WorldWideScience

Sample records for arthropod vector-borne infectious

  1. Surveillance of Arthropod Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases Using Remote Sensing Techniques: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availabi...

  2. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Surendran Sinnathamby N; Ramasamy Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to clim...

  3. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly significant in resource-poor countries in the tropics and semi-tropics. Some measures to meet this threat are outlined.

  4. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  5. Ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Lance A; Polur, Ram N; Nims, Todd; Banks, Craig W; Oliver, James H

    2004-12-01

    Ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus (Le Conte)) and golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan)), in southern Georgia from 1992 to 2003. Because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these pathogens. Cotton mice (n = 202) were parasitized by 19 species of arthropods, whereas golden mice (n = 46) were parasitized by 12 species. Eleven species of arthropods were recovered from both host species, whereas 7 were recorded only from cotton mice, and 1 species only from golden mice. Infestation prevalences (percent of mice parasitized) were significantly higher for 1 species of arthropod (the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) infesting cotton mice and for 4 species (the flea Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox and the mites Glycyphagus hypudaei Koch, Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese), and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese)) infesting golden mice. Mean intensities (mean per infested mouse) were significantly higher for 2 species (the flea Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis Say) infesting cotton mice and for 2 species (G. hypudaei and A. fahrenholzi) infesting golden mice. Ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens were significantly more common on cotton mice than on golden mice. These ectoparasites included the rhopalopsyllid flea Polygenis gwyni (Fox), a vector of the agent of murine typhus; I. scapularis, the principal vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis; and O. bacoti, a laboratory vector of several zoonotic pathogens. However, 2 species of ixodid ticks that can transmit zoonotic pathogens were recovered from both host species. These were the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the principal vector of the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern North America, and Ixodes minor Neumann, an enzootic vector of the agent of Lyme borreliosis. Overall, the cotton mouse was parasitized by significantly more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens than was the golden mouse. These data support the hypothesis that the cotton mouse has greater epidemiological importance for zoonotic vector-borne pathogen transmission than does the golden mouse. PMID:15715219

  6. Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey Artsob

    This online encyclopedia article discusses vector-borne diseases. It defines vectors as the transmitters of disease-causing organisms that carry the pathogens from one host to another. The article reviews the biological range of vectors, the transmission and types of vector-borne diseases, patterns of occurrence and existing control measures.

  7. Vector-borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  8. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ti...

  9. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  10. Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Margaletic?, Phd; Lidija Cvetko Krajinovic?, Bsc; Alemka Markotic?, Md; Nenad Turk, Dvm; Marica Miletic?-medved, Md; Ljiljana Z?mak, Md; Mateja Jankovic?, Md; Ivan-christian Kurolt, Bsc; Silvija S?oprek, Md; Oktavija Ðakovic? Rode, Md; Zoran Milas, Dvm; Ivan Puljiz, Md; Dragan Ledina, Md; Mirsada Hukic?, Md; Ilija Kuzman, Md

    2009-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID) are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clini...

  11. Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, demographic and societal changes, and genetic changes in pathogens. Effective prevention strategies can reverse this trend. Research on vaccines, environmentally safe insecticides, alternative approaches to vector control, and training programs for health-care workers are needed.

  12. Emerging Vector-borne Diseases in a Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    O?zer, Nurdan

    2005-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, demographic and societal changes, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, genetic changes in pathogens in the last two decades of the twentieth century. Climate changes also can influence the emergence and reemergence of these diseases which are malaria, dengue, yellow fever, plague, filariasis, louse-borne typhus, lyme disease, trypanoso...

  13. The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Day Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although signif...

  14. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  15. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting control. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan-11

  16. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases...

  17. The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis. The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

  18. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network. The framework built provides a flexible and robust informatics infrastructure by separating the modules of functionality through an ontological model for vector-borne disease. The VBD?AIR tool is designed as an evidence base for visualizing the risks of vector-borne disease by air travel for a wide range of users, including planners and decisions makers based in state and local government, and in particular, those at international and domestic airports tasked with planning for health risks and allocating limited resources.

  19. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall pattern are likely to facilitate the spread and establishment of new vector borne diseases in the Baltic See Region. There are a large number of potential vector borne threats to the area. Existing endemic vector borne diseases are likely to increase and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European outbreaks of important zoonotic mosquito borne infections like Rift Valley Fever in cattle and Japanese Encephalitis in swine. Being able to model the impact of climate and environmental change on the transmission intensity of vector borne diseases is potentially a powerful tool to both monitor and prevent outbreaks in a cost effective way. The recent unexpected outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus in ruminants have been attributed an increase in European temperatures. Mathematical models clearly demonstratethe potential for increased virus transmission at elevated temperatures. however there is little evidence to support the idea that the spread of these tropical viruses in northern Europe is the direct result of climate change. The potential for virus transmission by biting midges was here modeled monthly for the Baltic See Region and the rest of Europe. The results showed that Baltic See Region has a lower transmission potential than most other areas in Europe. And the model identified an increasing trend in transmission potential over the last 25 years. However the model suggested that the climate in the Baltic See Region has always permitted transmission of these diseases. The model therefore suggests that a presently unknown factor until recently prevented introduction and spread in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models to pinpoint the next outbreak of an exotic vector borne disease. A new outbreak will most likely be detected by a veterinarian deciding to submit a sample based on a subjective clinical suspicion. But the question is how far the epidemic will progress before a veterinarian decides to submit this crucial sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones, thus allowing easy access to risk estimates when in the field. Knowing when and where the potential risk for transmission of a specific vector borne disease is high is likely to help veterinarians decide when and when not to submit a sample to a diagnostic laboratory. This may both increase sensitivity of national surveillance and reduce the cost.

