comprises flonicamid, one or more kinds of plant hopper-controlling compounds selected from group (A), and one or more kinds of rice blast-controlling compounds selected from group (B). group (A): a group consisting of clothianidin, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil and pymetrozine and group (B): a group consisting of isotianil, probenazole, tiadinil, tricyclazole, pyroquilone, thiophanate methyl, orysastrobin and azoxystrobin.

SAKAMOTO NORIHISA; SAKAMOTO EMIKO

174

Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release.

Zangerl AR; Miresmailli S; Nabity P; Lawrance A; Yanahan A; Mitchell CA; Anderson-Teixeira KJ; David MB; Berenbaum MR; DeLucia EH

2013-10-01

175

Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

2006-01-01

176

The immune role of the arthropod exoskeleton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The exoskeleton or cuticle of arthropods is an important feature that contributes to their great success in colonising numerous habitats on earth. It has numerous functions among which to provide protection against parasites. Whereas often regarded as a simple physical barrier to the outside world, the immune protection of the cuticle is slightly more complex than that. Here, we provide an overview of the cuticle defensive traits against parasites and examine their variation as a response to parasitism. It appears that the cuticle is an efficient line of defense, which includes physical, biochemical and physiological defensive components that are potentially subject to genetic and plastic variation in response to parasitism. It also appears that the cuticle defense systems are relatively understudied despite it may determine for large part the success of parasitic attacks.

Y Moret; J Moreau

2012-01-01

177

An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration.

Bennie NA; Loaring CD; Bennie MM; Trim SA

2012-12-01

178

An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration. PMID:22996446

Bennie, Neil A C; Loaring, Christopher D; Bennie, Mikaella M G; Trim, Steven A

2012-09-20

179

Ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in arthropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs) from endocrine Inka cells initiate the ecdysis sequence through action on central neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHR) in model moth and dipteran species. We used various biochemical, molecular and BLAST search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology searches, we identified ETHs in a variety of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Most insects produce two related ETHs, but only a single active peptide was isolated from the cricket and one peptide is encoded by the eth gene of the honeybee, parasitic wasp and aphid. Immunohistochemical staining with antiserum to Manduca PETH revealed Inka cells on tracheal surface of diverse insects. In spite of conserved ETH sequences, comparison of natural and the ETH-induced ecdysis sequence in the honeybee and beetle revealed considerable species-specific differences in pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. DNA sequences coding for putative ETHR were deduced from available genomes of several hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. In all insects examined, the ethr gene encodes two subtypes of the receptor (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these receptors fall into a family of closely related GPCRs. We report for the first time the presence of putative ETHs and ETHRs in genomes of other arthropods, including the tick (Arachnida) and water flea (Crustacea). The possible source of ETH in ticks was detected in paired cells located in all pedal segments. Our results provide further evidence of structural and functional conservation of ETH-ETHR signaling.

Roller L; Zitnanová I; Dai L; Simo L; Park Y; Satake H; Tanaka Y; Adams ME; Zitnan D

2010-03-01

180

Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000): 522-528

Ravindra K Jadhav; Rashmi Rekha Kumari; Javed Jameel; Pankaj Kumar

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range (more) of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects), and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.

Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Bruna, Emilio M.

2012-12-01

182

Selenium hyperaccumulation reduces plant arthropod loads in the field.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The elemental defense hypothesis proposes that some plants hyperaccumulate toxic elements as a defense mechanism. In this study the effectiveness of selenium (Se) as an arthropod deterrent was investigated under field conditions. Arthropod loads were measured over two growing seasons in Se hyperaccumulator habitats in Colorado, USA, comparing Se hyperaccumulator species (Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata) with nonhyperaccumulators (Camelina microcarpa, Astragalus americanus, Descurainia pinnata, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus pumilus). The Se hyperaccumulating plant species, which contained 1000-14 000 microg Se g(-1) DW, harbored significantly fewer arthropods (c. twofold) and fewer arthropod species (c. 1.5-fold) compared with nonhyperaccumulator species that contained < 30 microg Se g(-1) DW. Arthropods collected on Se-hyperaccumulating plants contained three- to 10-fold higher Se concentrations than those found on nonhyperaccumulating species, but > 10-fold lower Se concentrations than their hyperaccumulator hosts. Several arthropod species contained > 100 microg Se g(-1) DW, indicating Se tolerance and perhaps feeding specialization. These results support the elemental defense hypothesis and suggest that invertebrate herbivory may have contributed to the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation.

Galeas ML; Klamper EM; Bennett LE; Freeman JL; Kondratieff BC; Quinn CF; Pilon-Smits EA

2008-01-01

183

One-step PCR amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new PCR primer set which enables one-step amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes was designed from two conserved 16S rDNA regions for the long PCR technique. For this purpose, partial 16S rDNAs amplified with universal primers 16SA and 16SB were newly sequenced from six representative arthropods: Armadillidium vulgare and Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea), Anopheles sinensis (Insecta), Lithobius forficatus and Megaphyllum sp. (Myriapoda), and Limulus polyphemus (Chelicerata). The genomic locations of two new primers, HPK16Saa and HPK16Sbb, correspond to positions 13314-13345 and 12951-12984, respectively, in the Drosophila yakuba mitochondrial genome. The usefulness of the primer set was experimentally examined and confirmed with five of the representative arthropods, except for A. vulgare, which has a linearized mitochondrial genome. With this set, therefore, we could easily and rapidly amplify complete mitochondrial genomes with small amounts of arthropod DNA. Although the primers suggested here were examined only with arthropod groups, a possibility of successful application to other invertebrates is very high, since the high degree of sequence conservation is shown on the primer sites in other invertebrates. Thus, this primer set can serve various research fields, such as molecular evolution, population genetics, and molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences, RFLP, and gene rearrangement of mitochondrial genomes in arthropods and other invertebrates. PMID:11399145

Hwang, U W; Park, C J; Yong, T S; Kim, W

2001-06-01

184

Sarotrocercus oblitus - Small arthropod with great impact on the understanding of arthropod evolution?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sarotrocercus oblitus is a small arthropod from the Cambrian Burgess Shale. It was originally described with a short head with only two appendage-bearing segments (the first appendage being limb-shaped), a short trunk of nine segments and lamellate trunk limbs. This rather “unusual” morphology inspired various authors to propose evolutionary scenarios concerning segmentation and appendages. The head of S. oblitus served also for scenarios about the evolution of the arthropod head, because it seemed to document the evolutionary step between the level of Arthropoda sensu stricto (head with one appendage-bearing segment) and that of Euarthropoda (head comprising four appendage-bearing segments). Here we report that the morphology of S. oblitus differs in several significant aspects from its original description, e.g., in the composition of the head, number of trunk segments, and appendage morphology. In consequence, many earlier assumptions based on the original description must be rejected. Although the material consists of only seven individuals, ontogenetic variation of the number of trunk segments was observed, pointing to, at least, two developmental stages. Therefore, S. oblitus is morphologically less different from other Cambrian arthropods than previously thought, but possesses a head with three appendage-bearing segments and lacks a prominent antenn(ul)a. These characters point to a position of S. oblitus inside Arthropoda s. str., deriving from the lineage towards Euarthropoda. The morphology also indicates a special life style, e.g., by the presence of large, stalked eyes, apparently in convergence to one of the Cambrian “Orsten” crustacean stem-lineage derivatives, Henningsmoenicaris scutula.

Haug J T; Maas A; Haug C; Waloszek D

2011-01-01

185

Climate change and infectious diseases in North America: the road ahead.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global climate change is inevitable--the combustion of fossil fuels has resulted in a buildup of greenhouse gases within the atmosphere, causing unprecedented changes to the earth's climate. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that North America will experience marked changes in weather patterns in coming decades, including warmer temperatures and increased rainfall, summertime droughts and extreme weather events (e.g., tornadoes and hurricanes). Although these events may have direct consequences for health (e.g., injuries and displacement of populations due to thermal stress), they are also likely to cause important changes in the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases, including vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, water-and food-borne diseases and diseases with environmental reservoirs (e.g., endemic fungal diseases). Changes in weather patterns and ecosystems, and health consequences of climate change will probably be most severe in far northern regions (e.g., the Arctic). We provide an overview of the expected nature and direction of such changes, which pose current and future challenges to health care providers and public health agencies.

Greer A; Ng V; Fisman D

2008-03-01

186

Emergent infectious uveitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

Khairallah M; Jelliti B; Jenzeri S

2009-10-01

187

[Occupational infectious respiratory diseases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Occupational infectious respiratory diseases are underestimate pathology because of an asymptomatic infection or the general, unspecific symptoms. STATE OF THE ART: The most part of patients are among health care and agriculture or forestry workers (15% employee exposure of infectious risks in according with SUMMER study 2003). Biological risks interest two-third of health care workers, one-third of agriculture and food industry employees and one-forth of house-workers. Occupational diseases occur as flu-like illness, pneumonia, lung abscess or pleurisy. A possible classification for this pathology is by clinical manifestations: with respiratory predominance like tuberculosis, pasteurelosis, psittacosis or diseases like anthrax, brucellosis or tularemia with non respiratory predominance. PERSPECTIVES AND CONCLUSION: The authors remind the data of occupational respiratory infectious diseases, microbiological data and links between clinical symptoms and patients professions leading to diagnosis.

Coman M; Loddé B; Dewitte JD

2007-12-01

188

Arthropod community structure on strip-mined lands in Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1978-79, biomass, density, diversity, and taxonomic composition of above-ground, non-acarine arthropods were studied on newly reclaimed areas planted to grass-legumes (1-4 years after reclamation), older mined lands planted to crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) and unmined old field habitat in Harrison County, Ohio. The reclaimed areas were rapidly colonized and productive. In the herbaceous layer, newly reclaimed areas had highest annual arthropod densities (1062.5 individuals/m/sup 2/) and biomass (553.6 mg/m/sup 2/). Larvae of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal) were major contributors to arthropod density in the herbaceous layer during spring 1978, accounting for 47.4% and 18.8% of individuals on the areas examined 1 and 3 years after reclamation, respectively. During September, grasshoppers (Acrididae) accounted for up to 70% of arthropod biomass in the herbaceous layer on newly reclaimed areas. A significant decline in arthropod biomass from 1 to 2 years after reclamation was due to a large decrease in weevil and spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L.) populations, associated with a decline in yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). The crown vetch area supported low numbers and biomass of arthropods in the herbaceous layer but moderate to high numbers and biomass in the litter layer. Nematoceran larvae (Cecidomyiidae, Chironomidae) were abundant during May on the area examined 2 years after reclamation and comprised 73.5% of litter arthropod individuals. The unmined old field was generally richer (48.0% more morphotypes, 32.2% more families per sampling period) than the mined sites. On newly reclaimed areas richness in the herbaceous layer was positively related to biomass of clovers.

Urbanek, R.P.

1982-01-01

189

Infectious waste feed system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

Coulthard, E. James (York, PA)

1994-01-01

190

Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management/ Responsabilisation des agriculteurs dans le cadre de la lutte intégrée contre les vecteurs pour faire reculer les maladies à transmission vectorielle/ Reducir las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores empoderando a los agricultores en la lucha antivectorial integrada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish PROBLEMA: La agricultura de regadío expone a la población rural a riesgos sanitarios asociados a las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y a los plaguicidas utilizados en la agricultura y para proteger la salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo se da una falta de colaboración entre los sectores agrícola y sanitario para abordar conjuntamente estos problemas. MÉTODOS: Presentamos una evaluación de un proyecto que utiliza el método de la «escu (more) ela de campo para agricultores» para enseñar a los campesinos la manera de controlar las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y mejorar la producción de arroz. El adiestramiento simultáneo de los agricultores en esos dos ámbitos es lo que se conoce como «control integrado de plagas y vectores». CONTEXTO LOCAL: Un proyecto intersectorial centrado en los sistemas de riego de plantaciones de arroz en Sri Lanka. CAMBIOS DESTACABLES: Los asociados del proyecto desarrollaron un nuevo programa de estudios para la escuela de campo que incluía un componente de control de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial. Los cultivadores de arroz de las aldeas de intervención salidos de la escuela de campo tomaron medidas de lucha antivectorial y de mejora tanto del saneamiento ambiental como de su protección personal contra la transmisión de enfermedades. Además redujeron su utilización de plaguicidas agrícolas, especialmente de insecticidas. ENSEÑANZAS EXTRAÍDAS: La intervención motivó a la población rural y le permitió participar en las actividades de control de los vectores y reducir varios riesgos para la salud ambiental. Es posible ampliar el programa de estudios para incluir información sobre los efectos perjudiciales de los plaguicidas en la salud humana y abordar otros aspectos preocupantes para la salud pública. Los beneficios de este enfoque para los programas de salud comunitarios todavía no se han evaluado de manera óptima. Además, es necesario ampliar la base institucional del control integrado para que puedan participar personas de una más amplia variedad de organizaciones, y hay que establecer un sistema de seguimiento y evaluación para medir el desempeño de las iniciativas de control integrado. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. APPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. T (more) eaching farmers about these two concepts together is known as "integrated pest and vector management". LOCAL SETTING: An intersectoral project targeting rice irrigation systems in Sri Lanka. RELEVANT CHANGES: Project partners developed a new curriculum for the field school that included a component on vector-borne diseases. Rice farmers in intervention villages who graduated from the field school took vector-control actions as well as improving environmental sanitation and their personal protection measures against disease transmission. They also reduced their use of agricultural pesticides, especially insecticides. LESSONS LEARNED: The intervention motivated and enabled rural people to take part in vector-management activities and to reduce several environmental health risks. There is scope for expanding the curriculum to include information on the harmful effects of pesticides on human health and to address other public health concerns. Benefits of this approach for community-based health programmes have not yet been optimally assessed. Also, the institutional basis of the integrated management approach needs to be broadened so that people from a wider range of organizations take part. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to measure the performance of integrated manage

van den Berg, Henk; von Hildebrand, Alexander; Ragunathan, Vaithilingam; Das, Pradeep K

2007-07-01

191

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Márcia Aparecida Sperança; Margareth Lara Capurro

2007-01-01

192

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecti (more) cide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Capurro, Margareth Lara

2007-06-01

193

Skimming the surface with Burgess Shale arthropod locomotion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first arthropod trackways are described from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Formation of Canada. Trace fossils, including trackways, provide a rich source of biological and ecological information, including direct evidence of behaviour not commonly available from body fossils alone. The discovery of large arthropod trackways is unique for Burgess Shale-type deposits. Trackway dimensions and the requisite number of limbs are matched with the body plan of a tegopeltid arthropod. Tegopelte, one of the rarest Burgess Shale animals, is over twice the size of all other benthic arthropods known from this locality, and only its sister taxon, Saperion, from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, approaches a similar size. Biomechanical trackway analysis demonstrates that tegopeltids were capable of rapidly skimming across the seafloor and, in conjunction with the identification of gut diverticulae in Tegopelte, supports previous hypotheses on the locomotory capabilities and carnivorous mode of life of such arthropods. The trackways occur in the oldest part (Kicking Horse Shale Member) of the Burgess Shale Formation, which is also known for its scarce assemblage of soft-bodied organisms, and indicate at least intermittent oxygenated bottom waters and low sedimentation rates.

Minter NJ; Mángano MG; Caron JB

2012-04-01

194

Antigenic relationships of flaviviruses with undetermined arthropod-borne status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In contrast to most of the arthropod-borne flaviviruses, the flaviviruses with undetermined arthropod-borne status are probably disseminated only by direct contact with excreta (saliva, urine, feces, etc.); however, as yet undescribed arthropod transmission cycles may be found for some of them. Twenty-two of these flaviviruses, including prototype and recently isolated strains, were compared. Biologic properties were defined by infectivity titrations in suckling mice and Vero, LLC-MK2, and primary Pekin duck embryo cells, and antigenic relationships were defined by complement-fixation and plaque reduction neutralization tests. An antigenic classification scheme is proposed. Antigenic and biologic properties delimit two large clusters. The first, comprising a single antigenic complex, includes those which have yet to be isolated from arthropods, but are likely to be so (Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Koutango, Negishi and Aroa viruses). The second, encompassing five antigenic complexes, is comprised of viruses which have been isolated exclusively from rodents or bats (Saboya, Carey Island, Dakar bat, Sokuluk, Bukalasa bat, Entebbe bat, Phnom Penh bat, Modoc, Sal Vieja, Jutiapa, San Perlita, Cowbone Ridge, Rio Bravo, Apoi, Tamana bat and Montana Myotis leucoencephalitis viruses) but includes three viruses (Saboya, Sokuluk and Entebbe bat viruses) which may be arthropod-borne, as indicated by replication in mosquito cells in vitro.

Varelas-Wesley I; Calisher CH

1982-11-01

195

Antigenic relationships of flaviviruses with undetermined arthropod-borne status.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to most of the arthropod-borne flaviviruses, the flaviviruses with undetermined arthropod-borne status are probably disseminated only by direct contact with excreta (saliva, urine, feces, etc.); however, as yet undescribed arthropod transmission cycles may be found for some of them. Twenty-two of these flaviviruses, including prototype and recently isolated strains, were compared. Biologic properties were defined by infectivity titrations in suckling mice and Vero, LLC-MK2, and primary Pekin duck embryo cells, and antigenic relationships were defined by complement-fixation and plaque reduction neutralization tests. An antigenic classification scheme is proposed. Antigenic and biologic properties delimit two large clusters. The first, comprising a single antigenic complex, includes those which have yet to be isolated from arthropods, but are likely to be so (Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Koutango, Negishi and Aroa viruses). The second, encompassing five antigenic complexes, is comprised of viruses which have been isolated exclusively from rodents or bats (Saboya, Carey Island, Dakar bat, Sokuluk, Bukalasa bat, Entebbe bat, Phnom Penh bat, Modoc, Sal Vieja, Jutiapa, San Perlita, Cowbone Ridge, Rio Bravo, Apoi, Tamana bat and Montana Myotis leucoencephalitis viruses) but includes three viruses (Saboya, Sokuluk and Entebbe bat viruses) which may be arthropod-borne, as indicated by replication in mosquito cells in vitro. PMID:6293325

Varelas-Wesley, I; Calisher, C H

1982-11-01

196

Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Many plants are simultaneously attacked by arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens. These may affect each other directly and indirectly, enhancing or reducing the amount of plant resources they each consume. Ultimately, this may reduce or enhance plant performance relative to what should be expected from the added impacts of herbivore and pathogen when they attack alone. 2. Previous studies have suggested synergistic and antagonistic impacts on plant performance from certain combinations of arthropods and pathogens, for example, synergistic impacts from necrotrophic pathogens together with wounding arthropods because of facilitated infection and antagonistic impacts from induction of pathogen resistance by sucking herbivores. 3. We compiled published studies on the impact of plant–herbivore–pathogen interactions on plant performance and used meta-analysis to search for consistent patterns of impacts among plant, herbivore and pathogen characteristics and experimental conditions, and to test the suggested hypotheses on synergistic or antagonistic impacts. 4. None of the hypotheses based on proximate interactions between arthropods and pathogens were supported by our analysis; in contrast, the patterns we found were related to plant traits and experimental conditions. 5. Our results suggest that immediate loss of resources from interactions between arthropod herbivores and pathogens is generally moderated by compensation to an extent where there are no interactive effects on plant performance. However, as interactive impacts also differed among environments and parasite manipulation methods, this suggests that the ability of plants to compensate such losses may depend on environmental conditions and probably also overall infection load.

Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Christensen, Stina

2013-01-01

197

The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. PMID:23109262

Biondi, Antonio; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa; Zappalà, Lucia; Desneux, Nicolas

2012-10-29

198

Agranulocytosis after infectious mononucleosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the case of a 5-year-old boy with agranulocytosis after infectious mononucleosis (IM). Antibodies against anti-human neutrophil-specific antigens (HNA)-1 were detected in his serum. A literature review on agranulocytosis after IM and our case suggest that anti-HNA-1 antibodies play important roles in agranulocytosis associated with IM.

Yokoyama T; Tokuhisa Y; Toga A; Fujiki T; Sakakibara Y; Mase S; Araki R; Nishimura R; Wada T; Fuseda T; Kato E; Yachie A

2013-03-01

199

Infectious Salmon Anaemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

Marine Institute

200

Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee.

Pajovic B; Radosavljevic M; Radunovic M; Radojevic N; Bjelogrlic B

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee. PMID:22696884

Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

2012-04-01

202

Physical ecology of fluid flow sensing in arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial and aquatic arthropods sense fluid flow in many behavioral and ecological contexts, using dedicated, highly sensitive mechanosensory hairs, which are often abundant. Strong similarities exist in the biomechanics of flow sensors and in the sensory ecology of insects, arachnids, and crustaceans in their respective fluid environments. We extend these considerations to flow in sand and its implications for flow sensing by arthropods inhabiting this granular medium. Finally, we highlight the need to merge the various findings of studies that have focused on different arthropods in different fluids. This could be achieved using the unique combination, for sensory ecology, of both a workable and well-accepted mathematical model for hair-based flow sensing, both in air and water, and microelectronic mechanical systems microtechnology to tinker with physical models. PMID:19743914

Casas, Jérôme; Dangles, Olivier

2010-01-01

203

Physical ecology of fluid flow sensing in arthropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Terrestrial and aquatic arthropods sense fluid flow in many behavioral and ecological contexts, using dedicated, highly sensitive mechanosensory hairs, which are often abundant. Strong similarities exist in the biomechanics of flow sensors and in the sensory ecology of insects, arachnids, and crustaceans in their respective fluid environments. We extend these considerations to flow in sand and its implications for flow sensing by arthropods inhabiting this granular medium. Finally, we highlight the need to merge the various findings of studies that have focused on different arthropods in different fluids. This could be achieved using the unique combination, for sensory ecology, of both a workable and well-accepted mathematical model for hair-based flow sensing, both in air and water, and microelectronic mechanical systems microtechnology to tinker with physical models.

Casas J; Dangles O

2010-01-01

204

Convergent evolution of chemical defense in poison frogs and arthropod prey between Madagascar and the Neotropics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With few exceptions, aposematically colored poison frogs sequester defensive alkaloids, unchanged, from dietary arthropods. In the Neotropics, myrmicine and formicine ants and the siphonotid millipede Rhinotus purpureus are dietary sources for alkaloids in dendrobatid poison frogs, yet the arthropod...

Clark, Valerie C.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Rakotomalala, Valérie; Sierwald, Petra; Fisher, Brian L.

205

The endoskeletal structures in arthropods: cytology, morphology and evolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper proposes an overview of the endoskeletal structures of the head and trunk in the different arthropod groups: Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Hexapoda (=Insecta s.l.). Two major endoskeletal systems are reported with their cytological characteristics: those made up of connective tissue derived from muscular tendons, and those consisting of cuticular rods or plates arising from integumentary ingrowths. The morphological value of the various endoskeletal structures, their possible homologies in different groups, and their presumed evolutionary changes are discussed. This survey may be considered as a first step to use morphological characteristics of the endoskeleton in future cladistic analyses to assess the phylogeny of arthropods.

Bitsch C; Bitsch J

2002-02-01

206

[Notable imported infectious diseases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Japanese doctors are somewhat unfamiliar with imported infectious diseases, however, the following imported infectious diseases are notable: cholera, which is currently endemic in Haiti and which there is a possibility of it being imported to Japan from endemic areas; typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, whose causative organisms showing low sensitivity to fluoroquinolones have become predominant; rabies, which exhibits a high mortality; avian influenza H5N1, which has the possibility of changing into a new type of human influenza; chikungunya fever, in which the number of Japanese patients is increasing; and cyclosporiasis, which led to a number of food poisonings in the USA and Canada, and as a growing number of Japanese travel abroad, the number of infected Japanese patients returning from endemic areas will increase. It is thus important to identify the presence of these diseases on diagnosis.

Ohnishi K

2011-03-01

207

Chronic infectious mononucleosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Chronic infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity recognized 15 years ago with clearly defined serological criteria: high titres of IgG Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) virus capsid antigen (VCA), IgG EBV early antigen without IgG Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibodies. Material and methods This follow-up study lasted for 2 years and included 100 acute infectious mononucleosis patients who were investigated every 6 months. Apart from physical examination we evaluated history, complete blood count and liver function together with 5 commercial ELISA tests: IgM EBV VCA, IgG EBV VCA, IgG EB NA, IgG EBV EA and IgA EBV EA. Results Although malaise and fatigue with cervical lymphadenopathy were the most frequent symptoms, their statistical significance was not established. All laboratory analyses were completely normal during the follow-up period, but there were four patients with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses. After 6 months of acute illness, two patients without IgG EB NA antibodies who were candidates for chronic disease, presented no other serological findings for chronic disease. It was confirmed that they had delayed serological response due to EBV infection, because one year later they had a completely normal immune status on EBV infection. Conclusion Chronic infectious mononucleosis seems to be an extraordinary event after acute disease. This conclusion corresponds with literature reports of sporadic cases of this disease.

Brki? Snežana V.; Jovanovi? Jovana R.; Preveden Tomislav A.

2003-01-01

208

Evolution and taxonomy of Cambrian arthropods from Greenland and Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arthropods have a rich fossil record spanning the Phanerozoic. Biomineralized forms such as the extinct trilobites are particularly common and are proven index fossils for biostratigraphy. Forms with an unmineralized cuticle are more rare, preserved only in so called konservat lagerstätten. Cambrian...

Stein, Martin

209

Successive gain of insulator proteins in arthropod evolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alteration of regulatory DNA elements or their binding proteins may have drastic consequences for morphological evolution. Chromatin insulators are one example of such proteins and play a fundamental role in organizing gene expression. While a single insulator protein, CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor), is known in vertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster utilizes six additional factors. We studied the evolution of these proteins and show here that-in contrast to the bilaterian-wide distribution of CTCF-all other D. melanogaster insulators are restricted to arthropods. The full set is present exclusively in the genus Drosophila whereas only two insulators, Su(Hw) and CTCF, existed at the base of the arthropod clade and all additional factors have been acquired successively at later stages. Secondary loss of factors in some lineages further led to the presence of different insulator subsets in arthropods. Thus, the evolution of insulator proteins within arthropods is an ongoing and dynamic process that reshapes and supplements the ancient CTCF-based system common to bilaterians. Expansion of insulator systems may therefore be a general strategy to increase an organism's gene regulatory repertoire and its potential for morphological plasticity.

Heger P; George R; Wiehe T

2013-10-01

210

Study of Species Biodiversity of Arthropod Community in Chestnut Orchard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A systematic and atochastic investigation into species biodiversity of arthropod community in chestnut orchard is carried out in Hechuan, Chongqing in 2001-2004. 12 orders, 63 families and 136 species of arthropods are collected in the investigation, in which identified 120 special occupy 88% of tatal collected species. The species list and the composition of arthropod community are presented, and the ecological and economic significance of major species is discussed in the paper. The seasonal quantity dynamics of major classification groups in top part of chestnut orchard in 2001 are analyzed, and the Homopteran is shown to be the predominant group through the seasons. Moreover, the seasonal quantity dynamics of the quantity and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index of whole community are pest and natural enemy sub-community in top part of chestnut orchard in 2001 are analyzed as well. In brief, the investigation has established an overall framework of information for the species biodiversity of arthropod community in chestnut orchard in Chongqing, which may facilitate the understanding of chestnut orchard ecosystem and an integrated pest control of the chestnut orchard.

REN Shuang; CHEN Bin

2009-01-01

211

[A rapid method for cutting arthropod tissue sections in paraffin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using heat and agitation as modifying agents the time of processing up to paraffin embedding was considerably decreased in a method for obtaining arthropod tissue sections. The new procedure is flexible thus enabling its use in different species as well as its adaptation to different availabilities of equipment and time for its development.

de La Vega R; Fernández Marcial C

1980-01-01

212

Injuries caused by arthropods: diagnostic and therapeutic approach in ER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Injuries caused by arthropods, primarily insects and arachnids, represent a significant source of lesions and allergies even in Italy, a country that has a negligible number of species with important toxicological characteristics from an emergency medicine point of view; unlike areas such as the Ame...

Dutto Moreno; Giuseppe Lauria

213

Injuries caused by arthropods: diagnostic and therapeutic approach in ER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injuries caused by arthropods, primarily insects and arachnids, represent a significant source of lesions and allergies even in Italy, a country that has a negligible number of species with important toxicological characteristics from an emergency medicine point of view; unlike areas such as the Americas or Africa (including northern Africa) where highly toxic autochthonous species are present, whose bite or sting can be life-threatening. Medical consultation both in hospital Emergency Rooms and general practitioners’ surgeries is markedly seasonal, occurring mainly in the spring and summer (April – September), consistent with arthropod activity. At the current time, in Italy, urgent acute arthropod-related injuries are rare and usually involve type I hypersensitivity, and in most cases they are localised lesions that cause discomfort. The aim of the article is to briefly summarise the species of insects and arachnids that are most frequently cause for medical consultation in Italy and to provide assistance in the diagnostic and therapeutic plan, focusing in particular on the importance of health education that in many acute arthropod-derived cases can play an important part in preventing reoccurrence.

Dutto Moreno; Giuseppe Lauria

2009-01-01

214

Phylogenetic relationships of the Wolbachia of nematodes and arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes. PMID:17040125

Fenn, Katelyn; Conlon, Claire; Jones, Martin; Quail, Michael A; Holroyd, Nancy E; Parkhill, Julian; Blaxter, Mark

2006-10-01

215

Complex brain and optic lobes in an early Cambrian arthropod.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nervous system provides a fundamental source of data for understanding the evolutionary relationships between major arthropod groups. Fossil arthropods rarely preserve neural tissue. As a result, inferring sensory and motor attributes of Cambrian taxa has been limited to interpreting external features, such as compound eyes or sensilla decorating appendages, and early-diverging arthropods have scarcely been analysed in the context of nervous system evolution. Here we report exceptional preservation of the brain and optic lobes of a stem-group arthropod from 520 million years ago (Myr ago), Fuxianhuia protensa, exhibiting the most compelling neuroanatomy known from the Cambrian. The protocerebrum of Fuxianhuia is supplied by optic lobes evidencing traces of three nested optic centres serving forward-viewing eyes. Nerves from uniramous antennae define the deutocerebrum, and a stout pair of more caudal nerves indicates a contiguous tritocerebral component. Fuxianhuia shares a tripartite pre-stomodeal brain and nested optic neuropils with extant Malacostraca and Insecta, demonstrating that these characters were present in some of the earliest derived arthropods. The brain of Fuxianhuia impacts molecular analyses that advocate either a branchiopod-like ancestor of Hexapoda or remipedes and possibly cephalocarids as sister groups of Hexapoda. Resolving arguments about whether the simple brain of a branchiopod approximates an ancestral insect brain or whether it is the result of secondary simplification has until now been hindered by lack of fossil evidence. The complex brain of Fuxianhuia accords with cladistic analyses on the basis of neural characters, suggesting that Branchiopoda derive from a malacostracan-like ancestor but underwent evolutionary reduction and character reversal of brain centres that are common to hexapods and malacostracans. The early origin of sophisticated brains provides a probable driver for versatile visual behaviours, a view that accords with compound eyes from the early Cambrian that were, in size and resolution, equal to those of modern insects and malacostracans.

Ma X; Hou X; Edgecombe GD; Strausfeld NJ

2012-10-01

216

Complex brain and optic lobes in an early Cambrian arthropod.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nervous system provides a fundamental source of data for understanding the evolutionary relationships between major arthropod groups. Fossil arthropods rarely preserve neural tissue. As a result, inferring sensory and motor attributes of Cambrian taxa has been limited to interpreting external features, such as compound eyes or sensilla decorating appendages, and early-diverging arthropods have scarcely been analysed in the context of nervous system evolution. Here we report exceptional preservation of the brain and optic lobes of a stem-group arthropod from 520 million years ago (Myr ago), Fuxianhuia protensa, exhibiting the most compelling neuroanatomy known from the Cambrian. The protocerebrum of Fuxianhuia is supplied by optic lobes evidencing traces of three nested optic centres serving forward-viewing eyes. Nerves from uniramous antennae define the deutocerebrum, and a stout pair of more caudal nerves indicates a contiguous tritocerebral component. Fuxianhuia shares a tripartite pre-stomodeal brain and nested optic neuropils with extant Malacostraca and Insecta, demonstrating that these characters were present in some of the earliest derived arthropods. The brain of Fuxianhuia impacts molecular analyses that advocate either a branchiopod-like ancestor of Hexapoda or remipedes and possibly cephalocarids as sister groups of Hexapoda. Resolving arguments about whether the simple brain of a branchiopod approximates an ancestral insect brain or whether it is the result of secondary simplification has until now been hindered by lack of fossil evidence. The complex brain of Fuxianhuia accords with cladistic analyses on the basis of neural characters, suggesting that Branchiopoda derive from a malacostracan-like ancestor but underwent evolutionary reduction and character reversal of brain centres that are common to hexapods and malacostracans. The early origin of sophisticated brains provides a probable driver for versatile visual behaviours, a view that accords with compound eyes from the early Cambrian that were, in size and resolution, equal to those of modern insects and malacostracans. PMID:23060195

Ma, Xiaoya; Hou, Xianguang; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

2012-10-11

217

Influence of crop management practices on bean foliage arthropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crop management practices can affect the population of phytophagous pest species and beneficial arthropods with consequences for integrated pest management. In this study, we determined the effect of no-tillage and crop residue management on the arthropod community associated with the canopy of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Abundance and species composition of herbivorous, detritivorous, predaceous and parasitoid arthropods were recorded during the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004 in Coimbra County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Arthropod diversity and guild composition were similar among crop management systems, but their abundance was higher under no-tillage relative to conventional cultivation and where residues from the preceding crop were maintained in the field. Thirty-four arthropod species were recorded, and those most representative of the impact of the crop management practices were Hypogastrura springtails, Empoasca kraemeri and Circulifer leafhoppers, and Solenopsis ants. The infestation levels of major insect-pests, especially leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), was on average seven-fold lower under no-tillage with retention of crop residues relative to the conventional system with removal of residues, whereas the abundance of predatory ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and springtails (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) were, respectively, about seven- and 15-fold higher in that treatment. Importantly, a significant trophic interaction among crop residues, detritivores, predators and herbivores was observed. Plots managed with no-tillage and retention of crop residues had the highest bean yield, while those with conventional cultivation and removal of the crop residues yielded significantly less beans. This research shows that cropping systems that include zero tillage and crop residue retention can reduce infestation by foliar insect-pests and increase abundance of predators and detritivores, thus having direct consequences for insect pest management.

Pereira JL; Picanço MC; Pereira EJ; Silva AA; Jakelaitis A; Pereira RR; Xavier VM

2010-12-01

218

Influence of crop management practices on bean foliage arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crop management practices can affect the population of phytophagous pest species and beneficial arthropods with consequences for integrated pest management. In this study, we determined the effect of no-tillage and crop residue management on the arthropod community associated with the canopy of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Abundance and species composition of herbivorous, detritivorous, predaceous and parasitoid arthropods were recorded during the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004 in Coimbra County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Arthropod diversity and guild composition were similar among crop management systems, but their abundance was higher under no-tillage relative to conventional cultivation and where residues from the preceding crop were maintained in the field. Thirty-four arthropod species were recorded, and those most representative of the impact of the crop management practices were Hypogastrura springtails, Empoasca kraemeri and Circulifer leafhoppers, and Solenopsis ants. The infestation levels of major insect-pests, especially leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), was on average seven-fold lower under no-tillage with retention of crop residues relative to the conventional system with removal of residues, whereas the abundance of predatory ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and springtails (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) were, respectively, about seven- and 15-fold higher in that treatment. Importantly, a significant trophic interaction among crop residues, detritivores, predators and herbivores was observed. Plots managed with no-tillage and retention of crop residues had the highest bean yield, while those with conventional cultivation and removal of the crop residues yielded significantly less beans. This research shows that cropping systems that include zero tillage and crop residue retention can reduce infestation by foliar insect-pests and increase abundance of predators and detritivores, thus having direct consequences for insect pest management. PMID:20504384

Pereira, J L; Picanço, M C; Pereira, E J G; Silva, A A; Jakelaitis, A; Pereira, R R; Xavier, V M

2010-05-27

219

Infectious abdominal emergencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs.

1996-01-01

220

RAGE during infectious diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that is expressed at high levels in the lungs. The emerging concept of pattern recognition involves RAGE and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in sensing not only "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs) but also (endogenous) damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Infection is associated with the release of these endogenous proteins, such as high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and S100A12. Engagement of RAGE by its diverse ligands results in receptor-dependent signaling and activation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, RAGE acts as an endothelial adhesion receptor for leukocyte integrins and promotes leukocyte recruitment. Inhibition of RAGE signaling reduces inflammatory responses in several (non-infectious) models as well as in infectious models of cecal ligation and puncture and S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Importantly, RAGE signaling inhibition increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in an E. coli abdominal sepsis model. This review describes experimental studies that provide further insight into the role of RAGE and its ligands in host defense during clinically important infections, which eventually may contribute to better therapies against specific pathogens.

van Zoelen MA; Achouiti A; van der Poll T

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The genetics of African trypanosomes : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of genetic exchange is not only a fundamental property of an organism but its occurrence provides us with methods of analysis that can be used to dissect the basis of important traits. This paper will review the current evidence for a sexual cycle in Trypanosoma brucei and illustrate how genetic analysis can be used as a tool to identify genes of relevance to the disease, its treatment and transmission. The role of this process in the generation of diversity in the field will be illustrated by considering populations of the three sub-species of T. brucei and how the availability of genome sequence data has been exploited to study whether genetic exchange occurs in the trypanosomes infecting livestock. Finally, the use of population genetics as a methodology to identify genes under selection will be discussed and this will be illustrated as an approach to validating markers for drug resistance with examples from other parasitic protozoa.

