WorldWideScience
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Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly significant in resource-poor countries in the tropics and semi-tropics. Some measures to meet this threat are outlined.

Surendran Sinnathamby N

2011-01-01

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[Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany. Epidemiological aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infections acquired abroad, mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, have to be systematically and intensively monitored as well, to assess the risk of infection for German residents traveling abroad and to adequately evaluate the risk of autochthonous transmission. Related issues, such as invasive species of mosquitoes in Germany and climate change, have to be taken into consideration. Such pathogens include West Nile, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). The article presents an overview of the epidemiological situation of selected relevant vector-borne infections in Germany. PMID:24781913

Frank, C; Faber, M; Hellenbrand, W; Wilking, H; Stark, K

2014-05-01

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Vector-borne Infections  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

2011-04-18

4

Ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus (Le Conte)) and golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan)), in southern Georgia from 1992 to 2003. Because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these pathogens. Cotton mice (n = 202) were parasitized by 19 species of arthropods, whereas golden mice (n = 46) were parasitized by 12 species. Eleven species of arthropods were recovered from both host species, whereas 7 were recorded only from cotton mice, and 1 species only from golden mice. Infestation prevalences (percent of mice parasitized) were significantly higher for 1 species of arthropod (the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) infesting cotton mice and for 4 species (the flea Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox and the mites Glycyphagus hypudaei Koch, Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese), and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese)) infesting golden mice. Mean intensities (mean per infested mouse) were significantly higher for 2 species (the flea Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis Say) infesting cotton mice and for 2 species (G. hypudaei and A. fahrenholzi) infesting golden mice. Ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens were significantly more common on cotton mice than on golden mice. These ectoparasites included the rhopalopsyllid flea Polygenis gwyni (Fox), a vector of the agent of murine typhus; I. scapularis, the principal vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis; and O. bacoti, a laboratory vector of several zoonotic pathogens. However, 2 species of ixodid ticks that can transmit zoonotic pathogens were recovered from both host species. These were the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the principal vector of the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern North America, and Ixodes minor Neumann, an enzootic vector of the agent of Lyme borreliosis. Overall, the cotton mouse was parasitized by significantly more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens than was the golden mouse. These data support the hypothesis that the cotton mouse has greater epidemiological importance for zoonotic vector-borne pathogen transmission than does the golden mouse. PMID:15715219

Durden, Lance A; Polur, Ram N; Nims, Todd; Banks, Craig W; Oliver, James H

2004-12-01

5

Vector-Borne Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

This online encyclopedia article discusses vector-borne diseases. It defines vectors as the transmitters of disease-causing organisms that carry the pathogens from one host to another. The article reviews the biological range of vectors, the transmission and types of vector-borne diseases, patterns of occurrence and existing control measures.

Harvey Artsob

6

VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO  

OpenAIRE

Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ec...

Gordana Mijovic; Dragica Terzic; Brankica Dupanovic; Bogdanka Andric

2012-01-01

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Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Vector-borne infections (VBI) are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the aus...

Pavlin Julie A; Shrestha Sanjaya K; Waters Norman; Cheng Qin; Witt Clara J; Sanchez Jose L; Kasper Matthew; Walsh Douglas; Wagar Eric; Johnson Jacob; Saunders David; Lon Chanthap; Se Youry; Tyner Stuart; Bethell Delia

2011-01-01

8

Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ti...

Dantas-Torres Filipe

2008-01-01

9

Spatial Genetic Structure of a Vector-Borne Generalist Pathogen ? †  

OpenAIRE

Vector-borne generalist pathogens colonize several reservoir species and are usually dependent on polyphagous arthropods for dispersal; however, their spatial genetic structure is generally poorly understood. Using fast-evolving genetic markers (20 simple sequence repeat loci, resulting in a total of 119 alleles), we studied the genetic structure of the vector-borne plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in Napa Valley, CA, where it causes Pierce's disease when it is transmitted to gra...

Coletta-filho, Helve?cio D.; Bittleston, Leonora S.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

2011-01-01

10

VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ecological characteristics, the vectors and infective agents, present the accidence for expansion and increasing importance of these infections in national pathology. According to the fact that it is an international port of nautical, continental and air traffic, Montenegro has responsibility for control and management of diseases belonging to the group of the travel and tropical diseases.

Gordana Mijovic

2012-02-01

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Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

Dantas-Torres, Filipe

2008-01-01

12

Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

Dantas-Torres, Filipe

2008-01-01

13

Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

Dantas-Torres Filipe

2008-08-01

14

A set of ontologies to drive tools for the control of vector-borne diseases  

OpenAIRE

We are developing a set of ontologies dealing with vector-borne diseases as well as the arthropod vectors that transmit them. After building ontologies for mosquito and tick anatomy we continued this project with an ontology of insecticide resistance followed by a series of ontologies that describe malaria as well as physiological processes of mosquitoes that are relevant to, and involved in, disease transmission. These will later be expanded to encompass other vector-borne diseases as well a...

Topalis, Pantelis; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Mitraka, Elvira; Deliyanni, Elena; Siden-kiamos, Inga; Louis, Christos

2010-01-01

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Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

Jay Prakash Gupta

16

Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the ‘One Health initiative’ which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health.

Josip Margaleti?, PhD

2009-03-01

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Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents ...

Machado João; Costa Álvaro; Rodrigues Filipa T; Yisaschar-Mekuzas Yael; Cardoso Luís; Diz-Lopes Duarte; Baneth Gad

2010-01-01

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Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions. PMID:16126213

Harrus, S; Baneth, G

2005-10-01

19

Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases  

OpenAIRE

Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases...

Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck

2011-01-01

20

Spatial genetic structure of a vector-borne generalist pathogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne generalist pathogens colonize several reservoir species and are usually dependent on polyphagous arthropods for dispersal; however, their spatial genetic structure is generally poorly understood. Using fast-evolving genetic markers (20 simple sequence repeat loci, resulting in a total of 119 alleles), we studied the genetic structure of the vector-borne plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in Napa Valley, CA, where it causes Pierce's disease when it is transmitted to grapevines from reservoir plants in adjacent riparian vegetation. Eighty-three different X. fastidiosa multilocus microsatellite genotypes were found in 93 isolates obtained from five vineyards, resulting in an index of clonal fraction closer to 0 and a Simpson's genotypic diversity index (D) closer to a maximum value of 1. Moderate values of Nei's gene diversity (H(Nei); average H(Nei) = 0.41) were observed for most of the X. fastidiosa populations. The low Wright's index of genetic diversity among populations calculated by the FSTAT software (Wright's F(ST) index) among population pairs (0.0096 to 0.1080) indicated a weak or absent genetic structure among the five populations; a panmictic population was inferred by Bayesian analyses (with the STRUCTURE and BAPS programs). Furthermore, a Mantel test showed no significant genetic isolation by distance when both Nei (r = -0.3459, P = 0.268) and linearized (r = -0.3106, P = 0.269) indices were used. These results suggest that the riparian vegetation from which vectors acquire the pathogen prior to inoculation of grapevines supports a diverse population of X. fastidiosa. PMID:21317251

Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Bittleston, Leonora S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2011-04-01

21

Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network. The framework built provides a flexible and robust informatics infrastructure by separating the modules of functionality through an ontological model for vector-borne disease. The VBD?AIR tool is designed as an evidence base for visualizing the risks of vector-borne disease by air travel for a wide range of users, including planners and decisions makers based in state and local government, and in particular, those at international and domestic airports tasked with planning for health risks and allocating limited resources.

Huang Zhuojie

2012-08-01

22

[Climate- and vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may increase Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10/26

Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.

2009-01-01

23

Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis) in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas) are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies) are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy. PMID:20145730

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

2010-01-01

24

Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

Dantas-Torres Filipe

2010-01-01

25

Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

2011-01-01

26

Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis.  

OpenAIRE

Current evidence suggests that inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability have a direct influence on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. This evidence has been assessed at the continental level in order to determine the possible consequences of the expected future climate change. By 2100 it is estimated that average global temperatures will have risen by 1.0-3.5 degrees C, increasing the likelihood of many vector-borne diseases in new areas. The greatest effect of climate chang...

Githeko, A. K.; Lindsay, S. W.; Confalonieri, U. E.; Patz, J. A.

2000-01-01

27

Vectors and vector-borne diseases of horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most diseases of horses with zoonotic importance are transmitted by arthropods. The vectors belong to two very distantly related groups, the chelicerate Ixodidae (Acari = ticks) and the hexapod Diptera (true flies). Almost all relevant species are predestined for transmitting pathogens by their blood-sucking habits. Especially species of Diptera, one of the megadiverse orders of holometabolan insects (ca. 150.000 spp.), affect the health status and performance of horses during the grazing period in summer. The severity of pathological effect depends on the pathogen, but also on the group of vectors and the intensity of the infection or infestation. Dipteran species but also blood-sucking representatives of Acari (Ixodidae) can damage their hosts by sucking blood, causing myiasis, allergy, paralysis and intoxication, and also transmit various bacterial, viral, parasitic, spirochetal and rickettsial diseases to animals and also humans. The aim of this review was to provide extensive information on the infectious diseases transmitted by members of the two arthropod lineages (Ixodidae, Diptera) and a systematic overview of the vectors. For each taxon, usually on the ordinal, family, and genus level a short characterisation is given, allowing non-entomologists easy identification. Additionally, the biology of the relevant species (or genera) is outlined briefly. PMID:23054414

Onmaz, A C; Beutel, R G; Schneeberg, K; Pavaloiu, A N; Komarek, A; van den Hoven, R

2013-03-01

28

A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

2013-01-01

29

A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

2015-03-01

30

Elimination of vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease  

OpenAIRE

The control of the vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Brazil was organized as a national program in 1975, when two large entomological and sero-epidemiological surveys were conducted in the country in order to identify areas at highest risk of transmission and to guide inerventions regarding the chemical treatment of domestic vectors of the disease. The authors present the baseline data gathered through these studies and compare them with more recent data. The evaluation performed...

Ac, Silveira; Mc, Vinhaes

1999-01-01

31

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic area...

Otranto Domenico; Dantas-Torres Filipe; Brianti Emanuele; Traversa Donato; Petri? Dusan; Genchi Claudio; Capelli Gioia

2013-01-01

32

Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong. PMID:21679886

Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

2011-05-01

33

Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

2014-08-22

34

The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units. PMID:25074596

Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

2014-01-01

35

A review of trends in the distribution of vector-borne diseases: is international trade contributing to their spread?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is difficult to determine the part that international trade has played in the expansion of vector-borne diseases, because of the multitude of factors that affect the transformation of habitats and the interfaces between vectors and hosts. The introduction of pathogens through trade in live animals or products of animal origin, as well as the arrival of arthropod vectors, is probably quite frequent but the establishment of an efficient transmission system that develops into a disease outbreak remains the exception. In this paper, based on well-documented examples, the authors review the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of vector-borne diseases that may have been affected in their spread and change of distribution by international trade. In addition, they provide a detailed analysis of the risks associated with specific trade routes and recent expansions of vector populations. Finally, the authors highlight the importance, as well as the challenges, of preventive surveillance and regulation. The need for improved monitoring of vector populations and a readiness to face unpredictable epidemiological events are also emphasised, since this will require rapid reaction, not least in the regulatory context. PMID:21809758

de La Rocque, S; Balenghien, T; Halos, L; Dietze, K; Claes, F; Ferrari, G; Guberti, V; Slingenbergh, J

2011-04-01

36

Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The distribution of vector species is generally restricted by a range of different climatic and geographical factors, while the development and spread of the vector-borne diseases (veterinary and zoonotic) is often primarily temperature driven. Thus temperature and its derivatives are key factors in the modelling of vector-borne diseases. This puts a high demand on the quality and accuracy of the temperature data to be used as input in such models. In order to best capture the local temporal and spatial variation in the temperature surfaces, accurate daily temperature data were used in the present project. Temperature data for a 30 year period (1980-2009) were obtained directly from the Meteorological stations in the five Nordic countries. The temperature data consisted of daily min and max measurements from 200 climate stations, adding up to more than two million measurements. Temperature point-data were interpolated to daily climate surfaces, using a squared IDW method. In the absence of a more local lapse rate the generally accepted lapse rate of -0.006 C?/m was used to account for the relationship between temperature and altitude. The interpolation was carried out on temperatures at sea-level and subsequently adjusted for the altitude. As a spherical adjustment, the min and max temperature was interpolated on a grid with a spherical surface geometry. This ensures a more accurate estimate of the temperature isolines in the northernmost areas (above the Arctic Circle) of Scandinavia. Various temperature derivatives were calculated in order to assess the geographical and seasonal variation in the area. In order to evaluate the response of vector borne diseases to possible future climate changes and the subsequent potential spread into new areas, daily temperature predictions (mean, min and max) for three 20-year periods and 7 different prediction models were obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). Predicted temperature scenarios for year 2040 and 2060 were calculated and the data were incorporated in various models. Additionally, major geographical, topographical, husbandry and biological spatial parameters relevant to the distribution of vectors were included in the database and used as input in various distribution models. All collected datasets were assembled in a gridded climate database and presented at the website, www.nordrisk.dk. The website was created with the purpose of presenting the data to the public and making the data available to research projects in the Nordic countries. The website consists of an interactive web-application linked to a summarized climatic database. This allows for interactive selection of summary data for display. Detailed data files are available for research projects on request.

Kristensen, Birgit; BØdker, Rene

37

Elimination of vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of the vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Brazil was organized as a national program in 1975, when two large entomological and sero-epidemiological surveys were conducted in the country in order to identify areas at highest risk of transmission and to guide inerventions regarding the chemical treatment of domestic vectors of the disease. The authors present the baseline data gathered through these studies and compare them with more recent data. The evaluation performed shows that the transmission by Triatoma infestans is virtually interrupted and that the transmission by other native species of triatominae from different regions of the country is possibly very low. It is emphasized the need to maintain permanent actions of entomological surveillance in order to prevent recurrent transmission.

AC Silveira

1999-09-01

38

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors' opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation. PMID:23324440

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Petri?, Dusan; Genchi, Claudio; Capelli, Gioia

2013-01-01

39

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

Otranto Domenico

2013-01-01

40

Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters. In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high predictive power. Furthermore this PhD has provided a new method of estimating the effect of light traps, which can estimate the additive effect of closely placed traps, and determine trap range of individual traps based on emitted light intensity. Moreover there has been devised a method to sample in time which maximizes information about time dependence and is robust to changes.

GræsbØll, Kaare

2012-01-01

41

Network-level reproduction number and extinction threshold for vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic reproduction number of deterministic models is an essential quantity to predict whether an epidemic will spread or not. Thresholds for disease extinction contribute crucial knowledge of disease control, elimination, and mitigation of infectious diseases. Relationships between basic reproduction numbers of two deterministic network-based ordinary differential equation vector-host models, and extinction thresholds of corresponding stochastic continuous-time Markov chain models are derived under some assumptions. Numerical simulation results for malaria and Rift Valley fever transmission on heterogeneous networks are in agreement with analytical results without any assumptions, reinforcing that the relationships may always exist and proposing a mathematical problem for proving existence of the relationships in general. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the basic reproduction number does not monotonically increase or decrease with the extinction threshold. Consistent trends of extinction probability observed through numerical simulations provide novel insights into mitigation strategies to increase the disease extinction probability. Research findings may improve understandings of thresholds for disease persistence in order to control vector-borne diseases. PMID:25811553

Xue, Ling; Scoglio, Caterina

2015-06-01

42

Using geographic information systems and decision support systems for the prediction, prevention, and control of vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. We focus on how advances in mapping, Geographic Information System, and Decision Support System technologies, and progress in spatial and space-time modeling, can be harnessed to prevent and control these diseases. Major themes, which are addressed using examples from tick-borne Lyme borreliosis; flea-borne plague; and mosquito-borne dengue, malaria, and West Nile virus disease, include (a) selection of spatial and space-time modeling techniques, (b) importance of using high-quality and biologically or epidemiologically relevant data, (c) incorporation of new technologies into operational vector and disease control programs, (d) transfer of map-based information to stakeholders, and (e) adaptation of technology solutions for use in resource-poor environments. We see great potential for the use of new technologies and approaches to more effectively target limited surveillance, prevention, and control resources and to reduce vector-borne and other infectious diseases. PMID:20868280

Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J

2011-01-01

43

New infectious etiologies for posterior uveitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergent and resurgent arthropod vector-borne diseases are major causes of systemic morbidity and death and expanding worldwide. Among them, viral and bacterial agents including West Nile virus, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, and rickettsioses have been recently associated with an array of ocular manifestations. These include anterior uveitis, retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis and optic nerve involvement. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious diseases is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular involvement. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by the detection of a specific antibody in serum. Ocular involvement associated with emergent infections usually has a self-limited course, but it can result in persistent visual impairment. There is currently no proven specific treatment for arboviral diseases, and therapy is mostly supportive. Vaccination for humans against these viruses is still in the research phase. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for rickettsial diseases. Prevention, including public measures to reduce the number of mosquitoes and personal protection, remains the mainstay for arthropod vector disease control. Influenza A (H1N1) virus was responsible for a pandemic human influenza in 2009, and was recently associated with various posterior segment changes. PMID:23258387

Khairallah, Moncef; Kahloun, Rim; Ben Yahia, Salim; Jelliti, Bechir; Messaoud, Riadh

2013-01-01

44

[Public health pests. Arthropods and rodents as causative disease agents as well as reservoirs and vectors of pathogens].  

Science.gov (United States)

Globally, infectious diseases pose the most important cause of death. Among known human pathogenic diseases, approximately 50?% are zoonoses. When considering emerging infectious diseases separately 73?% currently belong to the group of zoonoses. In Central Europe, hard ticks show by far the biggest potential as vectors of agents of human disease. Lyme borreliosis, showing an estimated annual incidence between 60,000 and 214,000 cases is by far the most frequent tick-borne disease in Germany. Continually, formerly unknown disease agents could be discovered in endemic vector species. Additionally, introduction of new arthropod vectors and/or agents of disease occur constantly. Recently, five mosquito species of the genus Aedes have been newly introduced to Europe where they are currently spreading in different regions. Uncommon autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya fever viruses in Southern Europe could be directly linked to these vector species and of these Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus are currently reported to occur in Germany. The German Protection against Infection Act only covers the control of public health pests which are either active hematophagous vectors or mechanical transmitters of agents of diseases. Use of officially recommended biocidal products aiming to interrupt transmission cycles of vector-borne diseases, is confined to infested buildings only, including sewage systems in the case of Norway rat control. Outdoor vectors, such as hard ticks and mosquitoes, are currently not taken into consideration. Additionally, adjustments of national public health regulations, detailed arthropod vector and rodent reservoir mapping, including surveillance of vector-borne disease agents, are necessary in order to mitigate future disease risks. PMID:24781905

Faulde, M; Freise, J

2014-05-01

45

Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious diseases, with SIR models could be seen as an implicit standard in epidemiology. Unfortunately, these models are based on differential equations and, therefore, can become very rapidly unmanageable due to the too many parameters which need to be taken into consideration. For instance, in the case of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in wildlife many different potential host species could be involved in the life-cycle of disease transmission, and SIR models might not be the most suitable tool to truly capture the overall disease circulation within that environment. This limitation underlines the necessity to develop a standard spatial model that can cope with the transmission of disease in realistic ecosystems. Results Computational biology may prove to be flexible enough to take into account the natural complexity observed in both natural and man-made ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a new computational model to study the transmission of infectious diseases in a spatially explicit context. We developed a multi-agent system model for vector-borne disease transmission in a realistic spatial environment. Conclusion Here we describe in detail the general behavior of this model that we hope will become a standard reference for the study of vector-borne disease transmission in wildlife. To conclude, we show how this simple model could be easily adapted and modified to be used as a common framework for further research developments in this field. PMID:18922166

Roche, Benjamin; Guégan, Jean-François; Bousquet, François

2008-01-01

46

Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.

Baneth Gad

2012-03-01

47

Evaluation of blood and bone marrow in selected canine vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundBone marrow (BM) is a major hematopoietic organ that can harbour a variety of vector-borne pathogens; however, knowledge of BM pathological changes in dogs infected with vector-borne pathogens is limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the pathological changes in canine BM associated with natural infections by four vector-borne pathogens, as well as to determine the relationships between such changes and abnormalities of the peripheral blood.MethodsCytological disorders and pathological changes of the BM of 83 dogs naturally-infected with one or more of four vector-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys, Leishmania infantum, Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis) were evaluated and compared with the corresponding hematological findings.ResultsDysgranulopoiesis and dysmegakaryocytopoiesis were the most frequently observed BM abnormalities in infected dogs. Erythroid suppression, and lymphocytic, monocytic and macrophage hyperplasia were also observed. Interestingly, associations between suppression and hyperplasia of specific cell lines in the marrow and corresponding changes in numbers of circulating peripheral blood cells were not observed.ConclusionsInfections with one or more of the vector-borne pathogens examined in this study should be considered as differential diagnoses for secondary dysmyelopoiesis. PMID:25441458

De Tommasi, Anna S; Otranto, Domenico; Furlanello, Tommaso; Tasca, Silvia; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stanneck, Dorothee; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Capelli, Gioia; de Caprariis, Donato

2014-12-01

48

Assessment of changes of vector borne diseases with wetland characteristics using multivariate analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector borne diseases are a threat to human health. Little attention has been paid to the prevention of these diseases. We attempted to identify the significant wetland characteristics associated with the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever and malaria in Kerala, a tropical region of South West India using multivariate analyses (hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression). High/medium turbid coastal lagoons and inland water-logged wetlands with aquatic vegetation have significant effect on the incidence of chikungunya while dengue influenced by high turbid coastal beaches and malaria by medium turbid coastal beaches. The high turbidity in water is due to the urban waste discharge namely sewage, sullage and garbage from the densely populated cities and towns. The large extent of wetland is low land area favours the occurrence of vector borne diseases. Hence the provision of pollution control measures at source including soil erosion control measures is vital. The identification of vulnerable zones favouring the vector borne diseases will help the authorities to control pollution especially from urban areas and prevent these vector borne diseases. Future research should cover land use cover changes, climatic factors, seasonal variations in weather and pollution factors favouring the occurrence of vector borne diseases. PMID:25412801

Sheela, A M; Sarun, S; Justus, J; Vineetha, P; Sheeja, R V

2015-04-01

49

Arthropod Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

After researching the characteristics of arthropods, students observe arthropods in the field, analyze their data, and learn how to develop their own arthropod collection. The unit is designed to be completed in eight or more sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including activity tips and an overview of the characteristics that define arthropods.

50

Vector-borne pathogens in arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, from Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the relatively low biodiversity within arctic ecosystems, arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, could serve as sentinels for the study of changes in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of 5 different genera of vector borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp.) using blood collected from 28 live-trapped arctic foxes from the region of Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Bartonella henselae (n?=?3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (n?=?1), Ehrlichia canis (n?=?1), and an Anaplasma sp. (n?=?1) DNA were PCR amplified and subsequently identified by sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidence that vector borne pathogens, not typically associated with the arctic ecosystem, exist at low levels in this arctic fox population, and that vector exposure, pathogen transmission dynamics, and changes in the geographic distribution of pathogens over time should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25596149

Mascarelli, Patricia E; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J; Alisauskas, Ray T; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

2015-04-01

51

Arthropod-borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminths, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed. PMID:21169676

Romi, Roberto

2010-01-01

52

Rapid identification of vector-borne flaviviruses by mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flaviviruses are a highly diverse group of RNA viruses classified within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses are arthropod-borne, requiring a mosquito or tick vector. Several flaviviruses are highly pathogenic to humans; however, their high genetic diversity and immunological relatedness makes them extremely challenging to diagnose. In this study, we developed and evaluated a broad-range Flavivirus assay designed to detect both tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses by using RT-PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) on the Ibis T5000 platform. The assay was evaluated with a panel of 13 different flaviviruses. All samples were correctly identified to the species level. To determine the limit of detection for the mosquito-borne primer sets, serial dilutions of RNA from West Nile virus (WNV) were assayed and could be detected down to an equivalent viral titer of 0.2 plaque-forming units/mL. Analysis of flaviviruses in their natural biological background included testing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that were laboratory-infected with dengue-1 virus. The assay accurately identified the virus within infected mosquitoes, and we determined the average viral genome per mosquito to be 2.0 x 10(6). Using human blood, serum, and urine spiked with WNV and mouse blood and brain tissues from Karshi virus-infected mice, we showed that these clinical matrices did not inhibit the detection of these viruses. Finally, we used the assay to test field-collected Ixodes scapularis ticks collected from sites in New York and Connecticut. We found 16/322 (5% infection rate) ticks positive for deer tick virus, a subtype of Powassan virus. In summary, we developed a single high-throughput Flavivirus assay that could detect multiple tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses and thus provides a new analytical tool for their medical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20412852

Grant-Klein, Rebecca J; Baldwin, Carson D; Turell, Michael J; Rossi, Cynthia A; Li, Feng; Lovari, Robert; Crowder, Chris D; Matthews, Heather E; Rounds, Megan A; Eshoo, Mark W; Blyn, Lawrence B; Ecker, David J; Sampath, Rangarajan; Whitehouse, Chris A

2010-08-01

53

Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario. The most robust vaccination scenarios were all holdings vaccinated and the mandatory vaccination of hosts on pasture. Regional vaccination and trench vaccination display better results under some conditions, but are very sensitive to the incursion route. With this study we intended to test scenarios that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable. Results in this presentation were obtained building upon the model presented in: Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Kaare Græsbøll et al. Scientific Reports. 2:863 (2012).

GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

54

Epidemiological aspects on vector-borne infections in stray and pet dogs from Romania and Hungary with focus on Babesia spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine arthropod-borne infections are of major interest in small animal practice and have been widely investigated in Central and Western Europe. However, only limited epidemiological data are available from South-Eastern European countries, although diseases including babesiosis or dirofilariosis are widely recognised as important canine infections in these countries. A steadily increasing number of dogs imported from South-Eastern Europe into Germany require particular attention by small animal practitioners. In this study, a total of 216 dogs [29 local Romanian pet dogs presented at Salvavet Veterinary Clinic in Bucharest, Romania, and 187 imported stray dogs from Romania (n?=?109) and Hungary (n?=?78) into Germany] were screened by molecular biological, serological and haematological methods for canine arthropod-borne infections. Eleven different parasitic and bacterial vector-borne pathogens-Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Babesia felis-like, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Mycoplasma haemocanis-were detected. Fifty-six percent of the dogs were positive by direct methods. B. canis canis was the most prevalent pathogen in dogs imported to Germany (42.8%) and dogs submitted for clinical consultation in Bucharest (44.8%). Our data strongly suggest the introduction of an adjusted screening panel in dogs from South-East Europe in view of increasing importation of dogs into Germany. PMID:21947342

Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Lescai, Daniel; Pfister, Kurt

2012-04-01

55

Ecology of a vector-borne zoonosis in a complex ecosystem: trypanosomiasis in Serengeti, Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Unravelling the complexities of a disease with multiple wildlife host and multiple tsetse vector species is no easy task. After over a century of field observations, experimental studies, anecdotal evidence and conjecture, the role of wildlife in the transmission of trypanosomes is still unclear. Recently, however, frameworks used in the studies of other vector-borne diseases with wildlife reservoirs showed that not only is it possible to understand transmission, but that spati...

Auty, Harriet K.

2009-01-01

56

Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

Hongoh Valerie

2011-12-01

57

Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives  

OpenAIRE

Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of flea...

Dantas-Torres Filipe; Otranto Domenico

2010-01-01

58

An Environmental Data Set for Vector-Borne Disease Modeling and Epidemiology  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on...

Chabot-couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

2014-01-01

59

Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

2015-03-01

60

Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease. PMID:25843376

Hollingsworth, T. Déirdre; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Funk, Sebastian; Truscott, James E.; Isham, Valerie; Lloyd, Alun L.

2015-01-01

61

Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted at eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates of the future risk of outbreaks in the Nordic countries. DTU Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous riskassessment of potential spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. Mathematical models for selected vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data and vector data to quantify the present risk of outbreaks in case an infected vector or host is introduced to the area.

BØdker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

62

Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

Jean-Marie Aerts

2012-11-01

63

Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. PMID:23480672

Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

2013-12-01

64

Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La R|[eacute]|union and Mayotte (2005|[ndash]|2006 and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995|[ndash]|2007. To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities|[rsquo]| efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious disease.

M Setbon

2009-01-01

65

Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La Re' union and Mayotte (2005-2006) and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995-2007). To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio- demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities' efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious disease. PMID:22460287

Setbon, M; Raude, J

2009-01-01

66

A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor (NF-kB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome – a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL-1? and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

JoaoPedra

2013-10-01

67

Diagnosis of Canine Vector-Borne Diseases in Young Dogs: a Longitudinal Study? †  

OpenAIRE

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) pose a diagnostic challenge, particularly when a dog is coinfected with more than one pathogen. The purpose of this study was to generate information about the diagnosis of CVBDs in young dogs following their first exposure to flea, tick, sand fly, louse, and mosquito vectors. From March 2008 to May 2009, 10 purpose-bred young naive beagle dogs and a cohort of 48 mixed-breed dogs living in an area to which CVBD is endemic in southern Italy were monitored u...

Otranto, Domenico; Testini, Gabriella; Dantas-torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria S.; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto Paiva; Caprariis, Donato; Lia, Riccardo P.; Mencke, Norbert; Stanneck, Dorothee; Capelli, Gioia; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2010-01-01

68

Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. This model was examined relative to two mosquito vectors, both competent carriers of dengue fever, a viral, vector-borne disease. Models which incorporate public health considerations can enable decision makers to take proactive steps to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the changing environmental conditions. In this paper we provide a snapshot of our climate initiative and some examples relative to our public health practice work in vector-borne diseases to illustrate how integrated decision support could be of assistance to regional and local communities worldwide.

Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

2011-12-01

69

Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on south-eastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations.

Woodworth, B.L.; Atkinson, C.T.; Lapointe, D.A.; Hart, P.J.; Spiegel, C.S.; Tweed, E.J.; Henneman, C.; LeBrun, J.; Denette, T.; DeMots, R.; Kozar, K.L.; Triglia, D.; Lease, D.; Gregor, A.; Smith, T.; Duffy, D.

2005-01-01

70

Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem / Malattie trasmesse da artropodi in Italia: un problema sanitario emergente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly [...] known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

Roberto, Romi.

2010-12-01

71

Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from ?zmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

Kerem Ural

2014-06-01

72

Climate change and the distribution of vector borne diseases with special reference to African horse sickness virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of climate change, those components of climate that are likely to have major effects upon distribution, seasonal incidence and prevalence of vector borne diseases are described. On the basis of a predicted, mean temperature increase of the order of 1 to 3.5 deg. C., examples are given of the sort of changes that are to be expected by using a range of internationally important human and animal pathogens. Recent dramatic alterations in the epidemiology of the OIE List ''A'' disease, African horse sickness, are drawn upon to put forward the proposition that climate change may already be having a major effect upon some vector borne diseases. (author)

73

Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

Lorelei L. Clarke

2014-09-01

74

Promoting Spatial Data Synthesis for Vector-Borne Disease Assessment in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given the continually human interaction with the environment, the present paper reveals the spatial data integration of environmental factors such as topography, vegetation and surface temperature with epidemiological statistical data for assessing vector-borne diseases in Romania, monitored between 2009 and 2011. This study is a small piece of a big puzzle, part of an extended research that evaluates the contribution of geospatial and ground observation data to public health assessment. It is intended to implement a useful and innovative system for Romania’s public health, which provides information on various aspects such as the prevalence of diseases, facilities that are available in order to take decisions on, either for creating infrastructure facilities or for taking immediate actions to handle situations.

MARIA IOANA VLAD ?ANDRU

2014-12-01

75

Genetic shifting: a novel approach for controlling vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rendering populations of vectors of diseases incapable of transmitting pathogens through genetic methods has long been a goal of vector geneticists. We outline a method to achieve this goal that does not involve the introduction of any new genetic variants to the target population. Rather we propose that shifting the frequencies of naturally occurring alleles that confer refractoriness to transmission can reduce transmission below a sustainable level. The program employs methods successfully used in plant and animal breeding. Because no artificially constructed genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are introduced into the environment, the method is minimally controversial. We use Aedes aegypti and dengue virus (DENV) for illustrative purposes but point out that the proposed program is generally applicable to vector-borne disease control. PMID:24794113

Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J

2014-06-01

76

Towards a resource-based habitat approach for spatial modelling of vector-borne disease risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional habitat of vectors or hosts, and hence of the pathogen. Empirical-statistical methods do not explicitly incorporate biological mechanisms, whereas current mechanistic models are rarely spatially explicit; both methods ignore the way animals use the landscape (i.e. movement ecology). We argue that applying a functional concept for habitat, i.e. the resource-based habitat concept (RBHC), can solve these issues. The RBHC offers a framework to identify systematically the different ecological resources that are necessary for the completion of the transmission cycle and to relate these resources to (combinations of) landscape features and other environmental factors. The potential of the RBHC as a framework for identifying suitable habitats for vector-borne pathogens is explored and illustrated with the case of bluetongue virus, a midge-transmitted virus affecting ruminants. The concept facilitates the study of functional habitats of the interacting species (vectors as well as hosts) and provides new insight into spatial and temporal variation in transmission opportunities and exposure that ultimately determine disease risks. It may help to identify knowledge gaps and control options arising from changes in the spatial configuration of key resources across the landscape. The RBHC framework may act as a bridge between existing mechanistic and statistical modelling approaches. PMID:25335785

Hartemink, Nienke; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Purse, Bethan V; Gilbert, Marius; Van Dyck, Hans

2014-10-22

77

Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

78

Climate change, vector-borne disease and interdisciplinary research: social science perspectives on an environment and health controversy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last two decades, the science of climate change's theoretical impacts on vector-borne disease has generated controversy related to its methodological validity and relevance to disease control policy. Critical social science analysis, drawing on science and technology studies and the sociology of social movements, demonstrates consistency between this controversy and the theory that climate change is serving as a collective action frame for some health researchers. Within this frame, vector-borne disease data are interpreted as a symptom of climate change, with the need for further interdisiplinary research put forth as the logical and necessary next step. Reaction to this tendency on the part of a handful of vector-borne disease specialists exhibits characteristics of academic boundary work aimed at preserving the integrity of existing disciplinary boundaries. Possible reasons for this conflict include the leadership role for health professionals and disciplines in the envisioned interdiscipline, and disagreements over the appropriate scale of interventions to control vector-borne diseases. Analysis of the competing frames in this controversy also allows identification of excluded voices and themes, such as international political economic explanations for the health problems in question. A logical conclusion of this analysis, therefore, is the need for critical reflection on environment and health research and policy to achieve integration with considerations of global health equity. PMID:21125310

Brisbois, Ben W; Ali, S Harris

2010-12-01

79

Sentinel surveillance systems with special focus on vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past few decades, vector-borne diseases have been spreading into countries previously free of these agents. It is necessary for a surveillance method to be tailored to the biology of these agents in order to detect their incursion. Using a sentinel herd system, it is possible to target high-risk areas where occurrence is most probably due to vector presence. Since the 1970s, diseases such as Akabane, vesicular stomatitis and Bluetongue disease have successfully been monitored using cattle herds as sentinels in many countries such as Saudi Arabia, Australia, China, Indonesia, Sultanate of Oman and most recently in countries in Western Europe. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of sentinel herd surveillance systems in general. In order to determine their efficacy, the following criteria were found to be essential: the choice of sentinel locations, sentinel animal, seasonality of sampling and diagnostic testing methods. We conclude that due to its ability to focus on a specific disease, sentinel herd systems have been successful in the early detection of the spread of a targeted agent. This review is used as a basis for recommendations for the development of future sentinel herd systems. PMID:17389055

Racloz, V; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C

2006-01-01

80

Spread of an introduced vector-borne banana virus in Hawaii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging diseases are increasing in incidence; therefore, understanding how pathogens are introduced into new regions and cause epidemics is of importance for the development of strategies that may hinder their spread. We used molecular data to study how a vector-borne banana virus, Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), spread in Hawaii after it was first detected in 1989. Our analyses suggest that BBTV was introduced once into Hawaii, on the island of Oahu. All other islands were infected with isolates originating from Oahu, suggesting that movement of contaminated plant material was the main driving factor responsible for interisland spread of BBTV. The rate of mutation inferred by the phylogenetic analysis (1.4 x 10(-4) bp/year) was similar to that obtained in an experimental evolution study under greenhouse conditions (3.9 x 10(-4) bp/year). We used these values to estimate the number of infections occurring under field conditions per year. Our results suggest that strict and enforced regulations limiting the movement of banana plant material among Hawaiian islands could have reduced interisland spread of this pathogen. PMID:19037897

Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Bennett, Gordon M; Anhalt, Mandy D; Tsai, Chi-Wei; O'Grady, Patrick

2009-01-01

81

Vector-borne parasitic diseases: new trends in data collection and risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climates and topography effectively restrict vector-borne infections to certain geographical areas, a clear illustration of how strongly the spatial distributions of these diseases rely on environmental factors. This is hardly a new revelation, but just a few years back, without the support of computer-assisted collection and handling of data, we were far less able to grasp the full picture. Fortunately climate data collection by Remote Sensing (RS) by earth-observing satellites, a technology particularly well suited to pinpointing constraining endemic factors, has not only become affordable but also reached a high degree of sophistication. Meanwhile, geographical information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) permit spatial information of great accuracy as well as digitalization of collected data on the spot enabling visualization of the data in relation to physical maps and facilitating comparisons of the results of longitudinal investigations. Adoption of these technologies at the national level promotes intersectoral collaboration and promises improved planning and management in the control of endemic diseases. Applications in areas such as malaria, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis are briefly reviewed. Reports in the fields of the former two diseases dominate the literature, while information is lagging with regard to the others. The need for a broadening of the GIS approach is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of epidemiological studies. PMID:11378138

Bergquist, N R

2001-04-27

82

The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations, outbrea

NathanChristopherNieto

2012-07-01

83

Spatial cognition: a geospatial analysis of vector borne disease transmission and the environment, using remote sensing and GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of geographical distribution of vector borne diseases has been increasingly public health important and challenging problems in more than 100 tropical countries and it has been affecting more than 50% of the population in the world, especially, it is very big problem in India. The change of vector borne disease epidemic transmission in to the endemic situation in the country has been caused by the land use / land cover changes, regional climate changes, increase of sea change population, urban agglomeration, industrial development and the past development of towns, consequently, the disease epidemics have been steadily increased too, and, besides, it has been found ubiquitous, such diseases known as, malaria, filariasis, JE, dengue and chikungunya, as a result, the increase of both mosquito nuisances and disease transmissions has become public health importance and very big challenging problems in India.

M.Palaniyandi

2014-09-01

84

The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations, outbreaks of Dengue hemorrhagic fever have been reported in the region, and high prevalence of cattle infected and co-infected with multiple species of hemoparasites (Theileria, Babesia, Anaplasma). The emergence of which has followed the increased density of the rural population due to an influx of refugees from violent conflicts in Afghanistan and is exacerbated by an already impoverished society and wide diversity of potential arthropod vectors. These human outbreaks may be exacerbated by episodes of social upheaval but are also tied to the historically close association of people in the region with their livestock and subsequent zoonosis that result from spillover from co-habitation with infected domestic animals. PMID:22934007

Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

2012-01-01

85

Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

Coleman Glen T

2010-04-01

86

Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more positive in the light of this combined approach in the EU. PMID:25236564

Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

2014-10-15

87

Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported.Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

2009-01-01

88

Diagnosis of Canine Vector-Borne Diseases in Young Dogs: a Longitudinal Study? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) pose a diagnostic challenge, particularly when a dog is coinfected with more than one pathogen. The purpose of this study was to generate information about the diagnosis of CVBDs in young dogs following their first exposure to flea, tick, sand fly, louse, and mosquito vectors. From March 2008 to May 2009, 10 purpose-bred young naive beagle dogs and a cohort of 48 mixed-breed dogs living in an area to which CVBD is endemic in southern Italy were monitored using different diagnostic tests (cytology, serology, and PCR). Overall, PCR detected the highest number of dogs infected with Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, and Ehrlichia canis, whereas seroconversion was a more sensitive indicator of exposure to Leishmania infantum. For A. platys infection, combining blood and buffy coat cytology in parallel enhanced the relative sensitivity (SErel) (87.3%). For B. vogeli, the best diagnostic combination was buffy coat cytology and serology used in parallel (SErel, 67.5%), whereas serology and PCR used in parallel (SErel, 100%) was the best combination for L. infantum. Overall, 12 (20.7%) dogs were coinfected; however, the percentage of new coinfections decreased from baseline (50%) to the first (33.3%) and second (16.6%) follow-up time points. Numbers of coinfections with A. platys and B. vogeli were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than coinfections with other pathogen combinations. The data generated in this study provide insights on the incidence of certain pathogens infecting young dogs in southern Italy, highlight important diagnostic testing limitations, and support the use of multiple diagnostic modalities when attempting to confirm a tick-borne infection in an individual dog or in a canine population. PMID:20660218

Otranto, Domenico; Testini, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria S.; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; de Caprariis, Donato; Lia, Riccardo P.; Mencke, Norbert; Stanneck, Dorothee; Capelli, Gioia; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2010-01-01

89

Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases. But mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread or limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. This is particular true for the relatively cool Nordic countries where periods of suitable temperatures, the ?windows of opportunity for transmission‘, may be very short and only appear in odd years DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance.In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) should an infected vector or host be introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps function as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of ?no possible transmission‘ and target costly active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighbouring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax-malaria in humans. Both the presently very restricted potential spatial and seasonal distribution was predicted to increase in the coming 50 years. While the predicted new areas potentially affected by vector borne diseases are relatively small they closely follow the spatial distribution of human habitation and agriculture. The practical impact of climate change on human health and agriculture may therefore be greater than simple distribution maps suggest. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases, compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia i 2008, and discuss the level of preventive measures needed to prevent large scale epidemics in the future.

BØdker, Rene Technical University of Denmark,

90

Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

2013-02-01

91

Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease prevalence, complete risk assessments, and impleme t timely preventive medicine and other preventive measures. The lower VBD prevalence rate in the canine samples from Fort Buchanan demonstrates the value of responsible pet ownership and importance of preventive medicine and public health. PMID:23817880

McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

2013-01-01

92

International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet  

OpenAIRE

Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expa...

Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A. R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R. J. M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.

2009-01-01

93

Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs. PMID:25271465

Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Ahid, Silvia Maria Mendes; Pereira, Josivânia Soares; Vale, André Mendes do; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

2014-01-01

94

Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least one million deaths annually, with 80% of malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has a large impact upon the incidence of vector-borne diseases; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the environmental conditions. A large ensemble of regional climate model simulations has been produced within the ENSEMBLES project framework for both the European and African continent. This work will present recent progress in human and animal disease modelling, based on high resolution climate observations and regional climate simulations. Preliminary results will be given as an illustration, including the impact of climate change upon bluetongue (disease affecting the cattle) over Europe and upon malaria and Rift Valley Fever over Africa. Malaria scenarios based on RCM ensemble simulations have been produced for West Africa. These simulations have been carried out using the Liverpool Malaria Model. Future projections highlight that the malaria incidence decreases at the northern edge of the Sahel and that the epidemic belt is shifted southward in autumn. This could lead to significant public health problems in the future as the demography is expected to dramatically rise over Africa for the 21st century.

Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andy

2010-05-01

95

Cambio climático en España y riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias transmitidas por artrópodos y roedores / Climate Change in Spain and Risk of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Transmitted by Arthropods and Rodents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Por la proximidad con el continente africano, siendo lugar de tránsito obligado de aves migratorias y personas, y por las condiciones climáticas, cercanas a las de zonas donde hay transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales, España es un país en el que este tipo de enfermedades podrían verse potenciadas [...] por el cambio climático. El posible riesgo vendría por extensión geográfica de vectores ya establecidos o por la importación e instalación de vectores sub-tropicales adaptados a sobrevivir en climas menos cálidos y más secos. Hipotéticamente, las enfermedades vectoriales susceptibles de ser influidas por el cambio climático en España serían aquellas transmitidas por dípteros como dengue, encefalitis del Nilo occidental, fiebre del valle del Rift, malaria y leishmaniosis; las transmitidas por garrapatas como la fiebre de Congo Crimea, encefalitis por garrapata, enfermedad de Lyme, fiebre botonosa y fiebre recurrente endémica; y las transmitidas por roedores. Pero la mayor y más factible amenaza sería la instauración del mosquito Aedes albopictus, que sería capaz de transmitir enfermedades virales como la del Nilo occidental o el dengue. Pero para el establecimiento de auténticas áreas de endemia se necesitaría la conjunción de otros factores, tales como el aflujo masivo y simultáneo de reservorios animales o humanos y el deterioro de las condiciones socio-sanitarias y de los servicios de Salud Pública. Abstract in english Due to Spain's being located near Africa, being a stopping-off point for migrating birds and individuals and due to its climate conditions, nearing those of areas where there are vector-borne diseases, this is a country where this type of diseases could taken on greater importance due to the climate [...] change. The possible risk would result from the geographical spread of already established vectors or due to subtropical vectors adapted to surviving in cooler, dried climates being imported and taking up residence. Hypothetically, the vector-borne diseases subject to be influenced by the climate change in Spain would be those transmitted by dipterans, such as dengue fever, West Nile encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, malaria and leishmaniasis; tick-transmitted diseases, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, spotted fever and endemic relapsing fever; and rodent-transmitted diseases. But the greatest, most viable threat would be the Aedes albopictus mosquito, which would be capable of transmitting viral diseases such as West Nile encephalitis or dengue fever, taking up residence. But, for actual areas of endemia being established, a combination of other factors, such as the massive, simultaneous influx of animal or human reservoirs and the deterioration of the social healthcare conditions and of the Public Health services.

Rogelio, López-Vélez; Ricardo, Molina Moreno.

2005-04-01

96

R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Temperature decreases with latitude, and in the Nordic countries periods of suitable temperatures, the windows of opportunity for transmission, may be very short and only appear in odd years. While average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases, mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread and limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of potential local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) in case an infected vector or host are introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps functions as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of „no possible transmission? and target active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighboring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated from such models is therefore likely to deviate from the true R0. However assuming the models are qualitatively able to rank the estimated R0 correctly, a period resulting in a relatively high estimated R0 will also be a period with a relatively high true R0. This allows the estimated R0 to be used for targeted surveillance by focusing the surveillance on periods and areas with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction factor is obtained that may be used to adjust the model estimates in Denmark, and thus allowing a more quantitative interpretation of the estimated R0. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases and compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia in 2008.

BØdker, Rene

2011-01-01

97

Prevention of endemic canine vector-borne diseases using imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% in young dogs: a longitudinal field study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent and increasing in distribution worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted in southern Italy to determine the incidence of and protection against CVBD-causing pathogens in dogs treated with a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer). One hundred eleven autochthonous young dogs were divided into group A (n=63) and group B (n=48), both groups containing dogs positive and negative for one or more CVBD-causing pathogens. Additionally, 10 naïve male beagles were introduced in each group in May 2008. Group A was treated with ImPer on day 0 and every 21+/-2 days whereas group B was left untreated. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (March-April 2008) and at the first, second and third follow-up times (July and October 2008 and April 2009). Bone marrow was sampled at baseline and at the third follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect Anaplasma platys, Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum. Ectoparasites (fleas, ticks, and sand flies) were monitored throughout the study. The baseline prevalence of CVBDs was 39.6% with 44 dogs positive for at least one pathogen. A. platys (27.5%) and Babesia spp. (15.6%) were the most prevalent species and co-infections with up to two pathogens were detected in 16 (14.7%) individuals. At the end of the evaluation period, there was a 90.7% reduction in overall CVBD incidence density rate (IDR) in group A, as following: 100% reduction in L. infantum; 94.6% in E. canis; 94.4% in Babesia spp.; and 81.8% in A. platys. Initially positive treated dogs showed significantly lower pathogen prevalence at the third follow-up than untreated ones. At the end of the evaluation period, 8 of the 10 untreated beagles were infected with at least one pathogen whereas one of the treated beagles was A. platys positive at a single time point (second follow-up). Overall efficacy against ticks was 97.9%. In October 2009, samples were collected from the remaining 83 dogs (44 from group A and 39 from group B) to investigate the annual incidence of CVBDs in the same, at this time untreated, dog population. A high year incidence for tick-borne diseases (78.1%) and for L. infantum (13.6%) was detected in dogs from group A, seven months after the treatment had been withdrawn. The results demonstrate that ImPer preventive treatment against arthropods protects autochthonous and naïve beagle dogs against CVBD-causing pathogens. PMID:20591573

Otranto, D; de Caprariis, D; Lia, R P; Tarallo, V; Lorusso, V; Testini, G; Dantas-Torres, F; Latrofa, S; Diniz, P P V P; Mencke, N; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E; Capelli, G; Stanneck, D

2010-09-20

98

Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. PMID:25688012

Parham, Paul E; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E; Naumova, Elena N; Ostfeld, Richard S; Ready, Paul D; Thomas, Matthew B; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

2015-04-01

99

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs. PMID:20377869

Lim, Sun; Irwin, Peter J; Lee, Seungryong; Oh, Myunghwan; Ahn, Kyusung; Myung, Boyoung; Shin, Sungshik

2010-01-01

100

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

Ahn KyuSung

2010-04-01

101

Inter-model comparison of the landscape determinants of vector-borne disease: implications for epidemiological and entomological risk modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions. PMID:25072884

Lorenz, Alyson; Dhingra, Radhika; Chang, Howard H; Bisanzio, Donal; Liu, Yang; Remais, Justin V

2014-01-01

102

Identification of Babesia species infecting dogs using reverse line blot hybridization for six canine piroplasms, and evaluation of co-infection by other vector-borne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine infection by vector-borne hemoparasites is frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where exposure to hematophageous ectoparasites is intensive. A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was designed to improve the simultaneous detection of all named canine piroplasm species combined with other vector-borne pathogens of dogs including Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum common in the Mediterranean basin. Blood samples of 110 dogs from Spain (n=21), Portugal (n=14) and Israel (n=75) were analyzed. The study evaluated 2 groups of dogs, 49 dogs with piroplasm infection detected by blood smear microscopy from Portugal, Spain and Israel, and 61 dogs surveyed from rural areas in Israel, for which infection status with vector-borne pathogens was unknown. Among the dogs previously diagnosed with piroplasmosis, infection with Babesia canis, Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni and Theileria annae was detected in the Iberian dogs while only B. vogeli was found in Israeli dogs. These differences are attributed to the absence of tick vectors for some piroplasm species such as Dermacentor reticulatus in Israel. Eleven (79%) of the Babesia-positive dogs from Portugal were co-infected with other pathogens including L. infantum, H. canis and E. canis. Eight of 61 (13%) rural Israeli dogs were co-infected with two or more pathogens including B. vogeli, L. infantum, E. canis, and H. canis. Triple infections were demonstrated in 2 dogs. The RLB detection limit for Babesia was 50-fold lower than that of PCR. This study presents a RLB to simultaneously detect and separate the major vector-borne dog pathogens in southern Europe and the Middle East. PMID:23017370

Yisaschar-Mekuzas, Yael; Jaffe, Charles L; Pastor, Josep; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad

2013-01-31

103

Insecticide-treated clothes for the control of vector-borne diseases: a review on effectiveness and safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insecticide-treated clothing has been used for many years by the military and in recreational activities as personal protection against bites from a variety of arthropods including ticks, chigger mites, sandflies and mosquitoes. Permethrin is the most commonly used active ingredient, but others, including bifenthrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenz-amide) and KBR3023, have also been trialled. Treatment is usually carried out by home or factory dipping. However, new microencapsulation technologies which may prolong the activity of insecticides on clothing are now available and may help to overcome the inevitable reduction in efficacy over time that occurs as a result of washing, ultraviolet light exposure, and the normal wear and tear of the fabric. The aim of this article is to review the evidence base for the use of insecticide-treated clothing for protection against bites from arthropods and its effect on arthropod-borne pathogen transmission. Although some studies do demonstrate protection against pathogen transmission, there are surprisingly few, and the level of protection provided varies according to the disease and the type of study conducted. For example, insecticide-treated clothing has been reported to give between 0% and 75% protection against malaria and between 0% and 79% protection against leishmaniasis. Studies vary in the type of treatment used, the age group of participants, the geographical location of the study, and the pathogen transmission potential. This makes it difficult to compare and assess intervention trials. Overall, there is substantial evidence that insecticide-treated clothing can provide protection against arthropod bites. Bite protection evidence suggests that insecticide-treated clothing may be useful in the prevention of pathogen transmission, but further investigations are required to accurately demonstrate transmission reduction. PMID:24912919

Banks, S D; Murray, N; Wilder-Smith, A; Logan, J G

2014-08-01

104

Microbial symbiosis and the control of vector-borne pathogens in tsetse flies, human lice, and triatomine bugs  

OpenAIRE

Symbiosis is a widespread biological phenomenon, and is particularly common in arthropods. Bloodsucking insects are among the organisms that rely on beneficial bacterial symbionts to complement their unbalanced diet. This review is focused on describing symbiosis, and possible strategies for the symbiont-based control of insects and insect-borne diseases, in three bloodsucking insects of medical importance: the flies of the genus Glossina, the lice of the genus Pediculus, and triatomine bugs ...

Sassera, Davide; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Bandi, Claudio

2013-01-01

105

Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

2015-04-01

106

Perspectivas de controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil / Perspectives of vector borne diseases control in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise do controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil necessita considerar três aspectos: a urbanização da população, a transformação do caráter eminentemente rural dessas doenças em concomitante transmissão urbana ou peri-urbana e a descentralização do controle para municípios. A imen [...] sa maioria da população está vivendo nas cidades. Algumas doenças passaram a ser transmitidas em áreas peri-urbanas ou urbanas, graças à emergência ou re-emergência de seus vetores nessas áreas, como dengue, leishmaniose visceral e malária. Há dificuldades para o controle: as atividades em áreas rurais são operacionalmente mais efetivas, pois atingem coberturas mais elevadas; são mais bem aceitas pela população do que as exercidas em áreas urbanas. A descentralização do controle para os estados e municípios está em implementação e há também dificuldades, pois o controle vetorial não fazia parte da prática desses entes federativos. Para um controle mais efetivo, há necessidade de determinação política, ações multi-setoriais e uso racional de inseticida. Abstract in english The analysis of vector borne disease control in Brazil should consider three aspects: the urbanization of the population, change from a rural pattern to concomitant urban or peri-urban transmission and decentralization of control to municipalities. The great majority of the population now lives in u [...] rban areas. Some diseases are being transmitted in urban areas, due to the emergence or reemergence of their vectors, such as dengue, malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. Difficulties in control occur, as it is easier to apply control measures in rural areas, because there is more population adherence than in urban areas and so the coverage is higher and disease control is better. The decentralization of control activities to states and municipalities is being implemented and difficulties occur as these levels of government have insufficient accumulated experience in control. For more effective control, political commitment, multi-sector articulation and rational use of insecticide are required.

Pedro Luiz, Tauil.

2006-06-01

107

Perspectivas de controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil Perspectives of vector borne diseases control in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A análise do controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil necessita considerar três aspectos: a urbanização da população, a transformação do caráter eminentemente rural dessas doenças em concomitante transmissão urbana ou peri-urbana e a descentralização do controle para municípios. A imensa maioria da população está vivendo nas cidades. Algumas doenças passaram a ser transmitidas em áreas peri-urbanas ou urbanas, graças à emergência ou re-emergência de seus vetores nessas áreas, como dengue, leishmaniose visceral e malária. Há dificuldades para o controle: as atividades em áreas rurais são operacionalmente mais efetivas, pois atingem coberturas mais elevadas; são mais bem aceitas pela população do que as exercidas em áreas urbanas. A descentralização do controle para os estados e municípios está em implementação e há também dificuldades, pois o controle vetorial não fazia parte da prática desses entes federativos. Para um controle mais efetivo, há necessidade de determinação política, ações multi-setoriais e uso racional de inseticida.The analysis of vector borne disease control in Brazil should consider three aspects: the urbanization of the population, change from a rural pattern to concomitant urban or peri-urban transmission and decentralization of control to municipalities. The great majority of the population now lives in urban areas. Some diseases are being transmitted in urban areas, due to the emergence or reemergence of their vectors, such as dengue, malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. Difficulties in control occur, as it is easier to apply control measures in rural areas, because there is more population adherence than in urban areas and so the coverage is higher and disease control is better. The decentralization of control activities to states and municipalities is being implemented and difficulties occur as these levels of government have insufficient accumulated experience in control. For more effective control, political commitment, multi-sector articulation and rational use of insecticide are required.

Pedro Luiz Tauil

2006-06-01

108

Sorting Arthropods for Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, offers tips for sorting and identifying arthropods. The article discusses the series of steps involved in identification and suggestions for how students can use them.

109

Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

110

Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

2009-01-01

111

The first report of autochthonous non-vector-borne transmission of canine leishmaniosis in the Nordic countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoans that infect humans and other mammals such as dogs. The most significant causative species in dogs is L. infantum. In dogs, leishmaniosis is a potentially progressive, chronic disease with varying clinical outcomes. Autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis have not previously been reported in the Nordic countries.ResultsIn this report we describe the first diagnosed autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis in Finland, in which transmission via a suitable arthropod vector was absent. Two Finnish boxers that had never been in endemic areas of Leishmania spp., had never received blood transfusions, nor were infested by ectoparasites were diagnosed with leishmaniosis. Another dog was found with elevated Leishmania antibodies. A fourth boxer dog that had been in Spain was considered to be the source of these infections. Transmission occurred through biting wounds and semen, however, transplacental infection in one of the dogs could not be ruled out.Two of the infected dogs developed a serious disease and were euthanized and sent for necropsy. The first one suffered from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the second one had a chronic systemic disease. Leishmania sp. was detected from tissues by PCR and/or IHC in both dogs. The third infected dog was serologically positive for Leishmania sp. but remained free of clinical signs.ConclusionsThis case report shows that imported Leishmania-infected dogs may pose a risk for domestic dogs, even without suitable local arthropod vectors. PMID:25492266

Karkamo, Veera; Kaistinen, Anu; Näreaho, Anu; Dillard, Kati; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Vidgrén, Gabriele; Tuoresmäki, Niina; Anttila, Marjukka

2014-12-10

112

Canine vector-borne disease in travelled dogs in Germany--a retrospective evaluation of laboratory data from the years 2004-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

When importing dogs from various Mediterranean countries into Western Europe canine vector-borne infections are often considered as a major issue. Several diseases including babesiosis, leishmaniosis, hepatozoonosis, canine heartworm disease or ehrlichiosis can potentially be endemic in this region and pose a potential health risk for travelling dogs. Information on such infections in travelled dogs is scarce and therefore this study has been undertaken to examine the frequency of vector-borne infections in travelled dogs from the years 2004-2008. A total of 997 samples were screened by direct and/or indirect methods. Total seroprevalence was 7.5% with individual seroprevalence for the 3 species Leishmania spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis spp. ranging from 3.1 to 4.9%. Total detection rate for pathogens by direct methods was 3.5%. Nineteen Giemsa-stained blood smears were positive for large Babesia. None of the samples screened for microfilariae by Knott's test or for Dirofilaria immitis antigen by DiroChek(®) were positive. Using PCR methods Leishmania-DNA was detected in 1/42 samples but none of 59 animals screened for E. canis-DNA was positive. The prevalence values as established by indirect and direct pathogen detection are considered as rather low. PMID:21565447

Hamel, D; Röhrig, E; Pfister, K

2011-09-01

113

Decoding the ubiquitin-mediated pathway of arthropod disease vectors.  