  20. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may increase Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10/26

  1. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

  2. Molecular study on selected vector-borne infections in urban stray colony cats in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Perego, Roberta; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2014-08-01

    Feline vector-borne diseases can be caused by a range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. Many of these infections have zoonotic implications, and stray cats are potential sentinels for human and pet health. This study investigated the prevalence of selected vector-borne infections in stray colony cats in Milan. Blood samples from 260 stray cats were evaluated, using conventional polymerase chain reaction tests (cPCRs), for the presence of DNA associated with Rickettsia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia species. Positive cPCR results occurred in 127/260 subjects (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 40.7-58.1), with a prevalence of 31.9% (83/260, 95% CI = 25.4-39.6) for Rickettsia species, 17.7% (46/260, 95% CI= 13.0-23.6) for A phagocytophilum, and 5.4% (14/260, 95% CI = 2.9-9.0) for Ehrlichia species. There was no statistical association between a positive PCR test for vector-borne infections surveyed and colony location, age, gender, body condition score or complete blood count abnormalities, nor feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus or Toxoplasma gondii status. The only variable linked to positive PCR results was detection of signs of ocular infection and PCR positivity for Rickettsia species (P = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.4, P = 0.02). There is a significant prevalence of vector-borne infections with zoonotic potential in urban stray cats in Milan. Thus, dogs and pet cats with outdoor access should be monitored and treated for ectoparasites on a regular basis to minimise risks of disease and the potential transmission of zoonotic agents to people. PMID:24319060

  3. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

  4. Paratransgenic control of vector borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Ivy; Fieck, Annabeth; Read, Amber; Hillesland, Heidi; Klein, Nichole; Kang, Angray; Durvasula, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes. PMID:22110385

  5. Risk assessment framework for emerging vector-borne livestock diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, C. J.; Hoek, M. R.; Fischer, E. A. J.; Koeijer, A. A.; Bremmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a framework for risk assessment of introduction, establishment, spread and persistence of vector-borne livestock diseases by integrating the essential elements of different approaches. This framework will help risk analysts to assess the risk of vector-borne diseases, considering both likelihood of occurrence and potential impact to inform stakeholders on behalf of their decision making.

  6. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases – Incidence through Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Savic?, Sara; Vidic?, Branka; Grgic?, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same pla...

  7. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector - borne pathogens * vector - borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

  8. Vectors and vector-borne diseases of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onmaz, A C; Beutel, R G; Schneeberg, K; Pavaloiu, A N; Komarek, A; van den Hoven, R

    2013-03-01

    Most diseases of horses with zoonotic importance are transmitted by arthropods. The vectors belong to two very distantly related groups, the chelicerate Ixodidae (Acari = ticks) and the hexapod Diptera (true flies). Almost all relevant species are predestined for transmitting pathogens by their blood-sucking habits. Especially species of Diptera, one of the megadiverse orders of holometabolan insects (ca. 150.000 spp.), affect the health status and performance of horses during the grazing period in summer. The severity of pathological effect depends on the pathogen, but also on the group of vectors and the intensity of the infection or infestation. Dipteran species but also blood-sucking representatives of Acari (Ixodidae) can damage their hosts by sucking blood, causing myiasis, allergy, paralysis and intoxication, and also transmit various bacterial, viral, parasitic, spirochetal and rickettsial diseases to animals and also humans. The aim of this review was to provide extensive information on the infectious diseases transmitted by members of the two arthropod lineages (Ixodidae, Diptera) and a systematic overview of the vectors. For each taxon, usually on the ordinal, family, and genus level a short characterisation is given, allowing non-entomologists easy identification. Additionally, the biology of the relevant species (or genera) is outlined briefly. PMID:23054414

  9. A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

  10. Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Meli, Marina L; Dreher, Ute M; Gönczi, Enikö; Deplazes, Peter; Braun, Ueli; Engels, Monika; Schüpbach, Jörg; Jörger, Kaspar; Thoma, Rudolf; Griot, Christian; Stärk, Katharina D C; Willi, Barbara; Schmidt, Joseph; Kocan, Katherine M; Lutz, Hans

    2004-08-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease. This was the first severe disease outbreak associated with concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens in alpine Switzerland; it was presumably curtailed by culling of the entire herd. It remains to be seen whether similar disease outbreaks will have to be anticipated in northern Europe in the future. PMID:15297529

  11. Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherst, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes ar...