A. Tait

2010-01-01

222

Prospects for controlling trypanosomosis : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The best technical package for the future comprises trypanocidal drugs for temporary relief and the use of insecticide-treated cattle, artificial baits and aerial spraying to attack the vector, to so give more lasting security. Whether this can speed the previously slow progress will depend on overcoming past hindrances to tsetse control : sporadic support, disputes over its desirability, difficulties of sustaining international operations, and poor planning in some instances. The Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign intends to speed the progress but will fail unless it improves its image by breaking its association with the sterile insect technique and quickly executing some cheap and effective operations in large areas. Even then, there could be severe brakes due to Africa's political and financial instability. Overall, the pace of control is likely to increase, but perhaps only a little.

G.A. Vale

2010-01-01

223

Multiscale analysis for a vector-borne epidemic model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional studies about disease dynamics have focused on global stability issues, due to their epidemiological importance. We study a classical SIR-SI model for arboviruses in two different directions: we begin by describing an alternative proof of previously known global stability results by using only a Lyapunov approach. In the sequel, we take a different view and we argue that vectors and hosts can have very distinctive intrinsic time-scales, and that such distinctiveness extends to the disease dynamics. Under these hypothesis, we show that two asymptotic regimes naturally appear: the fast host dynamics and the fast vector dynamics. The former regime yields, at leading order, a SIR model for the hosts, but with a rational incidence rate. In this case, the vector disappears from the model, and the dynamics is similar to a directly contagious disease. The latter yields a SI model for the vectors, with the hosts disappearing from the model. Numerical results show the performance of the approximation, and a rigorous proof validates the reduced models.

Souza MO

2013-04-01

224

Florida State Collection of Arthropods - Museum of Entomology  

Science.gov (United States)

This website presents the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) Museum of Entomology, a great resource for researchers from around the world, currently housing an "estimated 8.15 million prepared specimens including 3,500 primary and at least 15,000 secondary types." The site links to sections on Collections and Major Holdings, Publications of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Research Associates Program, Entomology Links, and more. The site also links to a list of the FSCA Entomologists (including their research interests and contact information), and to the Center for Systematic Entomology which provides information about annual grants for taxonomic researchers, and publications such as their quarterly journal, _Insecta Mundi_. The site links to several Taxonomic Databases as well, although lightning damage to the server has rendered them non-operational at present.

225

Trilobite body patterning and the evolution of arthropod tagmosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preservation permitting patterns of developmental evolution can be reconstructed within long extinct clades, and the rich fossil record of trilobite ontogeny and phylogeny provides an unparalleled opportunity for doing so. Furthermore, knowledge of Hox gene expression patterns among living arthropods permit inferences about possible Hox gene deployment in trilobites. The trilobite anteroposterior body plan is consistent with recent suggestions that basal euarthropods had a relatively low degree of tagmosis among cephalic limbs, possibly related to overlapping expression domains of cephalic Hox genes. Trilobite trunk segments appeared sequentially at a subterminal generative zone, and were exchanged between regions of fused and freely articulating segments during growth. Homonomous trunk segment shape and gradual size transition were apparently phylogenetically basal conditions and suggest a single trunk tagma. Several derived clades independently evolved functionally distinct tagmata within the trunk, apparently exchanging flexible segment numbers for greater regionally autonomy. The trilobite trunk chronicles how different aspects of arthropod segmentation coevolved as the degree of tagmosis increased. PMID:12655645

Hughes, Nigel C

2003-04-01

226

Trilobite body patterning and the evolution of arthropod tagmosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preservation permitting patterns of developmental evolution can be reconstructed within long extinct clades, and the rich fossil record of trilobite ontogeny and phylogeny provides an unparalleled opportunity for doing so. Furthermore, knowledge of Hox gene expression patterns among living arthropods permit inferences about possible Hox gene deployment in trilobites. The trilobite anteroposterior body plan is consistent with recent suggestions that basal euarthropods had a relatively low degree of tagmosis among cephalic limbs, possibly related to overlapping expression domains of cephalic Hox genes. Trilobite trunk segments appeared sequentially at a subterminal generative zone, and were exchanged between regions of fused and freely articulating segments during growth. Homonomous trunk segment shape and gradual size transition were apparently phylogenetically basal conditions and suggest a single trunk tagma. Several derived clades independently evolved functionally distinct tagmata within the trunk, apparently exchanging flexible segment numbers for greater regionally autonomy. The trilobite trunk chronicles how different aspects of arthropod segmentation coevolved as the degree of tagmosis increased.

Hughes NC

2003-04-01

227

Diversity of plant evolutionary lineages promotes arthropod diversity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large-scale habitat destruction and climate change result in the non-random loss of evolutionary lineages, reducing the amount of evolutionary history represented in ecological communities. Yet, we have limited understanding of the consequences of evolutionary history on the structure of food webs and the services provided by biological communities. Drawing on 11 years of data from a long-term plant diversity experiment, we show that evolutionary history of plant communities - measured as phylogenetic diversity - strongly predicts diversity and abundance of herbivorous and predatory arthropods. Effects of plant species richness on arthropods become stronger when phylogenetic diversity is high. Plant phylogenetic diversity explains predator and parasitoid richness as strongly as it does herbivore richness. Our findings indicate that accounting for evolutionary relationships is critical to understanding the severity of species loss for food webs and ecosystems, and for developing conservation and restoration policies.

Dinnage R; Cadotte MW; Haddad NM; Crutsinger GM; Tilman D

2012-11-01

228

Haematological Changes in Cattle associated with arthropods Infestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 847 animals inspected from Jan.2007 to Dec.2007 for the assessment of prevalence of ticks infestation of cattles. Out of 847 animals examined, 612 were positive (72.26%) for arthropods infestation at Nagpur and around villages. Among arthropods infestation, ticks (52.78%), lice (19.93%) , flies (9.48%) and mixed (17.81%) were observed. Out of these observations ticks sp. were Rhipicephalus Sp. (60.99%), Hyolomma sp. (20.74%) and Boophilus sp. (18.27%), Lice sp were Linognathus sp. (44.26%) and Haematopinus sp. (55.74%) and flies sp. Hippobosca sp. (67.24%) and Stomoxys sp.(32.76%) were identified.Haematological findings shows decrease in Hb,PCV,TEC and TLC where as Lymphocyte and Eosinophyl count was higher than normal . [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000): 338-339

P.A. Raut; V.G.Sonkhusale; L.A.Khan; M.K. Nakade; N.S.Pagrut and A.M.Bodkhe

2008-01-01

229

Deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia derive from embryonic basal forebrain lineages that are specified by an evolutionarily conserved genetic program leading to interconnected neuropils and nuclei that populate the midline of the forebrain-midbrain boundary region. In the substructures of both the central complex and basal ganglia, network connectivity and neuronal activity mediate control mechanisms in which inhibitory (GABAergic) and modulatory (dopaminergic) circuits facilitate the regulation and release of adaptive behaviors. Both basal ganglia and central complex dysfunction result in behavioral defects including motor abnormalities, impaired memory formation, attention deficits, affective disorders, and sleep disturbances. The observed multitude of similarities suggests deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia circuitries underlying the selection and maintenance of behavioral actions.

Strausfeld NJ; Hirth F

2013-04-01

230

Arthropod-borne diseases associated with political and social disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The living conditions and the crowded situations of the homeless, war refugees, or victims of a natural disaster provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, flies and mites. The consequence of arthropod infestation in these situations is underestimated. Along with louse-borne infections such as typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, the relationship between Acinetobacter spp.-infected lice and bacteremia in the homeless is not clear. Murine typhus, tungiasis, and myiasis are likely underestimated, and there has been a reemergence of bed bugs. Attempted eradication of the body louse, despite specific measures, has been disappointing, and infections with Bartonella quintana continue to be reported. The efficacy of ivermectin in eradicating the human body louse, although the effect is not sustained, might provide new therapeutic approaches. Arthropod-borne diseases continue to emerge within the deprived population. Public health programs should be engaged rapidly to control these pests and reduce the incidence of these transmissible diseases.

Brouqui P

2011-01-01

231

Arthropod-borne diseases associated with political and social disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The living conditions and the crowded situations of the homeless, war refugees, or victims of a natural disaster provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, flies and mites. The consequence of arthropod infestation in these situations is underestimated. Along with louse-borne infections such as typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, the relationship between Acinetobacter spp.-infected lice and bacteremia in the homeless is not clear. Murine typhus, tungiasis, and myiasis are likely underestimated, and there has been a reemergence of bed bugs. Attempted eradication of the body louse, despite specific measures, has been disappointing, and infections with Bartonella quintana continue to be reported. The efficacy of ivermectin in eradicating the human body louse, although the effect is not sustained, might provide new therapeutic approaches. Arthropod-borne diseases continue to emerge within the deprived population. Public health programs should be engaged rapidly to control these pests and reduce the incidence of these transmissible diseases. PMID:20822446

Brouqui, Philippe

2011-01-01

232

Arthropod intermediate hosts of Abbreviata antarctica (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines potential arthropod intermediate hosts for the nematode Abbreviata antarctica. Five species of arthropod (tropical native cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus; native roach Drymoplaneta communis; native termite Nasutitermes exitiosus; and 2 introduced species, the East African roach Naupheta cinerea and the Asian cricket Acheta domesticus) were fed feces from a skink, Tiliqua rugosa, containing embryonated eggs of A. antarctica . The insects were dissected at 4 intervals (1 day, 4 days, 8-16 days, and 25-26 days). Viable third-stage larvae were recovered from cysts on the external wall of the midgut and hindgut of 62.5% nymphal and adult T. oceanicus crickets at 25-26 days post-infection and from a single nymphal A. domesticus cricket. No roaches contained eggs or first-stage larvae after 48 hr, and neither eggs nor larvae were found in termites. PMID:23360383

King, C; Jones, H I; Tay, Chin Yen

2013-01-29

233

Arthropod venoms: a vast arsenal of insecticidal neuropeptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropods are the most diverse animal group on the planet, and occupy almost all ecological niches. Venomous arthropods are a rich source of bioactive compounds evolved for prey capture and defense against predators and/or microorganisms. These highly potent chemical arsenals represent an available source for new insecticidal compounds as they act selectively on their molecular targets. These toxins affect the invertebrate nervous system and, until the moment, several insecticidal compounds belonging to the class of peptides or polyamine-like compounds have been purified and characterized from the venom of arachnids and hymenopterans. This review focuses on invertebrate-specific peptide neurotoxins that have been isolated from the venom ofspiders, scorpions, centipedes, ants, and wasps, discussing their potential in pest control and as invaluable tools in neuropharmacology. PMID:23193602

Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Mourão, Caroline B F; Moreira, Karla G; Camargos, Thalita S; Mortari, Márcia R

2012-01-01

234

Survey of the arthropods on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), a plant native to southwestern North America, has become of economic interest due to the various industrial uses of the unique liquid wax found in its seeds. In a survey of arthropods associated with sylvatic jojoba in California and Arizona, we collected 106 species of insects and mites. Of these, 50 are phytophagous, 29 are parasitic, and 18 are predaceous. Most of the phytophagous species are also known to feed on plants other than jojoba; several of these are notorious generalists. The bionomics of the 4 commonest phytophagous species, Asphondylia n. sp. (Cecidomyiidae), Epinotia kasloana (Olethreutidae), Periploca n. sp. (Walshiidae), and Incisitermes fruticavus (Kalotermitidae) are summarized briefly. None of the phytophagous species were observed to cause extensive damage to sylvatic jojoba. The numerous parasitic and predaceous arthropods probably account for the natural control of many of them. These relationships should be kept in mind when planning future commercial plantations of jojoba.

Pinto, J.D.; Frommer, S.I.

1980-02-01

235

Arthropod venoms: a vast arsenal of insecticidal neuropeptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropods are the most diverse animal group on the planet, and occupy almost all ecological niches. Venomous arthropods are a rich source of bioactive compounds evolved for prey capture and defense against predators and/or microorganisms. These highly potent chemical arsenals represent an available source for new insecticidal compounds as they act selectively on their molecular targets. These toxins affect the invertebrate nervous system and, until the moment, several insecticidal compounds belonging to the class of peptides or polyamine-like compounds have been purified and characterized from the venom of arachnids and hymenopterans. This review focuses on invertebrate-specific peptide neurotoxins that have been isolated from the venom ofspiders, scorpions, centipedes, ants, and wasps, discussing their potential in pest control and as invaluable tools in neuropharmacology.

Schwartz EF; Mourão CB; Moreira KG; Camargos TS; Mortari MR

2012-01-01

236

PYRIMIDYLMETHYL-SULFONAMIDE COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS FUNGICIDES AND AGAINST ARTHROPODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to novel pyrimidylmethyl-sulfonamide compou nds of formula (I), and to their N-oxides, their agriculturally acceptable s alts and their veterinarily acceptable salts and also to agricultural compos itions comprising at least one such compound as active component, and also t o their use for controlling harmful fungi. The present invention also relate s to a method for controlling arthropod pests.

MUELLER BERND; RHEINHEIMER JOACHIM; PUHL MICHAEL; DIETZ JOCHEN; GRAMMENOS WASSILIOS; LOHMANN JAN KLAAS; GROTE THOMAS; RENNER JENS; ULMSCHNEIDER SARAH; VRETTOU MARIANNA

237

Imidacloprid impact on arthropods associated with canopy of common beans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial effect of applying the insecticide imidacloprid on the arthropod community associated with the canopy of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). About 2 ha of bean field was divided into two adjacent fields subjected to the same crop management practices except for insecticide application. Imidacloprid 700 GrDA (147 g a.i./ha) was applied to 20-day old plants. Three transects were extended from the mid-part of the sprayed area to the mid-part of the non-sprayed area. Nine sampling points 10 m apart were established in each transect. Arthropods were sampled from the plant canopy before and 3, 8, 14, 22, 29 37 and 44 days after insecticide application. There was a strong temporal effect of the insecticide on some arthropod guilds, but the spatial effect of the insecticide application was only noticeable in Empoasca kraemeri Roos & Moore whose dispersion from the non-sprayed area masked the insecticide effect on the treated area. The insecticide decreased the Thrips tabaci (Lind.), Caliothrips brasiliensis (Morgan), and E. kraemeri populations until 22 days after its application. Imidacloprid also prevented population increase of springtails (Collembola), but it did not significantly affect plant-chewing insects nor Frankliniella sp., Liriomyza spp. and Bemisia (Genn.). Imidacloprid was selective in favor of the most common bean pest predators and parasitoids.

Marquini Flávio; Picanço Marcelo C.; Guedes Raul N.C.; Ferreira Paulo S.F.

2003-01-01

238

Structure and diversity of arthropod community in longan orchard  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structure and diversity of arthropod community in longan orchard were studied. The result showed that there were 102 species of arthropod in longan orchard, they included 54 species of pest, 35 species of natural enemy and 13 species of moderate insect. If judging pest groups by the plant nutrition, Lepidoptera take the first place in the chewing mouthparts pests. Its dominant species were the Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley, Olethreutes leucaspis Meyrick and Conopomorpha litchiella Bradley. The Cornegenapsylla canarium Yang et li was the dominant species in the piercing-sucking mouthparts pests. The Chrysoperla Sinica (Tjeter), Chilomenes quadriplaglata (Swartz) were the dominant species in the meat nutrition insects group. The Brochymeria lasus(Walker), Anastatus japonicus Ashmead and Macrocintrtus addomiulis Fabricius were the dominant species in the parasitical insects group. Analysis on the dynamics of community showed that the indices of the community were obviously fluctuated with time. During the period of June, 29 to Sept, 27, the indices of ecological concentration was low, the diversity and evenness were high. So the structure of arthropod community was rational.

Qiu Liangmiao; Zhan Zhixiong; Lin Renkui; Chen Yuanhong; Zhen Qionghua

2004-01-01

239

Evolution, discovery, and interpretations of arthropod mushroom bodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological studies and mutant analyses have led to divergent interpretations. One interpretation is that the mushroom bodies conditionally relay to higher protocerebral centers information about sensory stimuli and the context in which they occur. Another interpretation is that they play a central role in learning and memory. Anatomical studies suggest that arthropod mushroom bodies are predominately associated with olfactory pathways except in phylogenetically basal insects. The prominent olfactory input to the mushroom body calyces in more recent insect orders is an acquired character. An overview of the history of research on the mushroom bodies, as well as comparative and evolutionary considerations, provides a conceptual framework for discussing the roles of these neuropils.

Strausfeld NJ; Hansen L; Li Y; Gomez RS; Ito K

1998-05-01

240

Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

Song YM; Xie Y; Malyarchuk V; Xiao J; Jung I; Choi KJ; Liu Z; Park H; Lu C; Kim RH; Li R; Crozier KB; Huang Y; Rogers JA

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.

Dolinski C; Lacey LA

2007-03-01

242

Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management. PMID:17607448

Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

243

Global mapping of infectious disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

2013-02-04

244

Bioinformatic prediction of arthropod/nematode-like peptides in non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, along with the Arthropoda, Nematoda and several other small phyla, form the superphylum Ecdysozoa. Numerous peptidomic studies have been undertaken for both the arthropods and nematodes, resulting in the identification of many peptides from each group. In contrast, little is known about the peptides used as paracrines/hormones by species from the other ecdysozoan taxa. Here, transcriptome mining and bioinformatic peptide prediction were used to identify peptides in members of the Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, the only non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa for which there are publicly accessible expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The extant ESTs for each phylum were queried using 106 arthropod/nematode peptide precursors. Transcripts encoding calcitonin-like diuretic hormone and pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) were identified for the onychophoran Peripatopsis sedgwicki, with transcripts encoding C-type allatostatin (C-AST) and FMRFamide-like peptide identified for the priapulid Priapulus caudatus. For the Tardigrada, transcripts encoding members of the A-type allatostatin, C-AST, insect kinin, orcokinin, PDH and tachykinin-related peptide families were identified, all but one from Hypsibius dujardini (the exception being a Milnesium tardigradum orcokinin-encoding transcript). The proteins deduced from these ESTs resulted in the prediction of 48 novel peptides, six onychophoran, eight priapulid and 34 tardigrade, which are the first described from these phyla.

Christie AE; Nolan DH; Garcia ZA; McCoole MD; Harmon SM; Congdon-Jones B; Ohno P; Hartline N; Congdon CB; Baer KN; Lenz PH

2011-02-01

245

Bioinformatic prediction of arthropod/nematode-like peptides in non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, along with the Arthropoda, Nematoda and several other small phyla, form the superphylum Ecdysozoa. Numerous peptidomic studies have been undertaken for both the arthropods and nematodes, resulting in the identification of many peptides from each group. In contrast, little is known about the peptides used as paracrines/hormones by species from the other ecdysozoan taxa. Here, transcriptome mining and bioinformatic peptide prediction were used to identify peptides in members of the Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, the only non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa for which there are publicly accessible expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The extant ESTs for each phylum were queried using 106 arthropod/nematode peptide precursors. Transcripts encoding calcitonin-like diuretic hormone and pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) were identified for the onychophoran Peripatopsis sedgwicki, with transcripts encoding C-type allatostatin (C-AST) and FMRFamide-like peptide identified for the priapulid Priapulus caudatus. For the Tardigrada, transcripts encoding members of the A-type allatostatin, C-AST, insect kinin, orcokinin, PDH and tachykinin-related peptide families were identified, all but one from Hypsibius dujardini (the exception being a Milnesium tardigradum orcokinin-encoding transcript). The proteins deduced from these ESTs resulted in the prediction of 48 novel peptides, six onychophoran, eight priapulid and 34 tardigrade, which are the first described from these phyla. PMID:21074533

Christie, Andrew E; Nolan, Daniel H; Garcia, Zachery A; McCoole, Matthew D; Harmon, Sarah M; Congdon-Jones, Benjamin; Ohno, Paul; Hartline, Niko; Congdon, Clare Bates; Baer, Kevin N; Lenz, Petra H

2010-11-11

246

RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255) is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al.), conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems) and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc.) and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc.) on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

Arthropods (ISSN 2224-4255)

247

Infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:12076262

Rimstad, Espen; Mjaaland, Siri

2002-04-01

248

Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs) in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic) inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

2012-01-01

249

Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a) chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b) latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c) fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

H Hidalgo

2003-01-01

250

Infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae.