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Protein regulation by ubiquitin has been extensively described in model organisms. However, characterization of the ubiquitin machinery in disease vectors remains mostly unknown. This fundamental gap in knowledge presents a concern because new therapeutics are needed to control vector-borne diseases, and targeting the ubiquitin machinery as a means for disease intervention has been already adopted in the clinic. In this study, we employed a bioinformatics approach to uncover the ubiquitin-mediated pathway in the genomes of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ixodes scapularis, Pediculus humanus and Rhodnius prolixus. We observed that (1) disease vectors encode a lower percentage of ubiquitin-related genes when compared to Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (2) overall, there are more proteins categorized as E3 ubiquitin ligases when compared to E2-conjugating or E1-activating enzymes; (3) the ubiquitin machinery within the three mosquito genomes is highly similar; (4) ubiquitin genes are more than doubled in the Chagas disease vector (R. prolixus) when compared to other arthropod vectors; (5) the deer tick I. scapularis and the body louse (P. humanus) genomes carry low numbers of E1-activating enzymes and HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; (6) R. prolixus have low numbers of RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; and (7) C. quinquefasciatus present elevated numbers of predicted F-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, JAB and UCH deubiquitinases. Taken together, these findings provide novel opportunities to study the interaction between a pathogen and an arthropod vector. PMID:24205097

Choy, Anthony; Severo, Maiara S; Sun, Ruobai; Girke, Thomas; Gillespie, Joseph J; Pedra, Joao H F

2013-01-01

114

Microbial symbiosis and the control of vector-borne pathogens in tsetse flies, human lice, and triatomine bugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symbiosis is a widespread biological phenomenon, and is particularly common in arthropods. Bloodsucking insects are among the organisms that rely on beneficial bacterial symbionts to complement their unbalanced diet. This review is focused on describing symbiosis, and possible strategies for the symbiont-based control of insects and insect-borne diseases, in three bloodsucking insects of medical importance: the flies of the genus Glossina, the lice of the genus Pediculus, and triatomine bugs of the subfamily Triatominae. Glossina flies are vector of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness and other pathologies. They are also associated with two distinct bacterial symbionts, the primary symbiont Wigglesworthia spp., and the secondary, culturable symbiont Sodalis glossinidius. The primary symbiont of human lice, Riesia pediculicola, has been shown to be fundamental for the host, due to its capacity to synthesize B-group vitamins. An antisymbiotic approach, with antibiotic treatment targeted on the lice symbionts, could represent an alternative strategy to control these ectoparasites. In the case of triatominae bugs, the genetic modification of their symbiotic Rhodococcus bacteria, for production of anti-Trypanosoma molecules, is an example of paratransgenesis, i.e. the use of symbiotic microorganism engineered in order to reduce the vector competence of the insect host. PMID:24188239

Sassera, Davide; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Bandi, Claudio

2013-09-01

115

Infectious Arthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

... bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The ... from another part of the body. Symptoms of infectious arthritis include Intense pain in the joint Joint ...

116

Infectious myringitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious myringitis is an infection that causes painful blisters on the eardrum (tympanum). ... Infectious myringitis is caused by the same viruses or bacteria that cause middle ear infections. The most ...

117

Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

118

Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and its implications for the global elimination of the major macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis, by applying a novel Bayesian computer simulation procedure to fit a dynamic model of the transmission of this parasitic disease to field data from nine villages with different ecological and geographical characteristics. Baseline lymphatic filariasis microfilarial age-prevalence data from three geographically distinct endemic regions, across which the major vector populations implicated in parasite transmission also differed, were used to fit and calibrate the relevant vector-specific filariasis transmission models. Ensembles of parasite elimination thresholds, generated using the Bayesian fitting procedure, were then examined in order to evaluate site-specific heterogeneity in the values of these thresholds and investigate the ecological factors that may underlie such variability Results We show that parameters of density-dependent functions relating to immunity, parasite establishment, as well as parasite aggregation, varied significantly between the nine different settings, contributing to locally varying filarial elimination thresholds. Parasite elimination thresholds predicted for the settings in which the mosquito vector is anopheline were, however, found to be higher than those in which the mosquito is culicine, substantiating our previous theoretical findings. The results also indicate that the probability that the parasite will be eliminated following six rounds of Mass Drug Administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole decreases markedly but non-linearly as the annual biting rate and parasite reproduction number increases. Conclusions This paper shows that specific ecological conditions in a community can lead to significant local differences in population dynamics and, consequently, elimination threshold estimates for lymphatic filariasis. These findings, and the difficulty of measuring the key local parameters (infection aggregation and acquired immunity governing differences in transmission thresholds between communities, mean that it is necessary for us to rethink the utility of the current anticipatory approaches for achieving the elimination of filariasis both locally and globally.

Remais Justin

2010-03-01

119

Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

Tan Soo

2011-05-01

120

Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest.  

OpenAIRE

Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger...

Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas; Cue?noud, Philippe; Didham, Raphael K.; Guilhaumon, Franc?ois; Missa, Olivier; Novotny, Vojtech; Ødegaard, Frode; Roslin, Tomas; Schmidl, Ju?rgen; Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Winchester, Neville N.; Roubik, David W.; Aberlenc, Henri-pierre; Bail, Johannes

2012-01-01

121

A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Climatic Drivers of Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe  

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Full Text Available Climate change is considered to be a significant influence for infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Climatic and non-climatic developments act together resulting in current and future infectious disease risk. This study uses a survey to explore Dutch expert perspectives on climate change induced infectious disease risk. The results show that the experts consider temperature change, precipitation change, humidity change, and climate change induced habitat change to be relatively important for water-related infectious disease risk, vector-borne disease risk excluding zoonoses, and the risk of zoonoses. The climatic drivers are seen as relatively less important for food-related infectious disease risk. The experts rate many non-climatic drivers to be highly important for infectious disease risk. Comparatively, the majority of the non-climatic drivers assessed are seen as more important than climate change drivers. The degree of uncertainty in the future development of climatic drivers is viewed as moderate to high, and for non-climatic drivers mostly as moderate. An analysis of subsamples based on professional backgrounds reveals differences in experts’ opinions for e.g., socio-cultural drivers, and similarities. Diversity and consensus amongst expert perspectives on climate change and infectious diseases can have implications for policy. Further research to uncover and compare prevailing perspectives is necessary.

Su-Mia Akin

2014-11-01

122

Use of radioisotopes to elucidate the role of regurgitation for direct transfer of parasites or disease agents between host organisms through arthropod vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the transmission of parasites and disease agents by bloodfeeding arthropods, the hitherto neglected phenomenon of regurgitation is of the greatest importance. It makes possible the direct transfer of ingested blood, together with these disease agents, within the shortest period of time after intake without the interaction of any circulative or transformative processes in the vector. Owing to such direct transmission from host to host, the epidemiology of vector borne diseases (e.g. arbo-viruses or certain protozoan diseases such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniosis or even malaria) is influenced by additional factors. Regurgitative transmission should be considered in programmes of eradication and procedures of quarantine or isolation. We have examined the occurrence of regurgitation in a systematic way with the use of tracer techniques, in combination with other methods. The main arthropods are ticks (especially Ornithodoros moubata Murray), bloodsucking Hemiptera (e.g. Triatoma phyllosoma Burmeister), bloodsucking Muscidae (mainly Stomoxys calcitrans L.) and also mosquitoes. As can be shown with aphid, in which THO was used as a tracer, immediate transmission occurs in stable flies and soft ticks after labelling with 32P and 14C, and it can even be quantified. Also, the output of saliva secreted into and collected from the crop must be regarded as regurgitation rather than salivation. Since it can mix with previously ingested fooce it can mix with previously ingested food (blood plus disease agents), this type of regurgitation can also contribute to the transmission of diseases by arthropods. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

123

Infectious mononucleosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the ?-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8+ T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

2015-01-01

124

Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.

Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas

2012-01-01

125

Comparative evaluation of a point-of-care immunochromatographic test SNAP 4Dx with molecular detection tests for vector-borne canine pathogens in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are no comprehensive studies on the performance of commonly used point-of-care diagnostic enzyme immunoassay for common arthropod-borne canine pathogens. A comparative evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for these infections with a comprehensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test panel was performed on 100 pet dogs and 100 stray dogs without obvious clinical symptoms. Of the 162 positive test results from both immunochromatographic test and PCR, there was 85.2% concordance. The 24 discordant results between serology and PCR occurred in tests involving Ehrlichia canis (14) and Anaplasma platys (10), which may be related to the time of infection. No positive cases of borreliosis or rickettsiosis were detected. One important limitation of the immunochromatographic test was its lack of testing for babesiosis and hepatozoonosis. The former is the most prevalent arthropod-borne canine infection in our cohort (41%). Coinfections were found in 19% stray dogs and 6% of pet dogs with both tests (p Dirofilaria immitis. The presence of Wolbachia DNAemia (6%) correlated well with the molecular test and immunochromatographic antigen test for D. immitis. PMID:21612526

Wong, Samson S Y; Teng, Jade L L; Poon, Rosana W S; Choi, Garnet K Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yeung, Michelle L; Hui, Janet J Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2011-09-01

126

The skin as interface in the transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal skin separates the inner world of the body from the largely hostile outside world and is actively involved in the defence against microbes. However, the skin is no perfect defence barrier and many microorganisms have managed to live on or within the skin as harmless passengers or as disease-causing pathogens. Microbes have evolved numerous strategies that allow them to gain access to the layers underneath the epidermis where they either multiply within the dermis or move to distant destinations within the body for replication. A number of viruses, bacteria and parasites use arthropod vectors, like ticks or mosquitoes, to deliver them into the dermis while taking their blood meal. Within the dermis, successful pathogens subvert the function of a variety of skin resident cells or cells of the innate immune system that rush to the site of infection. In this review several interactions with cells of the skin by medically relevant vector-borne pathogens are discussed to highlight the different ways in which these pathogens have come to survive within the skin and to usurp the defence mechanisms of the host for their own ends. PMID:17490407

Frischknecht, Freddy

2007-07-01

127

Key to marine arthropod larvae  

OpenAIRE

The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is...

Fornshell, John A.

2012-01-01

128

Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010 and historical (1788–1973 review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20 of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

Rosemary A. McFarlane

2013-06-01

129

About Infectious Mononucleosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... For Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Infectious Mononucleosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... and may cause the spleen to rupture. Diagnosing Infectious Mononucleosis Healthcare providers typically diagnose infectious mononucleosis based ...

130

Modeling Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities ...

131

Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Declines in species diversity resulting from anthropogenic alterations of the environment heighten the need to develop management strategies that conserve species and ecosystem services. This study examined how native plant species and their diversity influence the abundance and richness of beneficial arthropods, a functionally important group that provides ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest suppression. Beneficial arthropods were sampled in replicated study plots containing native perennials planted in one-, two-, and seven-species mixtures. We found plant diversity had a positive impact on arthropod richness but not on arthropod abundance. An analysis of arthropod community composition revealed that each flower species attracted a different assemblage of beneficial arthropods. In addition, the full seven-species mixture also attracted a distinct arthropod community compared to single-species monocultures. Using a multivariate approach, we determined whether arthropod assemblages in two- and seven-species plots were additive and could be predicted based on assemblages from their component single-species plots. On average, assemblages in diverse plots were nonadditive when compared to assemblages predicted using single-species plots. Arthropod assemblages in two-species plots most closely resembled those of only one of the flower species in the mixture. However, the arthropod assemblages in seven-species plots, although statistically deviating from the expectation of an additive model, more closely resembled predicted communities compared to the assemblages found in two-species plots, suggesting that variability in arthropod community composition decreased as planting diversity increased. Our study demonstrates that careful selection of plants in managed landscapes can augment beneficial arthropod richness and support a more predictable arthropod community, suggesting that planning and design efforts could shape arthropod assemblages in natural as well as managed landscapes to meet targeted conservation or management goals. PMID:23495638

Bennett, Ashley B; Gratton, Claudio

2013-01-01

132

The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland: Part 1: A population study on sled dogs during the racing season.  

Science.gov (United States)

The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of surveillance of reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of TBE. Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring for the presence of D. repens. PMID:24491396

Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata

2014-05-28

133

Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. PMID:25065640

Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

2014-12-01

134

Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pdogs were infested with ticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (pdogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

2014-01-31

135

Arthropods (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

arthropods@iaees.org

136

Role of Arthropods in Maintaining Soil Fertility  

OpenAIRE

In terms of species richness, arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the soil. Within the litter/soil system, five groups are chiefly represented: Isopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Acari, and Collembola, the latter two being by far the most abundant and diverse. Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers or ecosystem engineers. Litte...

Culliney, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

137

Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected person ...

138

Non-Infectious Meningitis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Non-Infectious Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Causes Transmission Signs & Symptoms Causes Non–infectious meningitis causes include Cancers Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) ...

139

Key to marine arthropod larvae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

John A. Fornshell

2012-03-01

140

Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4. The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected host and then feeds on a person who is uninfected. There is no vaccine or cure for dengue fever. Dengue fever is a growing cause for concern in The Bahamas. This year the incidence of dengue fever reached epidemic proportions in The Bahamas. This article will explore the etiology and epidemiology of dengue fever, and offer some insight into how future the Bahamas can begin to develop strategies for the eradication of dengue fever.

Bain, Sherrie Valarie

2011-10-01

141

Reevaluating the arthropod tree of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropods are the most diverse group of animals and have been so since the Cambrian radiation. They belong to the protostome clade Ecdysozoa, with Onychophora (velvet worms) as their most likely sister group and tardigrades (water bears) the next closest relative. The arthropod tree of life can be interpreted as a five-taxon network, containing Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Hexapoda, the last two forming the clade Tetraconata or Pancrustacea. The unrooted relationship of Tetraconata to the three other lineages is well established, but of three possible rooting positions the Mandibulata hypothesis receives the most support. Novel approaches to studying anatomy with noninvasive three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, the application of these techniques to new and old fossils, and the so-called next-generation sequencing techniques are at the forefront of understanding arthropod relationships. Cambrian fossils assigned to the arthropod stem group inform on the origin of arthropod characters from a lobopodian ancestry. Monophyly of Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Tetraconata, and Hexapoda is well supported, but the interrelationships of arachnid orders and the details of crustacean paraphyly with respect to Hexapoda remain the major unsolved phylogenetic problems. PMID:21910637

Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D

2012-01-01

142

Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

2007-01-01

143

Molecular phylogeny of arthropods and their relatives: polyphyletic origin of arthropodization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because the enigmatic arthropod relatives, such as tardigrades, onychophorans, pentastomids, and pycnogonids, have features characteristic of not only both major arthropod groups but also several other animal phyla, analysis of their phylogenetic positions may provide important clues for metazoan phylogeny in general. From analyses of complete or nearly complete 18S rDNA sequences, arthropod monophyly including all the traditional arthropod relatives was well supported. For detailed analyses within arthropods without outgroup effects, we made two reduced alignments. From the analyses of these reduced data sets, arthropods were divided into two clades: one was chelicerates and myriapods, whereas the other included crustaceans plus insects, onychophorans plus pentastomids, and tardigrades. The pycnogonids were grouped closely with the chelicerates. The Cambrian fossil record supports that myriapod-chelicerate and crustacean-insect (including tardigrades, onychophorans, and pentastomids) stems arose separately from a protoarthropod (perhaps nonarthropodized animal, such as a lobopod which has noncalcified cuticles, and nonjointed legs). Thus, the acquisition of truly arthropod characters occurred independently in the two stems. In this case, nonarthropodized characters of tardigrades, onychophorans, and pentastomids are assumed to be primitive. PMID:9571635

Min, G S; Kim, S H; Kim, W

1998-02-28

144

Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases. PMID:24624953

Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

2014-10-01

145

Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil / Estudo da coinfecção por patógenos transmitidos por vetores em cães e carrapatos no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cães que apresentam diversas doenças transmitidas por vetores podem mostrar nenhum ou alguns sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Dependendo da fase da infecção, a confirmação dos agentes envolvidos é necessária. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Ana [...] plasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. e Leishmania spp. em amostras de sangue e carrapatos, coletados em dois cães do Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos, quando foram usadas técnicas moleculares. DNA de E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum foram detectados em amostras de sangue e carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados dos cães. Entre todas as amostras analisadas, duas mostraram a presença de infecções múltiplas por E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum chagasi. Destaca-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico molecular diferencial em cães com sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Abstract in english Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hep [...] atozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

Luiz Ricardo, Gonçalves; Kilder Dantas, Filgueira; Silvia Maria Mendes, Ahid; Josivânia Soares, Pereira; André Mendes do, Vale; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado; Marcos Rogério, André.

2014-09-01

146

The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. Canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in Central Europe. Over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in Kury, a village near T?uszcz (N 52°24'56.78?, E 21°30'37.55?) in Central Poland. Twenty cases/episodes of babesiosis were noted among the 10-12 dogs living in the kennel. In 2000-2004, no cases of babesiosis were noted; the first two cases were noted in April 2005. Since that time, only one dog remained uninfected; 6 dogs were infected once, 3 dogs demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis twice, one dog was infected three times and one dog had it five times. Babesiosis appeared in Spring and Autumn, despite the application of anti-tick treatment. No fatal cases were recorded, but in one case a splenectomy was performed due to splenomegaly and spleen rupture. Additionally, the abundance of the main Babesia canis vector, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick, was estimated and monitored during a 4-year period (2008-2012) close to the dog kennel. The abundance of questing ticks was high in 2008 and 2009, but dropped by 10-fold between 2010 and 2012, when the abandoned meadow was cut and used as horse pasture by the local farmer. The regular occurrence, typical seasonal pattern and identification of B. canis DNA in questing tick from this locality confirmed the establishment of a new hyper enzootic region for canine babesiosis. The effectiveness and schedule of applied preventive measures were discussed. PMID:24612743

Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata

2014-05-28

147

Infectious Diseases Society of America  

Science.gov (United States)

... to Using Tests New IDSA Journal Open Forum Infectious Diseases Press Release on Editor More on OFID ... t Need These Five Tests or Treatments, Say Infectious Disease Experts >> Read More The Infectious Diseases Society ...

148

Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

2006-01-01

149

Role of Arthropods in Maintaining Soil Fertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of species richness, arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the soil. Within the litter/soil system, five groups are chiefly represented: Isopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Acari, and Collembola, the latter two being by far the most abundant and diverse. Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers or ecosystem engineers. Litter transformers fragment, or comminute, and humidify ingested plant debris, which is deposited in feces for further decomposition by micro-organisms, and foster the growth and dispersal of microbial populations. Large quantities of annual litter input may be processed (e.g., up to 60% by termites. The comminuted plant matter in feces presents an increased surface area to attack by micro-organisms, which, through the process of mineralization, convert its organic nutrients into simpler, inorganic compounds available to plants. Ecosystem engineers alter soil structure, mineral and organic matter composition, and hydrology. The burrowing by arthropods, particularly the subterranean network of tunnels and galleries that comprise termite and ant nests, improves soil porosity to provide adequate aeration and water-holding capacity below ground, facilitate root penetration, and prevent surface crusting and erosion of topsoil. Also, the movement of particles from lower horizons to the surface by ants and termites aids in mixing the organic and mineral fractions of the soil. The feces of arthropods are the basis for the formation of soil aggregates and humus, which physically stabilize the soil and increase its capacity to store nutrients.

Thomas W. Culliney

2013-09-01

150

Fight against infectious diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

1996-08-01

151

Alien arthropod predators and parasitoids: an ecological approach  

OpenAIRE

Invasive alien species (IAS) coupled with climate change have been referred to as a “deadly duo”. Until recently research on invasion biology has centred mainly on alien plants and vertebrates, despite the numerical dominance of alien arthropods. Arthropods are the largest group of IAS worldwide and many can play a beneficial role, particularly in controlling insect and mite pests. Indeed, 1590 terrestrial arthropod species have been identified as alien to Europe but only a fraction has b...

Roy, Helen E.; Clercq, Patrick; Lawson Handley, Lori; Poland, Remy; Sloggett, John J.; Wajnberg, Eric

2011-01-01

152

Centipedal hemocyanin: its structure and its implications for arthropod phylogeny.  

OpenAIRE

The oxygen carrier hemocyanin occurs in the blood of Scutigera coleoptrata, a uniramous arthropod, as well as the crustaceans and chelicerates. The native polymer appears to be composed of substructures having the same size and electron-dense image as those of other arthropod hemocyanins but assembled into a unique multiple and arranged in a unique configuration. The simplest explanation of these findings is that the arthropod hemocyanins have a common origin, exemplifying a derived (as oppos...

Mangum, C. P.; Scott, J. L.; Black, R. E.; Miller, K. I.; Holde, K. E.

1985-01-01

153

Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88  

OpenAIRE

Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imp...

Khoobdel, M.; Mehrabi Tavana, A.; Vatandoost, H.; MR Abaei

2008-01-01

154

Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments  

OpenAIRE

Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. ...

Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Bruna, Emilio M.

2012-01-01

155

Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey / Distribución espacial de agentes patógenos transmitidos por vectores en perros en la región del Egeo, Turquía  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar la distribución espacial de la seroprevalencia de la infección de 4 agentes patógenos de transmisión por vectores Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi y Dirofilaria immitis, en los estados costeros de la región del Egeo con especial referencia a los sign [...] os clínicos y las variaciones hematológicas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron por conveniencia muestras de sangre de al menos 10 perros en las ciudades Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla y Manisa. Para la evaluación de las muestras se utilizó un kit de ELISA para la detencción de anticuerpos de las enfermedades del estudio. Resultados. De los 307 perros muestreados, la seroprevalencia más alta fue para E. canis (24.42%), seguido por la coinfección entre E. canis + A. phagocytophilum (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) y D. immitis (2.28%). Sólo 2 casos fueron seropositivos para B. burgdorferi aunque 10 perros fueron coinfectados con más de 2 agentes. En ambos perros infectados con E. canis y coinfectados con E. canis y A. phagocytophilum, se detectó comúnmente anemia, trombocitopenia y leucocitosis, mientras que la trombocitopenia y leucocitosis fueron significativos en perros infectados con A. phagocytophilum o D. immitis , respectivamente. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas para los promedios de RBC, hemoglobina, hematocrito y valores PLT (p Abstract in english Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and [...] haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%), followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) and D. immitis (2.28%). Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p

Kerem, Ural; Mehmet, Gultekin; Abidin, Atasoy; Bulent, Ulutas.

2014-05-01

156

Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

157

Emergent Infectious Uveitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

2009-01-01

158

Emergent infectious uveitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

Khairallah Moncef

2009-01-01

159

Why infectious diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. PMID:25151484

Bartlett, John G

2014-09-15

160

Biobased lactams as novel arthropod repellents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enanatiomerically pure 4aS,7S,7aR and 4aS,7S,7aS-nepetalactams and their analogs have been prepared in just two steps from 4aS,7S,7aR and 4aS,7S,7aS-nepetalactones, major components of catnip oil. Lactams or cyclic amides from iridoid monoterpenes are generated and being evaluated as a new class of compounds as arthropod deterrents against disease vectors. PMID:25632454

Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Khanna, Hemant; Bathini, Nagendra Babu; Le, Thanh C; Grieco, John

2014-12-01

161

Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both arthropods and large grazing herbivores are important components and drivers of biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, but a synthesis of how arthropod diversity is affected by large herbivores has been largely missing. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature search, which yielded 141 studies on this topic of which 24 simultaneously investigated plant and arthropod diversity. Using the data from these 24 studies, we compared the responses of plant and arthropod diversity to an increase in grazing intensity. This quantitative assessment showed no overall significant effect of increasing grazing intensity on plant diversity, while arthropod diversity was generally negatively affected. To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web. We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions. In general, heterogeneity in vegetation structure and abiotic conditions increases at intermediate grazing intensity, but declines at both low and high grazing intensity. We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate. This is expected to occur only at low herbivore densities or with spatio-temporal variation in herbivore densities. As we demonstrate that arthropod diversity is often more negatively affected by grazing than plant diversity, we strongly recommend considering the specific requirements of arthropods when applying grazing management and to include arthropods in monitoring schemes. Conservation strategies aiming at maximizing heterogeneity, including regulation of herbivore densities (through human interventions or top-down control), maintenance of different types of management in close proximity and rotational grazing regimes, are the most promising options to conserve arthropod diversity. PMID:24837856

van Klink, R; van der Plas, F; van Noordwijk, C G E Toos; WallisDeVries, M F; Olff, H

2015-05-01

162

Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity  

Science.gov (United States)

Both arthropods and large grazing herbivores are important components and drivers of biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, but a synthesis of how arthropod diversity is affected by large herbivores has been largely missing. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature search, which yielded 141 studies on this topic of which 24 simultaneously investigated plant and arthropod diversity. Using the data from these 24 studies, we compared the responses of plant and arthropod diversity to an increase in grazing intensity. This quantitative assessment showed no overall significant effect of increasing grazing intensity on plant diversity, while arthropod diversity was generally negatively affected. To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web. We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions. In general, heterogeneity in vegetation structure and abiotic conditions increases at intermediate grazing intensity, but declines at both low and high grazing intensity. We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate. This is expected to occur only at low herbivore densities or with spatio-temporal variation in herbivore densities. As we demonstrate that arthropod diversity is often more negatively affected by grazing than plant diversity, we strongly recommend considering the specific requirements of arthropods when applying grazing management and to include arthropods in monitoring schemes. Conservation strategies aiming at maximizing heterogeneity, including regulation of herbivore densities (through human interventions or top-down control), maintenance of different types of management in close proximity and rotational grazing regimes, are the most promising options to conserve arthropod diversity. PMID:24837856

van Klink, R; van der Plas, F; van Noordwijk, C G E (Toos); WallisDeVries, M F; Olff, H

2015-01-01

163

Differential spatial distribution of arthropods under epiphytic lichens on trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epiphytic lichen thalli on trees may protect arthropods - herbivores or their natural enemies. Although the relationships between lichens on the forest floor to arthropods have been widely studied in boreal regions, those between epiphytic lichens and the arboreal arthropod fauna in temperate and Mediterranean climates are poorly investigated. In particular it is unknown if the animals use lichens differently located on different part of the trees. Our results indicate that numerous arthropods, herbivores and predators, may live in epiphytic lichen cover, and that more of them are found on the trunk than on old or young branches: an average of 2000 individuals were found under each meter square of the thallus covering the trunk of 20 trees, but fewer on branches. In particular more insects from more Orders were detected on trunks than on branches. We propose that this issue should be investigated further to clarify the exact status of epiphytic lichens in arthropod biodiversity conservation.