  12. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Otranto Domenico; Dantas-Torres Filipe; Brianti Emanuele; Traversa Donato; Petri? Dusan; Genchi Claudio; Capelli Gioia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic area...

  13. Global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    RubénBueno-Marí; RicardoJiménez-Peydró

    2013-01-01

    Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes ar...

  14. Impact of climate change in the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in domestic carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, F; Chalvet-Monfray, K

    2013-12-01

    Vector-borne diseases are medically important in humans and animals but were long considered tropical and known to first affect production animals. This is no longer true and we can see today that they are common in domestic animals and that they are also present in temperate countries, especially in Europe. In recent years, an increase in the diagnosis of vector borne diseases among humans and animals has been observed, which may partly due to the development of diagnostic tools. Their study requires exchanges and collaborations between the many actors involved, especially since the epidemiology seems to be constantly evolving. The veterinary practitioner is the first one to notice the emergence of cases and to implement prevention measures. He also acts as a sentinel to alert epidemiologists. Many factors can explain the epidemiological changes, i.e. all human factors, such as the increase in commercial transportation, but also owners traveling with their pet during the holidays, the development of "outdoor" activities, the increase of individual housings with gardens; to these human factors must be added the ignorance of the risks, linked to animals in general and to wildlife in particular; then the environmental changes: forest fragmentation, establishment of parks; the increase of wild mammal populations (deer, carnivores, rodents, etc.); finally, climate changes. Climate change is a reality which may explain the increase of density of arthropod vectors, but also of their hosts, changes in periods of activity and variations in geographical distribution. The authors show the proof of the climate modifications and then explain how it has an impact in Europe on ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and even fleas. They conclude on the practical consequences for veterinary practitioners, especially with the diagnosis of parasitic diseases or diseases in areas where they usually do not occur. However, not any epidemiological modification should be linked to climate change, since many other factors are involved and often even overriding. PMID:23953958

  15. Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzag, Naouelle; Petit, Elisabeth; Gandoin, Christelle; Bouillin, Corinne; Ghalmi, Farida; Haddad, Nadia; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2015-02-01

    Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indicates that 17.8% of the 213 analyzed dogs were positive for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma with a prevalence of 4.2% for E. canis, 14.1% for Anaplama platys and 0% for A. phagocytophilum. Seven (7.1%) of the tested dogs were positive for Bartonella spp. with two characterized as Bartonella rochalimae, four as B. henselae and one as B.v. subsp. berkhoffii. PMID:25638478

  16. Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birgit; BØdker, Rene

    The distribution of vector species is generally restricted by a range of different climatic and geographical factors, while the development and spread of the vector-borne diseases (veterinary and zoonotic) is often primarily temperature driven. Thus temperature and its derivatives are key factors in the modelling of vector-borne diseases. This puts a high demand on the quality and accuracy of the temperature data to be used as input in such models. In order to best capture the local temporal and spatial variation in the temperature surfaces, accurate daily temperature data were used in the present project. Temperature data for a 30 year period (1980-2009) were obtained directly from the Meteorological stations in the five Nordic countries. The temperature data consisted of daily min and max measurements from 200 climate stations, adding up to more than two million measurements. Temperature point-data were interpolated to daily climate surfaces, using a squared IDW method. In the absence of a more local lapse rate the generally accepted lapse rate of -0.006 C?/m was used to account for the relationship between temperature and altitude. The interpolation was carried out on temperatures at sea-level and subsequently adjusted for the altitude. As a spherical adjustment, the min and max temperature was interpolated on a grid with a spherical surface geometry. This ensures a more accurate estimate of the temperature isolines in the northernmost areas (above the Arctic Circle) of Scandinavia. Various temperature derivatives were calculated in order to assess the geographical and seasonal variation in the area. In order to evaluate the response of vector borne diseases to possible future climate changes and the subsequent potential spread into new areas, daily temperature predictions (mean, min and max) for three 20-year periods and 7 different prediction models were obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). Predicted temperature scenarios for year 2040 and 2060 were calculated and the data were incorporated in various models. Additionally, major geographical, topographical, husbandry and biological spatial parameters relevant to the distribution of vectors were included in the database and used as input in various distribution models. All collected datasets were assembled in a gridded climate database and presented at the website, www.nordrisk.dk. The website was created with the purpose of presenting the data to the public and making the data available to research projects in the Nordic countries. The website consists of an interactive web-application linked to a summarized climatic database. This allows for interactive selection of summary data for display. Detailed data files are available for research projects on request.