Rimstad E; Mjaaland S

2002-04-01

251

Infectious Diseases in the Homeless  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâ??s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

2008-08-26

252

Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID)  

Science.gov (United States)

... urban and rural sewage systems may carry pathogens that proliferate in shellfish and fish and ... the molecular identity and dynamics of pathogens or infectious agents and their vectors, and our ...

253

Infectious spondylitis in adults  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In adults, infectious spondylitis is a rare but sever disease, caused by a bacterial thrombus in tissue of reduced resistance. In conventional radiographs initial findings are a narrowing of the intervertebral space, local osteoporosis and poorly defined erosive borders of the vertebral endplates. These changings can be found at least three to six weeks after the onset of disease. However, in Szintigraphy and MRT pathologic alterations are evident after ten to twelve days. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment becomes possible. In early stages of the disease of localized lysis surrounded by a reactive sclerosis appears in predisposed areas of the vertebral body (subchondral, anterobasal, ventral, central). Apparently, a soft tissue tumor is associated. Sclerosis and reduction of the soft tissue tumor are the first signs of repair processes. After at least 12 weeks, computed tomography can reveal typical sintering of the vertebral body and occasionally the development of a bony sequester. In addition, MRT as well as CT can be helpful in the detection and localization of complications as abscesses or affection of the vertebral canal. The tuberculous spondylitis can sometimes cause difficulties in differential diagnosis. Clinical findings, affection of several vertebral bodies, large soft tissue tumors with appearance of calcification as well as not typical locations are strongly suggestive of tuberculous spondylitis, but these findings are not specific of the disease. Degenerative disorders such as erosive osteochondrosis or changings due ot chronic dialysis (e.g amyloid or crystal arthropathies) may cause even more problems in differential diagnosis. Typical for a blastomatous process is the integrity of the interverebral disc space, which is a rare finding in spondylitis. (orig.).

1996-01-01

254

Endemic infectious diseases of Afghanistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current crisis in Afghanistan has resulted in an influx of Western military personnel, peacekeepers, humanitarian workers, and journalists. At the same time, unprecedented numbers of internally displaced persons and refugees have overwhelmed much of the already fragile infrastructure, setting the stage for outbreaks of infectious diseases among both foreigners and local populations. This review surveys the literature concerning the infectious diseases of Afghanistan and south-central Asia, with particular emphasis on diseases not typically seen in the Western world.

Wallace MR; Hale BR; Utz GC; Olson PE; Earhart KC; Thornton SA; Hyams KC

2002-06-01

255

Influence of Agricultural Activities on Grassland Arthropods in Inner Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod pest outbreaks are becoming more common in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China, most likely due to the expansion of agriculture. The area of cropland has increased from 43,300 km2 in 1949 to 76,300 km2 in 2005. To understand the effects of agricultural activities on arthropod distribution, sweep net sampling was conducted in a natural grassland. We collected 1287 individuals belonging to 23 families and 9 orders of arthropods from 41 sites. We divided these samples into two guild types (predator and herbivore) and analyzed six groups (grasshoppers, herbivorous Coleoptera, herbivorous Hemiptera, Cicaddidae, Araneae, predatory Coleoptera) of them. Using a negative binomial regression analysis we analyzed the relationships between each group’s sampled population size and measured environmental factors including pesticide application and mean temperature of the previous year, agricultural site, and vegetation condition. The best model for each group was determined using Akaike’s information criterion. Grasshoppers showed a significant positive response to pesticide application and degraded vegetation, whereas spider (natural enemies of some insect pests) showed a negative response to these factors. The population of grasshoppers increased at sites where pesticides were applied, vegetation was degraded, and spider numbers were reduced. Other groups were not significantly correlated with pesticide application and degraded vegetation. Some of the environmental factors we studied promoted pests the following year. Our results also suggest that the current use of pesticides may not be effective for pest control and that alternative options should be considered in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia.

Kiyan Sorgog; Masayuki Saito; Yutaka Hironaka; Yasutomo Higashiura; Hiroyuki Matsuda

2012-01-01

256

Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Higher-level arthropod phylogenetics is an intensely active field of research, not least as a result of the hegemony of molecular data. However, not all areas of arthropod phylogenetics have so far received equal attention. The application of molecular data to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Crustacea is still in its infancy, and several emerging results are conspicuously at odds with morphology-based studies. In this study, we present a series of molecular phylogenetic analyses of 88 arthropods, including 57 crustaceans, representing all the major lineages, with Onychophora and Tardigrada as outgroups. Our analyses are based on published and new sequences for two mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S rDNA. We designed our phylogenetic analyses to assess the effects of different strategies of sequence alignment, alignment masking, nucleotide coding, and model settings. Our comparisons show that alignment optimization of ribosomal markers based on secondary structure information can have a radical impact on phylogenetic reconstruction. Trees based on optimized alignments recover monophyletic Arthropoda (excluding Onychophora), Pancrustacea, Malacostraca, Insecta, Myriapoda and Chelicerata, while Maxillopoda and Hexapoda emerge as paraphyletic groups. Our results are unable to resolve the highest-level relationships within Arthropoda, and none of our trees supports the monophyly of Myriochelata or Mandibulata. We discuss our results in the context of both the methodological variations between different analyses, and of recently proposed phylogenetic hypotheses. This article offers a preliminary attempt to incorporate the large diversity of crustaceans into a single molecular phylogenetic analysis, assessing the robustness of phylogenetic relationships under varying analysis parameters. It throws into sharp relief the relative strengths and shortcomings of the combined molecular data for assessing this challenging phylogenetic problem, and thereby provides useful pointers for future studies.

Koenemann Stefan; Jenner RonaldA; Hoenemann Mario; Stemme Torben; Reumont BjornMvon

2010-03-01

257

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agro)ecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators). Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.). Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population) or sublethal (below that range). Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index). Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm) as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

258

Oxygen limitation and thermal tolerance in two terrestrial arthropod species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of marine invertebrates and fish have suggested that lower and upper critical temperatures (CT(min) and CT(max)) are coupled by a common mechanism: oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLT). Using thermolimit respirometry, we tested the predictions of this theory for terrestrial arthropods by measuring maxima and minima for both critical temperatures and metabolic rate in two arthropods, the isopod Porcellio scaber and the beetle Tenebrio molitor, at 40%, 21%, 10% and 2.5% ambient O(2). Critical temperatures were identified as particular points on both activity and traces in four ways. In the first two instances, we identified the inflection points in regressions of absolute difference sum (ADS) residuals calculated for activity (aADS) and (VI), respectively. In the third, we visually identified the lowest point before the post-mortal peak in CO(2) release (PMV). Finally, we pinpointed the sudden drop in at death, where fell outside the 95% confidence intervals of the 5 min period immediately preceding the drop-off (CI). Minimum and maximum metabolic rates were determined using CO(2) traces, and the temperatures corresponding to these identified as T(MetMin) and T(MetMax). For both species, ambient oxygen concentration did not influence CT(min), minimum metabolic rate, or T(MetMin). By contrast, severe hypoxia (2.5% O(2)) caused a 6.9 degrees C decline in activity-based CT(max) for T. molitor and a 10.6 degrees C decline for P. scaber, relative to normoxia (21% O(2)). The magnitude of this decrease differed between methods used to estimated critical thermal limits, highlighting the need for a standard method to determine these endpoints during thermolimit respirometry. Maximum metabolic rate also declined with decreasing ambient oxygen in both species. The combination of increasing metabolic rate and oxygen limitation affected upper thermal limits in these arthropods only in severe hypoxia (2.5% O(2)). In both species, CT(min) and CT(max) responded differently to oxygen limitation, suggesting that this is not a common mechanism coupling upper and lower limits in terrestrial arthropods. PMID:20543119

Stevens, Meagan M; Jackson, Sue; Bester, Susan A; Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L

2010-07-01

259

Comparison of Caenorhabditis elegans NLP peptides with arthropod neuropeptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neuropeptides are small messenger molecules that can be found in all metazoans, where they govern a diverse array of physiological processes. Because neuropeptides seem to be conserved among pest species, selected peptides can be considered as attractive targets for drug discovery. Much can be learned from the model system Caenorhabditis elegans because of the availability of a sequenced genome and state-of-the-art postgenomic technologies that enable characterization of endogenous peptides derived from neuropeptide-like protein (NLP) precursors. Here, we provide an overview of the NLP peptide family in C. elegans and discuss their resemblance with arthropod neuropeptides and their relevance for anthelmintic discovery.

Husson SJ; Lindemans M; Janssen T; Schoofs L

2009-04-01

260

Comparison of Caenorhabditis elegans NLP peptides with arthropod neuropeptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropeptides are small messenger molecules that can be found in all metazoans, where they govern a diverse array of physiological processes. Because neuropeptides seem to be conserved among pest species, selected peptides can be considered as attractive targets for drug discovery. Much can be learned from the model system Caenorhabditis elegans because of the availability of a sequenced genome and state-of-the-art postgenomic technologies that enable characterization of endogenous peptides derived from neuropeptide-like protein (NLP) precursors. Here, we provide an overview of the NLP peptide family in C. elegans and discuss their resemblance with arthropod neuropeptides and their relevance for anthelmintic discovery. PMID:19269897

Husson, Steven J; Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Schoofs, Liliane

2009-03-09

 
 
 
 
261

Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insects and other arthropods appear in pharmacopoeias of Korean traditional medicine, but little was known about their use in modern South Korea. Interviews were conducted with 20 traditional medicine doctors at clinics in South Korea's Kyeong Dong Shijang in Seoul--one of the world's largest traditional drug markets--to learn about current patterns of usage. Seventeen products are prescribed and the use of arthropod drugs is stable or increasing. Centipedes (Scolopendra spp.) used primarily to treat arthritis and the silk moth fungus (Beauveria bassiana, which infects silk moth larvae) used mostly to treat stroke, are the most frequently prescribed and medically important arthropod drugs. Most of the arthropod drugs were traditionally collected or reared on the Korean Peninsula, but now they are imported, mainly from China. Folk logic appears to be the basis for some arthropod drug uses (i.e. centipedes, which have many legs, are used for leg problems). But many of the arthropods have venom and other defensive chemicals which are biologically active. The South Korean use of arthropods as drugs (as well as for food and enjoyment) is due, in part, to more positive attitudes towards these animals compared to many cultures. Arthropods appear to be an unexplored and unexploited source of drugs for modern medicine. PMID:10404418

Pemberton, R W

1999-06-01

262

Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insects and other arthropods appear in pharmacopoeias of Korean traditional medicine, but little was known about their use in modern South Korea. Interviews were conducted with 20 traditional medicine doctors at clinics in South Korea's Kyeong Dong Shijang in Seoul--one of the world's largest traditional drug markets--to learn about current patterns of usage. Seventeen products are prescribed and the use of arthropod drugs is stable or increasing. Centipedes (Scolopendra spp.) used primarily to treat arthritis and the silk moth fungus (Beauveria bassiana, which infects silk moth larvae) used mostly to treat stroke, are the most frequently prescribed and medically important arthropod drugs. Most of the arthropod drugs were traditionally collected or reared on the Korean Peninsula, but now they are imported, mainly from China. Folk logic appears to be the basis for some arthropod drug uses (i.e. centipedes, which have many legs, are used for leg problems). But many of the arthropods have venom and other defensive chemicals which are biologically active. The South Korean use of arthropods as drugs (as well as for food and enjoyment) is due, in part, to more positive attitudes towards these animals compared to many cultures. Arthropods appear to be an unexplored and unexploited source of drugs for modern medicine.

Pemberton RW

1999-06-01

263

Invasibility and species richness of island endemic arthropods: a general model of endemic vs. exotic species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper has two objectives. First, we examine how a variety of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors influence the endemic and introduced arthropod richness on an oceanic island. Second, we look at the relationship between the endemic and introduced arthropod richness, to ask whether areas wi...

Borges, Paulo A. V.; Lobo, Jorge M.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Gaspar, Clara; Melo, Catarina; Nunes, Luis V.

264

Arthropods of Burgess Shale type from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Czech Republic)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rare non-trilobite arthropods, mostly with affinities with the Burgess Shale fauna, are described from the Middle Cambrian Jince Formation of the Barrandian area, Central Bohemia (Czech Republic): Tuzoia sp., another large Tuzoia-like arthropod (probably a new g...

Chlupá? I; Kordule V

265

The Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit: Research program update and current status  

Science.gov (United States)

To accomplish the continuing high containment research mission of the Arthropod Borne Animal Diseases Laboratory (ABADRL) in solving major endemic, emerging, and exotic arthropod-borne disease problems in livestock, the U.S. Senate made the decision to relocate the ABADRL from Laramie, WY to Manhatt...

266

[Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters. PMID:23791057

Yao, Kai-Hu

2013-06-01

267

U.S. Army soldiers' perceptions of arthropod pests and their effects on military missions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey was conducted to determine the effects of biting and stinging arthropods on military personnel, operations, and training. Nearly 70% of respondents reported experiencing problems attributable to arthropods. Arthropods obstructed movement and field position, prevented concealment and cover, disrupted maneuvers, and caused panic. Twenty percent of respondents reported attendance at sick call for treatment of bites or stings, and 4% were hospitalized or assigned to quarters. Median lost time was 2 days. Bee, wasp, and ant stings and spider and chigger bites were the most frequent causes of lost time. Additional training on biting and stinging arthropods, use of repellents and other personal protective measures, first aid for bites and stings, and conditions requiring medical attention is needed in field units to enhance mission performance and reduce time lost because of arthropods. Materials for treatment of bites and stings should be included in first-aid kits issued for field use.

Mehr ZA; Rutledge LC; Echano NM; Gupta RK

1997-12-01

268

Molecular Basis of the Bohr Effect in Arthropod Hemocyanin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flash photolysis and K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were used to investigate the functional and structural effects of pH on the oxygen affinity of three homologous arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs). Flash photolysis measurements showed that the well-characterized pH dependence of oxygen affinity (Bohr effect) is attributable to changes in the oxygen binding rate constant, kon, rather than changes in koff. In parallel, coordination geometry of copper in Hc was evaluated as a function of pH by XAS. It was found that the geometry of copper in the oxygenated protein is unchanged at all pH values investigated, while significant changes were observed for the deoxygenated protein as a function of pH. The interpretation of these changes was based on previously described correlations between spectral lineshape and coordination geometry obtained for model compounds of known structure A pH-dependent change in the geometry of cuprous copper in the active site of deoxyHc, from pseudotetrahedral toward trigonal was assigned from the observed intensity dependence of the 1s ? 4pz transition in x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra. The structural alteration correlated well with increase in oxygen affinity at alkaline pH determined in flash photolysis experiments. These results suggest that the oxygen binding rate in deoxyHc depends on the coordination geometry of Cu(I) and suggest a structural origin for the Bohr effect in arthropod Hcs.

Hirota, S.; Kawahara, T; Beltramini, M; Di Muro, P; Magliozzo, R; Peisach, J; Powers, L; Tanaka, N; Nagao, S; Bubacco, L

2008-01-01

269

Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O porco branco (Sus scrofa) foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise), intumescido (putrefação), deteriorado e seco (diagênese). N? (more) ?o foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condições. Foram registradas quatro classes de Artrópodes: insetos, aranhas (Arachnida), Diplópodes e Crustáceos. Os insetos foram a classe predominante representada por 24 famílias no total de 94% das coletas. Para cada uma das três classes restantes registrou-se apenas uma família no total de 2% das coletas. As moscas das famílias Calliphoridae, Phoridae e Sarcophagidae tomaram lugar e desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres apenas algumas horas após a morte dos animais. As famílias de coleópteros surgiram na fase de putrefação e alimentaram-se de insetos dípteros jovens e dos próprios cadáveres. As formigas (Hymenoptera) ocorreram em grande número para se alimentar dos cadáveres e usurpar, à restante fauna presente, a fonte de alimento. Na fase de deterioração desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres uma espécie de Diptera da família Muscidae e uma de Stratiomydae. Outros insetos dípteros e artrópodes surgiram para se alimentar dos cadáveres sobretudo na fase de deterioração. O ponto de maior riqueza de espécies (S) foi registrado na fase de deterioração dos cadáveres. Abstract in english The domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh, bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. (more) Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera) came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.

Ekanem, M.S.; Dike, Mike C.

2010-01-01

270

Novel infectious agents causing uveitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In any patient with uveitis, an infectious cause should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinician should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular manifestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, Dengue fever, and Chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help establish an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

Khairallah M; Chee SP; Rathinam SR; Attia S; Nadella V

2010-10-01

271

Infectious disease, endangerment, and extinction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

Macphee RD; Greenwood AD

2013-01-01

272

Infectious complications of liver transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sixteen (50%) of the 32 patients who received liver transplantations from October 1991 to March 1993 at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, developed viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. The viral infections were largely a result of immunosuppression while accidental bowel perforation, bile leak at the anastomosis, and delayed onset of stricture of the bile duct anastomosis were responsible for the intra-abdominal bacterial or fungal infections. Although the incidence of infectious complications was high, all patients were managed effectively and only one patient with lymphoproliferative disorder died. Infectious complications can lead to a prolonged hospital stay and a substantially increased hospital cost. The adoption of new immunosuppressive regimes that can better prevent acute graft rejection and adherence to meticulous surgical technique will help to reduce the infectious complications of liver transplantation in the future.

Yuen KY; Lo CM; Fan ST

1997-03-01

273

Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes.

Fork SK

2010-06-01

274

Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes. PMID:20550788

Fork, Susanne K

2010-06-01

275

Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

2012-03-01

276

[Population structure of soil arthropod in different age Pinus massoniana plantations].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the individual density and taxonomic group number among different age P. massoniana plantations. In comparison with other stand age P. massoniana plantations, 3years old P. massoniana plantation had a significant difference in the structure and diversity of soil arthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation.