Jean-Jacques Itzhak Martinez

2014-08-01

164

Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. PMID:25700537

de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

2015-01-01

165

Selenium hyperaccumulation reduces plant arthropod loads in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

The elemental defense hypothesis proposes that some plants hyperaccumulate toxic elements as a defense mechanism. In this study the effectiveness of selenium (Se) as an arthropod deterrent was investigated under field conditions. Arthropod loads were measured over two growing seasons in Se hyperaccumulator habitats in Colorado, USA, comparing Se hyperaccumulator species (Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata) with nonhyperaccumulators (Camelina microcarpa, Astragalus americanus, Descurainia pinnata, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus pumilus). The Se hyperaccumulating plant species, which contained 1000-14 000 microg Se g(-1) DW, harbored significantly fewer arthropods (c. twofold) and fewer arthropod species (c. 1.5-fold) compared with nonhyperaccumulator species that contained 10-fold lower Se concentrations than their hyperaccumulator hosts. Several arthropod species contained > 100 microg Se g(-1) DW, indicating Se tolerance and perhaps feeding specialization. These results support the elemental defense hypothesis and suggest that invertebrate herbivory may have contributed to the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation. PMID:18028291

Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Bennett, Lindsay E; Freeman, John L; Kondratieff, Boris C; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2008-01-01

166

An exceptionally preserved arthropod cardiovascular system from the early Cambrian.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assumption that amongst internal organs of early arthropods only the digestive system withstands fossilization is challenged by the identification of brain and ganglia in early Cambrian fuxianhuiids and megacheirans from southwest China. Here we document in the 520-million-year-old Chengjiang arthropod Fuxianhuia protensa an exceptionally preserved bilaterally symmetrical organ system corresponding to the vascular system of extant arthropods. Preserved primarily as carbon, this system includes a broad dorsal vessel extending through the thorax to the brain where anastomosing branches overlap brain segments and supply the eyes and antennae. The dorsal vessel provides segmentally paired branches to lateral vessels, an arthropod ground pattern character, and extends into the anterior part of the abdomen. The addition of its vascular system to documented digestive and nervous systems resolves the internal organization of F. protensa as the most completely understood of any Cambrian arthropod, emphasizing complexity that had evolved by the early Cambrian. PMID:24704943

Ma, Xiaoya; Cong, Peiyun; Hou, Xianguang; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

2014-01-01

167

Selected infectious disease disasters for nursing staff training at Egyptian Eastern Border.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious disease disasters are events that involve a biological agent, disease and that result in mass casualties, such as a bioterrorism attack, an emerging outbreak of infectious disease; all disasters pose a risk of infection transmission. But, infectious disease disasters pose the great-risk to illness or death from an infectious disease. This study raised the awareness and improved knowledge by educational program for Military Nursing Staff on selected infectious disease disasters acquired at Egyptian Eastern Border. The selected arthropod-borne diseases were Anthrax, Tick borne relapsing, Louse borne replasing fever and liver fluke; Clonorchis sinensis. An interventional study was used, for 125 staff nurse who accepted to participate. The tools dealt with four questionnaires: (1) Some sociodemographic characteristics data (2) Educational needs assessment a structured questionnaire. (3) Knowledge test (pre/post-test) and (4) Participants' reactions questionnaire. The results showed that educational intervention significantly improvements the nursing staff knowledge, which were achieved at the immediate post intervention phase, and retained via three months post-test phase. In the service training programs about infectious disease disasters at Egyptian Eastern Border must be established and continued on regular basis. This would improve their knowledge about the epidemiology of these infectious disease disasters. PMID:24961011

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Labib, Nargis Albert; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Ibrahim, Abeer Mohammad Abdallah; Morsy, Tosson A

2014-04-01

168

Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each. PMID:20733292

Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

2010-01-01

169

High levels of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA determined by qPCR and infectiousness to Triatoma infestans support dogs and cats are major sources of parasites for domestic transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The competence of reservoir hosts of vector-borne pathogens is directly linked to its capacity to infect the vector. Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, and exhibit a much higher infectiousness to triatomines than seropositive humans. We quantified the concentration of T. cruzi DNA in the peripheral blood of naturally-infected dogs and cats (a surrogate of intensity of parasitemia), and evaluated its association with infectiousness to the vector in a high-risk area of the Argentinean Chaco. To measure infectiousness, 44 infected dogs and 15 infected cats were each exposed to xenodiagnosis with 10-20 uninfected, laboratory-reared Triatoma infestans that blood-fed to repletion and were later individually examined for infection by optical microscopy. Parasite DNA concentration (expressed as equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL, Pe/mL) was estimated by real-time PCR amplification of the nuclear satellite DNA. Infectiousness increased steeply with parasite DNA concentration both in dogs and cats. Neither the median parasite load nor the mean infectiousness differed significantly between dogs (8.1Pe/mL and 48%) and cats (9.7Pe/mL and 44%), respectively. The infectiousness of dogs was positively and significantly associated with parasite load and an index of the host's body condition, but not with dog's age, parasite discrete typing unit and exposure to infected bugs in a random-effects multiple logistic regression model. Real-time PCR was more sensitive and less time-consuming than xenodiagnosis, and in conjunction with the body condition index, may be used to identify highly infectious hosts and implement novel control strategies. PMID:24732410

Enriquez, G F; Bua, J; Orozco, M M; Wirth, S; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V

2014-07-01

170

Anthropogenic land use change and infectious diseases: a review of the evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans have altered ecosystems worldwide, and it is important to understand how this land use change impacts infectious disease transmission in humans and animals. We conducted a systematic review 305 scientific articles investigating how specific types of anthropogenic land use change influence infectious disease dynamics. We summarized findings, highlighted common themes, and drew attention to neglected areas of research. There was an increase in publications on this topic over the last 30 years spanning diseases of humans, livestock, and wildlife, including a large number of zoonotic pathogens. Most papers (66.9%) were observational, 30.8% were review or concept papers, and few studies (2.3%) were experimental in nature, with most studies focusing on vector-borne and/or multi-host pathogens. Common land use change types related to disease transmission were deforestation/forest fragmentation/habitat fragmentation, agricultural development/irrigation, and urbanization/suburbanization. In response to anthropogenic change, more than half of the studies (56.9%) documented increased pathogen transmission, 10.4% of studies observed decreased pathogen transmission, 30.4% had variable and complex pathogen responses, and 2.4% showed no detectable changes. Commonly reported mechanisms by which land use change altered infectious disease transmission included alteration of the vector, host, and pathogen niche, changes in host and vector community composition, changes in behavior or movement of vectors and/or hosts, altered spatial distribution of hosts and/or vectors, and socioeconomic factors, and environmental contamination. We discussed observed patterns in the literature and make suggestions for future research directions, emphasizing the importance of ecological and evolutionary theory to understand pathogen responses in changing landscapes. PMID:24854248

Gottdenker, Nicole L; Streicker, Daniel G; Faust, Christina L; Carroll, C R

2014-12-01

171

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal ...

172

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... offices Number of visits to physician offices for infectious and parasitic diseases: 23.6 million Source: National ...

173

Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... more information on enabling JavaScript. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing ... research to better understand viruses, bacteria, and other infectious agents that cause diseases of public health concern. ...

174

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, ar [...] e not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Márcia Aparecida, Sperança; Margareth Lara, Capurro.

2007-06-01

175

Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release. PMID:23956135

Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

2013-10-01

176

Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene sil be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

177

Glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex carbohydrates that are ubiquitously present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Interactions between GAGs and pathogens represent the first line of contact between pathogen and host cell and are crucial to a pathogen's invasive potential. Their complexity and structural diversity allow GAGs to control a wide array of biological interactions influencing many physiological and pathological processes, including adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, biochemical cascades, and the immune response. In recent years, increasing evidence indicates an extraordinary role for GAGs in the pathogenesis of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Herein, we examine the interface between GAGs and different pathogens, and address the divergent biological functions of GAGs in infectious disease. We consider approaches to use this understanding to design novel therapeutic strategies addressing new challenges in the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:23551941

Kamhi, Eyal; Joo, Eun Ji; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

2013-11-01

178

Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 338, ?. 6113 (2012), s. 1481-1484. ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/0115; GA ?R GAP504/12/1952 Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0841885; University of Canterbury and Royal Scoiety of New Zealand(NZ) PNX0011-2009; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship(AU) FT100100040; Ciencia e a Tecnologia(PT) PTDC/AAC-AMB/098163/2008; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0516311; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0949790 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : arthropod diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 31.027, year: 2012 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6113/1481.full

Basset, Y.; ?ížek, Lukáš; Cuénoud, P.; Didham, R. K.; Guilhaumon, F.; Missa, O.; Novotný, Vojt?ch; Odegaard, F.; Roslin, T.; Schmidl, J.; Tishechkin, A. K.; Winchester, N. N.; Roubik, D. W.; Aberlenc, H.-P.; Bail, J.; Barrios, H.; Bridle, J. R.; Castano-Meneses, G.; Corbara, B.; Curletti, G.; Duarte da Rocha, W.; De Bakker, D.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Dejean, A.; Fagan, L. L.; Florean, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Medianero, E.; Miller, S. E.; Gama de Oliveira, E.; Orivel, J.; Pollet, M.; Rapp, M.; Riberio, S. P.; Roisin, Y.; Schmidt, J. B.; Sorensen, L.; Leponce, M.

2012-01-01

179

Wetlands and infectious diseases  

OpenAIRE

There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health intera...

Zimmerman Robert H.

2001-01-01

180

Phylogenetic Relationships of the Wolbachia of Nematodes and Arthropods  

OpenAIRE

Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequence...

Fenn, Katelyn; Conlon, Claire; Jones, Martin; Quail, Michael A.; Holroyd, Nancy E.; Parkhill, Julian; Blaxter, Mark

2006-01-01

181

Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies  

OpenAIRE

Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological s...

Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansen, Lars; Li, Yongsheng; Gomez, Robert S.; Ito, Kei

1998-01-01

182

Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods.

PaoloPelosi

2014-08-01

183

Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP, located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects, and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.

Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

2012-12-01

184

Antiviral responses of arthropod vectors: an update on recent advances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges and sand flies, transmit many viruses that can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals around the world. Arthropod vector species are invading new areas due to globalisation and environmental changes, and contact between exotic animal species, humans and arthropod vectors is increasing, bringing with it the regular emergence of new arboviruses. For future strategies to control arbovirus transmission, it is important to improve our understanding of virus-vector interactions. In the last decade knowledge of arthropod antiviral immunity has increased rapidly. RNAi has been proposed as the most important antiviral response in mosquitoes and it is likely to be the most important antiviral response in all arthropods. However, other newly-discovered antiviral strategies such as melanisation and the link between RNAi and the JAK/STAT pathway via the cytokine Vago have been characterised in the last few years. This review aims to summarise the most important and most recent advances made in arthropod antiviral immunity. PMID:25674592

Rückert, Claudia; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Fazakerley, John K; Fragkoudis, Rennos

2014-01-01

185

Arthropod diversity in peas with normal or reduced waxy bloom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crop traits can alter economically important interactions between plants, pests, and biological control agents. For example, a reduced waxy bloom on the surface of pea plants alters interactions between pea aphids and their natural enemies. In this study, we assess whether the effect of wax reduction extends beyond the 2 or 3 arthropod species closely associated with the plants and into the structure of the broader arthropod community of over 200 taxa at our site. We sampled arthropods on lines of peas with normal and reduced wax in Latah Co., Idaho using pitfall traps within randomly assigned pairs of 5 × 5 meter plots. During the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons, we collected 12,113 individual arthropods from 221 unambiguously identified morphospecies. The number of individuals collected from each morphospecies responded idiosyncratically to the reduced wax peas. To test whether arthropod community structure differed between the collections from plots having peas with normal or reduced wax, we performed a randomization test. The collection from peas with reduced wax had higher species evenness and thus higher community diversity despite having lower species richness. Our results demonstrate the potential of a single plant trait, epicuticular wax, to affect a community of arthropods. Two pests of peas had opposite responses to peas with reduced wax. The number of pea aphids collected was greater from peas with normal wax peas than those with reduced wax. In contrast, the number of pea leaf weevils collected was greater from peas with reduced wax.

Gary C. Chang

2004-05-01

186

Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

Trape, J.F

2005-04-15

187

Arthropod community structure on strip-mined lands in Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1978-79, biomass, density, diversity, and taxonomic composition of above-ground, non-acarine arthropods were studied on newly reclaimed areas planted to grass-legumes (1-4 years after reclamation), older mined lands planted to crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) and unmined old field habitat in Harrison County, Ohio. The reclaimed areas were rapidly colonized and productive. In the herbaceous layer, newly reclaimed areas had highest annual arthropod densities (1062.5 individuals/m/sup 2/) and biomass (553.6 mg/m/sup 2/). Larvae of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal) were major contributors to arthropod density in the herbaceous layer during spring 1978, accounting for 47.4% and 18.8% of individuals on the areas examined 1 and 3 years after reclamation, respectively. During September, grasshoppers (Acrididae) accounted for up to 70% of arthropod biomass in the herbaceous layer on newly reclaimed areas. A significant decline in arthropod biomass from 1 to 2 years after reclamation was due to a large decrease in weevil and spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L.) populations, associated with a decline in yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). The crown vetch area supported low numbers and biomass of arthropods in the herbaceous layer but moderate to high numbers and biomass in the litter layer. Nematoceran larvae (Cecidomyiidae, Chironomidae) were abundant during May on the area examined 2 years after reclamation and comprised 73.5% of litter arthropod individuals. The unmined old field was generally richer (48.0% more morphotypes, 32.2% more families per sampling period) than the mined sites. On newly reclaimed areas richness in the herbaceous layer was positively related to biomass of clovers.

Urbanek, R.P.

1982-01-01

188

Wetlands and infectious diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

Zimmerman Robert H.

2001-01-01

189

BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

190

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

191

Arthropod communities on native and nonnative early successional plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early successional ruderal plants in North America include numerous native and nonnative species, and both are abundant in disturbed areas. The increasing presence of nonnative plants may negatively impact a critical component of food web function if these species support fewer or a less diverse arthropod fauna than the native plant species that they displace. We compared arthropod communities on six species of common early successional native plants and six species of nonnative plants, planted in replicated native and nonnative plots in a farm field. Samples were taken twice each year for 2 yr. In most arthropod samples, total biomass and abundance were substantially higher on the native plants than on the nonnative plants. Native plants produced as much as five times more total arthropod biomass and up to seven times more species per 100 g of dry leaf biomass than nonnative plants. Both herbivores and natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) predominated on native plants when analyzed separately. In addition, species richness was about three times greater on native than on nonnative plants, with 83 species of insects collected exclusively from native plants, and only eight species present only on nonnatives. These results support a growing body of evidence suggesting that nonnative plants support fewer arthropods than native plants, and therefore contribute to reduced food resources for higher trophic levels. PMID:24331597

Ballard, Meg; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Tallamy, Douglas

2013-10-01

192

What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Specialist? Family Life Listen What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Article Body If your child has ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are ...

193

Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on oahu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval. PMID:25413711

Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee

2015-03-01

194

[2013 update about arthropod envenomations in French Guyana.  

Science.gov (United States)

French Guiana, by its geographical situation, its climate and its biodiversity, is often called "the green hell". Indeed, this French department of America shelters a wildlife rich, abundant among which many species of arthropods, some of which are responsible for envenomations. These accidents consist of scorpion's or hymenoptera's stings or spider's bites. The associated clinical aspect is variable, from simple pain to circulatory collapse, or lung oedema. However, symptomatology is generally mild; four deaths associated to arthropod envenomations have been reported in the past 25 years. This article focuses on envenomations in French Guiana, describing favoring human behavior, risks and venoms associated with the main related animal species. PMID:24415535

Ganteaume, F; Imbert, C

2014-01-10

195

Infectious Diseases in the Homeless  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâ??s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

2008-08-26

196

Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to oc [...] cur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a) chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b) latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c) fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

H, Hidalgo.

2003-12-01

197

Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

H Hidalgo

2003-12-01

198

Aerosol stability of infectious and potentially infectious reovirus particles.  

OpenAIRE

The aerosol stability of two particle forms, infectious and potentially infectious, of reovirus were examined under static conditions for a range of relative humidities at 21 and 24 degrees C. Virus aerosolization efficiency was determined for two methods of dissemination: Collison nebulizer and Chicago atomizer. Suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were added to reovirus preparations that included both particle forms and disseminated into a dynamic aerosol toroid to estimate th...

Adams, D. J.; Spendlove, J. C.; Spendlove, R. S.; Barnett, B. B.

1982-01-01

199

Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)  

Science.gov (United States)

... food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes that carry and transmit organisms, sexual ... fight against infectious diseases, but some microorganisms develop resistance to the drugs used against them. Modern physicians ...

200

Deforestation and avian infectious diseases  

OpenAIRE

In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of defo...

Sehgal, R. N. M.

2010-01-01

201

Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated ?(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: ?(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes. PMID:22166153

Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

2011-12-01

202

Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

203

Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic analyses of three families of arthropod apyrases were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of salivary-expressed apyrases, which have an anti-coagulant function in blood-feeding arthropods. Members of the 5'nucleotidase family were recruited for salivary expression in blood-feeding species at least five separate times in the history of arthropods, while members of the Cimex-type apyrase family have been recruited at least twice. In spite of these independent events of recruitment for salivary function, neither of these families showed evidence of convergent amino acid sequence evolution in salivary-expressed members. On the contrary, in the 5'-nucleotide family, salivary-expressed proteins conserved ancestral amino acid residues to a significantly greater extent than related proteins without salivary function, implying parallel evolution by conservation of ancestral characters. This unusual pattern of sequence evolution suggests the hypothesis that purifying selection favoring conservation of ancestral residues is particularly strong in salivary-expressed members of the 5'-nucleotidase family of arthropods because of constraints arising from expression within the vertebrate host. PMID:23791653

Hughes, Austin L

2013-09-15

204

Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management / Responsabilisation des agriculteurs dans le cadre de la lutte intégrée contre les vecteurs pour faire reculer les maladies à transmission vectorielle / Reducir las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores empoderando a los agricultores en la lucha antivectorial integrada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available PROBLEMA: La agricultura de regadío expone a la población rural a riesgos sanitarios asociados a las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y a los plaguicidas utilizados en la agricultura y para proteger la salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo se da una falta de colaboración entr [...] e los sectores agrícola y sanitario para abordar conjuntamente estos problemas. MÉTODOS: Presentamos una evaluación de un proyecto que utiliza el método de la «escuela de campo para agricultores» para enseñar a los campesinos la manera de controlar las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y mejorar la producción de arroz. El adiestramiento simultáneo de los agricultores en esos dos ámbitos es lo que se conoce como «control integrado de plagas y vectores». CONTEXTO LOCAL: Un proyecto intersectorial centrado en los sistemas de riego de plantaciones de arroz en Sri Lanka. CAMBIOS DESTACABLES: Los asociados del proyecto desarrollaron un nuevo programa de estudios para la escuela de campo que incluía un componente de control de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial. Los cultivadores de arroz de las aldeas de intervención salidos de la escuela de campo tomaron medidas de lucha antivectorial y de mejora tanto del saneamiento ambiental como de su protección personal contra la transmisión de enfermedades. Además redujeron su utilización de plaguicidas agrícolas, especialmente de insecticidas. ENSEÑANZAS EXTRAÍDAS: La intervención motivó a la población rural y le permitió participar en las actividades de control de los vectores y reducir varios riesgos para la salud ambiental. Es posible ampliar el programa de estudios para incluir información sobre los efectos perjudiciales de los plaguicidas en la salud humana y abordar otros aspectos preocupantes para la salud pública. Los beneficios de este enfoque para los programas de salud comunitarios todavía no se han evaluado de manera óptima. Además, es necesario ampliar la base institucional del control integrado para que puedan participar personas de una más amplia variedad de organizaciones, y hay que establecer un sistema de seguimiento y evaluación para medir el desempeño de las iniciativas de control integrado. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. A [...] PPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. Teaching farmers about these two concepts together is known as "integrated pest and vector management". LOCAL SETTING: An intersectoral project targeting rice irrigation systems in Sri Lanka. RELEVANT CHANGES: Project partners developed a new curriculum for the field school that included a component on vector-borne diseases. Rice farmers in intervention villages who graduated from the field school took vector-control actions as well as improving environmental sanitation and their personal protection measures against disease transmission. They also reduced their use of agricultural pesticides, especially insecticides. LESSONS LEARNED: The intervention motivated and enabled rural people to take part in vector-management activities and to reduce several environmental health risks. There is scope for expanding the curriculum to include information on the harmful effects of pesticides on human health and to address other public health concerns. Benefits of this approach for community-based health programmes have not yet been optimally assessed. Also, the institutional basis of the integrated management approach needs to be broadened so that people from a wider range of organizations take part. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to measure the performance of integrated management initiatives.

Henk, van den Berg; Alexander, von Hildebrand; Vaithilingam, Ragunathan; Pradeep K, Das.

2007-07-01

205

Melioidosis: An emerging infectious disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.

Raja N

2005-01-01

206

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

Science.gov (United States)

... American Board of Internal Medicine in both internal medicine and infectious diseases. Back to Top What information should I give to my ID specialist? All medical records related to your condition X-rays, laboratory reports and immunization records. Often your personal physician ...

207

Non-volant modes of migration in terrestrial arthropods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal migration is often defined in terms appropriate only to the ‘to-and-fro’ movements of large, charismatic (and often vertebrate species. However, like other important biological processes, the definition should apply over as broad a taxonomic range as possible in order to be intellectually satisfying. Here we illustrate the process of migration in insects and other terrestrial arthropods (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, and non-insect hexapods but provide a different perspective by excluding the ‘typical’ mode of migration in insects, i.e. flapping flight. Instead, we review non-volant migratory movements, including: aerial migration by wingless species, pedestrian and waterborne migration, and phoresy. This reveals some fascinating and sometimes bizarre morphological and behavioural adaptations to facilitate movement. We also outline some innovative modelling approaches exploring the interactions between atmospheric transport processes and biological factors affecting the ‘dispersal kernels’ of wingless arthropods

Reynolds Don R.

2014-01-01

208

Florida State Collection of Arthropods - Museum of Entomology  

Science.gov (United States)

This website presents the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) Museum of Entomology, a great resource for researchers from around the world, currently housing an "estimated 8.15 million prepared specimens including 3,500 primary and at least 15,000 secondary types." The site links to sections on Collections and Major Holdings, Publications of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Research Associates Program, Entomology Links, and more. The site also links to a list of the FSCA Entomologists (including their research interests and contact information), and to the Center for Systematic Entomology which provides information about annual grants for taxonomic researchers, and publications such as their quarterly journal, _Insecta Mundi_. The site links to several Taxonomic Databases as well, although lightning damage to the server has rendered them non-operational at present.

209

Survey of the arthropods on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), a plant native to southwestern North America, has become of economic interest due to the various industrial uses of the unique liquid wax found in its seeds. In a survey of arthropods associated with sylvatic jojoba in California and Arizona, we collected 106 species of insects and mites. Of these, 50 are phytophagous, 29 are parasitic, and 18 are predaceous. Most of the phytophagous species are also known to feed on plants other than jojoba; several of these are notorious generalists. The bionomics of the 4 commonest phytophagous species, Asphondylia n. sp. (Cecidomyiidae), Epinotia kasloana (Olethreutidae), Periploca n. sp. (Walshiidae), and Incisitermes fruticavus (Kalotermitidae) are summarized briefly. None of the phytophagous species were observed to cause extensive damage to sylvatic jojoba. The numerous parasitic and predaceous arthropods probably account for the natural control of many of them. These relationships should be kept in mind when planning future commercial plantations of jojoba.

Pinto, J.D.; Frommer, S.I.

1980-02-01

210

Arthropod intermediate hosts of Abbreviata antarctica (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines potential arthropod intermediate hosts for the nematode Abbreviata antarctica. Five species of arthropod (tropical native cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus; native roach Drymoplaneta communis; native termite Nasutitermes exitiosus; and 2 introduced species, the East African roach Naupheta cinerea and the Asian cricket Acheta domesticus) were fed feces from a skink, Tiliqua rugosa, containing embryonated eggs of A. antarctica . The insects were dissected at 4 intervals (1 day, 4 days, 8-16 days, and 25-26 days). Viable third-stage larvae were recovered from cysts on the external wall of the midgut and hindgut of 62.5% nymphal and adult T. oceanicus crickets at 25-26 days post-infection and from a single nymphal A. domesticus cricket. No roaches contained eggs or first-stage larvae after 48 hr, and neither eggs nor larvae were found in termites. PMID:23360383

King, C; Jones, H I; Tay, Chin Yen

2013-08-01

211

Invasive alien arthropod predators and parasitoids: an ecological approach.  

OpenAIRE

Understanding invasion biology, and the dynamics of biological control practices, requires a multidisciplinary approach, embracing and integrating all the research tools at our disposal, particularly modern molecular and modelling techniques. This book provides a comprehensive and current overview of invasive alien arthropod predators and parasitoids through 20 chapters, contributed by 69 internationally renowned scientists (previously published as peer-reviewed papers in BioControl – Augus...

2012-01-01

212

Interaction between arthropod filiform hairs in a fluid enviroment  

OpenAIRE

Many arthropods use filiform hairs as mechanoreceptors to detect air motion. In common house crickets (Acheta domestica) the hairs cover two antenna-like appendages called cerci at the rear of the abdomen. The biomechanical stimulus-response properties of individual filiform hairs have been investigated and modeled extensively in several earlier studies. However, only a few previous studies have considered viscosity-mediated coupling between pairs of hairs, and only in particular configuratio...

Cummins, Bree; Gedeon, Toma?s?; Klapper, Isaac; Cortez, Ricardo

2007-01-01

213

An ancestral regulatory network for posterior development in arthropods  

OpenAIRE

A number of recent studies have investigated posterior development in several different arthropods. As previously found in spiders, it has been discovered that Delta-Notch signaling is required for the development of posterior segments in an insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Furthermore analysis of Wnt8 function in the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum and the beetle Tribolium castaneum demonstrates that this Wnt ligand is required for the establishment of the growth zone and develop...

Mcgregor, Alistair P.; Pechmann, Matthias; Schwager, Evelyn E.; Damen, Wim Gm

2009-01-01

214

Cyberdiversity: improving the informatic value of diverse tropical arthropod inventories.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an era of biodiversity crisis, arthropods have great potential to inform conservation assessment and test hypotheses about community assembly. This is because their relatively narrow geographic distributions and high diversity offer high-resolution data on landscape-scale patterns of biodiversity. However, a major impediment to the more widespread application of arthropod data to a range of scientific and policy questions is the poor state of modern arthropod taxonomy, especially in the tropics. Inventories of spiders and other megadiverse arthropods from tropical forests are dominated by undescribed species. Such studies typically organize their data using morphospecies codes, which make it difficult for data from independent inventories to be compared and combined. To combat this shortcoming, we offer cyberdiversity, an online community-based approach for reconciling results of independent inventory studies where current taxonomic knowledge is incomplete. Participating scientists can upload images and DNA barcode sequences to dedicated databases and submit occurrence data and links to a web site (www.digitalSpiders.org). Taxonomic determinations can be shared with a crowdsourcing comments feature, and researchers can discover specimens of interest available for loan and request aliquots of genomic DNA extract. To demonstrate the value of the cyberdiversity framework, we reconcile data from three rapid structured inventories of spiders conducted in Vietnam with an independent inventory (Doi Inthanon, Thailand) using online image libraries. Species richness and inventory completeness were assessed using non-parametric estimators. Community similarity was evaluated using a novel index based on the Jaccard replacing observed with estimated values to correct for unobserved species. We use a distance-decay framework to demonstrate a rudimentary model of landscape-scale changes in community composition that will become increasingly informative as additional inventories participate. With broader adoption of the cyberdiversity approach, networks of information-sharing taxonomists can more efficiently and effectively address taxonomic impediments while elucidating landscape scale patterns of biodiversity. PMID:25541974

Miller, Jeremy A; Miller, Joshua H; Pham, Dinh-Sac; Beentjes, Kevin K

2014-01-01

215

Global Spread of Infectious Diseases  

OpenAIRE

We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

Hsu, S.; Zee, A.

2003-01-01

216

Genetic diversity in aspen and its relation to arthropod abundance  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecological consequences of biodiversity have become a prominent public issue. Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services. Here, a diversity experiment was established with European and North American aspen (Populus tremula, P. tremuloides) planted in plots representing either a single deme only or combinations of two, four and eight demes. The goals of this study were to explore the complex inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of aspen and to then relate three measures for diversity (deme diversity, genetic diversity determined as Shannon index or as expected heterozygosity) to arthropod abundance. Microsatellite and AFLP markers were used to analyze the genetic variation patterns within and between the aspen demes and deme mixtures. Large differences were observed regarding the genetic diversity within demes. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high. The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots. The average diversity increased from plots with only one deme to plots with two, four, and eight demes, respectively and separated plots with and without American aspen. To test whether intra- and interspecific diversity impacts on ecosystem services, arthropod abundance was determined. Increasing genetic diversity of aspen was related to increasing abundance of arthropods. However, the relationship was mainly driven by the presence of American aspen suggesting that species identity overrode the effect of intraspecific variation of European aspen. PMID:25674097

Zhang, Chunxia; Vornam, Barbara; Volmer, Katharina; Prinz, Kathleen; Kleemann, Frauke; Köhler, Lars; Polle, Andrea; Finkeldey, Reiner

2015-01-01

217

Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

2012-04-04

218

49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation...REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.323 Infectious substances. (a) In addition to other...

2010-10-01

219

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main ... medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death ...

220

What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Plan Dealing With Anger What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Health Conditions & Illnesses > What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious? Print A A A Text Size ...

221

Species distribution models do not account for abundance: the case of arthropods in Terceira Island  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to investigate whether presence/absence models can be used as surrogates of arthropod abundance, and eventually under which circumstances such surrogacy is guaranteed. Presence/absence data for 48 arthropod species from Terceira Island were modelled using artificial neural networks. Probabilities of occurrence were correlated with abundance data from a standardized arthropod survey programme. Although a tendency was found for vagile species to show relationships...

Jime?nez-valverde, Alberto; Dinis, Francisco; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.

2009-01-01

222

A checklist of arthropods associated with rat carrion in a montane locality of northern Venezuela  

OpenAIRE

This is the first report of arthropods associated with carrion in Venezuela, using laboratory bred rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rat carcasses were exposed to colonization by arthropods in neighboring montane savanna and cloud forest habitats in the state of Miranda. The taxonomic composition of the arthropods varied between both ecosystems. Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Micropezidae, Phoridae, Vespidae and one species of ant, were collected only in the cloud forest. Dermestes maculatus, Chrysomya ...

Vela?squez Zambrano, Yelitza

2007-01-01

223

RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

Arthropods (ISSN 2224-4255

224

Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study represents a contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of arthropods associated to the canopy of Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae). Three trees individuals were sampled during two seasonal periods in this region: a) by spraying one tree canopy during high water (February); b) by fogging two tree canopies during low water (September/October). The 15,744 arthropods (183.2±38.9 individuals/m²...

Marinêz Isaac Marques; Joachim Adis; Geane Brizzola dos Santos; Leandro Dênis Battirola

2006-01-01

225

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140...LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce...might act as a carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious...

2010-04-01

226

Canopy arthropods community within and among oak species in central Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quercus rugosa and Q.laurina are species that presents a wide geographical distribution range in temperate forests of Mexico. Oak canopies contain a considerable portion of arthropod diversity and the arthropods fauna fulfill a wide variety of ecological roles. We examined the effect of oak species and seasonal changes on some community structure parameters (diversity, composition, similarity, biomass, rare species, and density of arthropod fauna of canopy arthropods. In total, 40 oak canopies were fogged during rainy and dry season. A total of 614 identified arthropod morphospecies were recognized belonging to 22 orders associated with tree canopies. A separation of host tree species during both seasons, suggesting a different community structure on host plants species was demonstrated by the principal component analyses (PCA, therefore, differences between oak species results in phenotypes that structure the composition of the arthropod community. Q.laurina registered the highest densities, diversity index and number of rare species in comparison with Q.rugosa. While arthropod biomass showed an inverse pattern. Trees more close to one another (spatial distance register a more similar canopy arthropod fauna. This study suggests that the trees of Q.laurina could act as a center of biodiversity by the accumulation of arthropod fauna with a considerable number of rare species, which presents wide ecological roles or is involved in critical processes that maintain forest ecosystems.

Efraín TOVAR-SANCHEZ

2009-04-01

227

The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host-pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host-pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host-pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host-pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases. PMID:22265006

Morley, N J

2012-04-01

228

Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.