  17. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  18. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    OpenAIRE

    JoaoPedra; MaiaraSevero; MichailKotsyfakis

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR) sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules invol...

  19. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otranto Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

  20. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  1. An epidemic model of a vector-borne disease with direct transmission and time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui-Ming; Li, Xue-Zhi; Martcheva, Maia

    2008-06-01

    This paper considers an epidemic model of a vector-borne disease which has direct mode of transmission in addition to the vector-mediated transmission. The incidence term is assumed to be of the bilinear mass-action form. We include both a baseline ODE version of the model, and, a differential-delay model with a discrete time delay. The ODE model shows that the dynamics is completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0. If R0[less-than-or-equals, slant]1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable and the disease dies out. If R0>1, a unique endemic equilibrium exists and is locally asymptotically stable in the interior of the feasible region. The delay in the differential-delay model accounts for the incubation time the vectors need to become infectious. We study the effect of that delay on the stability of the equilibria. We show that the introduction of a time delay in the host-to-vector transmission term can destabilize the system and periodic solutions can arise through Hopf bifurcation.

  2. Network-level reproduction number and extinction threshold for vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Scoglio, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    The basic reproduction number of deterministic models is an essential quantity to predict whether an epidemic will spread or not. Thresholds for disease extinction contribute crucial knowledge of disease control, elimination, and mitigation of infectious diseases. Relationships between basic reproduction numbers of two deterministic network-based ordinary differential equation vector-host models, and extinction thresholds of corresponding stochastic continuous-time Markov chain models are derived under some assumptions. Numerical simulation results for malaria and Rift Valley fever transmission on heterogeneous networks are in agreement with analytical results without any assumptions, reinforcing that the relationships may always exist and proposing a mathematical problem for proving existence of the relationships in general. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the basic reproduction number does not monotonically increase or decrease with the extinction threshold. Consistent trends of extinction probability observed through numerical simulations provide novel insights into mitigation strategies to increase the disease extinction probability. Research findings may improve understandings of thresholds for disease persistence in order to control vector-borne diseases. PMID:25811553

  3. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GræsbØll, Kaare

    2012-01-01

    The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters. In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high predictive power. Furthermore this PhD has provided a new method of estimating the effect of light traps, which can estimate the additive effect of closely placed traps, and determine trap range of individual traps based on emitted light intensity. Moreover there has been devised a method to sample in time which maximizes information about time dependence and is robust to changes.

  4. Using geographic information systems and decision support systems for the prediction, prevention, and control of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. We focus on how advances in mapping, Geographic Information System, and Decision Support System technologies, and progress in spatial and space-time modeling, can be harnessed to prevent and control these diseases. Major themes, which are addressed using examples from tick-borne Lyme borreliosis; flea-borne plague; and mosquito-borne dengue, malaria, and West Nile virus disease, include (a) selection of spatial and space-time modeling techniques, (b) importance of using high-quality and biologically or epidemiologically relevant data, (c) incorporation of new technologies into operational vector and disease control programs, (d) transfer of map-based information to stakeholders, and (e) adaptation of technology solutions for use in resource-poor environments. We see great potential for the use of new technologies and approaches to more effectively target limited surveillance, prevention, and control resources and to reduce vector-borne and other infectious diseases. PMID:20868280

  5. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases: Getting A Grip on Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, G. E.; Ellis, H.

    2011-12-01

    Pathogens that are transmitted by arthropods to humans kill millions of people a year and have long been identified as systems likely affected by climate change. Despite this, there has been a long controversy of how to evaluate the responses of these infectious disease systems to climatic conditions so that meaningful programmatic dcisions can be made. We briefly review the rationale for overall expectations, using them to identify both the temporal and spatial resolution needed for decision making and then discuss progress to date, using the world global malaria eradication program as an example.

  6. Medsat: A satellite system for surveillance of tropical vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Byron; Vesecky, John; Lawless, Jim; Beck, Louisa; Salute, Joan

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the need for, and preliminary student design of, a research satellite system (Medsat) devoted to the surveillance of environmental and epidemiological factors that influence the patterns and dynamics of tropical vector-borne diseases.

  7. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR) tool

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Zhuojie; Das Anirrudha; Qiu Youliang; Tatem Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion event...

  8. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Aerts; Jamshid Farifteh; Piet Maes; Verstraeten, Willem W.; José Miguel Barrios; Pol Coppin

    2012-01-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, n...

  9. Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased...

  10. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This m...

  11. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, H.; Hildebrand, A.; Ragunathan, V.; Das, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. APPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. Teaching farmers about...