Tan B; Wu FZ; Yang WQ; Zhang J; Xu ZF; Liu Y; Gou XL

2013-04-01

277

[Population structure of soil arthropod in different age Pinus massoniana plantations].  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the individual density and taxonomic group number among different age P. massoniana plantations. In comparison with other stand age P. massoniana plantations, 3years old P. massoniana plantation had a significant difference in the structure and diversity of soil arthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation. PMID:23898673

Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-zhong; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Zhen-feng; Liu, Yang; Gou, Xiao-lin

2013-04-01

278

Decomposition and Arthropod Succession in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forensic arthropod succession patterns are known to vary between regions. However, the northern habitats of the globe have been largely left unstudied. Three pig carcasses were studied outdoors in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Adult and immature insects were collected for identification and comparison. The dominant Diptera and Coleoptera species at all carcasses were Protophormia terraneovae (R-D) (Fam: Calliphoridae) and Thanatophilus lapponicus (Herbst) (Fam: Silphidae), respectively. Rate of decomposition, patterns of Diptera and Coleoptera succession, and species dominance were shown to differ from previous studies in temperate regions, particularly as P. terraenovae showed complete dominance among blowfly species. Rate of decomposition through the first four stages was generally slow, and the last stage of decomposition was not observed at any carcass due to time constraints. It is concluded that biogeoclimatic range has a significant effect on insect presence and rate of decomposition, making it an important factor to consider when calculating a postmortem interval.

Bygarski K; Leblanc HN

2012-12-01

279

Decomposition and Arthropod Succession in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forensic arthropod succession patterns are known to vary between regions. However, the northern habitats of the globe have been largely left unstudied. Three pig carcasses were studied outdoors in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Adult and immature insects were collected for identification and comparison. The dominant Diptera and Coleoptera species at all carcasses were Protophormia terraneovae (R-D) (Fam: Calliphoridae) and Thanatophilus lapponicus (Herbst) (Fam: Silphidae), respectively. Rate of decomposition, patterns of Diptera and Coleoptera succession, and species dominance were shown to differ from previous studies in temperate regions, particularly as P. terraenovae showed complete dominance among blowfly species. Rate of decomposition through the first four stages was generally slow, and the last stage of decomposition was not observed at any carcass due to time constraints. It is concluded that biogeoclimatic range has a significant effect on insect presence and rate of decomposition, making it an important factor to consider when calculating a postmortem interval. PMID:23278195

Bygarski, Katherine; Leblanc, Helene N

2012-12-27

280

Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms) associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM) and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis). The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

F. Palla; L. Sineo; Barbara Manachini

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships of major arthropod clades have long been contentious, but refinements in molecular phylogenetics underpin an emerging consensus. Nevertheless, molecular phylogenies have recovered topologies that morphological phylogenies have not, including the placement of hexapods within a paraphyletic Crustacea, and an alliance between myriapods and chelicerates. Here we show enhanced congruence between molecular and morphological phylogenies based on 753 morphological characters for 309 fossil and Recent panarthropods. We resolve hexapods within Crustacea, with remipedes as their closest extant relatives, and show that the traditionally close relationship between myriapods and hexapods is an artefact of convergent character acquisition during terrestrialisation. The inclusion of fossil morphology mitigates long-branch artefacts as exemplified by pycnogonids: when fossils are included, they resolve with euchelicerates rather than as a sister taxon to all other euarthropods.

Legg DA; Sutton MD; Edgecombe GD

2013-01-01

282

Arthropod symbiotes of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropod symbiotes of the Laotian rock-rat, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae), from Laos are examined. This host is a member of Diatomyidae previously thought to have gone extinct >10 million yr ago. Permanent symbiotes are represented by 2 species, a new species of sucking louse, Polyplax sp., near rhizomydis (Phthiraptera:Polyplacidae), and a new species of fur mite, Afrolistrophorus sp., near maculatus (Acariformes:Listrophoridae). The temporary parasites are represented by 18 species, i.e., 1 mesostigmatan species, i.e., a new species of Androlaelaps near casalis (Parasitiformes:Laelapidae); immature stages of 2 tick species, Ixodes granulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. (Parasitiformes:Ixodidae); and a rich fauna of chiggers (Acariformes:Trombiculidae) comprising 8 genera and 15 species. It is hypothesized that this host completely lost its initial fauna of ectosymbiotes and that ancestors of the recorded symbiotes switched to this host from rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.

Bochkov AV; Abramov AV; Durden LA; Apanaskevich DA; Stekolnikov AA; Stanyukovich MK; Gnophanxay S; Tikhonov AN

2011-04-01

283

Arthropod symbiotes of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod symbiotes of the Laotian rock-rat, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae), from Laos are examined. This host is a member of Diatomyidae previously thought to have gone extinct >10 million yr ago. Permanent symbiotes are represented by 2 species, a new species of sucking louse, Polyplax sp., near rhizomydis (Phthiraptera:Polyplacidae), and a new species of fur mite, Afrolistrophorus sp., near maculatus (Acariformes:Listrophoridae). The temporary parasites are represented by 18 species, i.e., 1 mesostigmatan species, i.e., a new species of Androlaelaps near casalis (Parasitiformes:Laelapidae); immature stages of 2 tick species, Ixodes granulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. (Parasitiformes:Ixodidae); and a rich fauna of chiggers (Acariformes:Trombiculidae) comprising 8 genera and 15 species. It is hypothesized that this host completely lost its initial fauna of ectosymbiotes and that ancestors of the recorded symbiotes switched to this host from rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. PMID:21506873

Bochkov, A V; Abramov, A V; Durden, L A; Apanaskevich, D A; Stekolnikov, A A; Stanyukovich, M K; Gnophanxay, S; Tikhonov, A N

2010-10-20

284

Particle films for managing arthropod pests of apple.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). PMID:18330129

Bostanian, N J; Racette, G

2008-02-01

285

Particle films for managing arthropod pests of apple.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

Bostanian NJ; Racette G

2008-02-01

286

Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information) files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9%) cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0%) cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7%) and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4%) cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for people, especially for those living in rural areas.

Danon Clemes Cardoso; Maykon Passos Cristiano

2009-01-01

287

Future rainfall patterns will reduce arthropod abundance in model arable agroecosystems with different soil types  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change scenarios for eastern Austria predict a seasonal shift in precipitation patterns with fewer but heavier rainfall events and longer drought periods during the growing season and more precipitation during winter. This is expected to alter arthropods living in natural and agricultural ecosystems with consequences for several ecosystem functions and services. In order to better understand the effects of future rainfall patterns on aboveground arthropods inhabiting an agroecosystem, we conducted an experiment where we simulated rainfall patterns in model arable systems with three different soil types. Experiments were conducted in winter wheat cultivated in a lysimeter facility near Vienna, Austria, where three different soil types (calcaric phaeozem, calcic chernozem and gleyic phaeozem) were subjected to long-term current vs. predicted rainfall patterns according to regionalized climate change projections for 2071-2100. Aboveground arthropods were assessed by suction sampling in April, May and June 2012. We found significant differences in mean total arthropod abundances between the sampling dates with 20 ± 2 m-2, 90 ± 20 m-2 and 289 ± 54 m-2 in April, May and June, respectively. Across all three sampling dates, future rainfall patterns significantly reduced the abundance of Araneae (-43%), Auchenorrhyncha (-39%), Coleoptera (-48%), Carabidae (-41%), Chrysomelidae (-64%), Collembola (-58%), Diptera (-75%) and Neuroptera (-73%). Generally, different soil types had no effect on the abundance of arthropods. The diversity of arthropod communities was unaffected by rainfall patterns or soil types. Correlation analyses of arthropod abundances with crop biomass, weed density and abundance suggest that rainfall effects indirectly affected arthropods via changes on crops and weeds. In conclusion, these results show that future rainfall patterns will have detrimental effects on the abundance of a variety of aboveground arthropods in winter wheat with potential consequences for their role as herbivores, biological control agents or food source for predatory fauna within agroecosystems.

Zaller, Johann; Simmer, Laura; Tabi Tataw, James; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas

2013-04-01

288

Arthropods the Medicinal Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information) files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence come had increased along of the years. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9%) cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0%) cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7%) and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4%) cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the hosted months, increase in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of the accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. One group of researchers had last 5 years had been studying the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with more different kinds of poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for people, especially for families living in rural areas.

Danon C. Cardoso; Maykon P. Cristiano

2009-01-01

289

New insights on arthropod toxins that potentiate erectile function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of natural substances for the treatment of diseases or injuries is an ancient practice of many cultures. According to folklore, natural aphrodisiacs may help to raise libido and increase desire. The supposed aphrodisiacs mainly include a plethora of preparations of plants, among other substances. However, the real boundary between myth and reality has not been established yet in most cases and such boundaries must be drawn by scientific methods. A growing interest of the scientific community has been focused on animal venoms, especially those from arthropods, i.e. spiders and scorpions, which cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. This review highlights the studies that have been performed with venoms and toxins from arthropods known to cause priapism, among other toxic symptoms, pointing out some pharmacological approaches for better understanding this effect. To date, the venom of some spiders, mainly Phoneutria nigriventer, and scorpions, such as the yellow South American scorpion Tityus serrulatus, among others, have been known to cause priapism. Since erectile dysfunction (ED) is a growing health problem in the world, more common in patients with vascular diseases as diabetes and hypertension, the use of animal venoms and toxins as pharmacological tools could not only shed light to the mechanisms involved in erectile function, but also represent a possible model for new drugs to treat ED. Unfortunately, attempts to correlate the structure of those priapism-related toxins were unfruitful. Such difficulties lie firstly on the poor data concerning purified priapism-related toxins, instead of whole venoms and/or semi-purified fractions, and secondly, on the scarce available primary sequences and structural data, mainly from spider toxins. It has been shown that all these toxins modify the sodium (Na(+)) channel activity, mostly slowing down its inactivation current. Improving the knowledge on the tertiary structure of these toxins could provide a key in the search of a new drug for ED treatment. PMID:23583324

Nunes, Kenia P; Torres, Fernanda S; Borges, Marcia H; Matavel, Alessandra; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria E

2013-04-10

290

New insights on arthropod toxins that potentiate erectile function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of natural substances for the treatment of diseases or injuries is an ancient practice of many cultures. According to folklore, natural aphrodisiacs may help to raise libido and increase desire. The supposed aphrodisiacs mainly include a plethora of preparations of plants, among other substances. However, the real boundary between myth and reality has not been established yet in most cases and such boundaries must be drawn by scientific methods. A growing interest of the scientific community has been focused on animal venoms, especially those from arthropods, i.e. spiders and scorpions, which cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. This review highlights the studies that have been performed with venoms and toxins from arthropods known to cause priapism, among other toxic symptoms, pointing out some pharmacological approaches for better understanding this effect. To date, the venom of some spiders, mainly Phoneutria nigriventer, and scorpions, such as the yellow South American scorpion Tityus serrulatus, among others, have been known to cause priapism. Since erectile dysfunction (ED) is a growing health problem in the world, more common in patients with vascular diseases as diabetes and hypertension, the use of animal venoms and toxins as pharmacological tools could not only shed light to the mechanisms involved in erectile function, but also represent a possible model for new drugs to treat ED. Unfortunately, attempts to correlate the structure of those priapism-related toxins were unfruitful. Such difficulties lie firstly on the poor data concerning purified priapism-related toxins, instead of whole venoms and/or semi-purified fractions, and secondly, on the scarce available primary sequences and structural data, mainly from spider toxins. It has been shown that all these toxins modify the sodium (Na(+)) channel activity, mostly slowing down its inactivation current. Improving the knowledge on the tertiary structure of these toxins could provide a key in the search of a new drug for ED treatment.

Nunes KP; Torres FS; Borges MH; Matavel A; Pimenta AM; De Lima ME

2013-07-01

291

The arthropod, but not the vertebrate host or its environment, dictates bacterial community composition of fleas and ticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial community composition in blood-sucking arthropods can shift dramatically across time and space. We used 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to investigate the relative impact of vertebrate host-related, arthropod-related and environmental factors on bacterial community composition in fleas and ticks collected from rodents in southern Indiana (USA). Bacterial community composition was largely affected by arthropod identity, but not by the rodent host or environmental conditions. Specifically, the arthropod group (fleas vs ticks) determined the community composition of bacteria, where bacterial communities of ticks were less diverse and more dependent on arthropod traits--especially tick species and life stage--than bacterial communities of fleas. Our data suggest that both arthropod life histories and the presence of arthropod-specific endosymbionts may mask the effects of the vertebrate host and its environment. PMID:22739493

Hawlena, Hadas; Rynkiewicz, Evelyn; Toh, Evelyn; Alfred, Andrew; Durden, Lance A; Hastriter, Michael W; Nelson, David E; Rong, Ruichen; Munro, Daniel; Dong, Qunfeng; Fuqua, Clay; Clay, Keith

2012-06-28

292

[Infectious mononucleosis and severe thrombocytopenia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infectious mononucleosis by Epstein-Barr virus is usually a benign self-limiting disease. We present two cases admitted in the same week, with suspected co-infection by other viruses (cytomegalovirus and human herpes virus 6), which showed severe thrombocytopenia in the acute phase of the disease. The progress and treatment were different in each case.

Lucas Sendra R; Velilla Antolín D; Mares Diago FJ; Plaza Miranda MA; Navarro Ortega D

2012-09-01

293

[Infectious complications after kidney transplantation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The review of literature presents the current view of domestic and foreign authors on the frequency of infectious complications after kidney transplantation, their etiology, timing of emergence, and the spectrum of bacterial pathogens. Data on the effects of bacterial complications on the function of renal transplant and recipient survival are also demonstrated.

Vatazin AV; Dutov VV; Zul'karnaev AB; Fedulkina VA; Krstich M

2013-05-01

294

New challenges in infectious diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the behaviour of infectious disease is particularly difficult because it is inextricably linked with microbial mutation and the potentially rapid expression of that change. Nevertheless, the dominant issue in infectious disease in New Zealand into the 1990s, and perhaps in all medicine, is the impact of the spread of HIV infection. Many other new agents and new causes for old familiar syndromes have also been unearthed in recent years and will continue to be so. We need to continue to explore aetiology, mechanisms of prevention and treatment for both the old and the new infectious diseases. Optimal vaccine delivery to those who most need it is a continuing challenge. New vaccines coming will complicate this. In treatment there has been a refreshing shift from chemotherapy to alternative approaches, perhaps summarised as attempts to enhance host immunity. All these treatments will need to be evaluated, and potentially uncomfortable cost benefit decisions made about the relative needs of all these competing costs in our health service. There are enormous research implications in this for basic scientists, laboratory microbiologists, infectious disease physicians and those in community health. PMID:3141853

Ellis-Pegler, R B

1988-10-26

295

New challenges in infectious diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predicting the behaviour of infectious disease is particularly difficult because it is inextricably linked with microbial mutation and the potentially rapid expression of that change. Nevertheless, the dominant issue in infectious disease in New Zealand into the 1990s, and perhaps in all medicine, is the impact of the spread of HIV infection. Many other new agents and new causes for old familiar syndromes have also been unearthed in recent years and will continue to be so. We need to continue to explore aetiology, mechanisms of prevention and treatment for both the old and the new infectious diseases. Optimal vaccine delivery to those who most need it is a continuing challenge. New vaccines coming will complicate this. In treatment there has been a refreshing shift from chemotherapy to alternative approaches, perhaps summarised as attempts to enhance host immunity. All these treatments will need to be evaluated, and potentially uncomfortable cost benefit decisions made about the relative needs of all these competing costs in our health service. There are enormous research implications in this for basic scientists, laboratory microbiologists, infectious disease physicians and those in community health.

Ellis-Pegler RB

1988-10-01

296

Global Spread of Infectious Diseases  

CERN Multimedia

We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

Hsu, S

2003-01-01

297

Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although plant-arthropod relationships underpin the dramatic rise in diversity and ecological dominance of flowering plants and their associated arthropods, direct observations of such interactions in the fossil record are rare, as these ephemeral moments are difficult to preserve. Three-dimensionally preserved charred remains of Chloranthistemon flowers from the Late Albian to Early Cenomanian of Germany preserve scales of mosquitoes and an oribatid mite with mouthparts inserted into the pollen sac. Mosquitoes, which today are frequent nectar feeders, and the mite were feeding on pollen at the time wildfire consumed the flowers. These findings document directly arthropod feeding strategies and their role in decomposition.

Hartkopf-Fröder C; Rust J; Wappler T; Friis EM; Viehofen A

2012-04-01

298

HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE PALSY DUE TO INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mononeuritis is least reported complication of infectious mononucleosis. A case of hypoglossal nerve palsydue to infectious mononucleosis is reported and other reported cases are reviewed. The prognosis for completerecovery is good.

Muhammad Ajmal

1995-01-01

299

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research progress in the following areas is briefly summarized: (1) microarthropod effects on microbial immobilization of nutrients during decomposition; and (2) effects of arthropods on decomposition rates of unconfined leaf litter

1985-01-01

300

Soil-inhabiting arthropods as indicators of environmental quality. [Collembola; Cryptostigmata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil-inhibiting arthropods such as Collembola, Cryptostigmata and termites as indicators of various environmental gradients and air pollution, being considered both as biotic indices and bioassay monitors, are reported and discussed.

Reddy, M.V.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Parasitic and phoretic arthropods of the elephant-eared and the Santa Cruz kangaroo rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The parasitic and phoretic arthropods of the elephant-eared kangaroo rat (Dipodomys elephantinus) and Santa Cruz kangaroo rat (D. venustus) are reported; most of these represent new host records. Thirteen of 14 (93%) of D. elephantinus and 11 of 12 (92%) of D. venustus had 11 and nine arthropod species, respectively. Larval and nymphal stages of the tick Dermacentor occidentalis were the most prevalent parasite (77%) on D. elephantinus whereas the mesostigmatid mite Androlaelaps fahrenholzi was the most prevalent (56%) on D. venustus. The arthropod fauna of these two closely related rodents were similar with seven of the 14 arthropod species occurring on both host species. Two species of the host specific listrophorid mite of the genus Geomylichus were found on both hosts. PMID:2067062

Thomas, H H; Best, T L; Lydeard, C

1991-04-01

302

Parasitic and phoretic arthropods of the elephant-eared and the Santa Cruz kangaroo rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The parasitic and phoretic arthropods of the elephant-eared kangaroo rat (Dipodomys elephantinus) and Santa Cruz kangaroo rat (D. venustus) are reported; most of these represent new host records. Thirteen of 14 (93%) of D. elephantinus and 11 of 12 (92%) of D. venustus had 11 and nine arthropod species, respectively. Larval and nymphal stages of the tick Dermacentor occidentalis were the most prevalent parasite (77%) on D. elephantinus whereas the mesostigmatid mite Androlaelaps fahrenholzi was the most prevalent (56%) on D. venustus. The arthropod fauna of these two closely related rodents were similar with seven of the 14 arthropod species occurring on both host species. Two species of the host specific listrophorid mite of the genus Geomylichus were found on both hosts.

Thomas HH; Best TL; Lydeard C

1991-04-01

303

The importance of beta diversity in local gall-inducing arthropod distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies over the past twenty years have documented the richness of arthropod galling species around the world, and some have proposed hypotheses to explain local and global patterns of galling species richness. However, few studies have been directed toward understanding how the gall-inducing species are locally distributed. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of gall-inducing arthropods species at Coiba National Park, a tropical habitat on the Pacific coast of Panama. Our results suggest that more gall-inducing species had an aggregated distribution, and gall-inducing arthropod diversity shows a strong beta diversity component. Geographic distance was not correlated with similarity in gall-inducing species composition between the studied sites. This fact has important implications when trying to estimate gall-inducing arthropod richness and general patterns, and could cause contradictory results for hypotheses that attempt to explain the local and global patterns of galling species richness.