Alan J. Parkinson

2014-09-01

229

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis vaccine development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis is a common and highly contagious ocular disease affecting cattle worldwide. The tremendous economic losses attributable to this disease warrant continued investigation into methods of prevention. Multiple virulence factors have been linked to the primary aetiologic agent, Moraxella bovis. Efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine have primarily focused upon the use of surface pili or cytolysin to stimulate host immunity; however, M. bovis possesses other virulence determinants that include proteases, fibrinolysins, phospholipases and other cell surface components such as outer membrane proteins. These potentially conserved antigens provide additional possibilities for vaccine development. Examination of appropriate antigen presentation is necessary to attain an adequate immune response. Further, the potential for antigenic diversity as well as epitope conversion requires continuous epidemiological surveillance of isolates recovered from outbreaks. Current work targeting conserved immunogens provides hope for efficacious vaccines that when used in tandem with proper management may control, if not prevent, infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:16119425

McConnel, C S; House, J K

2005-08-01

230

Infectious pathogens and hematologic malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious pathogens have been linked to the genesis of malignancy in a variety of different settings. Initial studies in virology led to the important discovery of key genetic alterations underlying common malignancies, and further, lent support to the notion that malignancy can be promoted by the process of viral infection and cellular transformation. In this review, we summarize a series of hematologic malignancies with derivations from and associations with infectious organisms. Among these are a variety of lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease), Burkitt lymphoma, and a host of other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Through innovative and ground-breaking studies, some of these malignancies have been directly linked to viral infection, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), while others have been merely associated with infection through epidemiologic studies and case-reports. Some malignancies have been demonstrated to be caused by viral infection, such as adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATLL), which is caused by the human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), in certain endemic area. In the future, additional malignant states may be found to be associated with infectious etiology, which could allow for novel approaches to prevention and treatment. PMID:23272694

Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Abtahi, Seyed M; Fathi, Amir T

2012-12-01

231

CT evaluation of infectious colitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

232

CT evaluation of infectious colitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-08-01

233

Interactions among predators and the cascading effects of vertebrate insectivores on arthropod communities and plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theory on trophic interactions predicts that predators increase plant biomass by feeding on herbivores, an indirect interaction called a trophic cascade. Theory also predicts that predators feeding on predators, or intraguild predation, will weaken trophic cascades. Although past syntheses have confirmed cascading effects of terrestrial arthropod predators, we lack a comprehensive analysis for vertebrate insectivores-which by virtue of their body size and feeding habits are often top predators in these systems-and of how intraguild predation mediates trophic cascade strength. We report here on a meta-analysis of 113 experiments documenting the effects of insectivorous birds, bats, or lizards on predaceous arthropods, herbivorous arthropods, and plants. Although vertebrate insectivores fed as intraguild predators, strongly reducing predaceous arthropods (38%), they nevertheless suppressed herbivores (39%), indirectly reduced plant damage (40%), and increased plant biomass (14%). Furthermore, effects of vertebrate insectivores on predatory and herbivorous arthropods were positively correlated. Effects were strongest on arthropods and plants in communities with abundant predaceous arthropods and strong intraguild predation, but weak in communities depauperate in arthropod predators and intraguild predation. The naturally occurring ratio of arthropod predators relative to herbivores varied tremendously among the studied communities, and the skew to predators increased with site primary productivity and in trees relative to shrubs. Although intraguild predation among arthropod predators has been shown to weaken herbivore suppression, we find this paradigm does not extend to vertebrate insectivores in these communities. Instead, vertebrate intraguild preda-tion is associated with strengthened trophic cascades, and insectivores function as dominant predators in terrestrial plant-arthropod communities. PMID:20368418

Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S; Barber, Nicholas A; Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell

2010-04-20

234

Multiscale Analysis for a Vector-Borne Epidemic Model  

OpenAIRE

Traditional studies about disease dynamics have focused on global stability issues, due to their epidemiological importance. We study a classical SIR-SI model for arboviruses in two different directions: we begin by describing an alternative proof of previously known global stability results by using only a Lyapunov approach. In the sequel, we take a different view and we argue that vectors and hosts can have very distinctive intrinsic time-scales, and that such distinctiven...

Souza, Max O.

2011-01-01

235

Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable. PMID:25457604

Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, René; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

2014-10-01

236

Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable.

GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

2014-01-01

237

Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... is just one of the many organisms that Wolbachia infects. Credit: James Gathany, CDC. A "Mind-Blowing" ... bacterium that scientists are interested in is called Wolbachia. "It's probably the coolest bacterium in the world," ...

238

The crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: a new model for arthropod development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The great diversity of arthropod body plans, together with our detailed understanding of fruit fly development, makes arthropods a premier taxon for examining the evolutionary diversification of developmental patterns and hence the diversity of extant life. Crustaceans, in particular, show a remarkable range of morphologies and provide a useful outgroup to the insects. The amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis is becoming established as a model organism for developmental studies within the arthropods. In addition to its phylogenetically strategic position, P. hawaiensis has proven to be highly amenable to experimental manipulation, is straightforward to rear in the laboratory, and has large numbers of embryos that are available year-round. A detailed staging system has been developed to characterize P. hawaiensis embryogenesis. Robust protocols exist for the collection and fixation of all embryonic stages, in situ hybridization to study mRNA localization, and immunohistochemistry to study protein localization. Microinjection of blastomeres enables detailed cell-lineage analyses, transient and transgenic introduction of recombinant genetic material, and targeted knockdowns of gene function using either RNA interference (RNAi) or morpholino methods. Directed genome sequencing will generate important data for comparative studies aimed at understanding cis-regulatory evolution. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing genes of interest to the developmental and evolutionary biology communities are being targeted for sequencing. An expressed sequence tag (EST) database will facilitate discovery of additional developmental genes and should broaden our understanding of the genetic controls of body patterning. A reference genome from the related amphipod crustacean Jassa slatteryi will shortly be available. PMID:20147009

Rehm, E Jay; Hannibal, Roberta L; Chaw, R Crystal; Vargas-Vila, Mario A; Patel, Nipam H

2009-01-01

239

Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher-level arthropod phylogenetics is an intensely active field of research, not least as a result of the hegemony of molecular data. However, not all areas of arthropod phylogenetics have so far received equal attention. The application of molecular data to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Crustacea is still in its infancy, and several emerging results are conspicuously at odds with morphology-based studies. In this study, we present a series of molecular phylogenetic analyses of 88 arthropods, including 57 crustaceans, representing all the major lineages, with Onychophora and Tardigrada as outgroups. Our analyses are based on published and new sequences for two mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S rDNA. We designed our phylogenetic analyses to assess the effects of different strategies of sequence alignment, alignment masking, nucleotide coding, and model settings. Our comparisons show that alignment optimization of ribosomal markers based on secondary structure information can have a radical impact on phylogenetic reconstruction. Trees based on optimized alignments recover monophyletic Arthropoda (excluding Onychophora), Pancrustacea, Malacostraca, Insecta, Myriapoda and Chelicerata, while Maxillopoda and Hexapoda emerge as paraphyletic groups. Our results are unable to resolve the highest-level relationships within Arthropoda, and none of our trees supports the monophyly of Myriochelata or Mandibulata. We discuss our results in the context of both the methodological variations between different analyses, and of recently proposed phylogenetic hypotheses. This article offers a preliminary attempt to incorporate the large diversity of crustaceans into a single molecular phylogenetic analysis, assessing the robustness of phylogenetic relationships under varying analysis parameters. It throws into sharp relief the relative strengths and shortcomings of the combined molecular data for assessing this challenging phylogenetic problem, and thereby provides useful pointers for future studies. PMID:19854296

Koenemann, Stefan; Jenner, Ronald A; Hoenemann, Mario; Stemme, Torben; von Reumont, Björn M

2010-01-01

240

Influence of Agricultural Activities on Grassland Arthropods in Inner Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod pest outbreaks are becoming more common in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China, most likely due to the expansion of agriculture. The area of cropland has increased from 43,300 km2 in 1949 to 76,300 km2 in 2005. To understand the effects of agricultural activities on arthropod distribution, sweep net sampling was conducted in a natural grassland. We collected 1287 individuals belonging to 23 families and 9 orders of arthropods from 41 sites. We divided these samples into two guild types (predator and herbivore and analyzed six groups (grasshoppers, herbivorous Coleoptera, herbivorous Hemiptera, Cicaddidae, Araneae, predatory Coleoptera of them. Using a negative binomial regression analysis we analyzed the relationships between each group’s sampled population size and measured environmental factors including pesticide application and mean temperature of the previous year, agricultural site, and vegetation condition. The best model for each group was determined using Akaike’s information criterion. Grasshoppers showed a significant positive response to pesticide application and degraded vegetation, whereas spider (natural enemies of some insect pests showed a negative response to these factors. The population of grasshoppers increased at sites where pesticides were applied, vegetation was degraded, and spider numbers were reduced. Other groups were not significantly correlated with pesticide application and degraded vegetation. Some of the environmental factors we studied promoted pests the following year. Our results also suggest that the current use of pesticides may not be effective for pest control and that alternative options should be considered in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia.

Kiyan Sorgog

2012-10-01

241

Oxygen limitation and thermal tolerance in two terrestrial arthropod species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of marine invertebrates and fish have suggested that lower and upper critical temperatures (CT(min) and CT(max)) are coupled by a common mechanism: oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLT). Using thermolimit respirometry, we tested the predictions of this theory for terrestrial arthropods by measuring maxima and minima for both critical temperatures and metabolic rate in two arthropods, the isopod Porcellio scaber and the beetle Tenebrio molitor, at 40%, 21%, 10% and 2.5% ambient O(2). Critical temperatures were identified as particular points on both activity and traces in four ways. In the first two instances, we identified the inflection points in regressions of absolute difference sum (ADS) residuals calculated for activity (aADS) and (VI), respectively. In the third, we visually identified the lowest point before the post-mortal peak in CO(2) release (PMV). Finally, we pinpointed the sudden drop in at death, where fell outside the 95% confidence intervals of the 5 min period immediately preceding the drop-off (CI). Minimum and maximum metabolic rates were determined using CO(2) traces, and the temperatures corresponding to these identified as T(MetMin) and T(MetMax). For both species, ambient oxygen concentration did not influence CT(min), minimum metabolic rate, or T(MetMin). By contrast, severe hypoxia (2.5% O(2)) caused a 6.9 degrees C decline in activity-based CT(max) for T. molitor and a 10.6 degrees C decline for P. scaber, relative to normoxia (21% O(2)). The magnitude of this decrease differed between methods used to estimated critical thermal limits, highlighting the need for a standard method to determine these endpoints during thermolimit respirometry. Maximum metabolic rate also declined with decreasing ambient oxygen in both species. The combination of increasing metabolic rate and oxygen limitation affected upper thermal limits in these arthropods only in severe hypoxia (2.5% O(2)). In both species, CT(min) and CT(max) responded differently to oxygen limitation, suggesting that this is not a common mechanism coupling upper and lower limits in terrestrial arthropods. PMID:20543119

Stevens, Meagan M; Jackson, Sue; Bester, Susan A; Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L

2010-07-01

242

Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insects and other arthropods appear in pharmacopoeias of Korean traditional medicine, but little was known about their use in modern South Korea. Interviews were conducted with 20 traditional medicine doctors at clinics in South Korea's Kyeong Dong Shijang in Seoul--one of the world's largest traditional drug markets--to learn about current patterns of usage. Seventeen products are prescribed and the use of arthropod drugs is stable or increasing. Centipedes (Scolopendra spp.) used primarily to treat arthritis and the silk moth fungus (Beauveria bassiana, which infects silk moth larvae) used mostly to treat stroke, are the most frequently prescribed and medically important arthropod drugs. Most of the arthropod drugs were traditionally collected or reared on the Korean Peninsula, but now they are imported, mainly from China. Folk logic appears to be the basis for some arthropod drug uses (i.e. centipedes, which have many legs, are used for leg problems). But many of the arthropods have venom and other defensive chemicals which are biologically active. The South Korean use of arthropods as drugs (as well as for food and enjoyment) is due, in part, to more positive attitudes towards these animals compared to many cultures. Arthropods appear to be an unexplored and unexploited source of drugs for modern medicine. PMID:10404418

Pemberton, R W

1999-06-01

243

The i5K Initiative: Advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans, play major roles in the world’s terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazo...

244

Disturbance in dry coastal dunes in Denmark promotes diversity of plants and arthropods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Naturally disturbed coastal dunes have become strongly reduced during the last century due to the cessation of grazing by domestic herbivores, dune stabilization initiatives, and increasing nitrogen deposition, all promoting encroachment by grasses, shrubs and woody plants. We assessed the effects of three disturbance types (burning, trampling and blowouts) on plant and arthropod species richness and composition in dry coastal dunes in Jutland, Denmark. Environmental variables, plant presence–absence and arthropod abundance were measured in 150 1 × 2 m plots along transects in blowouts, burned areas, trampled paths and their paired controls. We used Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) ordination to assess differences in species composition of disturbed areas and controls. Ordination scores were used as response variables in Linear Mixed Effect (LME) models to test for the effects of disturbances on plant and arthropod composition. Indicator species analysis revealed plant and arthropod species indicative for different disturbances. Plant and arthropod species richness and the number of annual plant species generally increased with disturbance, and plant and arthropod richness and composition responded differently to different disturbances. Arthropod communities were more diverse in disturbed plots and hosted species often found in early successional habitats of potential conservation value. Disturbance promoted ?-diversity, but affected plants more than arthropods, likely because of the difference in colonization potential. A combination of disturbances maximized diversity, suggesting that re-installment of a diverse disturbance regime should be considered in dune management.

Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; JØrgensen, Gorm Pilgaard

2015-01-01

245

Effects of Transgenic Bacillus thuringienses Corn and Permethrin on Nontarget Arthropods  

Science.gov (United States)

lanting of insect resistant transgenic corn varieties has led to concerns about the potential negative impact of these plants on nontarget arthropods. Various sampling methods (visual counts, yellow sticky cards, pitfall traps) were used to test for possible nontarget effects on arthropods commonly...

246

The effects of ingested mammalian blood factors on vector arthropod immunity and physiology  

OpenAIRE

The blood feeding behavior of disease-transmitting arthropods creates a unique intersection between vertebrate and invertebrate physiology. Here, we review host blood-derived factors that persist through blood digestion to affect the lifespan, reproduction, and immune responses of some of the most common arthropod vectors of human disease.

Pakpour, Nazzy; Akman-anderson, Leyla; Vodovotz, Yoram; Luckhart, Shirley

2013-01-01

247

Modeling infectious disease dynamics in the complex landscape of global health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite some notable successes in the control of infectious diseases, transmissible pathogens still pose an enormous threat to human and animal health. The ecological and evolutionary dynamics of infections play out on a wide range of interconnected temporal, organizational, and spatial scales, which span hours to months, cells to ecosystems, and local to global spread. Moreover, some pathogens are directly transmitted between individuals of a single species, whereas others circulate among multiple hosts, need arthropod vectors, or can survive in environmental reservoirs. Many factors, including increasing antimicrobial resistance, increased human connectivity and changeable human behavior, elevate prevention and control from matters of national policy to international challenge. In the face of this complexity, mathematical models offer valuable tools for synthesizing information to understand epidemiological patterns, and for developing quantitative evidence for decision-making in global health. PMID:25766240

Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy M; Andreasen, Viggo; Bansal, Shweta; De Angelis, Daniela; Dye, Chris; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Frost, Simon D W; Funk, Sebastian; Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; House, Thomas; Isham, Valerie; Klepac, Petra; Lessler, Justin; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Mollison, Denis; Pellis, Lorenzo; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Roberts, Mick G; Viboud, Cecile

2015-03-13

248

Introduction to the Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP): Systematics, Biogeography, Ecology, and Population Genetics of Arthropods of the Madrean Sky Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP) is a new multi-disciplinary research program at the University of Arizona that combines systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics to study origins and patterns of arthropod diversity along elevation gradients and among mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Island Region. Arthropods represent taxonomically and ecologically diverse organisms that drive key ecosystem processes in this mountain archipelago. Using data from museum specimens and specimens we obtain during long-term collecting and monitoring programs, ASAP will document arthropod species across Arizona's Sky Islands to address a number of fundamental questions about arthropods of this region. Baseline data will be used to determine climatic boundaries for target species, which will then be integrated with climatological models to predict future changes in arthropod communities and distributions in the wake of rapid climate change. ASAP also makes use of the natural laboratory provided by the Sky Islands to investigate ecological and genetic factors that influence diversification and patterns of community assembly. Here, we introduce the project, outline overarching goals, and describe preliminary data from the first year of sampling ground-dwelling beetles and ants in the Santa Catalina Mountains. PMID:25505938

Moore, Wendy; Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; Wiens, John F.; Brusca, Richard C.

2014-01-01

249

Arthropods as a source of new RNA viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery and development of methods for isolation, characterisation and taxonomy of viruses represents an important milestone in the study, treatment and control of virus diseases during the 20th century. Indeed, by the late-1950s, it was becoming common belief that most human and veterinary pathogenic viruses had been discovered. However, at that time, knowledge of the impact of improved commercial transportation, urbanisation and deforestation, on disease emergence, was in its infancy. From the late 1960s onwards viruses, such as hepatitis virus (A, B and C) hantavirus, HIV, Marburg virus, Ebola virus and many others began to emerge and it became apparent that the world was changing, at least in terms of virus epidemiology, largely due to the influence of anthropological activities. Subsequently, with the improvement of molecular biotechnologies, for amplification of viral RNA, genome sequencing and proteomic analysis the arsenal of available tools for virus discovery and genetic characterization opened up new and exciting possibilities for virological discovery. Many recently identified but "unclassified" viruses are now being allocated to existing genera or families based on whole genome sequencing, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis. New species, genera and families are also being created following the guidelines of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses. Many of these newly discovered viruses are vectored by arthropods (arboviruses) and possess an RNA genome. This brief review will focus largely on the discovery of new arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:25239874

Bichaud, L; de Lamballerie, X; Alkan, C; Izri, A; Gould, E A; Charrel, R N

2014-12-01

250

Exudative ascites complicating infectious mononucleosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis with the unusual complication of exudative ascites is presented. The patient was a 22-yr-old man with the typical symptoms and physical findings of hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis. Extensive evaluation including liver biopsy, failed to show another cause for the patient's ascites. The ascites and hepatitis disappeared with resolution of the acute mononucleosis infection. He is well 12 months after this illness with no evidence for chronic liver disease. This case adds to the list of causes for exudative ascites associated with acute hepatitis. PMID:3752045

Marano, A R; Lanse, S B; Garsten, J J; Thornton, G F; Antopol, S C; Gannon, D

1986-09-01

251

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

Science.gov (United States)

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

ARNEL DELA CRUZ

2012-06-28

252

The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host–pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host–pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host–pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host–pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotiis complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases. - Highlights: ? Infectious diseases are important regulating factors in the way wildlife respond to contaminants. ? An assessment of the effects of radioactive exposure to host–pathogen relationships in animals is given. ? Radioactive exposure has a profound effect on host–pathogen interactions. ? Both hosts and pathogens may be either negatively or positively affected by radioactive contamination.

253

Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus  

OpenAIRE

This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group) and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal di...

Wm, Cardoso; Jlc, Aguiar Filho; Jm, Roma?o; Rpr, Salles; Sr, Ca?mara; Aa, Siqueira; Wf, Oliveira; Mhnr, Sobral; Rsc, Texeira

2006-01-01

254

Evolution of eye development in arthropods: phylogenetic aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The architecture of the adult arthropod visual system for many decades has contributed important character sets that are useful for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships within this group. In the current paper we explore whether aspects of eye development can also contribute new arguments to the discussion of arthropod phylogeny. We review the current knowledge on eye formation in Trilobita, Xiphosura, Myriapoda, Hexapoda, and Crustacea. All euarthropod taxa share the motif of a proliferation zone at the side of the developing eye field that contributes new eye elements. Two major variations of this common motif can be distinguished: 1. The "row by row type" of Trilobita, Xiphosura, and Diplopoda. In this type, the proliferation zone at the side of the eye field generates new single, large elements with a high and variable cell number, which are added to the side of the eye and extend rows of existing eye elements. Cell proliferation, differentiation and ommatidial assembly seem to be separated in time but spatially confined within the precursors of the optic units which grow continuously once they are formed (intercalary growth). 2. The "morphogenetic front type" of eye formation in Crustacea+Hexapoda (Tetraconata). In this type, there is a clear temporal and spatial separation of the formation and differentiation processes. Proliferation and the initial steps of pattern formation take place in linear and parallel mitotic and morphogenetic fronts (the mitotic waves and the morphogenetic furrow/transition zone) and numerous but small new elements with a strictly fixed set of cells are added to the eye field. In Tetraconata, once formed, the individual ommatidia do not grow any more. Scutigeromorph chilopods take an intermediate position between these two major types. We suggest that the "row by row type" as seen in Trilobita, Xiphosura and Diplopoda represents the plesiomorphic developmental mode of eye formation from the euarthropod ground pattern whereas the "morphogenetic front type" is apomorphic for the Tetraconata. Our data are discussed with regard to two competing hypotheses on arthropod phylogeny, the "Tracheata" versus "Tetraconata" concept. The modes of eye development in Myriapoda is more parsimonious to explain in the Tetraconata hypothesis so that our data raise the possibility that myriapod eyes may not be secondarily reconstructed insect eyes as the prevailing hypothesis suggests. PMID:18089079

Harzsch, Steffen; Hafner, Gary

2006-12-01

255

Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis viruses.  

OpenAIRE

A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

Gosting, L. H.; Gould, R. W.

1981-01-01

256

Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes. PMID:20550788

Fork, Susanne K

2010-06-01

257

Aerial arthropod communities of native and invaded forests, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive species significantly contribute to biological change and threaten biodiversity, with a growing body of evidence that plant invasions affect higher trophic levels. We explored the relative importance of plant invasion and forest structure on aerial arthropod abundance, diversity, and composition on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. We used flight intercept traps to sample aerial arthropods within distinct canopy strata of native and invaded forests over 3-mo periods in 2006 and 2007. Arthropod abundance and diversity were higher in native than invaded forest, and arthropod communities were distinct between forest types. In both forest types, arthropod abundance was highest in the lower canopy, and canopy strata exhibited some differences in arthropod community composition. Several morphospecies were distinctly associated with each forest type. The strong differences in aerial arthropod communities associated with the invasion of native forest by non-native plants may affect other trophic levels, such as insectivorous birds. Steps to stop invasive plant spread and to restore native forest composition and structure are needed to safeguard the integrity of native communities, from plants to higher-level consumers. PMID:22127166

Hagen, Erin N; Bakker, Jonathan D; Gara, Robert I

2010-08-01

258

Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

2012-03-01

259

Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for people, especially for those living in rural areas.

Danon Clemes Cardoso

2009-01-01

260

Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

L. Sineo

2011-08-01

261

Decomposition and arthropod succession in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forensic arthropod succession patterns are known to vary between regions. However, the northern habitats of the globe have been largely left unstudied. Three pig carcasses were studied outdoors in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Adult and immature insects were collected for identification and comparison. The dominant Diptera and Coleoptera species at all carcasses were Protophormia terraneovae (R-D) (Fam: Calliphoridae) and Thanatophilus lapponicus (Herbst) (Fam: Silphidae), respectively. Rate of decomposition, patterns of Diptera and Coleoptera succession, and species dominance were shown to differ from previous studies in temperate regions, particularly as P. terraenovae showed complete dominance among blowfly species. Rate of decomposition through the first four stages was generally slow, and the last stage of decomposition was not observed at any carcass due to time constraints. It is concluded that biogeoclimatic range has a significant effect on insect presence and rate of decomposition, making it an important factor to consider when calculating a postmortem interval. PMID:23278195

Bygarski, Katherine; LeBlanc, Helene N

2013-03-01

262

Transient behavior of cadmium in a grassland arthropod food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day-1) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day-1). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues

263

Infectious syphilis mimicking neoplastic disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five patients who were initially evaluated for malignant neoplasm actually had infectious syphillis (one primary, two secondaries, two secondaries with persistence of primary). Two patients were considered for radical surgery and one for extensive radiation and/or chemotherapy. In four patients an elevated routine admission VDRL was the first indication of the correct diagnosis. Dark-field examination is the most important laboratory test in the diagnosis of primary syphillis; VDRL and FTA-ABS are most important in confirming secondary syphillis. Penicillin remains the drug of choice for therapy. At a time when the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, it is extremely important to develop adequate educational programs for medical students and physicians. PMID:576381

Drusin, L M; Singer, C; Valenti, A J; Armstrong, D

1977-02-01

264

Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

2014-01-01

265

Phenoptosis in arthropods and immortality of social insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, there are no drastic differences in phenoptosis patterns in plant and animal organisms. However, there are some specific features characteristic for insects and other arthropods: 1) their development includes metamorphosis with different biochemical laws at consecutive developmental stages; 2) arthropods can reduce or stop development and aging when in a state of diapause or temporal cold immobility; 3) their life cycle often correlates with seasonal changes of surroundings; 4) polymorphism is widespread - conspecifics differ by their lifespans and phenoptosis features; 5) lifespan-related sexual dimorphism is common; 6) significant situational plasticity of life cycle organization is an important feature; for example, the German wasp (Paravespula germanica) is obligatorily univoltine in the temperate zone, while in tropical regions its lifespan increases and leads to repeated reproduction; 7) life cycles of closely related species may differ significantly, for example, in contrast to German wasp, some tropical hornets (Vespa) have only one reproduction period. Surprisingly, many insect species have been shown to be subjected to gradual aging and phenoptosis, like the highest mammals. However, queens of social insects and some long-lived arachnids can apparently be considered non-aging organisms. In some species, lifespan is limited to one season, while others live much longer or shorter. Cases of one-time reproduction are rather rare. Aphagia is common in insects (over 10,000 species). Cannibalism is an important mortality factor in insects as well as in spiders. In social insects, which exist only in colonies (families), the lifetime of a colony can be virtually unlimited. However, in case of some species the developmental cycle and death of a colony after its completion are predetermined. Most likely, natural selection in insects does not lengthen individual lifespan, but favors increase in reproduction efficiency based on fast succession of generations leading to increased evolvability. PMID:25519062

Kartsev, V M

2014-10-01

266

Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. PMID:25111609

Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

2014-12-01

267

New insights on arthropod toxins that potentiate erectile function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of natural substances for the treatment of diseases or injuries is an ancient practice of many cultures. According to folklore, natural aphrodisiacs may help to raise libido and increase desire. The supposed aphrodisiacs mainly include a plethora of preparations of plants, among other substances. However, the real boundary between myth and reality has not been established yet in most cases and such boundaries must be drawn by scientific methods. A growing interest of the scientific community has been focused on animal venoms, especially those from arthropods, i.e. spiders and scorpions, which cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. This review highlights the studies that have been performed with venoms and toxins from arthropods known to cause priapism, among other toxic symptoms, pointing out some pharmacological approaches for better understanding this effect. To date, the venom of some spiders, mainly Phoneutria nigriventer, and scorpions, such as the yellow South American scorpion Tityus serrulatus, among others, have been known to cause priapism. Since erectile dysfunction (ED) is a growing health problem in the world, more common in patients with vascular diseases as diabetes and hypertension, the use of animal venoms and toxins as pharmacological tools could not only shed light to the mechanisms involved in erectile function, but also represent a possible model for new drugs to treat ED. Unfortunately, attempts to correlate the structure of those priapism-related toxins were unfruitful. Such difficulties lie firstly on the poor data concerning purified priapism-related toxins, instead of whole venoms and/or semi-purified fractions, and secondly, on the scarce available primary sequences and structural data, mainly from spider toxins. It has been shown that all these toxins modify the sodium (Na(+)) channel activity, mostly slowing down its inactivation current. Improving the knowledge on the tertiary structure of these toxins could provide a key in the search of a new drug for ED treatment. PMID:23583324

Nunes, Kenia P; Torres, Fernanda S; Borges, Marcia H; Matavel, Alessandra; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria E

2013-07-01

268

Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into [...] eight experimental groups (n=80/group) and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

WM, Cardoso; JLC, Aguiar Filho; JM, Romão; RPR, Salles; SR, Câmara; AA, Siqueira; WF, Oliveira; MHNR, Sobral; RSC, Texeira.

2006-09-01

269

49 CFR 172.432 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. 172.432 Section...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and color, the INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label must be as...

2010-10-01

270

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Science.gov (United States)

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2011-05-10

271

49 CFR 173.199 - Category B infectious substances.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category B infectious substances. 173.199 Section 173...1 and Class 7 § 173.199 Category B infectious substances. (a) Category B infectious substances. Except as provided in...

2010-10-01

272

21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test...Immunological Test Systems § 866.5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test... (a) Identification. An infectious mononucleosis...

2010-04-01

273

49 CFR 173.196 - Category A infectious substances.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A infectious substances. 173.196 Section 173...1 and Class 7 § 173.196 Category A infectious substances. (a) Category A infectious substances packaging. A packaging...

2010-10-01

274

[How to fight parasitic infectious diseases with bacteria. The case of Wolbachia pipientis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nature, no individual can live in isolation; hence, living organisms are forced to interact with each other. This necessity has led many organisms to establish heterogeneous relations to enhance their ability to adapt to the environment, thus acquiring evolutionary advantages. These relationships are sometimes so intense, that on the long term the organisms may lose their individual identity. An example of these associations is the endosymbiotic ones, where eukaryote organisms generally harbor different prokaryote organisms. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is a species described by Hertig and Wolbach in 1924. This microorganism can be isolated in a large variety of eukaryote organisms, with which it maintains different links. Until now, this species has only been described with 11 serogroups numbered from A to K within the Wolbachia genus. This work is intended to illustrate the relationship of Wolbachia pipientis with human pathogenic filaria and with arthropods, as well as to describe the implications of this bacterium in the treatment of filariasis. Finally, this work tries to describe recent studies that have targeted the use of artificially-created Wolbachia pipientis virulent strains that, once inoculated in infectious diseases-transmitting vectors, develop negative effects within them in order to, in this way, erradicate mosquito-transmitted infectious diseases for which no treatment is available at the moment or the prevention of its transmissibility has not been achieved. PMID:25354059

March-Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Eiros-Bouza, José María

2014-01-01

275

[Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

Flahault, Antoine

2007-01-01

276

DIVERSITY OF ARTHROPODS ON COCOA PLANTATION IN THREE STRATA OF SHADE TREE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Research was aimed to identifythe diversity of arthropods in Cocoa plantation inthree strataof shade tree. Research was conducted in Rahmat village, the sub-district of Palolo, District of Sigi, the Province of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia from December 2012 to June 2013.Berlese funnel, Pitfall, Malaise and Light trap were used to collect arthropod samples. There were five indices such as species richness (R, species evenness (E, species diversity (H`and D, and species similarity (Iss to analyze the diversity of arthropods in cocoa plantations. The result showed that species richness (R of arthropods under the two strata of shade tree, species evenness (E and both of species diversity indices, Shannon (H` & Simpson (D was the highest, with value of 18,216, 0.839, 4.383, and 0.833 respectively. In addition, percentage of species similarity (Iss was the highest under two strata of shade tree with value 72.297%.