  12. Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guégan Jean-François

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious diseases, with SIR models could be seen as an implicit standard in epidemiology. Unfortunately, these models are based on differential equations and, therefore, can become very rapidly unmanageable due to the too many parameters which need to be taken into consideration. For instance, in the case of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in wildlife many different potential host species could be involved in the life-cycle of disease transmission, and SIR models might not be the most suitable tool to truly capture the overall disease circulation within that environment. This limitation underlines the necessity to develop a standard spatial model that can cope with the transmission of disease in realistic ecosystems. Results Computational biology may prove to be flexible enough to take into account the natural complexity observed in both natural and man-made ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a new computational model to study the transmission of infectious diseases in a spatially explicit context. We developed a multi-agent system model for vector-borne disease transmission in a realistic spatial environment. Conclusion Here we describe in detail the general behavior of this model that we hope will become a standard reference for the study of vector-borne disease transmission in wildlife. To conclude, we show how this simple model could be easily adapted and modified to be used as a common framework for further research developments in this field.

  13. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.

  14. Assessment of changes of vector borne diseases with wetland characteristics using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Sarun, S; Justus, J; Vineetha, P; Sheeja, R V

    2015-04-01

    Vector borne diseases are a threat to human health. Little attention has been paid to the prevention of these diseases. We attempted to identify the significant wetland characteristics associated with the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever and malaria in Kerala, a tropical region of South West India using multivariate analyses (hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression). High/medium turbid coastal lagoons and inland water-logged wetlands with aquatic vegetation have significant effect on the incidence of chikungunya while dengue influenced by high turbid coastal beaches and malaria by medium turbid coastal beaches. The high turbidity in water is due to the urban waste discharge namely sewage, sullage and garbage from the densely populated cities and towns. The large extent of wetland is low land area favours the occurrence of vector borne diseases. Hence the provision of pollution control measures at source including soil erosion control measures is vital. The identification of vulnerable zones favouring the vector borne diseases will help the authorities to control pollution especially from urban areas and prevent these vector borne diseases. Future research should cover land use cover changes, climatic factors, seasonal variations in weather and pollution factors favouring the occurrence of vector borne diseases. PMID:25412801

  15. Development and Validation of Remote Sensing-Based Surface Inundation Products for Vector-Borne Disease Risk in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K.; McDonald, K. C.; Ceccato, P.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.

    2014-12-01

    The potential impact of climate variability and change on the spread of infectious disease is of increasingly critical concern to public health. Newly-available remote sensing datasets may be combined with predictive modeling to develop new capabilities to mitigate risks of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and rift valley fever. We have developed improved remote sensing-based products for monitoring water bodies and inundation dynamics that have potential utility for improving risk forecasts of vector-borne disease epidemics. These products include daily and seasonal surface inundation based on the global mappings of inundated area fraction derived at the 25-km scale from active and passive microwave instruments ERS, QuikSCAT, ASCAT, and SSM/I data - the Satellite Water Microwave Product Series (SWAMPS). Focusing on the East African region, we present validation of this product using multi-temporal classification of inundated areas in this region derived from high resolution PALSAR (100m) and Landsat (30m) observations. We assess historical occurrence of malaria in the east African country of Eritrea with respect to the time series SWAMPS datasets, and we aim to construct a framework for use of these new datasets to improve prediction of future malaria risk in this region. This work is supported through funding from the NASA Applied Sciences Program, the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program, and the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program. This study is also supported and monitored by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under Grant - CREST Grant # NA11SEC4810004. The statements contained within the manuscript/research article are not the opinions of the funding agency or the U.S. government, but reflect the authors' opinions. This work was conducted in part under the framework of the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative. ALOS PALSAR data were provided by JAXA EORC.

  16. New Zealand as a model for vector borne disease emergence : Effects of social and environmental factors on dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Nordwall, Malin

    2009-01-01

    The geographic distribution of dengue fever has increased worldwide in recent years and is at present the most widespread vector borne viral disease in the world (Halstead 2002). Because of its rapid spread and increasing seriousness of its complications it is considered to be the most troubling vector borne disease (Wilcox and Colwell 2005, Phillips 2008). Dengue fever is the one vector borne disease that poses the greatest threat to New Zealand. Imported cases are being reported in ever inc...

  17. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniyandi, M.

    2012-01-01

    There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disea...

  18. Vector-borne pathogens in arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarelli, Patricia E; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J; Alisauskas, Ray T; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relatively low biodiversity within arctic ecosystems, arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, could serve as sentinels for the study of changes in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of 5 different genera of vector borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp.) using blood collected from 28 live-trapped arctic foxes from the region of Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Bartonella henselae (n?=?3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (n?=?1), Ehrlichia canis (n?=?1), and an Anaplasma sp. (n?=?1) DNA were PCR amplified and subsequently identified by sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidence that vector borne pathogens, not typically associated with the arctic ecosystem, exist at low levels in this arctic fox population, and that vector exposure, pathogen transmission dynamics, and changes in the geographic distribution of pathogens over time should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25596149

  19. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario. The most robust vaccination scenarios were all holdings vaccinated and the mandatory vaccination of hosts on pasture. Regional vaccination and trench vaccination display better results under some conditions, but are very sensitive to the incursion route. With this study we intended to test scenarios that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable. Results in this presentation were obtained building upon the model presented in: Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Kaare Græsbøll et al. Scientific Reports. 2:863 (2012).