Enrique Medianero; Alicia Ibáñez; José L Nieves-Aldrey

2010-01-01

304

ANTI-ARTHROPOD VECTOR VACCINES METHODS OF SELECTING AND USES THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides methods of selecting and uses of anti-arthropod vector vaccines to prevent Leishmaniases. The present invention also provides compositions for vaccines to prevent Leishmaniases.

VALENZUELA Jesus G.; BELKAID Yasmine; KAMHAWI Shaden; SACKS David; RIBEIRO Jose M.C.

305

Faunal turnover of arthropod assemblages along a wide gradient of disturbance in Gabon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

on arthropods, including more than 400 000 individuals, from which 21 focal taxa were separated into 1534 morphospecies by parataxonomists. Replication included the understorey of three sites in each of four d...

Basset, Yves; Missa, Oliver; Alonso, Alfonso; Miller, Scott E.; Curletti, G.; De Meyer, Marc; Eardley, C.D.; Mansell, Mervyn W.

306

Dynamics of the leaf-litter arthropod fauna following fire in a neotropical woodland savanna.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade) were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover) and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover). Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire return interval of only 1-2 years may jeopardize the long-term conservation of litter arthropod communities.

Vasconcelos HL; Pacheco R; Silva RC; Vasconcelos PB; Lopes CT; Costa AN; Bruna EM

2009-01-01

307

Infectious diseases and social stigma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stigma creates a barrier between the sick and the rest of society that prevents them from acting on their instinctive desire to seek curative treatment that will enable them to reenter into their every day social activity. For these ailing persons, the cost of being stigmatized far outweighs the desire to rehabilitate their lifestyle. Further, social stigma associated with infectious disease undermines the overall health of society, and the effectiveness of community efforts to offer unabridged healthcare services to treat and prevent the spread of communicable disease. In the wake of the latest pandemic influenza outbreak, the global community witnessed how under the stress H1N1, communities, regions, and countries can suffer socially and economically. Our research finds a statistically significant relationship between infectious disease and social stigma. We also identify the role the media plays in exacerbating this issue, and address preliminary policy implications to mitigate these issues in the future.

Joan L. Williams; Diego J. Gonzalez-Medina; Quan Vu Le

2011-01-01

308

Infectious diseases and social stigma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stigma creates a barrier between the sick and the rest of society that prevents them from acting on their instinctive desire to seek curative treatment that will enable them to reenter into their every day social activity. For these ailing persons, the cost of beingstigmatized far outweighs the desire to rehabilitate their lifestyle. Further, social stigma associated with infectious disease undermines the overall health of society, and the effectiveness of community efforts to offer unabridged healthcare services to treatand prevent the spread of communicable disease. In the wake of the latest pandemic influenza outbreak, the global community witnessed how under the stress H1N1, communities, regions, and countries can suffer socially and economically. Our research finds a statistically significant relationship between infectious diseaseand social stigma. We also identify the role the media plays in exacerbating this issue, and address preliminary policy implications to mitigate these issues in the future.

Joan L. Williams; Diego J. Gonzalez-Medina; Quan Vu Le

2011-01-01

309

[Neuroradiologic emergencies in infectious pathology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main goal of urgent imaging evaluation of patients with suspected CNS infection is to differentiate infectious from tumoral or vascular lesions in order to provide appropriate management. MR imaging, including diffusion weighted imaging and spectroscopy, is superior to CT imaging to characterize lesion location and etiology. The CT and MRI features of the more frequent bacterial, viral and parasitic CNS infections will be described.

Ben Salem D; Perouse De Montclos E; Couaillier JF; Martin D; Krausé D; Brunotte F; Ricolfi F

2004-09-01

310

Impact of deltamethrin on arthropods in maize under conventional and no-tillage cultivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insecticides are frequently applied to tropical maize crops, but little is known about their impact on the associated arthropod assemblage. The response of the arthropod assemblage to deltamethrin application was assessed in three maize fields subjected to either conventional or no-tillage cultivation, with or without deltamethrin application. Arthropods were sampled before and after insecticide application. There was a significant effect of the cultivation system on the arthropod assemblage. The no-tillage cultivation system was able to buffer the impact of the insecticide on the arthropod assemblage, minimizing its effect. This did not occur in the conventional cultivation system where deltamethrin significantly decreased arthropod abundance in the maize canopy. Among the 23 taxa collected, the herbivore species Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Dalbulus maidis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and the predators Orius sp. (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were the main contributors to the existing variance. Among these six species, only D. speciosa showed negligible contribution to the divergence among treatments. There was significant correlation between herbivores and predators; for example, the earwig D. luteipes showed a significant negative correlation with S. frugiperda and D. maidis.

Badji CA; Guedes RNC; Silva AA; Araujo RA

2004-11-01

311

Fluctuations in Availability of Arthropods Correlated with Microchiropteran and Avian Predator Activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aerial arthropods were sampled by driving a standard transect along the riparian forest of the Luvuvhu River, South Africa, to assess hourly and seasonal variations in available biomass. Sampling, with an air-plankton net mounted on a vehicle, was conducted hourly over 48-hour periods during the fullest phase of the moon for each of eight months during 1986/87. Seasonal variation in availability of terrestrial arthropods was assessed by means of six pitfall traps set in the riparian forest. On a daily basis, the available biomass of aerial arthropods was found to increase markedly at and during the two hours following sunset, with a slight peak at or in the two hours preceding dawn. Highest monthly availability was found to correspond with the warm summer rainy season, with a marked increase after the first rains. The peak for terrestrial arthropods was found to occur later in the summer than for aerial arthropods. These patterns of arthropod availability correlate well with the daily activity rhythms and seasonal reproduc- tion of microchiropteran bats and their avian predators.

I.L. Rautenbach; A.C. Kemp; C.H. Scholtz

1988-01-01

312

Relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and diversity are altered by complementarity among plant genotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biodiversity is quantified via richness (e.g., the number of species), evenness (the relative abundance distribution of those species), or proportional diversity (a combination of richness and evenness, such as the Shannon index, H'). While empirical studies show no consistent relationship between these aspects of biodiversity within communities, the mechanisms leading to inconsistent relationships have received little attention. Here, using common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and its associated arthropod community, we show that relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity are altered by plant genotypic richness. Arthropod richness increased with O. biennis genotypic richness due to an abundance-driven accumulation of species in response to greater plant biomass. Arthropod evenness and proportional diversity decreased with plant genotypic richness due to a nonadditive increase in abundance of a dominant arthropod, the generalist florivore/omnivore Plagiognathas politus (Miridae). The greater quantity of flowers and buds produced in polycultures-which resulted from positive complementarity among O. biennis genotypes-increased the abundance of this dominant insect. Using choice bioassays, we show that floral quality did not change in plant genotypic mixtures. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic richness can modify relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity. More broadly, our results suggest that trophic interactions may be a previously underappreciated factor controlling relationships between these different aspects of biodiversity.

McArt SH; Cook-Patton SC; Thaler JS

2012-04-01

313

Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.

Gonçalves MF; Pereira JA

2012-01-01

314

Infectious pathogens and hematologic malignancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infectious pathogens have been linked to the genesis of malignancy in a variety of different settings. Initial studies in virology led to the important discovery of key genetic alterations underlying common malignancies, and further, lent support to the notion that malignancy can be promoted by the process of viral infection and cellular transformation. In this review, we summarize a series of hematologic malignancies with derivations from and associations with infectious organisms. Among these are a variety of lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease), Burkitt lymphoma, and a host of other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Through innovative and ground-breaking studies, some of these malignancies have been directly linked to viral infection, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), while others have been merely associated with infection through epidemiologic studies and case-reports. Some malignancies have been demonstrated to be caused by viral infection, such as adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATLL), which is caused by the human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), in certain endemic area. In the future, additional malignant states may be found to be associated with infectious etiology, which could allow for novel approaches to prevention and treatment.

Sadrzadeh H; Abtahi SM; Fathi AT

2012-12-01

315

Infectious pathogens and hematologic malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious pathogens have been linked to the genesis of malignancy in a variety of different settings. Initial studies in virology led to the important discovery of key genetic alterations underlying common malignancies, and further, lent support to the notion that malignancy can be promoted by the process of viral infection and cellular transformation. In this review, we summarize a series of hematologic malignancies with derivations from and associations with infectious organisms. Among these are a variety of lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease), Burkitt lymphoma, and a host of other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Through innovative and ground-breaking studies, some of these malignancies have been directly linked to viral infection, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), while others have been merely associated with infection through epidemiologic studies and case-reports. Some malignancies have been demonstrated to be caused by viral infection, such as adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATLL), which is caused by the human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), in certain endemic area. In the future, additional malignant states may be found to be associated with infectious etiology, which could allow for novel approaches to prevention and treatment. PMID:23272694

Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Abtahi, Seyed M; Fathi, Amir T

2012-12-01

316

CT evaluation of infectious colitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-08-01

317

CT evaluation of infectious colitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

2002-01-01

318

The infectious burden in atherothrombosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves multiple mechanisms, including imbalanced lipid metabolism, disturbed equilibrium of the immune response, and chronic inflammation of the artery wall. Several reports have shown a relationship between the development of atherosclerosis and the presence of infectious diseases, widely occurring in the general population, often chronic and/or asymptomatic. Beyond Chlamydia pneumoniae, a large number of infectious agents have been linked with an increased risk of vascular disease, with variable strength of supporting data: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Helicobacter pylori, influenza A virus, herpes virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Infections may contribute to atherosclerosis either via direct infection of vascular cells or via the indirect effects of cytokines or acute phase proteins induced by infection at "nonvascular" sites. More recently, investigators reported that the aggregate burden ("infectious burden") of these chronic infections, rather than the effects of a single organism, might contribute to atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications. However, the role of infection, as a proinflammatory cause of atherosclerosis, is still debated in the literature. This article will review available data suggesting a relationship between different infective pathogens and atherothrombosis, the hypothesized mechanisms, and the potential role for antimicrobial treatment.

Tufano A; Di Capua M; Coppola A; Conca P; Cimino E; Cerbone AM; Di Minno G

2012-07-01

319

Silurian horseshoe crab illuminates the evolution of arthropod limbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The basic arrangement of limbs in euarthropods consists of a uniramous head appendage followed by a series of biramous appendages. The body is divided into functional units or tagmata which are usually distinguished by further differentiation of the limbs. The living horseshoe crabs are remnants of a much larger diversity of aquatic chelicerates. The limbs of the anterior and posterior divisions of the body of living horseshoe crabs differ in the loss of the outer and inner ramus, respectively, of an ancestral biramous limb. Here we report a new fossil horseshoe crab from the mid-Silurian Lagerstätte in Herefordshire, United Kingdom (approximately 425 Myr B.P.), a site that has yielded a remarkably preserved assemblage of soft-bodied fossils. The limbs of the new form can be homologized with those of living Limulus, but retain an ancestral biramous morphology. Remarkably, however, the two limb branches originate separately, providing fossil evidence to suggest that repression or loss of gene expression might have given rise to the appendage morphology of Limulus. Both branches of the prosomal limbs of this new fossil are robust and segmented in contrast to their morphology in Cambrian arthropods, revealing that a true biramous limb was once present in chelicerates as well as in the mandibulates.

Briggs DE; Siveter DJ; Siveter DJ; Sutton MD; Garwood RJ; Legg D

2012-09-01

320

Linking membrane physical properties and low temperature tolerance in arthropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maintenance of membrane fluidity is of crucial importance in ectotherms experiencing thermal changes. This maintenance has in ectotherms most often been indicated using indirect measures of biochemical changes of phospholipid membranes, which is then assumed to modulate the physico-chemical properties of the membrane. Here, we measure bending rigidity characterizing the membrane flexibility of re-constituted membrane vesicles to provide a more direct link between membrane physical characteristics and low temperature tolerance. Bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was measured in vitro using Giant Unilamellar Vesicles formed from phospholipid extracts of the springtail, Folsomia candida. The bending rigidity of these membranes decreased when exposed to 0.4 vol% ethanol (0.23 mM/L). Springtails exposed to ethanol for 24 hours significantly increased their cold shock tolerance. Thus, by chemically inducing decreased membrane rigidity, we have shown a direct link between the physico-chemical properties of the membranes and the capacity to tolerate low temperature in a chill-susceptible arthropod.

Waagner D; Bouvrais H; Ipsen JH; Holmstrup M

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

A color-mediated mutualism between two arthropod predators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nature of interactions between animals varies depending on local selection pressure, trophic status of the participants, and evolutionary circumstances. Body coloration and other visual signals may also affect animal interactions. Game theory posits that if one species provides a "service" in exchange for a "goods," a mutualism may ensue. Mutualisms between two predators are rare because of multiple conflicts of interests (but see [11, 12]). We used a nocturnal system traditionally considered kleptoparasitic to determine whether a mutualism ensues because the body coloration of the kleptoparasite is beneficial to the host. Specifically, we tested whether the silver body of the spider Argyrodes fissifrons (Theridiidae) attracts prey for the larger, duller spider Cyrtophora unicolor (Araneidae), which reciprocates by allowing A. fissifrons access to its web. When A. fissifrons were removed from C. unicolor webs, the webs intercepted fewer prey. Furthermore, covering the silver body parts of A. fissifrons also resulted in a reduction in prey interception by C. unicolor webs. We thus show that a mutualism between two arthropod predators can be mediated by the coloration of one species enhancing the foraging gains of another.

Peng P; Blamires SJ; Agnarsson I; Lin HC; Tso IM

2013-01-01

322

Transient behavior of cadmium in a grassland arthropod food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day-1) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day-1). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues

1975-01-01

323

An arthropod deterrent attracts specialised bees to their host plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many bee species are adapted to just a few specific plants in order to collect pollen (oligolecty). To reproduce successfully, it is important for oligolectic bees to find and recognise the specific host flowers. In this study, we investigated the role of floral volatiles used by an oligolectic bee to recognise its host plants. We compared the attractiveness of natural and synthetic scent samples of host flowers to foraging-naïve and -experienced Hoplitis adunca (Megachilidae) bees that are specialised on Echium and Pontechium (Boraginaceae) plants. The investigations showed that naïve H. adunca females are attracted to 1,4-benzoquinone. During their lifetime, bees learn additional floral cues while foraging on host flowers. In contrast to naïve ones, experienced H. adunca females use, in addition to 1,4-benzoquinone, other compounds to recognise their host plants. 1,4-Benzoquinone is an uncommon floral compound only known from the host plants of H. adunca, and is therefore ideally suited to be used as a plant-specific recognition cue. Several arthropods use this compound to deter insect predators. Therefore, 1,4-benzoquinone as an attractant in Echium flowers may have evolved from a primary function as a defensive compound against insect herbivores. PMID:21964494

Burger, Hannah; Dötterl, Stefan; Häberlein, Christopher M; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

2011-10-02

324

An arthropod deterrent attracts specialised bees to their host plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many bee species are adapted to just a few specific plants in order to collect pollen (oligolecty). To reproduce successfully, it is important for oligolectic bees to find and recognise the specific host flowers. In this study, we investigated the role of floral volatiles used by an oligolectic bee to recognise its host plants. We compared the attractiveness of natural and synthetic scent samples of host flowers to foraging-naïve and -experienced Hoplitis adunca (Megachilidae) bees that are specialised on Echium and Pontechium (Boraginaceae) plants. The investigations showed that naïve H. adunca females are attracted to 1,4-benzoquinone. During their lifetime, bees learn additional floral cues while foraging on host flowers. In contrast to naïve ones, experienced H. adunca females use, in addition to 1,4-benzoquinone, other compounds to recognise their host plants. 1,4-Benzoquinone is an uncommon floral compound only known from the host plants of H. adunca, and is therefore ideally suited to be used as a plant-specific recognition cue. Several arthropods use this compound to deter insect predators. Therefore, 1,4-benzoquinone as an attractant in Echium flowers may have evolved from a primary function as a defensive compound against insect herbivores.

Burger H; Dötterl S; Häberlein CM; Schulz S; Ayasse M

2012-03-01

325

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1980-October 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Progress and current status are reported for research projects concerned with mineral element and nutrient dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer analogs of nutrients. This year, emphasis has been placed on field work in which soil arthropod population size and nutrients inputs were varied experimentally. The presence of microarthropods in field microcosms increased the mineralization of N and P in each case, but rates were not correlated with arthropod densities. Experiments recently started are using both arthropod and microfloral inhibitors, in open systems on the forest floor, with the objective of quantifying arthropod enhancement of microbial immobilization of nutrients

1980-01-01

326

Use of Google EarthTM to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments/ Utilisation de Google EarthTM pour renforcer les capacités de la santé publique et faciliter la prise en charge des maladies à transmission vectorielle dans les environnements pauvres en ressources/ Uso de Google EarthTM para fortalecer la capacidad de salud pública y facilitar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en entornos con recursos escasos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Se necesitan soluciones novedosas y de bajo costo para mejorar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y de otro tipo en los entornos con recursos escasos. Las nuevas opciones de software gratuito que dan acceso a imágenes por satélite y a instrumentos de edición sencillos (por ejemplo Google EarthTM) complementan el software del sistema de información geográfica (SIG) existente y brindan nuevas oportunidades para: (i) reforzar la capacida (more) d global de salud pública mediante la elaboración de información para infraestructuras urbanas; y (ii) mostrar los datos de salud pública directamente en una imagen del entorno físico. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron imágenes por satélite de libre acceso y una serie de prestaciones de generación de detalles incluidas en el software (que permiten crear polígonos, líneas y puntos) para añadir información sobre las infraestructuras urbanas y representar datos sobre las enfermedades en el marco de un sistema de apoyo decisional para el dengue (DDSS). RESULTADOS: Se utilizaron dos ciudades de México (Chetumal y Mérida) para demostrar que es posible desarrollar rápidamente y con un costo mínimo una representación básica de la infraestructura urbana que revista utilidad como urdimbre espacial en un DDSS. Las capas de información generadas comprendían polígonos etiquetados que representaban cuadras, líneas que reproducían las calles, y puntos que indicaban la localización de las escuelas y los dispensarios. Las cuadras se codificaron mediante colores en función de los casos de dengue. Las capas de información se pudieron importar satisfactoriamente a un software SIG en el formato conocido como shapefiles. CONCLUSIÓN: La combinación de Google EarthTM y software SIG gratuito (por ejemplo, HealthMapper, desarrollado por la OMS, y SIGEpi, desarrollado por la OPS) brinda enormes posibilidades para reforzar la capacidad general de salud pública y facilitar la aplicación de sistemas de apoyo decisional a la prevención y el control de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en los entornos con recursos escasos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google EarthTM) complement existing geographic information system (GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display (more) of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. METHODS: We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. FINDINGS: Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. CONCLUSION: The combination of Google EarthTM and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Calderon-Martinez, Joaquin; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Morris, Natashia; Coleman, Michael; Moore, Chester G; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

2008-09-01

327

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Three-year progress report, February 1, 1984-January 31, 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes progress in a three-year research project on the influence of soil arthropods (mites, collembolans, insects, millipedes and others) upon decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics in decaying vegetable matter. Research has concentrated on two aspects of elemental dynamics in decomposing organic matter: Effects of arthropods on rates of decomposition and nutrient loss (mineralization of carbon and other elements), and arthropod stimulation of microbial immobilization of nutrient elements during decomposition.