Moh. Hibban Toana

2014-06-01

277

The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90. ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

2004-01-01

278

Massive expansions of Dscam splicing diversity via staggered homologous recombination during arthropod evolution  

OpenAIRE

The arthropod Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene can generate tens of thousands of protein isoforms via combinatorial splicing of numerous alternative exons encoding immunoglobulin variable domains organized into three clusters referred to as the exon 4, 6, and 9 clusters. Dscam protein diversity is important for nervous system development and immune functions. We have performed extensive phylogenetic analyses of Dscam from 20 arthropods (each containing between 46 and 96 alter...

Lee, Christopher; Kim, Namshin; Roy, Meenakshi; Graveley, Brenton R.

2010-01-01

279

Diversity and distribution of arthropods in native forests of the Azores archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Since 1999, our knowledge of arthropods in native forests of the Azores has improved greatly. Under the BALA project (Biodiversity of Arthropods of Laurisilva of the Azores), an extensive standardised sampling protocol was employed in most of the native forest cover of the Archipelago. Additionally, in 2003 and 2004, more intensive sampling was carried out in several fragments, resulting in nearly a doubling of the number of samples collected. A total of 6,770 samples from 100 sites distribut...

Borges, P. A. V.; Gaston, K. J.; Gaspar, C.

2008-01-01

280

DIVERSITY OF ARTHROPODS ON COCOA PLANTATION IN THREE STRATA OF SHADE TREE  

OpenAIRE

The Research was aimed to identifythe diversity of arthropods in Cocoa plantation inthree strataof shade tree. Research was conducted in Rahmat village, the sub-district of Palolo, District of Sigi, the Province of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia from December 2012 to June 2013.Berlese funnel, Pitfall, Malaise and Light trap were used to collect arthropod samples. There were five indices such as species richness (R), species evenness (E), species diversity (H`and D), and species similarity (Iss) ...

Moh. Hibban Toana; Gatot Mudjiono; Sri Karindah; Abdul Latief Abadi

2014-01-01

281

Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)  

OpenAIRE

We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod ...

Robinson, Kathryn M.; Ingvarsson, Pa?r K.; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.

2012-01-01

282

Arthropod diversity in pure oak forests of coppice origin in northern Thrace (Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oak (Quercus spp. forests are among the most important forest types in Turkey. In the past, oak forests were managed through coppice clear-cutting, but in recent decades they have mostly been converted to high forest. This study was aimed at explaining how arthropod diversity is affected during conversion from coppice to high oak forest and during the early stages of coppice succession. We tested the hypothesis that arthropod richness, abundance and diversity in coppice oak sites varied according to stand age and a number of other forest characteristics. Arthropod communities were sampled in 50 plots using four different methods: pitfall traps, sweep nets, sticky cards and cloth shaking. A total of 13 084 individuals were collected and classified into 193 Recognizable Taxonomic Units (RTUs, with the most RTUs and the greatest number of specimens captured by sweep netting. We identified 17 taxa within RTU’s with more than 1% of the captured arthropods, which constituted 75% of the total specimens. The number of RTUs varied significantly according to trap type. Arthropod richness and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H? increased with elevation and precipitation. In young (1-40 yrs-old and middle-aged (41-80 yrs stands, arthropod biodiversity was not significantly affected by stand type, but slightly increased with diameter at breast height and tree height. Forest characteristics, such as the litter layer, understory and crown diameter, weakly influenced arthropod richness and abundance. Cluster analysis revealed that stand types and trap types differed taxonomically. Principal component analysis showed that stand types were clearly separated by the stand parameters measured. Insect families (Formicidae, Thripidae, Lygaeidae, Dolichopodidae, Luaxanidae, Cicadellidae and Ichneumonidae could potentially be used as indicators of coppice oak conditions. As the coppice oak changes to mature fo­rest, further studies are needed to better assess the relation between arthropods, forest types and structural characteristics of stands.

Keten A

2014-12-01

283

Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry  

OpenAIRE

The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides...

Padmavathy Anbarashan; Poyyamoli Gopalswamy

2013-01-01

284

Effect of island geological age on the arthropod species richness of Azorean pastures  

OpenAIRE

Species richness of six pasture arthropod assemblages (total arthropod species, total herbivore species, sucking and chewing herbivores, total predatory species and spiders) were regressed against several geographical variables (area, distance from the nearest mainland, maximum elevation and geological age of the islands) of three Azorean islands (S. Maria, Terceira and Pico). The species were sampled by the fixed-quadrate size sampling method and the results obtained are consistent with the ...

Borges, Paulo A. V.; Brown, Valerie K.

1999-01-01

285

Changes in Arthropod Fauna From Weed Management Practices in Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetically modified maize tolerant to broad-spectrum herbicides may greatly alter weed flora composition, abundance and therefore affect organisms of higher trophic levels, including herbivore and detritivore arthropods and their natural enemies. This three-year study measured the effects on arthropods of an intensive use of broad-spectrum herbicides in comparison with one application of conventional pre-emergence herbicide. Numbers of arthropods were measured by three techniques: visual counts on plants, catches in pitfall and yellow sticky traps. Weed density was much higher in conventional treatment in the first year, showed significant difference in the second year, but was no significant difference in the third year. Counts of arthropod taxa were significantly different only in the first year in the two kinds of weed management systems. In visual counts Cicadellidae and Aphididae among herbivores, the two main generalist predators, Orius spp. and Araneae, and the family Coccinellidae were more abundant on plants treated twice with glyphosate. In pitfall there were higher records in glyphosate-treated plots for Myriapoda but the opposite was seen for Carabidae counts. The yellow sticky traps catches were higher in the glyphosate-treated plots for Cicadellidae and Mymaridae, and lower for Thysanoptera. Most of the significant differences found between herbicide regimes disappeared when abundances of weeds (monocotyledons and dicotyledons were introduced into the analysis as covariates; this finding signals weed abundance as the main cause of arthropod abundance alteration. However, only a drastic alteration of weed abundance causes significant changes in arthropod densities.

Ramon Albajes

2014-09-01

286

Emerging roles of aquaporins in relation to the physiology of blood-feeding arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteins that span plasma membranes allowing the movement of water and small solutes into or out of cells. The type, expression levels and activity of AQPs play a major role in the relative permeability of each cell to water or other solutes. Research on arthropod AQPs has expanded in the last 10 years due to the completion of several arthropod genome projects and the increased availability of genetic information accessible through other resources such as de novo transcriptome assemblies. In particular, there has been significant advancement in elucidating the roles that AQPs serve in relation to the physiology of blood-feeding arthropods of medical importance. The focus of this review is upon the significance of AQPs in relation to hematophagy in arthropods. This will be accomplished via a narrative describing AQP functions during the life history of hematophagic arthropods that includes the following critical phases: (1) Saliva production necessary to blood feeding, (2) Intake and excretion of water during blood digestion, (3) Reproduction and egg development and (4) Off-host environmental stress tolerance. The concentration on these phases will highlight known vulnerabilities in the biology of hematophagic arthropods that could be used to develop novel control strategies as well as research topics that have yet to be examined. PMID:24942313

Benoit, Joshua B; Hansen, Immo A; Szuter, Elise M; Drake, Lisa L; Burnett, Denielle L; Attardo, Geoffrey M

2014-10-01

287

Infectious spondylitis and its differential diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infectious spondylitis can be diagnosed early and reliably by MRI, given that the most important diagnostic criteria are present. These criteria are bone marrow edema adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates, disk space of high signal intensity and enhancement of bone adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates and of the disk space. If not all of these criteria are present, diagnostic accuracy decreases. Erosive osteochondritis, spondylarthritis, osteoporotic fractures of two contiguous vertebral end plates, active Schmorl's nodes as well as neuropathic spine may mimic an infectious spondylitis. This paper presents typical and atypical morphologic patterns of infectious spondylitis as well as the differentiation criteria from the above mentioned diseases. (orig.)

288

The tripartite associations between bacteriophage, Wolbachia, and arthropods.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By manipulating arthropod reproduction worldwide, the heritable endosymbiont Wolbachia has spread to pandemic levels. Little is known about the microbial basis of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI except that bacterial densities and percentages of infected sperm cysts associate with incompatibility strength. The recent discovery of a temperate bacteriophage (WO-B of Wolbachia containing ankyrin-encoding genes and virulence factors has led to intensifying debate that bacteriophage WO-B induces CI. However, current hypotheses have not considered the separate roles that lytic and lysogenic phage might have on bacterial fitness and phenotype. Here we describe a set of quantitative approaches to characterize phage densities and its associations with bacterial densities and CI. We enumerated genome copy number of phage WO-B and Wolbachia and CI penetrance in supergroup A- and B-infected males of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We report several findings: (1 variability in CI strength for A-infected males is positively associated with bacterial densities, as expected under the bacterial density model of CI, (2 phage and bacterial densities have a significant inverse association, as expected for an active lytic infection, and (3 CI strength and phage densities are inversely related in A-infected males; similarly, males expressing incomplete CI have significantly higher phage densities than males expressing complete CI. Ultrastructural analyses indicate that approximately 12% of the A Wolbachia have phage particles, and aggregations of these particles can putatively occur outside the Wolbachia cell. Physical interactions were observed between approximately 16% of the Wolbachia cells and spermatid tails. The results support a low to moderate frequency of lytic development in Wolbachia and an overall negative density relationship between bacteriophage and Wolbachia. The findings motivate a novel phage density model of CI in which lytic phage repress Wolbachia densities and therefore reproductive parasitism. We conclude that phage, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. Clarifying the roles of lytic and lysogenic phage development in Wolbachia biology will effectively structure inquiries into this research topic.

2006-05-01

289

Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

2012-08-13

290

The molecular biologist against infectious disease  

OpenAIRE

Infectious diseases, in both the developing and the developed world, still pose considerable challenges to biomedical research. But science alone is clearly not sufficient to overcome the burden of disease in the world

Ma?kela?, P. Helena

2003-01-01

291

A Holistic View of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of: Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance; Lisa A. Beltz; (2011. Jossey-Bass, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. San Francisco, CA. 700 pages.

Himgauri K. Kulkarni

2012-08-01

292

Infectious Agents are Associated with Psychiatric Diseases  

OpenAIRE

There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection and later persist as silent viruses and bacteria within the body. However, these chronic infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndrome (TS). We investigated the distribution of different neurotrophic infectious agents in TS, schizophrenia and controls. A total of 93 indivi...

Daniela Lydia Krause; Elif Weidinger; Judith Matz; Agnes Wildenauer; Jenny Katharina Wagner; Michael Obermeier; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Michael Riedel; Norbert Müller

2012-01-01

293

Spread of infectious disease through clustered populations  

OpenAIRE

Networks of person-to-person contacts form the substrate along which infectious diseases spread. Most network-based studies of this spread focus on the impact of variations in degree (the number of contacts an individual has). However, other effects such as clustering, variations in infectiousness or susceptibility, or variations in closeness of contacts may play a significant role. We develop analytic techniques to predict how these effects alter the growth rate, probability and size of epid...

Miller, Joel C.

2009-01-01

294

Rapid Analysis of Pharmacology for Infectious Diseases  

OpenAIRE

Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem: how do we rapidly and cost-effectively identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections? Given the large number of emerging and neglected infectious diseases and the fact that they disproportionately afflict the poorest members of the global society, new ways of thinking are required to develop high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a large number of pathogens. The growin...

Hopkins, Andrew L.; Bickerton, G. Richard; Carruthers, Ian M.; Boyer, Stephen K.; Rubin, Harvey; Overington, John P.

2011-01-01

295

INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA  

OpenAIRE

Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant...

AnnaMaria Nosari

2012-01-01

296

Arthropod eye-inspired digital camera with unique imaging characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

In nature, arthropods have a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a hemispherical geometry, a wideangle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. There are great interests in building systems with similar geometries and properties due to numerous potential applications. However, the established semiconductor sensor technologies and optics are essentially planar, which experience great challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts. With the recent advancement of stretchable optoelectronics, we have successfully developed strategies to build a fully functional artificial apposition compound eye camera by combining optics, materials and mechanics principles. The strategies start with fabricating stretchable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors and elastomeric optical elements in planar geometries, which are then precisely aligned and integrated, and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. This imaging device demonstrates nearly full hemispherical shape (about 160 degrees), with densely packed artificial ommatidia. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. We have illustrated key features of operation of compound eyes through experimental imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations. The general strategies shown in this development could be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

2014-06-01

297

Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The interrelationships of major clades within the Arthropoda remain one of the most contentious issues in systematics, which has traditionally been the domain of morphologists. A growing body of DNA sequences and other types of molecular data has revitalized study of arthropod phylogeny and has inspired new considerations of character evolution. Novel hypotheses such as a crustacean-hexapod affinity were based on analyses of single or few genes and limited taxon sampling, but have received recent support from mitochondrial gene order, and eye and brain ultrastructure and neurogenesis. Here we assess relationships within Arthropoda based on a synthesis of all well sampled molecular loci together with a comprehensive data set of morphological, developmental, ultrastructural and gene-order characters. The molecular data include sequences of three nuclear ribosomal genes, three nuclear protein-coding genes, and two mitochondrial genes (one protein coding, one ribosomal). We devised new optimization procedures and constructed a parallel computer cluster with 256 central processing units to analyse molecular data on a scale not previously possible. The optimal 'total evidence' cladogram supports the crustacean-hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.

Giribet, G.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

2001-01-01

298

Inhibitory motoneurons in arthropod motor control: organisation, function, evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Miniaturisation of somatic cells in animals is limited, for reasons ranging from the accommodation of organelles to surface-to-volume ratio. Consequently, muscle and nerve cells vary in diameters by about two orders of magnitude, in animals covering 12 orders of magnitude in body mass. Small animals thus have to control their behaviour with few muscle fibres and neurons. Hexapod leg muscles, for instance, may consist of a single to a few 100 fibres, and they are controlled by one to, rarely, 19 motoneurons. A typical mammal has thousands of fibres per muscle supplied by hundreds of motoneurons for comparable behavioural performances. Arthopods--crustaceans, hexapods, spiders, and their kin--are on average much smaller than vertebrates, and they possess inhibitory motoneurons for a motor control strategy that allows a broad performance spectrum despite necessarily small cell numbers. This arthropod motor control strategy is reviewed from functional and evolutionary perspectives and its components are described with a focus on inhibitory motoneurons. Inhibitory motoneurons are particularly interesting for a number of reasons: evolutionary and phylogenetic comparison of functional specialisations, evolutionary and developmental origin and diversification, and muscle fibre recruitment strategies. PMID:24965579

Wolf, Harald

2014-08-01

299

Conservation of arthropod midline netrin accumulation revealed with a cross-reactive antibody provides evidence for midline cell homology  

OpenAIRE

Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. Howeve...

Simanton, Wendy; Clark, Stephanie; Clemons, Anthony; Jacowski, Caitlin; Farrell-vanzomeren, Adrienne; Beach, Paul; Browne, William E.; Duman-scheel, Molly

2009-01-01

300

The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima  

OpenAIRE

Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologue...

Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schro?der, Reinhard; Torres-oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.

2014-01-01

301

Arthropods in Natural Communities in Mescal Agave (Agave durangensis Gentry) in an Arid Zone  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The arthropods have a very important role in the arid zones due to their interactions with many organism and because they constituted an important element in the structure of the plant community. Nevertheless their importance there are few knowledge about the community of arthropods associated to vegetation in arid zones in the North of Mexico. The present study had the objective of determining the abundance, richness and diversity of arthropods in three localities where th...

Gonzalez-castillo, Maria P.; Escalante, Manuel Q.; Gabriela Castano-Meneses

2011-01-01

302

[Associated vaccination of poultry against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and infectious bursitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of immunity was studied following a mixed vaccination with live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (strains H120 and H52), Newcastle disease (strain La Sota), and infectious bursitis (strain Th75Vn82). The three vaccines were applied simultaneously via the drinking water, through the spray method, and nasally. Experiments were carried out with a total of 31,466 birds: broilers, growing layers, broiler parents--all without preliminary treatment with biopreparations. Immunity against Newcastle disease was followed up through the hemagglutination-inhibition test and challenging with a virulent virus; against infectious bursitis--through immunodiffusion in agar gel after Ouchterlony; and against infectious bronchitis--through virus-neutralization with strain Beaudette. The birds were treated with mixed vaccines in the following combinations: infectious bronchitis--Newcastle disease; infectious bursitis--Gumboro; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Gumboro. The simultaneous application of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursitis was shown to be well tolerated with no harmful aftereffects whatever. The immunity built up with the simultaneous use of the three vaccines was not inferior in effectiveness to that conferred with the use of two vaccines or only one of them. PMID:3002010

Cholakova, R

1985-01-01

303

Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for infectious and non-infectious corneal ulcers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the outcomes of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasties, defined as keratoplasties performed to eradicate active infectious corneal diseases or to repair a structural defect of the cornea. The records of 24 eyes of 24 patients (17 female and 7 male) treated with therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty between 2002 and 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into infectious keratitis group and non-infectious keratitis group. The mean age was 52.12 ± 17.91 years. The median follow-up time was 22 months (min-max: 6-96). Therapeutic success was achieved and eyes were preserved in 23 patients and one patient required evisceration for recurrent fungal infection. At the end of the follow-up period, 92.9 % (n = 13) and 77.8 % (n = 7) of grafts remained clear in the infectious and non-infectious groups, respectively (p = 0.538). Visual acuity (VA) improved at least one Snellen line in 23 patients. The mean postoperative decimal VA was 0.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 ± 0.3 in the infectious and non-infectious groups, respectively (p = 0.12). Amniotic membrane transplantation was performed in two eyes preoperatively and in four eyes postoperatively. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty continues to be an effective method in the treatment process of serious perforated and non-perforated corneal infectious and non-infectious diseases resistant to medical and other surgical interventions. PMID:24652460

Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha; Burcu, Ayse; Do?an, Emine; Onat, Mustafa; Ornek, Firdevs

2015-04-01

304

Habitat and species identity, not diversity, predict the extent of refuse consumption by urban arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that the magnitude and resilience of this service should increase with biological diversity. We measured food removal by presenting known quantities of cookies, potato chips, and hot dogs in street medians (24 sites) and parks (21 sites) in New York City, USA. At the same sites, we assessed ground-arthropod diversity and abiotic conditions, including history of flooding during Hurricane Sandy 7 months prior to the study. Arthropod diversity was greater in parks (on average 11 hexapod families and 4.7 ant species per site), than in medians (nine hexapod families and 2.7 ant species per site). However, counter to our diversity-based prediction, arthropods in medians removed 2-3 times more food per day than did those in parks. We detected no effect of flooding (at 19 sites) on this service. Instead, greater food removal was associated with the presence of the introduced pavement ant (Tetramorium sp. E) and with hotter, drier conditions that may have increased arthropod metabolism. When vertebrates also had access to food, more was removed, indicating that arthropods and vertebrates compete for littered food. We estimate that arthropods alone could remove 4-6.5 kg of food per year in a single street median, reducing its availability to less desirable fauna such as rats. Our results suggest that species identity and habitat may be more relevant than diversity for predicting urban ecosystem services. Even small green spaces such as street medians provide ecosystem services that may complement those of larger habitat patches across the urban landscape. PMID:25463151

Youngsteadt, Elsa; Henderson, Ryanna C; Savage, Amy M; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

2015-03-01

305

Reconstructing the phylogeny of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species based on their motor proteins  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor proteins have extensively been studied in the past and consist of large superfamilies. They are involved in diverse processes like cell division, cellular transport, neuronal transport processes, or muscle contraction, to name a few. Vertebrates contain up to 60 myosins and about the same number of kinesins that are spread over more than a dozen distinct classes. Results Here, we present the comparative genomic analysis of the motor protein repertoire of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species using the owl limpet Lottia gigantea as outgroup. Arthropods contain up to 17 myosins grouped into 13 classes. The myosins are in almost all cases clear paralogs, and thus the evolution of the arthropod myosin inventory is mainly determined by gene losses. Arthropod species contain up to 29 kinesins spread over 13 classes. In contrast to the myosins, the evolution of the arthropod kinesin inventory is not only determined by gene losses but also by many subtaxon-specific and species-specific gene duplications. All arthropods contain each of the subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin complex. Except for the dynein light chains and the p150 dynactin subunit they contain single gene copies of the other subunits. Especially the roadblock light chain repertoire is very species-specific. Conclusion All 21 completely sequenced arthropods, including the twelve sequenced Drosophila species, contain a species-specific set of motor proteins. The phylogenetic analysis of all genes as well as the protein repertoire placed Daphnia pulex closest to the root of the Arthropoda. The louse Pediculus humanus corporis is the closest relative to Daphnia followed by the group of the honeybee Apis mellifera and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. After this group the rust-red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the silkworm Bombyx mori diverged very closely from the lineage leading to the Drosophila species.

Kollmar Martin

2009-04-01

306

Disturbance and recovery of salt marsh arthropod communities following BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil spills represent a major environmental threat to coastal wetlands, which provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to humanity. The U.S. Gulf of Mexico is a hub of oil and gas exploration activities that historically have impacted intertidal habitats such as salt marsh. Following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we sampled the terrestrial arthropod community and marine invertebrates found in stands of Spartina alterniflora, the most abundant plant in coastal salt marshes. Sampling occurred in 2010 as oil was washing ashore and a year later in 2011. In 2010, intertidal crabs and terrestrial arthropods (insects and spiders) were suppressed by oil exposure even in seemingly unaffected stands of plants; however, Littoraria snails were unaffected. One year later, crab and arthropods had largely recovered. Our work is the first attempt that we know of assessing vulnerability of the salt marsh arthropod community to oil exposure, and it suggests that arthropods are both quite vulnerable to oil exposure and quite resilient, able to recover from exposure within a year if host plants remain healthy. PMID:22412916

McCall, Brittany D; Pennings, Steven C

2012-01-01

307

Oak tree canker disease supports arthropod diversity in a natural ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

2014-03-01

308

Tuning the white light spectrum of light emitting diode lamps to reduce attraction of nocturnal arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial lighting allows humans to be active at night, but has many unintended consequences, including interference with ecological processes, disruption of circadian rhythms and increased exposure to insect vectors of diseases. Although ultraviolet and blue light are usually most attractive to arthropods, degree of attraction varies among orders. With a focus on future indoor lighting applications, we manipulated the spectrum of white lamps to investigate the influence of spectral composition on number of arthropods attracted. We compared numbers of arthropods captured at three customizable light-emitting diode (LED) lamps (3510, 2704 and 2728 K), two commercial LED lamps (2700 K), two commercial compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs; 2700 K) and a control. We configured the three custom LEDs to minimize invertebrate attraction based on published attraction curves for honeybees and moths. Lamps were placed with pan traps at an urban and two rural study sites in Los Angeles, California. For all invertebrate orders combined, our custom LED configurations were less attractive than the commercial LED lamps or CFLs of similar colour temperatures. Thus, adjusting spectral composition of white light to minimize attracting nocturnal arthropods is feasible; not all lights with the same colour temperature are equally attractive to arthropods. PMID:25780237

Longcore, Travis; Aldern, Hannah L; Eggers, John F; Flores, Steve; Franco, Lesly; Hirshfield-Yamanishi, Eric; Petrinec, Laina N; Yan, Wilson A; Barroso, André M

2015-05-01

309

Evolution of the arthropod prophenoloxidase/hexamerin protein family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic analysis of the prophenoloxidase/hexamerin family of arthropods revealed four well supported subfamilies: (1) the arylphorin subfamily, including arylphorins, storage proteins, and other proteins of uncertain function from insects; (2) the hemocyanins of branchiopod crustaceans, which are copper-binding proteins involved in oxygen transport; (3) the hemocyanins of chelicerates; and (4) the prophenoloxidases (proPO) of both insects and branchiopods, which are copper-binding molecules that play a role in sclerotization of cuticle and encapsulation of foreign particles. The phylogeny indicated that insect and branchiopod proPO constitute a monophyletic group but that branchiopod and chelicerate hemocyanins do not constitute a monophyletic group. Branchiopod hemocyanin and proPO diverged from each other prior to the divergence of insects from branchiopods and probably prior to the divergence of chelicerates from the insect-branchiopod lineage. Likewise, the insect arylphorin subfamily diverged from proPO prior to the divergence of insects from branchiopods and probably prior to the divergence of chelicerates; thus, the results did not support the hypothesis that insect arylphorins represent hemocyanins freed to assume a new function because the insect tracheal respiratory system removes the need for an oxygen-transport molecule. Nonetheless, reconstruction of ancestral sequences by the maximum parsimony method suggested that the ancestors of the arylphorin family were copper-binding. Regions corresponding to the copper-binding domains were found to have a faster rate of nonsynonymous evolution in arylphorin subfamily genes than in other hexamerin family genes; this presumably reflects a relaxation of purifying selection after the loss of copper-binding function. PMID:9887347

Hughes, A L

1999-02-01

310

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%, dermatological conditions (12% and respiratory illnesses (8%. There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%, as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%. Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4% accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9% and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk.

Lopez-Velez Rogelio

2010-11-01

311

A checklist of arthropods associated with rat carrion in a montane locality of northern Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first report of arthropods associated with carrion in Venezuela, using laboratory bred rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rat carcasses were exposed to colonization by arthropods in neighboring montane savanna and cloud forest habitats in the state of Miranda. The taxonomic composition of the arthropods varied between both ecosystems. Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Micropezidae, Phoridae, Vespidae and one species of ant, were collected only in the cloud forest. Dermestes maculatus, Chrysomya albiceps, Termitidae and most species of ants, were found only in the savanna. Fourteen species were considered to be of primary forensic importance: D. maculatus, Oxelytrum discicolle, Calliphora sp., Cochliomyia macellaria, Compsomyiops sp., C. albiceps, Phaenicia cuprina, P. sericata, P. eximia, Fannia sp., Puliciphora sp., Megaselia scalaris, Ravina sp. and Sarcophaga sp. PMID:17386987

Velásquez, Yelitza

2008-01-15

312

[Impact of genetic modifications on infectious diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic engineering offers the theoretical possibility to transfer any natural or modified gene into any living organism. This generates new and diverse situations which may contribute to the spreading of infectious diseases or on the contrary to control them. Problems may theoretically come from uncontrolled genes providing resistance to antibiotics, from the activation of genomic retroviral sequences, from enhanced sensitivity of the organism to pathogens, as well as from the generation of mutated microorganisms with a higher pathogenecity. On the contrary, various genetic modifications may create organisms resistant to infectious diseases, generate safe and efficient recombinant vaccines, or provide patients with proteins which stimulate their defense mechanisms. The major impacts of genetic modifications in the development of infectious diseases or on the contrary in their eradication are analyzed in this article. PMID:15620056

Houdebine, L-M

2004-11-01

313

Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5  

Science.gov (United States)

When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

314

Infectious disease prevention and control functions of the medical institutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious disease is a major global public issue and social medical problem to human health. Our country implements a policy of putting the emphasis on prevention, combining prevention with treatment to infectious disease. Medical institutions is the main source of information on infectious diseases. The medical institutions monitor the epidemic situation of infectious disease for early detection and timely accurate report of infectious disease, which provides an important scientific basis for the prevention and control of infectious disease. Medical treatment for infectious disease is carried in medical institutions, and patients with infectious diseases were isolated to prevent and control the propagation of infectious diseases. An in-depth study of epidemic area and accurate diagnosis and treatment provide scientific basis for the prevention of infectious diseases. Medical institution is an effective way for health education of infectious diseases prevention. We should strengthen the legal responsibility for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in medical institutions, establish and improve the mechanism of prevention and control of infectious diseases, give full play to the functions of medical institutions, due to medical staff’s less awareness of infectious diseases prevention.