  20. Potential for a Second Generation of Emerging Vector Borne Diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    North America has been dealing with the consequences of the introduction of West Nile virus since it was first discovered in New York City in 1999. Currently there are numerous other vector-borne pathogens that occur in various parts of the world that could be introduced into North America and becom...

  1. A Novel Tool for Classification of Epidemiological Data of Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vadrevu Sree Hari; Murty Suryanarayana

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a novel tool that renders efficient classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases. This algorithm has been applied on the data of the Filariasis disease and the results are compared with the well-known k-nearest neighbor algorithm.

  2. Emerging and vector-borne diseases: Role of high spatial resolution and hyperspectral images in analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L.

    Many infectious diseases that are emerging or transmitted by arthropod vectors have a strong link to landscape features. Depending on the source of infection or ecology of the transmitting vector, micro-habitat characteristics at the spatial scale of square meters or less may be important. Recently, satellite images have been used to classify habitats in an attempt to understand associations with infectious diseases. Whether high spatial resolution and hyperspectral (HSRH) images can be useful in studies of such infectious diseases is addressed. The nature of questions that such studies address and the desired accuracy and precision of answers will determine the utility of HSRH data. Need for such data should be based on the goals of the effort. Examples of kinds of questions and applications are discussed. The research implications and public health applications may depend on available analytic tools as well as epidemiological observations.

  3. Arthropods of medicoveterinary importance in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter H; Tuten, Holly C; Nelder, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    Zoos present a unique assemblage of arthropods, captive vertebrates, free-roaming wildlife, humans, and plants, each with its own biota of symbiotic organisms. Arthropods of medicoveterinary importance are well represented in zoos, and an ample literature documents their influence in these animal-rich environments. Mosquitoes are of greatest significance because of the animal and human pathogens they transmit, followed by ectoparasites, many of which are exotic and present health risks to captive and native animals. Biting flies, cockroaches, filth flies, and triatomid bugs represent additional concerns. Integrated management programs for arthropods in zoos are commonplace. Zoos can play a role in biosurveillance, serving as an advanced guard for detecting exotic arthropods and vector-borne diseases. We provide the first review of arthropods of medicoveterinary importance in zoos. A case is made for the value of collaborations between entomologists and zoo personnel as a means of enhancing research and public education while safeguarding the health of captive animals and the public. PMID:20731604

  4. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. PMID:26084000

  5. Remote Sensing Proxies for Vector-borne Disease Risk Assessment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, A.

    2010-12-01

    The spread of re-emerging vector-borne diseases such Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Chikungunya (CHIK) is a major issue of global public health concern. This combined with a variable climate regime has opened an avenue for satellite remote sensing to contribute towards a comprehensive understanding of some of the drivers influencing such vector-borne disease outbreaks. Satellite derived measurements such as vegetation indices, rainfall estimates, and land-surface temperature; can be used to infer the complex mosaic of factors that influence ecology and habitat suitability, emergence and population dynamics of disease vectors. However, there are still some gaps in application including appropriate temporal resolution of remote sensing measurements, the complexity of the virus-vector-disease-ecology system and human components that contribute to disease risk that need to be addressed. Geographic Distribution of Recent Rift Valley fever oubreaks

  6. Global Trends in the Use of Insecticides to Control Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, H.; Zaim, M.; R.S.Yadav; Soares, A; Ameneshewa, B.; Mnzava, A.; Hii, J.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on insecticide use for vector control are essential for guiding pesticide management systems on judicious and appropriate use, resistance management, and reduction of risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We studied the global use and trends of insecticide use for control of vector-borne diseases for the period 2000 through 2009. Methods: A survey was distributed to countries with vector control programs to request national data on vector control insecticide u...

  7. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

  8. Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Reusken Chantal; Scholte Ernst-Jan; van Pelt Wifrid; Kretzschmar Mirjam; van der Giessen Joke; Braks Marieta; Zeller Hervé; Van Bortel Wim; Sprong Hein

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vector borne disease (VBD) emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical ento...

  9. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas-Torres Filipe; Otranto Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of flea...

  10. Emergence and Prevalence of Human Vector-Borne Diseases in Sink Vector Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Pontier, Dominique; Menu, Fre?de?ric; Gourbie?re, Se?bastien

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining ‘source’ populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector popula...

  11. Modeling Transmission Dynamics and Control of Vector-Borne Neglected Tropical Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, Paula M.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2010-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide. The populations most impacted by such diseases are typically the most resource-limited. Mathematical modeling of disease transmission and cost-effectiveness analyses can play a central role in maximizing the utility of limited resources for neglected tropical diseases. We review the contributions that mathematical modeling has made to optimizing intervention strategies of vector-borne neglected diseases. We propose dir...