Crossley, D.A. Jr.

1986-08-29

328

Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram?s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Gupta Noopur; Tandon Radhika

2008-01-01

329

Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies.

Ebright JR; Altantsetseg T; Oyungerel R

2003-12-01

330

Spontaneous infectious diseases of marmosets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The various species of marmosets are susceptible to a wide variety of infectious agents of which only a few have been fully characterized. Little is known concerning spontaneous disease in their natural habitat, and often deaths in the laboratory go unexplained. In captivity, Herpesvirus-T infection appears to be the most important viral infection, but serious disease may also follow infection with measles virus (rubeola) and an unidentified paramyxovirus. Bacterial diseases are multiple, but rarely occur as epizootics. Various species of Salmonella, Yersinia, Klebsiella, and Diplococcus are among the more frequent pathogens. Mycoses and parasitic infections are also numerous, but most do not result in major losses.

Hunt RD; Anderson MP; Chalifoux LV

1978-01-01

331

[Blood transfusion and infectious diseases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blood transfusion is essential in current medical treatment. In the era of selling blood, around 50% of recipients seemed to be infected by hepatitis virus. After the establishment of the blood donation system and many safety measures, the risk of blood contamination has decreased markedly; however, blood products still have a risk of known and unknown pathogens. In this manuscript, we discuss the remaining problems of HBV and HIV-1. As emerging infectious diseases, we examine Trypanosoma crusi, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Dengue virus. Finally, XMRV is exemplified as a rumored virus. Gathering accurate information about pathogens and preparing for outbreaks in advance are crucial for blood safety.

Hamaguchi I

2013-05-01

332

Transcriptional plasticity of a soil arthropod across different ecological conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological functional genomics, dealing with the responses of organisms to their natural environment is confronted with a complex pattern of variation and a large number of confounding environmental factors. For gene expression studies to provide meaningful information on conditions deviating from normal, a baseline or normal operating range (NOR) response needs to be established which indicates how an organism's transcriptome reacts to naturally varying ecological factors. Here we determine the transcriptional plasticity of a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, exposed to various natural environments, as part of a first attempt in establishing such a NOR. Animals were exposed to 26 different field soils after which gene expression levels were measured. The main factor found to regulate gene expression was soil-type (sand or clay). Cell homeostasis and DNA replication were affected in collembolans exposed to sandy soil, indicating general stress. Multivariate analysis identified soil fertility as the main factor influencing gene expression. Regarding land-use, only forest soils showed an expression pattern deviating from the others. No significant effect of land-use, agricultural practice or soil type on fitness was observed, but arsenic concentration was negatively correlated with reproductive output. In conclusion, transcriptional responses remained within a limited range across the different land-uses but were significantly affected by soil-type. This may be caused by the contrasting soil physicochemical properties to which F. candida strongly responds. The broad range of conditions over which this soil-living detritivore is able to survive and reproduce, indicates a strategy of high plasticity, which comes with extensive gene expression regulation.

De Boer TE; Birlutiu A; Bochdanovits Z; Timmermans MJ; Dijkstra TM; Van Straalen NM; Ylstra B; Roelofs D

2011-03-01

333

Elongation factor-2: a useful gene for arthropod phylogenetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated from 17 arthropod taxa (5 chelicerates, 6 crustaceans, 3 hexapods, 3 myriapods) plus an onychophoran and a tardigrade as outgroups. Likelihood and parsimony analyses of nucleotide and amino acid data sets consistently recovered Myriapoda and major chelicerate groups with high bootstrap support. Crustacea + Hexapoda (= Pancrustacea) was recovered with moderate support, whereas the conflicting group Myriapoda + Hexapoda (= Atelocerata) was never recovered and bootstrap values were always <5%. With additional nonarthropod sequences included, one indel supports monophyly of Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda relative to molluscan, annelidan, and mammalian outgroups. New and previously published sequences from RNA polymerase II (1038 nucleotides) and elongation factor-1alpha (1092 nucleotides) were analyzed for the same taxa. A comparison of bootstrap values from the three genes analyzed separately revealed widely varying values for some clades, although there was never strong support for conflicting groups. In combined analyses, there was strong bootstrap support for the generally accepted clades Arachnida, Arthropoda, Euchelicerata, Hexapoda, and Pycnogonida, and for Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Pancrustacea, whose monophyly is more controversial. Recovery of some additional groups was fairly robust to method of analysis but bootstrap values were not high; these included Pancrustacea + Chelicerata, Hexapoda + Cephalocarida + Remipedia, Cephalocarida + Remipedia, and Malaocostraca + Cirripedia. Atelocerata (= Myriapoda + Hexapoda) was never recovered. Elongation factor-2 is now the second protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata. Atelocerata is widely cited in morphology-based analyses, and the discrepancy between results derived from molecular and morphological data deserves greater attention.

Regier JC; Shultz JW

2001-07-01

334

Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.

Bruun NE; Habib G; Thuny F; Sogaard P

2013-07-01

335

[The microbiota and infectious diarrhea].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the importance of the fecal microbiota has been key in understanding the pathophysiology of some infectious diarrheas. In addition to normal protective measures of bile, gastric acid, and immune response, among others, we now know that the healthy gut flora protects us from some infectious diarrheas. Antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) is an excellent example, as antibiotics perturb the normal flora; the resulting diarrhea may be due to changes in short chain fatty acid metabolism. A severe form of AAD is due to Clostridium difficile, a pathogen that can cause severe diarrhea, colitis and even death. Recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a difficult clinical problem to treat successfully because one recurrence makes further recurrences more likely, probably because antibiotics are still needed to treat and thus the fecal flora remains abnormal. There is no single effective treatment but therapies include pulsed and tapered antibiotics, the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii as an adjunct to antibiotics, and even fecal flora reconstitution. It is likely that we will learn even more in the future about the beneficial effect of our microbiota.

Surawicz CM

2010-09-01

336

Detection of infectious bovine polyomavirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine polyomavirus (BPyV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae, a virus that was originally thought to be of simian origin but was later shown to be of bovine origin, the primate cultures having been contaminated through the use of foetal bovine serum. The significance of this agent to the biotechnology industry cannot be underestimated. The presence of BPyV in serum batches poses a serious risk for the contamination of human therapeutic products. The current PCR based assays provide a means of detecting virus sequences but give no indication as to the infectious nature of the virus. The communication reports the successful development of an assay to detect infectious BPyV using an in vitro amplification system followed by PCR. A lengthy culture period on bovine cells was required before replicating BPyV could be detected and distinguished from non-replicating virus in the cell culture supernatant. A mock-test assay using foetal bovine serum positive for BPyV showed that there was no evidence of replicating BPyV in the serum sample. The BPyV spiked serum control showed that replicating virus was present thus confirming that the serum itself did not inhibit replication of the virus. Cells harvested during the culture period were subjected to fixation, embedding and sectioning and examined by electron microscopy. Intact virus-like particles of approximately 40-50nm were observed in the nucleus of the bovine kidney cells, the site of polyomavirus replication.

Nairn C; Lovatt A; Galbraith DN

2003-12-01

337

Effects of livestock breed and grazing pressure on ground-dwelling arthropods in Cantabrian heathlands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. The effects of different goat breeds and grazing pressures on epigeal arachnids (Lycosidae and Opiliones) and ground beetles (Carabidae) were assessed in a heath-gorse shrubland located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Three treatments (low grazing pressure with Cashmere breed, high grazing pressure with Cashmere breed, and high grazing pressure with local Celtiberic breed) with three replicates of each treatment were allocated randomly to nine plots. 2. Arthropod fauna abundance, diversity, and species richness were estimated using pitfall trapping over 3 years (2003, 2004, and 2005). Vegetation cover, composition, and height were assessed along transects and above-ground plant biomass was sampled in quadrats. 3. Lower grazing pressure led to lower herbaceous cover and higher heather cover than high grazing pressure. Overall, it did not enhance arthropod diversity or abundance, but the abundance and species richness of carabids, and abundance of lycosids like Pardosa pullata, were higher under high stocking rates, whereas Opiliones were favoured by the low stocking rates. Although it has been assumed that traditional breeds enhance biodiversity, the present study found no significant differences for both arthropod fauna and vegetation between the goat breeds. 4. Arthropod-vegetation relationships were examined by constrained ordination. Fauna assemblages followed a gradient from closed canopy shrubland areas, in the lowest grazing pressure, to grassier open canopy areas resulting from higher grazing pressure, revealing the importance of grazing management as a driver of arthropod community structure of the heathland.

GARCÍA ROCÍOROSA; JÁUREGUI BERTAM; GARCÍA URCESINO; OSORO KOLDO; CELAYA RAFAEL

2009-08-01

338

An armoured Cambrian lobopodian from China with arthropod-like appendages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cambrian fossil Lagerstätten preserving soft-bodied organisms have contributed much towards our understanding of metazoan origins. Lobopodians are a particularly interesting group that diversified and flourished in the Cambrian seas. Resembling 'worms with legs', they have long attracted much attention in that they may have given rise to both Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears), as well as to arthropods in general. Here we describe Diania cactiformis gen. et sp. nov. as an 'armoured' lobopodian from the Chengjiang fossil Lagerstätte (Cambrian Stage 3), Yunnan, southwestern China. Although sharing features with other typical lobopodians, it is remarkable for possessing robust and probably sclerotized appendages, with what appear to be articulated elements. In terms of limb morphology it is therefore closer to the arthropod condition, to our knowledge, than any lobopodian recorded until now. Phylogenetic analysis recovers it in a derived position, close to Arthropoda; thus, it seems to belong to a grade of organization close to the point of becoming a true arthropod. Further, D. cactiformis could imply that arthropodization (sclerotization of the limbs) preceded arthrodization (sclerotization of the body). Comparing our fossils with other lobopodian appendage morphologies--see Kerygmachela, Jianshanopodia and Megadictyon--reinforces the hypothesis that the group as a whole is paraphyletic, with different taxa expressing different grades of arthropodization.

Liu J; Steiner M; Dunlop JA; Keupp H; Shu D; Ou Q; Han J; Zhang Z; Zhang X

2011-02-01

339

Impact of four turf management regimes on arthropod abundance in lawns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Turfgrass management practices, especially the use of chemical pesticides, may be detrimental to beneficial arthropods such as predators and decomposers. However, little is known about the impact of other practices or pest control products on these beneficials. The impact of four different management regimes, consisting of synthetic pesticide cover sprays or combinations of more targeted applications of natural pesticides, on selected groups of non-targeted arthropods in lawns of different age was studied over 3 years. The short-term effect of diazinon and carbaryl on Carabidae and Collembola was also evaluated. RESULTS: Formicidae and Araneae were the most abundant taxa at both sites, representing 74-80% of total captures. With a few short-term exceptions, no persistent and significant difference between turfgrass management regimes on arthropod abundance was observed over the 3 year study. Diazinon and carbaryl significantly reduced Carabidae abundance, but only one year out of three, while Collembola abundance was only transiently affected by carbaryl application in 2003. CONCLUSION: The study showed that practices and products used in the four management regimes did not disrupt the populations of specific groups of arthropods. These results provide useful information to professionals for the development of ecological turf practices to maintain beneficial arthropod abundance and diversity in urban landscapes.

Rochefort S; Shetlar DJ; Brodeur J

2013-01-01

340

Disturbance and recovery of salt marsh arthropod communities following BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil spills represent a major environmental threat to coastal wetlands, which provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to humanity. The U.S. Gulf of Mexico is a hub of oil and gas exploration activities that historically have impacted intertidal habitats such as salt marsh. Following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we sampled the terrestrial arthropod community and marine invertebrates found in stands of Spartina alterniflora, the most abundant plant in coastal salt marshes. Sampling occurred in 2010 as oil was washing ashore and a year later in 2011. In 2010, intertidal crabs and terrestrial arthropods (insects and spiders) were suppressed by oil exposure even in seemingly unaffected stands of plants; however, Littoraria snails were unaffected. One year later, crab and arthropods had largely recovered. Our work is the first attempt that we know of assessing vulnerability of the salt marsh arthropod community to oil exposure, and it suggests that arthropods are both quite vulnerable to oil exposure and quite resilient, able to recover from exposure within a year if host plants remain healthy.

McCall BD; Pennings SC

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Parasegmental appendage allocation in annelids and arthropods and the homology of parapodia and arthropodia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The new animal phylogeny disrupts the traditional taxon Articulata (uniting arthropods and annelids) and thus calls into question the homology of the body segments and appendages in the two groups. Recent work in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii has shown that although the set of genes involved in body segmentation is similar in the two groups, the body units of annelids correspond to arthropod parasegments not segments. This challenges traditional ideas about the homology of "segmental" organs in annelids and arthropods, including their appendages. Here I use the expression of engrailed, wingless and Distal-less in the arthropod Artemia franciscana to identify the parasegment boundary and the appendage primordia. I show that the early body organization including the appendage primordia is parasegmental and thus identical to the annelid organization and by deriving the different adult appendages from a common ground plan I suggest that annelid and arthropod appendages are homologous structures despite their different positions in the adult animals. This also has implications for the new animal phylogeny, because it suggests that Urprotostomia was not only parasegmented but also had parasegmental appendages similar to extant annelids, and that limb-less forms in the Protostomia are derived from limb-bearing forms.

Prpic Nikola-Michael

2008-01-01

342

[Infectious diseases and population assistance: general issues  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Actually the infectious diseases are a predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in limited resource countries and, of course, not unimportant in industrialized countries where the social phenomena of immigration and increased internal and international mobility of people may facilitate the reemergence of infectious diseases considered overcome. It is becoming more and more important to consider the actual role of assistance of people for infectious diseases: a careful consideration needing of concretes example for becoming medical practices and social languages appropriates to the local context and useful for promoting more efficacious cares and prevention of infectious diseases.

Russo G; Riccardo F; Scaroni E; Nardi L; De Rosa AG; Pacini A; Pacifici LE

2007-01-01

343

Deriving criteria to select arthropod species for laboratory tests to assess the ecological risks from cultivating arthropod-resistant genetically engineered crops.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropods form a major part of the biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Many species are valued because they provide ecosystem services, including biological control, pollination and decomposition, or because they are of conservation interest. Some arthropods reduce crop yield and quality, and conventional chemical pesticides, biological control agents and genetically engineered (GE) crops are used to control them. A common concern addressed in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) that precedes regulatory approval of these pest control methods is their potential to adversely affect valued non-target arthropods (NTAs). A key concept of ERA is early-tier testing using worst-case exposure conditions in the laboratory and surrogate test species that are most likely to reveal an adverse effect. If no adverse effects are observed in those species at high exposures, confidence of negligible ecological risk from the use of the pest control method is increased. From experience with chemical pesticides and biological control agents, an approach is proposed for selecting test species for early-tier ERA of GE arthropod-resistant crops. Surrogate species should be selected that most closely meet three criteria: (i) Potential sensitivity: species should be the most likely to be sensitive to the arthropod-active compound based on the known spectrum of activity of the active ingredient, its mode of action, and the phylogenetic relatedness of the test and target species; (ii) Relevance: species should be representative of valued taxa or functional groups that are most likely to be exposed to the arthropod-active compound in the field; and (iii) Availability and reliability: suitable life-stages of the test species must be obtainable in sufficient quantity and quality, and validated test protocols must be available that allow consistent detection of adverse effects on ecologically relevant parameters. Our proposed approach ensures that the most suitable species are selected for testing and that the resulting data provide the most rigorous test of the risk hypothesis of no adverse effect in order to increase the quality and efficiency of ERAs for cultivation of GE crops.

Romeis J; Raybould A; Bigler F; Candolfi MP; Hellmich RL; Huesing JE; Shelton AM

2013-01-01

344

Deriving criteria to select arthropod species for laboratory tests to assess the ecological risks from cultivating arthropod-resistant genetically engineered crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropods form a major part of the biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Many species are valued because they provide ecosystem services, including biological control, pollination and decomposition, or because they are of conservation interest. Some arthropods reduce crop yield and quality, and conventional chemical pesticides, biological control agents and genetically engineered (GE) crops are used to control them. A common concern addressed in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) that precedes regulatory approval of these pest control methods is their potential to adversely affect valued non-target arthropods (NTAs). A key concept of ERA is early-tier testing using worst-case exposure conditions in the laboratory and surrogate test species that are most likely to reveal an adverse effect. If no adverse effects are observed in those species at high exposures, confidence of negligible ecological risk from the use of the pest control method is increased. From experience with chemical pesticides and biological control agents, an approach is proposed for selecting test species for early-tier ERA of GE arthropod-resistant crops. Surrogate species should be selected that most closely meet three criteria: (i) Potential sensitivity: species should be the most likely to be sensitive to the arthropod-active compound based on the known spectrum of activity of the active ingredient, its mode of action, and the phylogenetic relatedness of the test and target species; (ii) Relevance: species should be representative of valued taxa or functional groups that are most likely to be exposed to the arthropod-active compound in the field; and (iii) Availability and reliability: suitable life-stages of the test species must be obtainable in sufficient quantity and quality, and validated test protocols must be available that allow consistent detection of adverse effects on ecologically relevant parameters. Our proposed approach ensures that the most suitable species are selected for testing and that the resulting data provide the most rigorous test of the risk hypothesis of no adverse effect in order to increase the quality and efficiency of ERAs for cultivation of GE crops. PMID:23062830

Romeis, Jörg; Raybould, Alan; Bigler, Franz; Candolfi, Marco P; Hellmich, Richard L; Huesing, Joseph E; Shelton, Anthony M

2012-10-10

345

Infection with Hemotropic Mycoplasma Species in Patients with or without Extensive Arthropod or Animal Contact.  

Science.gov (United States)

PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to test individuals with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact for the possibility of hemotropic mycoplasma infection. The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma infection (4.7%) was significantly greater in previously reported cohorts of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, spouses of veterinary professionals, and others with extensive arthropod exposure and/or frequent animal contact than in a previously reported cohort of patients examined by a rheumatologist because of chronic joint pain or evidence of small-vessel disease (0.7%). Based upon DNA sequence analysis, a Mycoplasma ovis-like species was the most prevalent organism detected; however, infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" and a potentially novel, but incompletely characterized, hemotropic Mycoplasma species was also documented. Historical exposure to animals and arthropod vectors that can harbor hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. should be considered during epidemiological investigations and in the evaluation of individual patients. PMID:23863574

Maggi, Ricardo G; Compton, Sarah M; Trull, Chelsea L; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Mozayeni, B Robert; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-07-17

346

Infection with Hemotropic Mycoplasma Species in Patients with or without Extensive Arthropod or Animal Contact.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to test individuals with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact for the possibility of hemotropic mycoplasma infection. The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma infection (4.7%) was significantly greater in previously reported cohorts of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, spouses of veterinary professionals, and others with extensive arthropod exposure and/or frequent animal contact than in a previously reported cohort of patients examined by a rheumatologist because of chronic joint pain or evidence of small-vessel disease (0.7%). Based upon DNA sequence analysis, a Mycoplasma ovis-like species was the most prevalent organism detected; however, infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" and a potentially novel, but incompletely characterized, hemotropic Mycoplasma species was also documented. Historical exposure to animals and arthropod vectors that can harbor hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. should be considered during epidemiological investigations and in the evaluation of individual patients.