Zhao-min YANG

2014-08-01

315

Relationship between land use pattern and the structure and diversity of soil meso-micro arthropod community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil arthropod communities can provide valuable information regarding the impacts of human disturbances on ecosystem structure. Our study evaluated the structure, composition and diversity of soil meso-micro arthropod communities, in six different vegetation types and assessed the impacts of human activity. A completely randomized design, including 3 replicates from 6 sites (mowing steppe, natural grassland, severe degradation grassland, farmland, artificial shelter forest, and wetland) was used. Soil samples from the depth of 0 to 20 cm were collected during May, July, and September 2007. Soil meso-micro arthropod were separated using the Tullgren funnels method, and were identified and counted. Soil pH value, organic matter, and total nitrogen were measured in topsoil (0-20 cm) from each site. A total of 5,602 soil meso-micro arthropod individuals were collected, representing 4 classes, 14 orders, and 57 families. Most soil arthropods were widely distributed; however, some species appeared to be influenced by environment variables, and might serve as bioindicators of adverse human impacts. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated the soil arthropod distribution in the severely degraded grassland, mowing steppe, farmland, and shelter forest differed from the natural grassland. Arthropod density and diversity were greatest in May, and the forestland community was the most stable. Because of the vital role soil arthropods have in maintaining a healthy ecosystem, mechanisms to maintain their abundance and diversity should be further evaluated. PMID:24468921

Zhang, Limin; Zhang, Xueping; Cui, Wei

2014-05-01

316

Rapid mortality of pest arthropods by direct exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

The spread of arthropods due to trade of agricultural commodities and travel of humans is a significant problem in many countries. Limiting the movement of pest species is commonly achieved by the use of chemical pesticides at quarantine facilities. One potential alternative to chemical pesticides is direct exposure of contaminated commodities to ambient pressure electrical discharges. The arthropods are directly exposed to a 5.0 cm helium discharge with power densities on the order of 60 mW/cm3. Direct measurement of chemical species and ambient gas temperature shows the DBD treatment remains effective when the chemically reactive species are suppressed by helium, and when the ambient gas temperature of the discharge is below 40°C. In addition to gas temperature measurements and chemical species identification, the electron temperature and electron density were measured using the neutral bremsstrahlung continuum technique. This study is the first successful implementation of the neutral bremsstrahlung continuum emission diagnostic to a barrier discharge. The primary advantages of the diagnostic for barrier discharges are the measurement is passive and the spatial resolution is only limited by the collimation of the light and the sensitivity of the detector. Although the electron temperature (1.0--1.5 eV) and electron density (˜108 cm-3) are modest, non-chemical dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatment of arthropods has proven effective in significantly reducing the population of some arthropods including human body lice, green peach aphids, and western flower thrips. However, the treatment was not universally effective on all arthropod species. German cockroaches and citrus mealy bugs showed substantial resistance to the treatment. The study has shown the treatment does not always induce instant mortality: however, the mortality increases over a 24 hr-period after treatment. Based upon visual observation and the time after treatment to reach maximum mortality, the mode of action is either direct damage to the nervous system or changes to the hydrocarbon layer that protects the arthropods from dehydration.

Bures, Brian Lee

317

Isomin: a novel cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein from an arthropod species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of intermediate filaments (IFs is a hallmark feature of metazoan cells. IFs play a central role in cell organization and function, acting mainly as structural stress-absorbing elements. There is growing evidence to suggest that these cytoskeletal elements are also involved in the integration of signalling networks. According to their fundamental functions, IFs show a widespread phylogenetic expression, from simple diblastic animals up to mammals, and their constituent proteins share the same molecular organization in all species so far analysed. Arthropods represent a major exception in this scenario. Only lamins, the nuclear IF proteins, have so far been identified in the model organisms analysed; on this basis, it has been considered that arthropods do not express cytoplasmic IFs. Results Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, we named it isomin, is a component of the intestinal terminal web and shares with IFs typical biochemical properties, molecular features and reassembly capability. Sequence analysis indicates that isomin is mostly related to the Intermediate Filament protein C (IFC subfamily of Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins, which are molecular constituents of the nematode intestinal terminal web. This finding is coherent with, and provides further support to, the most recent phylogenetic views of arthropod ancestry. Interestingly, the coil 1a domain of isomin appears to have been influenced by a substantial molecular drift and only the aminoterminal part of this domain, containing the so-called helix initiation motif, has been conserved. Conclusions Our results set a new basis for the analysis of IF protein evolution during arthropod phylogeny. In the light of this new information, the statement that the arthropod phylum lacks cytoplasmic IFs is no longer tenable. See commentary article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007-9-16.

Lupetti Pietro

2011-02-01

318

Occupational Infectious Diseases among Healthcare Workers  

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Full Text Available The most important diseases among health care workers resulting from occupational exposure are infectious diseases. All of the communicable diseases could infect health care workers, and may cause diseases leading to death. Although infectious diseases increase among health care workers, measures for control and prevention of these infections are the same for years. These measures may be summarized as handwashing, immunisation and appropriate isolation of infection sources, and using of these basic applications is the primary responsibility of managers and health care workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 495-500

Metin Hasde

2011-08-01

319

Selected emerging infectious diseases of ornamental fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several emerging infectious diseases have serious implications for the trade and husbandry of ornamental fish. Although many of these diseases have been well studied and described in certain species, there are still many diseases that are not well understood. The following discussion focuses on select important emerging infectious diseases that affect ornamental fish in the aquarium and aquaculture industries: goldfish herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, Betanodavirus, Francisella, Cryptobia iubilans, and Exophiala. When possible, the known species affected, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, disinfection, and prevention modalities for each disease are discussed. PMID:23642862

McDermott, Colin; Palmeiro, Brian

2013-05-01

320

Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteo-arthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatric patients as follows: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 4 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases and other different diseases 9 cases

321

Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases

322

Gynecologic cancer and surgical infectious morbidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the surgical infectious morbidity in gynecologic cancer. We examined 1,180 gynecologic oncology patients: 608 women had carcinoma of the endometrium, 510 cancer of the cervix, 48 ovarian cancer and 14 vulvar cancer. Thirty-five (6%), 92 (18%), 7 (15%) and 2 (14%) were complicated by infection in carcinoma of the endometrium, cancer of the cervix, ovarian cancer and vulvar cancer, respectively. Our conclusion is that the highest surgical infectious morbidity occurs in patients with cervical cancer and the lowest in patients with carcinoma of the endometrium. PMID:9743877

Iatrakis, G; Sakellaropoulos, G; Georgoulias, N; Chadjithomas, A; Kourounis, G; Tsionis, C; Ladopoulos, J; Tzingounis, V

1998-01-01

323

Use of Google EarthTM to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments / Utilisation de Google EarthTM pour renforcer les capacités de la santé publique et faciliter la prise en charge des maladies à transmission vectorielle dans les environnements pauvres en ressources / Uso de Google EarthTM para fortalecer la capacidad de salud pública y facilitar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en entornos con recursos escasos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Se necesitan soluciones novedosas y de bajo costo para mejorar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y de otro tipo en los entornos con recursos escasos. Las nuevas opciones de software gratuito que dan acceso a imágenes por satélite y a instrumentos de edición sencillos [...] (por ejemplo Google EarthTM) complementan el software del sistema de información geográfica (SIG) existente y brindan nuevas oportunidades para: (i) reforzar la capacidad global de salud pública mediante la elaboración de información para infraestructuras urbanas; y (ii) mostrar los datos de salud pública directamente en una imagen del entorno físico. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron imágenes por satélite de libre acceso y una serie de prestaciones de generación de detalles incluidas en el software (que permiten crear polígonos, líneas y puntos) para añadir información sobre las infraestructuras urbanas y representar datos sobre las enfermedades en el marco de un sistema de apoyo decisional para el dengue (DDSS). RESULTADOS: Se utilizaron dos ciudades de México (Chetumal y Mérida) para demostrar que es posible desarrollar rápidamente y con un costo mínimo una representación básica de la infraestructura urbana que revista utilidad como urdimbre espacial en un DDSS. Las capas de información generadas comprendían polígonos etiquetados que representaban cuadras, líneas que reproducían las calles, y puntos que indicaban la localización de las escuelas y los dispensarios. Las cuadras se codificaron mediante colores en función de los casos de dengue. Las capas de información se pudieron importar satisfactoriamente a un software SIG en el formato conocido como shapefiles. CONCLUSIÓN: La combinación de Google EarthTM y software SIG gratuito (por ejemplo, HealthMapper, desarrollado por la OMS, y SIGEpi, desarrollado por la OPS) brinda enormes posibilidades para reforzar la capacidad general de salud pública y facilitar la aplicación de sistemas de apoyo decisional a la prevención y el control de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en los entornos con recursos escasos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google EarthTM) complement existing geographic information system ( [...] GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. METHODS: We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. FINDINGS: Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. CONCLUSION: The combination of Google EarthTM and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

Saul, Lozano-Fuentes; Darwin, Elizondo-Quiroga; Jose Arturo, Farfan-Ale; Maria Alba, Loroño-Pino; Julian, Garcia-Rejon; Salvador, Gomez-Carro; Victor, Lira-Zumbardo; Rosario, Najera-Vazquez; Ildefonso, Fernandez-Salas; Joaquin, Calderon-Martinez; Marco, Dominguez-Galera; Pedro, Mis-Avila; Natashia, Morris; Michael, Coleman; Chester G, Moore; Barry J, Beaty; Lars, Eisen.

2008-09-01

324

Background internal dose rates of earthworm and arthropod species in the forests of Aomori, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We measured naturally occurring radionuclides in samples from an earthworm species and 11 arthropod species collected in coniferous forests in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan, to assess background internal radiation dose rates. The rates were calculated from the measured concentrations of the radionuclides and dose coefficients from the literature. The mean internal dose rate of composite earthworm samples was 0.35 ?Gy h-1, whereas the mean dose rates of the arthropod samples ranged from 36 nGy h-1 to 0.79 ?Gy h-1. Polonium-210 was the radionuclide with the highest contribution to the internal dose rate for all the species, except the longhorn beetle. (author)

325

Background internal dose rates of earthworm and arthropod species in the forests of Aomori, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we measured the concentrations of several natural radionuclides in samples of one earthworm species and 11 arthropod species collected from four coniferous forests in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, and we assessed the background internal radiation dose rate for each species. Dose rates were calculated by using the radionuclide concentrations in the samples and dose conversion coefficients obtained from the literature. The mean internal dose rate in the earthworm species was 0.28 ?Gy h-1, and the mean internal dose rates in the arthropod species ranged between 0.036 and 0.69 ?Gy h-1. (author)

326

Differences in soil arthropod communities along a high altitude gradient at Shergyla Mountain, Tibet, China  

OpenAIRE

This is the first time that the soil arthropod communitycomposition along a high-altitude gradient (3,837, 4,105, and5,050 m a.s.l.) has been investigated in eastern Tibet, China.Five soil samples of 50 cm super(2) were taken from each site andextracted for 7 days in Berlese/Tullgren funnels without heating.Acari was the dominant group of arthropods at all three elevations(79%, 53%, and 54%, respectively, from the lower site to the uppersite). Prostigmata and Oribatida were more abundant than...

Jing, Sheng; Solhøy, Torstein; Huifu, Wang; Vollan, Thor Inge; Rumei, Xu

2005-01-01

327

The effects of global change on the threat of exotic arthropods and arthropod-borne pathogens to livestock in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod-borne diseases are an important part of the group of foreign animal diseases that command attention from federal, state, and local animal health authorities in the United States because of the potential for adverse local and regional animal health impacts and also because of possible losses of export markets. Diseases of concern are listed by the US Animal Health Association and also by the Office International des Epizooties. Global change is causing the emergence of newly recognized diseases and altering enzootic and epizootic circumstances for known disease problems. Selected examples of arthropod-borne diseases of importance are discussed in terms of their potential for introduction, spread, and impact on livestock and human health in the United States. PMID:19120223

George, John E

2008-12-01

328

Review of available evidence regarding the vulnerability of off-crop non-target arthropod communities in comparison to in-crop non-target arthropod communities  

OpenAIRE

EFSA is revising and updating the Ecotoxicology Guidance Document on Terrestrial Risk Assessment of Pesticides (SANCO/10329/2002). For this purpose an overview of available scientific information on several topics is needed. The aim of the current literature survey was to collect and summarize the published scientific literature on (1) the composition of non-target arthropod species that occur in and outside crops, (2) their vulnerability to pesticides and (3) their potential to recover from ...

Lange, H. J.; Lahr, J.; Brouwer, J. H. D.; Faber, J. H.

2012-01-01

329

Does carcass enrichment alter community structure of predaceous and parasitic arthropods? A second test of the arthropod saturation hypothesis at the Anthropology Research Facility in Knoxville, Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a second test of an arthropod saturation hypothesis, we analyzed if the on-campus Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, with its 20+ yr history of carcass enrichment, is comparable to non-enriched sites in community structure of predatory and parasitic arthropods that prey upon the sarcosaprophagous fauna. Over a 12-day period in June 1998, using pitfall traps and sweep nets, 10,065 predaceous, parasitic, and hematophagous (blood-feeding) arthropods were collected from freshly euthanized pigs (Sus scrofa L.) placed at ARF and at three surrounding sites various distances away (S2-S4). The community structure of these organisms was comparable in most paired-site tests with respect to species composition, colonization rates, and evenness of pitfall-trap abundances on a per carcass basis. Site differences were found in rarefaction tests of both sweep-net and pitfall-trap taxa and in tests of taxonomic evenness and ranked abundances of sweep-net samples. Despite these differences, no evidence was found that the predatory/parasitic fauna at ARF was impoverished with fewer but larger populations as a result of carcass enrichment. Comparison of the sarcosaprophagous and predatory/parasitic faunas revealed a tighter (and more predictable) linkage between carrion feeders (sarcosaprovores) and their carrion than between carrion feeders and their natural enemies (predators and parasitoids), leading us to conclude that ARF is more representative of surrounding sites with respect to the sarcosaprovore component than to the predatory/parasitic component within the larger carrion-arthropod community. PMID:15831007

Schoenly, Kenneth G; Shahid, S Adam; Haskell, Neal H; Hall, Robert D

2005-01-01

330

Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

331

Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

Sigirci, Ahmet [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey)

2006-02-01

332

Infectious agents are associated with psychiatric diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection and later persist as silent viruses and bacteria within the body. However, these chronic infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndrome (TS. We investigated the distribution of different neurotrophic infectious agents in TS, schizophrenia and controls. A total of 93 individuals were included (schizophrenic patients, Tourette patients and controls. We evaluated antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpes-simplex virus (HSV, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis/pneumoniae. By comparing schizophrenia and TS, we found a higher prevalence of HSV (P=0.017 and CMV (P=0.017 antibodies in schizophrenic patients. Considering the relationship between schizophrenia, TS and healthy controls, we showed that there are associations for Chlamydia trachomatis (P=0.007, HSV (P=0.027 and CMV (P=0.029. When all measured viruses, bacteria and protozoa were combined, schizophrenic patients had a higher rate of antibodies to infectious agents than TS patients (P=0.049. Tourette and schizophrenic patients show a different vulnerability to infectious agents. Schizophrenic patients were found to have a higher susceptibility to viral infections than individuals with TS. This finding might point to a modification in special immune parameters in these diseases.

Daniela Lydia Krause

2012-01-01

333

[Blood transfusion: Control of infectious risks].  

Science.gov (United States)

From blood donor collection to transfusion of the recipient, there are several layers of protection of the blood supply. These measures combined with huge progresses over the three past decades in pathogen discovery and blood testing for specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)), provide the greatest safety. With the implementation of serological and molecular testing, at least in high-income countries, transfusion-transmitted infections have become extremely rare. However, for pathogen agents, which are not tested and especially those which are responsible for emerging infectious disease, it became apparent that full control of infectious disease had not been achieved. In addition, the immune status of the recipient has also an impact in the outcome of infectious diseases transmitted by transfusion. Blood safety is based on several measures: education and deferral of donors with risk factors for transmissible disease, blood testing, pathogen reduction interventions, and patient blood management. This paper proposes a review of the residual risk of transmission of infectious diseases by transfusion and of the additional interventions able to further reduce it. PMID:25547992

Laperche, Syria; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Morel, Pascal; Pouchol, Elodie; Pozzetto, Bruno

2015-02-01

334

Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment  

OpenAIRE

An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment.

Wong, Valerie M.; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

2012-01-01

335

Infectious causes of cancer and their detection  

OpenAIRE

Molecular techniques for identifying pathogens associated with cancer continue to be developed, including one reported recently in BMC Medical Genomics. Identifying a causal infectious agent helps in understanding the biology of these cancers and can lead ultimately to the development of antimicrobial drugs and vaccines for their treatment and prevention.

Dalton-griffin, Lucy; Kellam, Paul

2009-01-01

336

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members of the USAMRIID ... military personnel and civilians from the threat of infectious diseases. We participate in support of emerging disease ...

337

Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Page Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases By Emily Carlson Posted December 2, 2013 ... historical health data shows the incidence of 56 infectious diseases in the United States (top) and the ...

338

Infectious and non-infectious neurologic complications in heart transplant recipients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurologic complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) recipients. New immunomodulating agents have improved survival rates, although some have been associated with a high rate of neurologic complications (infectious and non-infectious). We conducted this study to analyze the frequency of these complications, before and after the use of daclizumab induction therapy. We reviewed all neurologic complications in our HT cohort, comparing infectious with non-infectious complications over 2 periods of time in which different induction therapies were used (316 patients with OKT3 or antithymocyte globulin from 1988 to 2002, and 68 patients with daclizumab from 2003 to 2006). Neurologic complications were found in 75/384 patients (19.5%) with a total of 78 episodes. Non-infectious complications accounted for 68% of the 78 episodes of neurologic complications. A total of 51 patients and 53 episodes were detailed as follows: 25 episodes of stroke (25 of 78 total episodes, 32%; 19 ischemic, 6 hemorrhagic); 7 neuropathies; 6 seizures; 4 episodes of transient ischemic attack (TIA); 3 anoxic encephalopathy; 2 each brachial plexus palsy and metabolic encephalopathy; and 1 each myoclonia, central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, subdural hematoma, and Cotard syndrome. Mean time to presentation of stroke, TIA, and encephalopathy was 1 day (range, 1-19 d) posttransplant. Mortality rate among non-infectious complications was 12/53 (22.6%). Infectious complications accounted for 32% of the 78 total episodes. We found 25 episodes in 24 patients: 17 herpes zoster (median, 268 d after HT), 3 CNS aspergillosis (median, 90 d after HT), 1 CNS toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis (51 d after HT), 1 pneumococcal meningitis (402 d after HT), and 2 Listeria meningitis (median, 108 d after HT). The 3 patients with CNS aspergillosis died. The mortality rate among patients with infectious neurologic complications was 12% (42.8% if the CNS was involved). When we compared the OKT3-ATG and daclizumab groups, we found that the incidence of non-infectious complications was 15.1% vs. 7.3%, respectively, and the incidence of infectious complications was 7.5% vs. 1.4%, respectively. All but 1 opportunistic infection occurred in the OKT3-ATG time period. In conclusion, a wide variety of neurologic complications affected 19.5% of HT recipients. Non-infectious causes clearly predominated, but infections still accounted for 32% of the episodes. New monoclonal induction therapies have contributed to diminished CNS opportunistic infections in our program. PMID:20453603

Muñoz, Patricia; Valerio, Maricela; Palomo, Jesús; Fernández-Yáñez, Juan; Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

2010-05-01

339

Arthropods, plants, and transmission lines in Arizona: secondary succession in a Sonoran Desert habitat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Overall arthropod densities were low at this site, but the arthropod densities on the disturbed areas appeared to be enhanced after several years. No taxa were found to be statistically different in density between control and disturbed plots. Diversity decreased on the disturbed area after construction. Arthropod community similarity (C) was lower after construction, but C values appear to be related to presence or absence of annual herbs and grasses and not to total cover. Except for globe mallow, there were no pioneer plant species on the experimental plot. Effects of powerline construction on the experimental plant community were a brief reduction in total cover and a slight increase in cover of herbs and annual grasses. The 1976 and 1977 samples exhibit comparable cover values of these plants on both experimental and control plots. The dominant arthropod taxa on the experimental area (especially Thysanoptera, Cicadellidae, Coccinellidae, and Melyridae) appear to be responding numerically to the annual herbs and grasses which are becoming established on the plot.

Johnson, C.D.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Beley, J.R.

1981-09-01

340

Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the fossil record.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monophyly of Arthropoda is emphatically supported from both morphological and molecular perspectives. Recent work finds Onychophora rather than Tardigrada to be the closest relatives of arthropods. The status of tardigrades as panarthropods (rather than cycloneuralians) is contentious from the perspective of phylogenomic data. A grade of Cambrian taxa in the arthropod stem group includes gilled lobopodians, dinocaridids (e.g., anomalocaridids), fuxianhuiids and canadaspidids that inform on character acquisition between Onychophora and the arthropod crown group. A sister group relationship between Crustacea (itself likely paraphyletic) and Hexapoda is retrieved by diverse kinds of molecular data and is well supported by neuroanatomy. This clade, Tetraconata, can be dated to the early Cambrian by crown group-type mandibles. The rival Atelocerata hypothesis (Myriapoda+Hexapoda) has no molecular support. The basal node in the arthropod crown group is embroiled in a controversy over whether myriapods unite with chelicerates (Paradoxopoda or Myriochelata) or with crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata). Both groups find some molecular and morphological support, though Mandibulata is presently the stronger morphological hypothesis. Either hypothesis forces an unsampled ghost lineage for Myriapoda from the Cambrian to the mid Silurian. PMID:19854297

Edgecombe, Gregory D

2010-01-01

341

[Effects of different landscape patch structure on the diversity of arthropod community in tea plantations].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field survey with random block design was conducted to study the effects of different landscape patch structure on the arthropod community in tea plantations. In the tea plantations with small woodland (QM) or Acacia confuse (XS) patches, predatory spider had the highest proportion, occupying 62.3% and 69.5% of the total arthropods, respectively, being significantly higher than that in the tea plantations close to paddy field (DT) or near a village (RJ). The tea plantations with QM had the highest diversity index and species richness of arthropod community, while the evenness index and dominance index were not significantly different from the other tea plantations. The tea plantations with QM and XS had much richer natural enemies, and the order of the diversity index, evenness index, and richness index of natural enemies in the tea plantations ranked as QM > XS > DT > RJ. It was suggested that landscape patch structure had great effect on the diversity of arthropod community in tea plantations. PMID:24015548

Li, Jian-Long; Tang, Jin-Chi; Zhao, Chao-Yi; Tang, Hao; Li, Xiu-Di; Li, Hua-Shou

2013-05-01

342

Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.  

OpenAIRE

In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps- Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinida...

Hautier, L.; Jansen, J. -p; Mabon, N.; Schiffers, Bruno

2005-01-01

343

COMPARISON OF PITFALL TRAPS AND LITTER BAGS FOR SAMPLING GROUND-DWELLING ARTHROPODS  

Science.gov (United States)

For their simplicity and effectiveness, pitfall traps have become a standard technique to measure the activity and relative abundance of ground-dwelling arthropods. Permeable screen or mesh bags filled with plant material, referred to as litter bags, have also recently been employed as a complementa...

344

Arthropods (Acari, Mallophaga, Siphonaptera) collected from Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 9 specimens of Procyon lotor collected in vicinity of Dobroszyn and Górzyca (Lubuskie province) 61 arthropods of 6 species were obtained: Siphonaptera (one specimen), Acari (3 species), Phthiraptera (one specimen--Trichodectes octomaculatus; new species to fauna of Poland) and one specimen of Psocoptera. PMID:19579787

Haitlinger, Ryszard; ?upicki, Dariusz

2009-01-01

345

THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

2006-08-01

346

Natural products from forest resources for use as arthropod and fungal biocides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products from Pacific Northwest forest resources can offer alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides in the control of both arthropods of public health concern and forest fungal pathogens. Tree heartwood extracts with high toxicity (low LC50) in preliminary brine shrimp bioassays were...

347

Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Final Reclaimed Effluent  

OpenAIRE

Water samples collected throughout several reclamation facilities were analyzed for the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum by the focus detection method-most-probable-number cell culture technique. Results revealed the presence of infectious C. parvum oocysts in 40% of the final disinfected effluent samples. Sampled effluent contained on average seven infectious oocysts per 100 liters. Thus, reclaimed water is not pathogen free but contains infectious C. parvum.

Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Mclaughlin, Molly R.; Quintero-betancourt, Walter; Huffman, Debra E.; Rose, Joan B.

2003-01-01

348

Arthropod food web restoration following removal of an invasive wetland plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Restoration of habitats impacted by invasive plants is becoming an increasingly important tool in the management of native biodiversity, though most studies do not go beyond monitoring the abundance of particular taxonomic groups, such as the return of native vegetation. Yet, the reestablishment of trophic interactions among organisms in restored habitats is equally important if we are to monitor and understand how ecosystems recover. This study examined whether food web interactions among arthropods (as inferred by abundance of naturally occurring stable isotopes of C [delta13C] and N [delta15N]) were reestablished in the restoration of a coastal Spartina alterniflora salt marsh that had been invaded by Phragmites australis. From patterns of C and N stable isotopes we infer that trophic interactions among arthropods in the native salt marsh habitats are characterized by reliance on the dominant marsh plant Spartina as a basal resource. Herbivores such as delphacid planthoppers and mirid bugs have isotope signatures characteristic of Spartina, and predatory arthropods such as dolicopodid flies and spiders likewise have delta13C and delta15N signatures typical of Spartina-derived resources (approximately -13 per thousand and 10 per thousand, respectively). Stable isotope patterns also suggest that the invasion of Phragmites into salt marshes and displacement of Spartina significantly alter arthropod food web interactions. Arthropods in Phragmites-dominated sites have delta13C isotope values between -18 per thousand and -20 per thousand, suggesting reliance on detritus and/or benthic microalgae as basal resources and not on Phragmites, which has a delta13C approximately -26 per thousand. Since most Phragmites herbivores are either feeding internally or are rare transients from nearby Spartina, these resources do not provide significant prey resources for other arthropod consumers. Rather, predator isotope signatures in the invaded habitats indicate dependence on detritus/algae as basal resources instead of the dominant vegetation. The reestablishment of Spartina after removal of Phragmites, however, not only returned species assemblages typical of reference (uninvaded) Spartina, but stable isotope signatures suggest that the trophic interactions among the arthropods were also similar in reestablished habitats. Specifically, both herbivores and predators showed characteristic Spartina signatures, suggesting the return of the original grazer-based food web structure in the restored habitats. PMID:16711049

Gratton, Claudio; Denno, Robert F

2006-04-01

349

The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found. PMID:22208869

Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

2011-01-01

350

Immunolocalization of serotonin in Onychophora argues against segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Onychophora (velvet worms represent the most basal arthropod group and play a pivotal role in the current discussion on the evolution of nervous systems and segmentation in arthropods. Although there is a wealth of information on the immunolocalization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT in various euarthropods, as yet no comparable localization data are available for Onychophora. In order to understand how the onychophoran nervous system compares to that of other arthropods, we studied the distribution of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons and histological characteristics of ventral nerve cords in Metaperipatus blainvillei (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae and Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora, Peripatidae. Results We demonstrate that paired leg nerves are the only segmental structures associated with the onychophoran nerve cord. Although the median commissures and peripheral nerves show a repeated pattern, their arrangement is independent from body segments characterized by the position of legs and associated structures. Moreover, the somata of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons do not show any ordered arrangement in both species studied but are instead scattered throughout the entire length of each nerve cord. We observed neither a serially iterated nor a bilaterally symmetric pattern, which is in contrast to the strictly segmental arrangement of serotonergic neurons in other arthropods. Conclusion Our histological findings and immunolocalization experiments highlight the medullary organization of the onychophoran nerve cord and argue against segmental ganglia of the typical euarthropodan type being an ancestral feature of Onychophora. These results contradict a priori assumptions of segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods and, thus, weaken the traditional Articulata hypothesis, which proposes a sistergroup relationship of Annelida and Arthropoda.

Harzsch Steffen

2007-07-01

351

Winter predation by insectivorous birds and consequences for arthropods and plants in summer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Top-down effects of predators can have important consequences for ecosystems. Insectivorous birds frequently have strong predation effects on herbivores and other arthropods, as well as indirect effects on herbivores' host plants. Diet studies have shown that birds in temperate ecosystems consume arthropods in winter as well as in summer, but experimental studies of bird predation effects have not attempted to quantitatively separate winter predation impacts from those in summer. To understand if winter foraging by insectivorous birds has consequences for arthropods or plants, we performed a meta-analysis of published bird exclusion studies in temperate forest and shrubland habitats. We categorized 85 studies from 41 publications by whether birds were excluded year-round or only in summer, and analyzed arthropod and plant response variables. We also performed a manipulative field experiment in which we used a factorial design to exclude birds from Quercus velutina Lam. saplings in winter and summer, and censused arthropods and herbivore damage in the following growing season. In the meta-analysis, birds had stronger negative effects on herbivores in studies that included winter exclusion, and this effect was not due to study duration. However, this greater predation effect did not translate to a greater impact on plant damage or growth. In the field experiment, winter exclusion did not influence herbivore abundance or their impacts on plants. We have shown that winter feeding by temperate insectivorous birds can have important consequences for insect herbivore populations, but the strength of these effects may vary considerably among ecosystems. A full understanding of the ecological roles of insectivorous birds will require explicit consideration of their foraging in the non-growing season, and we make recommendations for how future studies can address this. PMID:22644051

Barber, Nicholas A; Wouk, Jennifer

2012-12-01

352

A spatial scale assessment of habitat effects on arthropod communities of an oceanic island  

Science.gov (United States)

Most habitats in the Azores have undergone substantial land-use changes and anthropogenic disturbance during the last six centuries. In this study we assessed how the richness, abundance and composition of arthropod communities change with: (1) habitat type and (2) the surrounding land-use at different spatial scales. The research was conducted in Terceira Island, Azores. In eighty-one sites of four different habitat types (natural and exotic forests, semi-natural and intensively managed pastures), epigaeic arthropods were captured with pitfall traps and classified as endemic, native or introduced. The land-use surrounding each site was characterized within a radius ranging from 100 to 5000 m. Non-parametric tests were used to identify differences in species richness, abundance and composition between habitat types at different spatial scales. Endemic and native species were more abundant in natural forests, while introduced species were more abundant in intensively managed pastures. Natural forests and intensively managed pastures influenced arthropod species richness and composition at all spatial scales. Exotic forests and semi-natural pastures, however, influenced the composition of arthropod communities at larger scales, promoting the connectivity of endemic and native species populations. Local species richness, abundance and composition of arthropod communities are mostly determined by the presence of nearby natural forests and/or intensively managed pastures. However, semi-natural pastures and exotic forests seem to play an important role as corridors between natural forests for both endemic and native species. Furthermore, exotic forests may serve as a refuge for some native species.