  12. Major prospects for exploring canine vector borne diseases and novel intervention methods using 'omic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann Andreas; Campbell Bronwyn E; Cantacessi Cinzia; Gasser Robin B; Otranto Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. Although many studies have provided insights into CVBDs, there has been limited exploration of fundamental molecular aspects of most pathogens, their vectors, pathogen-host relationships and disease and drug resistance using advanced, 'omic technologies. The aim of the present article is to take a prospective view of the impact that next-generation, 'omics technologies could have, with an emphasis o...

  13. Modeling the Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases on Bipartite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bisanzio, Donal; Bertolotti, Luigi; Tomassone, Laura; Amore, Giusi; Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Giacobini, Mario; Provero, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. Methodology/Principal Findings: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distributions of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the dis...

  14. Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dujardin, J. C.; Campino, L.; Can?avate, C.; Dedet, J. P.; Gradoni, L.; Soteriadou, K.; Mazeris, A.; Ozbel, Y.; Boelaert, M.

    2008-01-01

    The risk for reintroduction of some exotic vector-borne diseases in Europe has become a hot topic, while the reality of others is neglected at the public health policy level. Leishmaniasis is endemic in all southern countries of Europe, with ?700 autochthonous human cases reported each year (3,950 if Turkey is included). Asymptomatic cases have been estimated at 30–100/1 symptomatic case, and leishmaniasis has up to 25% seroprevalence in domestic dogs. Even though leishmaniasis is essenti...

  15. Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain : a multicentre study

    OpenAIRE

    Miro?, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Controlling canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) is a major concern, since some of these diseases are serious zoonoses. This study was designed to determine seropositivity rates in Spain for agents causing the following five CVBD: leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum: Li), heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis: Di), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis: Ec), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys: An) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi: Bb). Methods: Anti-An, -Bb, and -Ec ant...

  16. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli Gioia; Otranto Domenico; Genchi Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immit...

  17. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010–2012 period. We utilized 2000–2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in t...

  18. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted at eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates of the future risk of outbreaks in the Nordic countries. DTU Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous riskassessment of potential spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. Mathematical models for selected vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data and vector data to quantify the present risk of outbreaks in case an infected vector or host is introduced to the area.

  19. Dynamical behavior of an epidemic model for a vector-borne disease with direct transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epidemic model of a vector-borne disease with direct transmission is investigated. The reproduction number (R0) of the model is obtained. Rigorous qualitative analysis of the model reveals the presence of the phenomenon of backward bifurcation (where the stable disease-free equilibrium (DFE) coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the reproduction number of the disease is less than unity) in the standard incidence model. The phenomenon shows that the classical epidemiological requirement of having the reproduction number less than unity is no longer sufficient, although necessary, for effectively controlling the spread of some vector-borne diseases in a community. The backward bifurcation phenomenon can be removed by substituting the standard incidence with a bilinear mass action incidence. By using Lyapunov function theory and LaSalle invariance principle, it is shown that the unique endemic equilibrium for the model with a mass action incidence is globally stable if the reproduction number Rmass is greater than one in feasible region. This suggests that the use of standard incidence in modelling some vector-borne diseases with direct transmission results in the presence of backward bifurcation. Numerical simulations analyze the effect of the direct transmission and the disease-induced death rate on dynamics of the disease transmission, and also verify our analyzed results.

  20. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Aerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  1. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  2. Ectoparasitism and vector-borne diseases in 930 homeless people from Marseilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouqui, Philippe; Stein, Andreas; Dupont, Hervé Tissot; Gallian, Pierre; Badiaga, Sekene; Rolain, Jean Marc; Mege, Jean Louis; La Scola, Bernard; Berbis, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasites, but their exposure to arthropod-borne diseases has not been evaluated systematically. A medical team of 27 persons (7 nurses, 6 infectious disease residents or fellows, 2 dermatologists, and 12 infectious disease specialists) visited the 2 shelters in Marseilles, France, for 4 consecutive years. Homeless volunteers were interviewed, examined, and received care; and blood was sampled for cell counts and detection of bacteremia, antibodies to louse-borne (Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis), flea-borne (R. typhi, R. felis), mite-borne (R. akari), and tick-borne (R. conorii) bacterial agents. We selected sex- and age-adjusted controls among healthy blood donors. Over 4 years, 930 homeless people were enrolled. Lice were found in 22% and were associated with hypereosinophilia (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence intervals, 1.46-22.15). Twenty-seven patients (3%) with scabies were treated with ivermectin. Bartonella quintana was isolated from blood culture in 50 patients (5.3%), 36 of whom were treated effectively. The number of bacteremic patient increased from 3.4% to 8.4% (p = 0.02) over the 4 years of the study. We detected a higher seroprevalence to Borrelia recurrentis, R. conorii, and R. prowazekii antibodies in the homeless. Our study shows a high prevalence of louse-borne infections in the homeless and a high degree of exposure to tick-borne diseases and scabies. Despite effective treatment for Bartonella quintana bacteremia and the efforts made to delouse this population, Bartonella quintana remains endemic, and we found hallmarks of epidemic typhus and relapsing fever. The uncontrolled louse infestation of this population should alert the community to the possibility of severe re-emerging louse-borne infections. PMID:15643300