Maggi RG; Compton SM; Trull CL; Mascarelli PE; Mozayeni BR; Breitschwerdt EB

2013-10-01

347

Arthropods of Burgess Shale type from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Czech Republic)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rare non-trilobite arthropods, mostly with affinities with the Burgess Shale fauna, are described from the Middle Cambrian Jince Formation of the Barrandian area, Central Bohemia (Czech Republic): Tuzoia sp., another large Tuzoia-like arthropod (probably a new genus), Proboscicaris hospes sp. n., Helmetia? fastigata sp. n., and Forfexicaris? sp. The status of Pilocystites primitius Barrande, 1887, formerly ranged with echinoderms but here recognized as a Tuzoia fragment, is discussed. Most of described arthropods (except Forfexicaris? sp.) are thought to be nektobenthic animals of a shallow-water environment, possibly tolerant to some salinity fluctuations. Relationships, particularly to North American faunas, indicate open migration possibilities between Laurentia and peri-Gondwana regions during the Middle Cambrian.

Chlupá? I; Kordule V

2002-01-01

348

A checklist of arthropods associated with rat carrion in a montane locality of northern Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first report of arthropods associated with carrion in Venezuela, using laboratory bred rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rat carcasses were exposed to colonization by arthropods in neighboring montane savanna and cloud forest habitats in the state of Miranda. The taxonomic composition of the arthropods varied between both ecosystems. Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Micropezidae, Phoridae, Vespidae and one species of ant, were collected only in the cloud forest. Dermestes maculatus, Chrysomya albiceps, Termitidae and most species of ants, were found only in the savanna. Fourteen species were considered to be of primary forensic importance: D. maculatus, Oxelytrum discicolle, Calliphora sp., Cochliomyia macellaria, Compsomyiops sp., C. albiceps, Phaenicia cuprina, P. sericata, P. eximia, Fannia sp., Puliciphora sp., Megaselia scalaris, Ravina sp. and Sarcophaga sp. PMID:17386987

Velásquez, Yelitza

2007-03-26

349

A checklist of arthropods associated with rat carrion in a montane locality of northern Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is the first report of arthropods associated with carrion in Venezuela, using laboratory bred rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rat carcasses were exposed to colonization by arthropods in neighboring montane savanna and cloud forest habitats in the state of Miranda. The taxonomic composition of the arthropods varied between both ecosystems. Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Micropezidae, Phoridae, Vespidae and one species of ant, were collected only in the cloud forest. Dermestes maculatus, Chrysomya albiceps, Termitidae and most species of ants, were found only in the savanna. Fourteen species were considered to be of primary forensic importance: D. maculatus, Oxelytrum discicolle, Calliphora sp., Cochliomyia macellaria, Compsomyiops sp., C. albiceps, Phaenicia cuprina, P. sericata, P. eximia, Fannia sp., Puliciphora sp., Megaselia scalaris, Ravina sp. and Sarcophaga sp.

Velásquez Y

2008-01-01

350

Infection with hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in people with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to test individuals with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact for the possibility of hemotropic mycoplasma infection. The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma infection (4.7%) was significantly greater in previously reported cohorts of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, spouses of veterinary professionals, and others with extensive arthropod exposure and/or frequent animal contact, as compared to a previously reported cohort of patients examined by a rheumatologist because of chronic joint pain or evidence of small vessel disease (0.7%). Based upon DNA sequence analysis, Mycoplasma ovis-like species was the most prevalent organism detected; however, infection with 'Candidatus M. haematoparvum' and a potentially novel, but incompletely characterized hemotropic mycoplasma species was also documented. Historical exposure to animals and arthropod vectors that can harbor hemotropic mycoplasma spp. should be considered during epidemiological investigations and when evaluating individual patients.

Maggi RG; Compton SM; Trull CL; Mascarelli PE; Mozayeni BR; Breitschwerdt EB

2013-07-01

351

Short report: lack of virus replication in arthropods after intrathoracic inoculation of Ebola Reston virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To evaluate the potential for arthropods to serve as reservoir hosts of Ebola virus, three mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Culex pipiens, and a soft tick, Ornithodoros sonrai, were inoculated with 1O2.5 plaque-forming units of Ebola Reston virus. After incubation at 22 degrees C for 11 days, at least six specimens of each species were triturated and examined for evidence of viral replication by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque assay. There was no evidence of viral replication in any of the arthropods tested. Because intrathoracic inoculation bypasses various barriers to viral infection, the lack of replication of Ebola Reston virus in these inoculated arthropods indicates that these mosquito species and soft ticks probably are not involved as natural reservoirs of Ebola virus.

Turell MJ; Bressler DS; Rossi CA

1996-07-01

352

Short report: lack of virus replication in arthropods after intrathoracic inoculation of Ebola Reston virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the potential for arthropods to serve as reservoir hosts of Ebola virus, three mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Culex pipiens, and a soft tick, Ornithodoros sonrai, were inoculated with 1O2.5 plaque-forming units of Ebola Reston virus. After incubation at 22 degrees C for 11 days, at least six specimens of each species were triturated and examined for evidence of viral replication by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque assay. There was no evidence of viral replication in any of the arthropods tested. Because intrathoracic inoculation bypasses various barriers to viral infection, the lack of replication of Ebola Reston virus in these inoculated arthropods indicates that these mosquito species and soft ticks probably are not involved as natural reservoirs of Ebola virus. PMID:8702028

Turell, M J; Bressler, D S; Rossi, C A

1996-07-01

353

Elevated atmospheric CO2 alters the arthropod community in a forest understory  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which overall population sizes and community composition of arthropods in a naturally occurring forest understory are altered by elevated CO2. The Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) method was used to fumigate large, replicated plots in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, USA to achieve the CO2 concentration predicted for 2050 (˜580 ?l l-1). In addition, the extent to which unrestricted herbivorous arthropods were spatially delimited in their resource acquisition was determined. Stable isotope data for spiders (?13C and ?15N) were collected in ambient and elevated CO2 plots and analyzed to determine whether their prey species moved among plots. Elevated CO2 had no effect on total arthropod numbers but had a large effect on the composition of the arthropod community. Insects collected in our samples were identified to a level that allowed for an assignment of trophic classification (generally to family). For the groups of insects sensitive to atmospheric gas composition, there was an increase in the numbers of individuals collected in primarily predaceous orders (Araneae and Hymenoptera; from 60% to more than 150%) under elevated CO2 and a decrease in the numbers in primarily herbivorous orders (Lepidoptera and Coleoptera; from -30 to -45%). Isotopic data gave no indication that the treatment plots represented a "boundary" to the movement of insects or that there were distinct and independent insect populations inside and outside the treatment plots. A simple two-ended mixing model estimates 55% of the carbon and nitrogen in spider biomass originated external to the elevated CO2 plots. In addition to changes in insect performance, decreases in herbivorous arthropods and increases in predaceous arthropods may also be factors involved in reduced herbivory under elevated CO2 in this forest.

Hamilton, Jason; Zangerl, Arthur R.; Berenbaum, May R.; Sparks, Jed P.; Elich, Lauren; Eisenstein, Alissa; DeLucia, Evan H.

2012-08-01

354

Isomin: a novel cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein from an arthropod species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of intermediate filaments (IFs) is a hallmark feature of metazoan cells. IFs play a central role in cell organization and function, acting mainly as structural stress-absorbing elements. There is growing evidence to suggest that these cytoskeletal elements are also involved in the integration of signalling networks. According to their fundamental functions, IFs show a widespread phylogenetic expression, from simple diblastic animals up to mammals, and their constituent proteins share the same molecular organization in all species so far analysed. Arthropods represent a major exception in this scenario. Only lamins, the nuclear IF proteins, have so far been identified in the model organisms analysed; on this basis, it has been considered that arthropods do not express cytoplasmic IFs. Results Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, we named it isomin, is a component of the intestinal terminal web and shares with IFs typical biochemical properties, molecular features and reassembly capability. Sequence analysis indicates that isomin is mostly related to the Intermediate Filament protein C (IFC) subfamily of Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins, which are molecular constituents of the nematode intestinal terminal web. This finding is coherent with, and provides further support to, the most recent phylogenetic views of arthropod ancestry. Interestingly, the coil 1a domain of isomin appears to have been influenced by a substantial molecular drift and only the aminoterminal part of this domain, containing the so-called helix initiation motif, has been conserved. Conclusions Our results set a new basis for the analysis of IF protein evolution during arthropod phylogeny. In the light of this new information, the statement that the arthropod phylum lacks cytoplasmic IFs is no longer tenable. See commentary article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007-9-16.

Mencarelli Caterina; Ciolfi Silvia; Caroti Daniela; Lupetti Pietro; Dallai Romano

2011-01-01

355

Isomin: a novel cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein from an arthropod species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The expression of intermediate filaments (IFs) is a hallmark feature of metazoan cells. IFs play a central role in cell organization and function, acting mainly as structural stress-absorbing elements. There is growing evidence to suggest that these cytoskeletal elements are also involved in the integration of signalling networks. According to their fundamental functions, IFs show a widespread phylogenetic expression, from simple diblastic animals up to mammals, and their constituent proteins share the same molecular organization in all species so far analysed. Arthropods represent a major exception in this scenario. Only lamins, the nuclear IF proteins, have so far been identified in the model organisms analysed; on this basis, it has been considered that arthropods do not express cytoplasmic IFs. RESULTS: Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, we named it isomin, is a component of the intestinal terminal web and shares with IFs typical biochemical properties, molecular features and reassembly capability. Sequence analysis indicates that isomin is mostly related to the Intermediate Filament protein C (IFC) subfamily of Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins, which are molecular constituents of the nematode intestinal terminal web. This finding is coherent with, and provides further support to, the most recent phylogenetic views of arthropod ancestry. Interestingly, the coil 1a domain of isomin appears to have been influenced by a substantial molecular drift and only the aminoterminal part of this domain, containing the so-called helix initiation motif, has been conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Our results set a new basis for the analysis of IF protein evolution during arthropod phylogeny. In the light of this new information, the statement that the arthropod phylum lacks cytoplasmic IFs is no longer tenable.See commentary article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007-9-16.

Mencarelli C; Ciolfi S; Caroti D; Lupetti P; Dallai R

2011-01-01

356

Weed and arthropod communities in soyabean as related to crop productivity and land use in the Rolling Pampa, Argentina  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the Rolling Pampa, Argentina, changes in crop management caused changes in weed and arthropod communities and reductions in weed diversity in soyabean. Loss of landscape heterogeneity, caused by an increase in the area planted to soyabean, and herbicide treatment of field margins, may affect weed and arthropod assemblages and reduce species richness. This study focused on the effect of land use in neighbouring fields, weed management of field margins and crop productivity and history on weed and arthropod communities and their richness inside soyabean fields. Weeds and arthropods were surveyed in a total of 60 soyabean fields in 1999, 2001 and 2002. Neighbouring land use was determined in concentric circles of 500 and 1500?m radius around each field using LANDSAT images, and field margin management (sprayed or non?sprayed) was recorded. Data was analysed using regression and canonical correspondence analysis. Cropping history (number of years of cropping) and percentage of soyabean in concentric circles of 1500?m explained 23% of the variation in weed assemblages, whereas management of field margins and soyabean productivity (mean summer Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) explained 23% of the variation in arthropod assemblages. Perennial, dicotyledon and exotic weed richness and non?herbivore arthropod richness decreased with increasing percentage of soyabean in the surrounding landscape. Results show that weed and arthropod communities respond to different production and landscape variables and that increasing the area planted to soyabean and spraying field margins will put weed and arthropod species and functional groups at risk of extinction.

DE LA FUENTE EB; PERELMAN S; GHERSA CM

2010-12-01

357

Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2008-01-15

358

[Effects of cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking a 25-year-old Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe as test object, an investigation was conducted on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in cutting and no-cutting stands with and without reseeding, aimed to understand the effects of cutting, reseeding and their interaction on the individual number and group richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in C. intermedia forest. There were significantly lower number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces than under the shrubs in the no-cutting and no-reseeding stands. Cutting, reseeding and both of them could significantly increase the number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces, but not under the shrubs, compared with no cutting or reseeding. Consequently, there were no significant differences in the distribution of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces and under the shrubs in the cutting, reseeding, or cutting and reseeding stands. Further, there was a similar buffer effect between cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod. No significant differences were observed in the ground-dwelling arthropod distribution, between cutting stand and reseeding stand, between cutting stand and cutting and reseeding stand, and between reseeding stand and cutting and reseeding stand. It was suggested that cutting, reseeding, or both of them could significantly improve the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity especially in the open spaces, being beneficial for the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem and the rational management on artificial C. intermedia forest in desert steppe.

Liu RT; Chai YQ; Yang XG; Song NP; Wang XY; Wang L

2013-01-01

359

Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels

2008-01-01

360

Scientific Opinion on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atlantic salmon is the only species in which the disease infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) has been observed naturally. Initial reports of findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) before 2002, did not distinguish between non virulent HPR0 and virulent HPR? viruses, thus making interpretation...

EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

 
 
 
 
361

Effects of organic farming on plant and arthropod communities: A case study in Mediterranean dryland cereal  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organic farming is considered an important way to preserve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. However, more work is still necessary to enable a full appraisal of the potential benefits of this way of farming, since studies differ in the evaluation of its effectiveness. Studies are particularly scarce in the Mediterranean region, where different climatic and ecological conditions prevent simple extrapolations from work carried out at northern latitudes. In the present study, an analysis of weed and arthropod communities was conducted in 28 pairs of organic and conventional fields in a dry cereal farmland in central Spain. Plants were identified to the species level, and arthropods to the family level. Pitfalls and sweep nets were used to sample respectively, ground-dwelling and plant-visiting arthropods. Abundance (total numbers of individuals), richness (total numbers of plant species or arthropod families), diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) and biomass (milligrams per pitfall/sweep-net) were calculated for each field and compared between organic and conventional fields using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs). To explore the effect of predictor variables on weed richness and arthropod biomass, GLMMs were used. Organic fields showed higher abundance of weeds and arthropods (3.01 and 1.43 times, respectively), higher weed richness and diversity (2.76 and 2.33 times, respectively), and a 24% reduction in cereal plants. Arthropod diversity was lower in organic fields due to the presence of three dominant groups: Collembola, Chloropidae (Diptera), and Aphididae (Hemiptera). Weed richness increased as cereal cover decreased in organic fields. Total arthropod biomass was slightly higher in organic fields, and was affected by weed abundance and diversity. The differences between organic and conventional fields found in this study were higher than those reported for northern latitudes. This could be explained by the richer weed flora in the Mediterranean region, and a higher weed seed availability favored by the two-year rotation system typical of Iberian dry cereal farmland. We conclude that organic farming may contribute to preserve biodiversity in dryland cereal agroecosystems in the Mediterranean region.

Ponce C; Bravo C; de León DG; Magaña M; Alonso JC

2011-04-01

362

Production of arthropod pests and vectors in coal strip mine ponds. Program report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to determine what species of medically important arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, are breeding in coal strip mine ponds, to what extent, and whether these breeding sites will serve as a focus of annoyance or a potential outbreak center of arthropod-borne diseases to surrounding communities. Pond age was compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water and associated vegetation communities. Various sampling techniques were used to determine the composition and density of all life stages of the aquatic insect fauna.

Pickard, E.

1981-06-01

363

Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group) and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

WM Cardoso; JLC Aguiar Filho; JM Romão; RPR Salles; SR Câmara; AA Siqueira; WF Oliveira; MHNR Sobral; RSC Texeira

2006-01-01

364

Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group) and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and (more) infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

Cardoso, WM; Aguiar Filho, JLC; Romão, JM; Salles, RPR; Câmara, SR; Siqueira, AA; Oliveira, WF; Sobral, MHNR; Texeira, RSC

2006-09-01

365

Responses of terrestrial arthropods to air pollution: a meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: Arthropods, with over a million species described, are ubiquitous throughout different environments. Knowledge of their responses to human impact is crucial for understanding and predicting changes in ecosystem structure and functions. Our aim was to investigate the general patterns and to identify sources of variation in changes of the diversity, abundance and fitness of terrestrial arthropods (including Arachnida, Collembola and Insecta) in habitats affected by point polluters. MAIN FEATURES: We found 134 suitable studies which were published between 1965 and 2007. These data came from impact zones of 74 polluters in 20 countries with the largest representation from Russia (28 polluters), Poland (12 polluters) and the USA (six polluters). The database allowed calculation of 448 effect sizes (i.e. relative differences between measurements taken from polluted and control sites) on the effects of various point polluters like non-ferrous industries, aluminium plants, cement, magnezite, fertilising and chemical plants, power plants, iron- and steel-producing factories. We used meta-analysis to search for general effects and to compare between polluter types and arthropod groups, and linear regression to describe the latitudinal gradient and to quantify relationships between pollution and arthropod responses. RESULTS: The overall effect of pollution on arthropod diversity did not differ from zero. However, species richness of soil arthropods (both living on the soil surface and within the soil) tended to decrease, and species richness of herbivores to increase, near point polluters. Abundance of terrestrial arthropods near point polluters decreased in general. This decrease resulted from strong adverse effects on soil arthropods, especially on decomposers and predators. Densities of herbivores increased, but a number of research biases that we discovered in published data may have led to overestimation of the latter effect. The dome-shaped density pattern along pollution gradients was discovered only in 5% of data sets. Among herbivores, only free-living defoliators and sap-feeders demonstrated higher densities in polluted sites; the effects of pollution on other guilds were not significant. Near the polluters, conifers suffered higher increase in damage from herbivores than deciduous woody plants and herbs. Overall effect of pollution on arthropod performance was negative; in particular, individuals from polluted sites were generally smaller than individuals from control sites. This negative effect weakened with increase in duration of the pollution impact, hinting evolution of pollution resistance in populations inhabiting polluted sites. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that pollution-induced changes in both the density and performance of arthropods depended on climate of the locality. Negative effects on soil fauna increased with increase in annual precipitation; positive effects on herbivore population density increased with increases in both mean July temperature and annual precipitation. DISCUSSION: We detected effects of research methodology on the outcome of published studies. Many of them suffer from research bias-the tendency to collect data on organisms or under conditions in which one has an expectation of detecting significant effects. Pseudoreplicated studies (one polluted site contrasted to one control site) frequently reported larger effects than replicated studies (several polluted sites contrasted with several control sites). These methodological flaws especially influenced herbivory studies; we conclude that increase in herbivory in both heavily and moderately polluted habitats is