Cardoso, Pedro; Aranda, Silvia C.; Lobo, Jorge M.; Dinis, Francisco; Gaspar, Clara; Borges, Paulo A. V.

2009-09-01

353

Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so that eventually even communities of low-mobility species become connected. Furthermore, improving the design of green roofs (composition and configuration of vegetation and soil types) could enhance the ecological value, particularly for low-mobility species. PMID:24933819

Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

2014-04-01

354

Employing citizen science to study defoliation impacts on arthropod communities on tamarisk  

Science.gov (United States)

The invasive tamarisk tree is widespread across the southwestern landscape of the United States and has been dominant in regulated river reaches, outcompeting native vegetation and impacting trophic webs in riparian ecosystems. The changes in riparian habitat and recreation opportunities along southwestern rivers, like the San Juan River in Utah, led to the implementation of a biocontrol program in the form of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.). It is unknown what the long term effects on riparian ecosystems are as a result of the beetles' defoliation of tamarisk each summer. This study sought to identify the current arthropod community composition and abundance over one growing season on the San Juan River between Bluff and Mexican Hat, UT and second, to involve the public in this research through a citizen science component. I found that non-native insects, including the tamarisk leaf beetle, dominated the arboreal arthropod communities within the tamarisk and there are relatively few native arthropods residing in tamarisk throughout the summer season. Foliation levels (the quantity of leaves in the canopy of tamarisk) were inconclusive predictors of arthropod abundances but varied by species and by feeding guild. This may indicate that the defoliation of the tamarisk is not necessarily negatively impacting trophic interactions in tamarisk. I incorporated youth participants on educational river rafting trips to assist in data collection of arthropods from tamarisk trees as a way to educate and bring attention to the issue of invasive species in the Southwest. After completing my own citizen science project and after doing a literature review of other, similar citizen science projects, I found that striving for both rigorous scientific data and quality educational programming is challenging for a small scale project that does not target broad spatial, geographic, or temporal data. Citizen science project developers should clearly identify their objectives and spend time developing and evaluating both the data quality and the educational quality of citizen science programs to achieve credibility in both realms.

Kruse, Audrey L.

355

Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, ?-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

Nobuhiro Koyama

2012-12-01

356

Immune responses to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. Despite the extensive use of attenuated, and more recently recombinant, vaccines for the control of this disease, ILT continues to affect the intensive poultry industries worldwide. Innate and cell-mediated, rather than humoral immune responses, have been identified as responsible for protection against disease. This review examines the current understandings in innate and adaptive immune responses towards ILTV, as well as the role of ILTV glycoprotein G in modulating the host immune response towards infection. Protective immunity induced by ILT vaccines is also examined. The increasing availability of tools and reagents for the characterisation of avian innate and cell-mediated immune responses are expected to further our understanding of immunity against ILTV and drive the development of new generation vaccines towards enhanced control of this disease. PMID:23567343

Coppo, Mauricio J C; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

2013-11-01

357

Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases  

OpenAIRE

The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalov...

Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

2014-01-01

358

Decontaminating infectious laboratory waste by autoclaving.  

OpenAIRE

The temperature profile of infectious laboratory waste being autoclaved was examined relative to the type of containers used in the process. A standardized waste load (1,750 +/- 4 g) placed in the container was evaluated by using a direct readout thermocouple. The sensor of the thermocouple was placed within an unused and outdated agar plate, centrally located about 5 cm from the bottom of the container. The gravity displacement autoclave tested reached 121 degrees C within 3 min. Waste withi...

Lauer, J. L.; Battles, D. R.; Vesley, D.

1982-01-01

359

Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces  

OpenAIRE

Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prion...

Tamgu?ney, Gu?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; Dearmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2009-01-01

360

PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to test the pathogenic effect of six commercially available infectious bursal disease (IBD vaccines claimed to be intermediate in their pathogenicity. Three week old chickens were inoculated with these vaccines. The pathogenic effects of the IBD vaccines were evaluated by hemorrhages on the thigh and breast muscles, bursa weight to body weight ratio and virulence; two of the strain were found to be highly virulent; two others were moderate and two could be classified as mild.

Iftikhar Hussain, Atif Nisar Ahmad, M. Ashfaque, M.Shahid Mahmood and Masood Akhtar1

2001-09-01

361

Emerging Ranaviral Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Decline  

OpenAIRE

Infectious diseases caused by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) not only affect wild amphibian populations but also agriculture and international animal trade. Although, the prevalence of RV infections and die offs has markedly increased over the last decade, it is still unclear whether these viruses are direct causal agents of extinction or rather are the resulting (secondary) consequences of weakened health of amphibian populations leading to increased susceptibility to viral pathogens....

Jacques Robert

2010-01-01

362

Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease  

OpenAIRE

Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantige...

Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

2011-01-01

363

Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated celld. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous myositis, magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical manifestations may help in this respect.=20

364

Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

365

Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During one year, 1979-80, all the contacts between the 836 inhabitants of Upernavik town and the local medical officers were recorded. In the 737 native Greenlanders 1006 contacts (41%) were caused by infectious diseases, representing 705 episodes of disease. The number of contacts per episode of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted diseases, and 17% by other infections. Skin infections were most common in males, whereas all other infections were most common in females. The patterns of age specific contact rates were similar in males and females, except regarding "other infections". A peak of respiratory infections in July and of skin infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections and sexually transmitted diseases were notably more frequent in Upernavik.

Bjerregaard, P

1985-01-01

366

Joint infectious causation of human cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Joint infectious causation of cancer has been accepted in a few well-studied instances, including Burkitt's lymphoma and liver cancer. In general, evidence for the involvement of parasitic agents in oncogenesis has expanded, and recent advances in the application of molecular techniques have revealed specific mechanisms by which host cells are transformed. Many parasites evolve to circumvent immune-mediated detection and destruction and to control critical aspects of host cell reproduction and survival: cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and immortalization. The host has evolved tight regulation of these cellular processes-the control of each represents a barrier to cancer. These barriers need to be compromised for oncogenesis to occur. The abrogation of a barrier is therefore referred to as an essential cause of cancer. Alternatively, some aspects of cellular regulation restrain but do not block oncogenesis. Relaxation of a restraint is therefore referred to as an exacerbating cause of cancer. In this chapter, we explore past and current evidence for joint infectious causation of cancer in the context of essential and exacerbating causes. We stress that discovery of joint infectious causation may provide great improvements in controlling cancer, particularly through the identification of many additional nonhuman targets for synergistic interventions for prevention and treatment. PMID:24480312

Ewald, Paul W; Swain Ewald, Holly A

2014-01-01

367

Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

Gupta E

2009-01-01

368

Arthropods in Natural Communities in Mescal Agave (Agave durangensis Gentry in an Arid Zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The arthropods have a very important role in the arid zones due to their interactions with many organism and because they constituted an important element in the structure of the plant community. Nevertheless their importance there are few knowledge about the community of arthropods associated to vegetation in arid zones in the North of Mexico. The present study had the objective of determining the abundance, richness and diversity of arthropods in three localities where there are natural populations of mescal agave in the State of Durango, Mexico. Approach: In order to know the structure community of the arthropods associated to the mescal agave, we perform a sampling schedule during March 2008 to November 2010 by direct collection, using transects in three different localities with the presence of mescal agave. The relative abundance, species richness, Shannon’s diversity index, Pielou’s Index of evenness, Jaccard’s similitude and Simpson’s dominance indexes were determined. Results: A total of 4665 individual arthropods associated to mescal agave corresponding to 39 species were found. El Mezquital had the highest abundance and relative abundance (44.1% with 29 species. The mean species abundance was not significantly different between localities using Turkey’s test. The highest density per unit of area was found in El Mezquital (La Brena had the highest species diversity (1.89, evenness (0.61 and dominance (0.78. At the taxon level, Hymenoptera had the highest number of species represented (14, followed by Coleoptera (9 and hemiptera (5, with the remaining taxons with four, two and one species each. Conclusion: The greatest similitude was observed between La Brena and El Mezquital (46% which shared seven taxons, while the least similitude was observed between El Venado and La Brena (29%. Dominance/diversity curves are presented for each locality. The species Caulotops sp., Acutaspis agavis, Chilorus sp., Scyphophorus acupunctatus and Peltophorus polymitus were the ones with highest relative abundance. Although the diversity values are above the minimum, previously unreported arthropod species associated to mescal agave were recorded. The results can be useful to know the dynamic in the community associated to agave, in order to development best conservation and exploit management of that important plant.

Maria P. Gonzalez-Castillo

2011-01-01

369

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed.

Crossley, Jr, D A

1980-08-01

370

Antimicrobial Human ?-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human ?-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of ?-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of ?-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters ?-defensin production. However, the role of ?-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of ?-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of ?-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes.

Eduardo R. Cobo

2013-03-01

371

Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment  

OpenAIRE

There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt t...

Sze?na?si, A?gnes; Pa?linka?s, Zolta?n; Zalai, Miha?ly; Schmitz, Oswald J.; Balog, Adalbert

2014-01-01

372

Tracking the sources of blood meals of parasitic arthropods using shotgun proteomics and unidentified tandem mass spectral libraries  

OpenAIRE

Identifying the species on which hematophagous arthropods feed is crucial for studying the factors that affect pathogen distributions and that can aid public health. Here we describe a protocol to identify the species a parasitic arthropod has previously fed upon by identifying the source of the remnants of a previous blood meal via shotgun proteomics and spectral matching. The protocol is a nontargeted approach that uses the entire detected blood proteome for source identification; it does n...

O?nder, O?zlem; Shao, Wenguang; Lam, Henry; Brisson, Dustin

2014-01-01

373

Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are necrophagous, and will also possibly colonize human cadaver, and potentially be useful in assisting in estimates of PMI in future forensic cases in Malaysia. PMID:24189678

Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

2013-09-01

374

Appendage development and early Distal-less regulation in arthropods: A study of the chelicerate Tetranychus urticae (Acarida)  

OpenAIRE

A major goal of evolutionary developmental biology is to explore mechanisms and events underlying evolution of the myriad body plan morphologies expressed both genetically and phenotypically within the animal kingdom. Arthropods exhibit an astounding array of morphological diversity both within and between representative sub-phyla, thus providing an ideal phylum through which to address questions of body plan innovation and diversification. Major arthropod groups are recognised and defined by...

Cyrus-kent, Chloe?

2007-01-01

375

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Benefits a Non-Vector Arthropod, Tetranychus Urticae, by Modulating Different Plant Responses in Tomato  

OpenAIRE

The interaction between plant viruses and non-vector arthropod herbivores is poorly understood. However, there is accumulating evidence that plant viruses can impact fitness of non-vector herbivores. In this study, we used oligonucleotide microarrays, phytohormone, and total free amino acid analyses to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and a non-vector arthropod, twospotted spider mite (Tetranychusurticae), on tomato plan...

Nachappa, Punya; Margolies, David C.; Nechols, James R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Rotenberg, Dorith

2013-01-01

376

[Infectious endocarditis complicated with preoperative infectious intracranial aneurysm;report of a case].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 44-year-old man was admitted with the diagnosis of active infective endocarditis( IE) due to Streptococcus mitis, complicated with infectious intracranial aneurysm. Preoperative echocardiography showed mobile vegetation on the mitral leaflet, size of which was 20 mm. The magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) demonstrated that the size of aneurysm was increasing, and infectious intracranial aneurysm was treated surgically. Twenty one days after the operation, the mitral valve plasty was performed. He was discharged on foot without any neurological findings. The duration between the brain surgery and the cardiac surgery was thought to be important to prevent the new neurological complication. PMID:25743362

Ezure, Masahiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Chieri; Okada, Shuichi; Okonogi, Shuichi; Takihara, Hitomi; Naito, Noritsugu

2015-02-01

377

Conservation of arthropod midline netrin accumulation revealed with a cross-reactive antibody provides evidence for midline cell homology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. However, data from additional species are needed to test this hypothesis. In this investigation, nerve cord formation and the putative homology of midline cells were examined in distantly related arthropods, including: long- and short-germ insects (D. melanogaster, Aedes aeygypti, and Tribolium castaneum), branchiopod crustaceans (A. franciscana and Triops longicauditus), and malacostracan crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and Parhyale hawaiensis). These comparative analyses were aided by a cross-reactive antibody generated against the Netrin (Net) protein, a midline cell marker and regulator of axonogenesis. The mechanism of nerve cord formation observed in Artemia is found in Triops, another branchiopod, but is not found in the other arthropods examined. Despite divergent mechanisms of midline cell formation and nerve cord development, Net accumulation is detected in a well-conserved subset of midline cells in branchiopod crustaceans, malacostracan crustaceans, and insects. Notably, the Net accumulation pattern is also conserved at the midline of the amphipod P. hawaiensis, which undergoes split germ-band development. Conserved Net accumulation patterns indicate that arthropod midline cells are homologous, and that Nets function to regulate commissure formation during CNS development of Tetraconata. PMID:19469853

Simanton, Wendy; Clark, Stephanie; Clemons, Anthony; Jacowski, Caitlin; Farrell-VanZomeren, Adrienne; Beach, Paul; Browne, William E; Duman-Scheel, Molly

2009-01-01

378

Cysteine-Free Proteins in the Immunobiology of Arthropod-Borne Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One approach to identify epitopes that could be used in the design of vaccines to control several arthropod-borne diseases simultaneously is to look for common structural features in the secretome of the pathogens that cause them. Using a novel bioinformatics technique, cysteine-abundance and distribution analysis, we found that many different proteins secreted by several arthropod-borne pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and eight species of Proteobacteria, are devoid of cysteine residues. The identification of three cysteine-abundance and distribution patterns in several families of proteins secreted by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Proteobacteria, and not found when the amino acid analyzed was tryptophan, provides evidence of forces restricting the content of cysteine residues in microbial proteins during evolution. We discuss these findings in the context of protein structure and function, antigenicity and immunogenicity, and host-parasite relationships.

J. Santiago Mejia

2010-01-01

379

Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata  

OpenAIRE

Background: The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Dros...

Sharma, Prashant P.; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Extavour, Cassandra G.

2014-01-01

380

ASGARD: An Open-Access Database of Annotated Transcriptomes for Emerging Model Arthropod Species  

OpenAIRE

The increased throughput and decreased cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have shifted the bottleneck genomic research from sequencing to annotation, analysis and accessibility. This is particularly challenging for research communities working on organisms that lack the basic infrastructure of a sequenced genome, or an efficient way to utilize whatever sequence data may be available. Here we present a new database, the Assembled Searchable Giant Arthropod Read Database (ASGARD). This da...

Extavour, Cassandra G.; Zeng, Victor

2012-01-01

381

Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: Evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins  

OpenAIRE

Cryptocyanin, a copper-free hexameric protein in crab (Cancer magister) hemolymph, has been characterized and the amino acid sequence has been deduced from its cDNA. It is markedly similar in sequence, size, and structure to hemocyanin, the copper-containing oxygen-transport protein found in many arthropods. Cryptocyanin does not bind oxygen, however, and lacks three of the six highly conserved copper-binding histidine residues of hemocyanin. Cryptocyanin has no phenoloxidase activity, althou...

Terwilliger, Nora B.; Dangott, Lawrence; Ryan, Margaret

1999-01-01

382

Molecular Basis of the Bohr Effect in Arthropod Hemocyanin*S?  

OpenAIRE

Flash photolysis and K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were used to investigate the functional and structural effects of pH on the oxygen affinity of three homologous arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs). Flash photolysis measurements showed that the well-characterized pH dependence of oxygen affinity (Bohr effect) is attributable to changes in the oxygen binding rate constant, kon, rather than changes in koff. In parallel, coordination geometry of copper in Hc was evalua...

Hirota, Shun; Kawahara, Takumi; Beltramini, Mariano; Di Muro, Paolo; Magliozzo, Richard S.; Peisach, Jack; Powers, Linda S.; Tanaka, Naoki; Nagao, Satoshi; Bubacco, Luigi

2008-01-01

383

Species richness-environment relationships of European arthropods at two spatial grains: habitats and countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study how species richness of arthropods relates to theories concerning net primary productivity, ambient energy, water-energy dynamics and spatial environmental heterogeneity. We use two datasets of arthropod richness with similar spatial extents (Scandinavia to Mediterranean), but contrasting spatial grain (local habitat and country). Samples of ground-dwelling spiders, beetles, bugs and ants were collected from 32 paired habitats at 16 locations across Europe. Species richness of these taxonomic groups was also determined for 25 European countries based on the Fauna Europaea database. We tested effects of net primary productivity (NPP), annual mean temperature (T), annual rainfall (R) and potential evapotranspiration of the coldest month (PET(min)) on species richness and turnover. Spatial environmental heterogeneity within countries was considered by including the ranges of NPP, T, R and PET(min). At the local habitat grain, relationships between species richness and environmental variables differed strongly between taxa and trophic groups. However, species turnover across locations was strongly correlated with differences in T. At the country grain, species richness was significantly correlated with environmental variables from all four theories. In particular, species richness within countries increased strongly with spatial heterogeneity in T. The importance of spatial heterogeneity in T for both species turnover across locations and for species richness within countries suggests that the temperature niche is an important determinant of arthropod diversity. We suggest that, unless climatic heterogeneity is constant across sampling units, coarse-grained studies should always account for environmental heterogeneity as a predictor of arthropod species richness, just as studies with variable area of sampling units routinely consider area. PMID:23029288

Entling, Martin H; Schweiger, Oliver; Bacher, Sven; Espadaler, Xavier; Hickler, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Woodcock, Ben A; Nentwig, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

384

Estimating ecotoxicological effects of pesticide drift on nontarget arthropods in field hedgerows.  

Science.gov (United States)

When hedgerows grow in orchards where pesticides are applied, they can play a double role: Providing a barrier for chemical spray drift and as a refuge for beneficial arthropods such as pollinators and predators. Effectiveness of hedgerows as barriers to drift depends mainly on canopy density (that can be estimated through optical porosity) and wind speed. When optical porosity is low, the hedgerow can intercept a significant amount of spray drift and act as an effective barrier, but the intercepted pesticide can negatively affect the beneficial arthropods living there. A drift model was used to simulate drift in a hedgerow- vineyard system, and a deposition distribution model was used to calculate the pesticide spatial pattern distribution on a hedgerow with different optical porosity and wind speed conditions. The possible ecotoxicological effects were estimated for 28 active ingredients with different median lethal rates for two nontarget arthropods, Aphidius rhopalosiphi and Typhlodromus pyri. A spatialized risk assessment for a hedgerow is suggested to improve procedures based on application rate, standard drift, and vegetation distribution values, as in the hazard quotient approach. An alternative method for calculation of the exposure is also proposed, with a step-by-step example of a toxicity/exposure ratio calculation. The results highlighted the importance of the spatial pattern of drift and proved that a hedgerow can be an effective barrier against spray drift. Analysis of the toxicity/exposure ratio values showed that a hedgerow can continue its shelter and feeding function for nontarget arthropods when low-toxicity pesticides are used, there is no significant wind interference, or both. PMID:19391688

Otto, Stefan; Lazzaro, Luca; Finizio, Antonio; Zanin, Giuseppe

2009-04-01

385

Yersinia-flea interactions and the evolution of the arthropod-borne transmission route of plague  

OpenAIRE

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is unique among the enteric group of Gram-negative bacteria in relying on a blood-feeding insect for transmission. The Yersinia-flea interactions that enable plague transmission cycles have had profound historical consequences as manifested by human plague pandemics. The arthropod-borne transmission route was a radical ecologic change from the food- and water-borne transmission route of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, from which Y. pestis diverged ...

Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

2012-01-01

386

The value of urban vacant land to support arthropod biodiversity and ecosystem services.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expansion of urban areas is occurring globally, but not all city neighborhoods are gaining population. Because of economic decline and the recent foreclosure crisis, many U.S. cities are demolishing abandoned residential structures to create parcels of vacant land. In some cities, weak housing markets have, or will likely, recover in the near term, and these parcels will be redeveloped. However, in other cities, large numbers of abandoned parcels have no significant market value and no likelihood of near-term redevelopment. The creation of these vacated green spaces could offer opportunities to preserve declining species, restore ecosystem functions, and support diverse ecosystem services. Arthropods are an important indicator of the ability of urban vacant land to serve multiple functions, from conservation to food production. Across Europe, vacant lands have been found to support a diversity of rare species, and similar examinations of arthropods within this habitat are underway in the United States. In addition, using vacant land as a resource for local food production is growing rapidly worldwide. Arthropods play key roles in the sustainability of food production in cities, and land conversion to farming has been found to influence their community composition and function. A greater focus on quantifying the current ecological value of vacant land and further assessment of how changes in its ecosystem management affect biodiversity and ecosystem processes is clearly needed. Herein, we specifically focus on the role of arthropods in addressing these priorities to advance our ecological understanding of the functional role of vacant land habitats in cities. PMID:24468552

Gardiner, Mary M; Burkman, Caitlin E; Prajzner, Scott P

2013-12-01

387

The impact of high-altitude ski pistes on ground-dwelling arthropods in the Alps  

OpenAIRE

The development of winter sport resorts above the timberline may affect every ecosystem component. We analyzed the effect of ski-pistes on the abundance and species richness of arthropods (namely carabids, spiders, opilionids, and grasshoppers) trapped in grasslands adjacent to the ski-run, on ski-pistes and at the edge between these two habitat types. Our results showed that diversity of brachypterous carabids, spiders, and grasshoppers decreased significantly from natural grasslands to ski-...

Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia; Negro, Matteo; Isaia, Marco

2010-01-01

388

Crystallographic Texture of the Arthropod Cuticle Using Synchrotron Wide AngleX-ray diffraction  

OpenAIRE

Arthropods, which include the crustaceans (e.g. crabs, lobsters, isopods), insects, arachnids (e.g. spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites), and several lesser groups, account for approximately 80 percent of all known animal species. The outer covering of these animals is referred to as exoskeleton or cuticle, and it covers the entire body of the animal. It has remarkable mechanical properties which provide structural support to the body, armor against loads that are externally imposed by predators...

Al-sawalmih, Ali

2006-01-01

389

Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The remarkable antiquity, diversity and ecological significance of arthropods have inspired numerous attempts to resolve their deep phylogenetic history, but the results of two decades of intensive molecular phylogenetics have been mixed. The discovery that terrestrial insects (Hexapoda) are more closely related to aquatic Crustacea than to the terrestrial centipedes and millipedes (Myriapoda) was an early, if exceptional, success. More typically, analyses based on limited samples of taxa and genes have generated results that are inconsistent, weakly supported and highly sensitive to analytical conditions. Here we present strongly supported results from likelihood, Bayesian and parsimony analyses of over 41 kilobases of aligned DNA sequence from 62 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from 75 arthropod species. These species represent every major arthropod lineage, plus five species of tardigrades and onychophorans as outgroups. Our results strongly support Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) but also strongly favour the traditional morphology-based Mandibulata (Myriapoda plus Pancrustacea) over the molecule-based Paradoxopoda (Myriapoda plus Chelicerata). In addition to Hexapoda, Pancrustacea includes three major extant lineages of 'crustaceans', each spanning a significant range of morphological disparity. These are Oligostraca (ostracods, mystacocarids, branchiurans and pentastomids), Vericrustacea (malacostracans, thecostracans, copepods and branchiopods) and Xenocarida (cephalocarids and remipedes). Finally, within Pancrustacea we identify Xenocarida as the long-sought sister group to the Hexapoda, a result confirming that 'crustaceans' are not monophyletic. These results provide a statistically well-supported phylogenetic framework for the largest animal phylum and represent a step towards ending the often-heated, century-long debate on arthropod relationships. PMID:20147900

Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Zwick, Andreas; Hussey, April; Ball, Bernard; Wetzer, Regina; Martin, Joel W; Cunningham, Clifford W

2010-02-25

390

Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

2013-04-01

391

Linking plant composition and arthropod abundance to establish little bustard breeding requirements in pastureland dominated landscapes  

OpenAIRE

Most research on steppe bird habitat selection has been focused on the effects of management regimes or vegetation structure. However, much less is known on how plant composition is related with steppe bird occurrence. We investigated microhabitat of little bustard territorial males and females during the nesting and chick-rearing season in areas with dominance of pastureland focusing on plant composition. We searched for relationships between preferred vegetation and arthropod abundance in o...

Faria, Nuno; Rabac?a, Joa?o E.; Morales, Manuel B.

2012-01-01

392

RNAi in Arthropods: Insight into the Machinery and Applications for Understanding the Pathogen-Vector Interface  

OpenAIRE

The availability of genome sequencing data in combination with knowledge of expressed genes via transcriptome and proteome data has greatly advanced our understanding of arthropod vectors of disease. Not only have we gained insight into vector biology, but also into their respective vector-pathogen interactions. By combining the strengths of postgenomic databases and reverse genetic approaches such as RNAi, the numbers of available drug and vaccine targets, as well as number of transgenes for...

Christian Stutzer; Christine Maritz-Olivier; Nijhof, Ard M.; Wilma Fick; Annette-Christi Barnard

2012-01-01

393

Response of Green Peach Aphids and Other Arthropods to Garlic Intercropped with Tobacco  

OpenAIRE

The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is an insect pest that causes extensive damage to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in China. Field trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Longyan in the Fujian Province (China) to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a deterrent to green peach aphids and other arthropods when intercropped in flue-cured tobacco fields. This study demonstrated that green peach aphids were affected by intercropping garlic in tobacco fields during ...

Lai, R.; You, M.; Lotz, L. A. P.; Vasseur, L.

2011-01-01

394

The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert  

OpenAIRE

Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habi...

Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

2013-01-01

395

A spatial scale assessment of habitat effects on arthropod communities of an oceanic island  

OpenAIRE

Most habitats in the Azores have undergone substantial land-use changes and anthropogenic disturbance during the last six centuries. In this study we assessed how the richness, abundance and composition of arthropod communities change with: (1) habitat type and (2) the surrounding land-use at different spatial scales. The research was conducted in Terceira Island, Azores. In eighty-one sites of four different habitat types (natural and exotic forests, semi-natural and intensively managed past...

Cardoso, Pedro; Aranda, Silvia C.; Lobo, Jorge M.; Dinis, Francisco; Gaspar, Clara; Borges, Paulo A. V.

2009-01-01

396

Contributions to the terrestrial Arthropod fauna of the Corvo island (Azores)  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a summary of the Arthropods from Corvo Island. Collections and/or observations were made in July and October 1993. The insects, which comprised most of the material, were found associated with their hosts. The list of records includes 44 species, belonging to 13 orders and 31 families. Some species of the orders Homoptera (3), Coleoptera (6), Lepidoptera (16) and Hymenoptera (3) are new confirmed records for this island.

Vieira, Virgi?lio

1994-01-01

397

Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs  

OpenAIRE

A remarkable diversity of bioactive lipophilic alkaloids is present in the skin of poison frogs and toads worldwide. Originally discovered in neotropical dendrobatid frogs, these alkaloids are now known from mantellid frogs of Madagascar, certain myobatrachid frogs of Australia, and certain bufonid toads of South America. Presumably serving as a passive chemical defense, these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from a variety of alkaloid-containing arthropods. The pumiliotoxins represent a ma...

Saporito, Ralph A.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Donnelly, Maureen A.; Edwards, Adam L.; Longino, John T.; Daly, John W.

2004-01-01

398

Significance of terpenoids in induced indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods  

OpenAIRE

Many plants respond to herbivory by arthropods with an induced emission of volatiles such as green leaf volatiles and terpenoids. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can attract carnivores, for example, predators and parasitoids. We investigated the significance of terpenoids in attracting herbivores and carnivores in two tritrophic systems where we manipulated the terpenoid emission by treating the plants with fosmidomycin, which inhibits one of the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway...

Mumm, R.; Posthumus, M. A.; Dicke, M.

2008-01-01

399

Speculations on biting midges and other bloodsucking arthropods as alternative vectors of Leishmania  

OpenAIRE

Sand flies remain the only proven vectors of Leishmania spp. but recent implementation of PCR techniques has led to increasing speculation about "alternative vectors", including biting midges. Here, we summarize that PCR has considerable limits for studing the role of bloodsucking arthropods in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. The Leishmania life cycle in the sand fly includes a complex series of interactions which are in many cases species-specific, the early phase of the infection is, how...

Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Carpenter, Simon; Volf, Petr

2014-01-01

400

The Macaronesian province: patterns of species richness and endemism of arthropods  

OpenAIRE

"[…]. The Macaronesian arthropod fauna displays a number of characteristics typical of oceanic islands, including a high degree of endemism, ranging from 19% for the Azores (Borges et al., 2005a), to 28% for Madeira (Borges et al., 2008a), 30% for Cape Verde (Arechavaleta etal., 2005) and 45% for the Canary Islands (Izquierdo et al., 2004; see Table I). The preponderance of endemic species has made the Macaronesian islands an outstanding area for studies of evolution and speciation, and art...

Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hortal, Joaqui?n; Whittaker, Robert J.

2010-01-01

401

Phylogenetic analysis of arthropods using two nuclear protein-encoding genes supports a crustacean + hexapod clade.  

OpenAIRE

Recent phylogenetic analyses using molecular data suggest that hexapods are more closely related to crustaceans than to myriapods, a result that conflicts with long-held morphology-based hypotheses. Here we contribute additional information to this debate by conducting phylogenetic analyses on two nuclear protein-encoding genes, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), from an extensive sample of arthropod taxa. Results were obtained from t...

Shultz, J. W.; Regier, J. C.

2000-01-01

402

The Four Phases of Plant-Arthropod Associations in Deep Time  

OpenAIRE

Vascular-plant hosts, their arthropod herbivores, and associated functional feeding groups are distributed spatiotemporally into four major herbivore expansions during the past 420 m.y. They are: (1) a Late Silurian to Late Devonian (60 m.y.) phase of myriapod and apterygote, hexapod (perhaps pterygote) herbivores on several clades of primitive vascular-plant hosts and a prototaxale