  3. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jamie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  4. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoaoPedra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor (NF-kB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome – a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL-1? and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

  5. Concurrent Infections with Vector-Borne Pathogens Associated with Fatal Hemolytic Anemia in a Cattle Herd in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann-lehmann, R.; Meli, M. L.; Dreher, U. M.; Go?nczi, E.; Deplazes, P.; Braun, U.; Engels, M.; Schu?pbach, J.; Jo?rger, K.; Thoma, R.; Griot, C.; Sta?rk, K. D. C.; Willi, B.; Schmidt, J.; Kocan, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease...

  6. Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Setbon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La R|[eacute]|union and Mayotte (2005|[ndash]|2006 and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995|[ndash]|2007. To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities|[rsquo]| efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious disease.

  7. Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem / Malattie trasmesse da artropodi in Italia: un problema sanitario emergente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Romi.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly [...] known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

  8. Application of three controls optimally in a vector-borne disease - a mathematical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, T. K.; Jana, Soovoojeet

    2013-10-01

    We have proposed and analyzed a vector-borne disease model with three types of controls for the eradication of the disease. Four different classes for the human population namely susceptible, infected, recovered and vaccinated and two different classes for the vector populations namely susceptible and infected are considered. In the first part of our analysis the disease dynamics are described for fixed controls and some inferences have been drawn regarding the spread of the disease. Next the optimal control problem is formulated and solved considering control parameters as time dependent. Different possible combination of controls are used and their effectiveness are compared by numerical simulation.

  9. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. This model was examined relative to two mosquito vectors, both competent carriers of dengue fever, a viral, vector-borne disease. Models which incorporate public health considerations can enable decision makers to take proactive steps to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the changing environmental conditions. In this paper we provide a snapshot of our climate initiative and some examples relative to our public health practice work in vector-borne diseases to illustrate how integrated decision support could be of assistance to regional and local communities worldwide.

  10. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, B.L.; Atkinson, C.T.; Lapointe, D.A.; Hart, P.J.; Spiegel, C.S.; Tweed, E.J.; Henneman, C.; LeBrun, J.; Denette, T.; DeMots, R.; Kozar, K.L.; Triglia, D.; Lease, D.; Gregor, A.; Smith, T.; Duffy, D.

    2005-01-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on south-eastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations.

  11. Arthropod origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconsideration of the position of trilobite-like arthropods leads to an idea of the last shared ancestor of known (euarthropods. The ancestry and morphological evolution is traced back from this form to a hypothetical ciliated and pseudosegmented slug-like ancestor. Evolution logically passed through a lobopodian stage. Extant onychophorans, Cambrian xenusians, and perhaps anomalocaridids with their kin (the Dinocaridida may represent probable offshoots on the way. As such, these groups are highly derived and not ancestral to the arthropods. Results of molecular studies indicate a relationship to moulting worms, which at first could seem to be in conflict with what was just said. However, if this is correct, the arthropod and moulting worm lineages must have diverged when some 'coelomate' features such as specific vascular and neural systems were still present. The moulting worms would therefore have lost such characters, either only once or several times.

  12. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  13. Bayesian data assimilation provides rapid decision support for vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Chris P; Brown, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Although host population data are typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen using a vector for which data are unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their ability to provide quantitative risk forecasts. The Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) outbreak in New Zealand cattle demonstrates this problem: even though the vector has received extensive laboratory study, a high degree of uncertainty persists over its national demographic distribution. Addressing this, we develop a Bayesian data assimilation approach whereby indirect observations of vector activity inform a seasonal spatio-temporal risk surface within a stochastic epidemic model. We provide quantitative predictions for the future spread of the epidemic, quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters, case infection times and the disease status of undetected infections. Importantly, we demonstrate how our model learns sequentially as the epidemic unfolds and provide evidence for changing epidemic dynamics through time. Our approach therefore provides a significant advance in rapid decision support for novel vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:26136225

  14. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Ural

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from ?zmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  15. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined withgeographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-bornediseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic andenvironmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the informationderived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture,soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of othergeoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classicalstudies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseasescontrol. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation ofthe vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association withgeoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonalvariations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector-borne diseasescan be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  16. Climate change and the distribution of vector borne diseases with special reference to African horse sickness virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of climate change, those components of climate that are likely to have major effects upon distribution, seasonal incidence and prevalence of vector borne diseases are described. On the basis of a predicted, mean temperature increase of the order of 1 to 3.5 deg. C., examples are given of the sort of changes that are to be expected by using a range of internationally important human and animal pathogens. Recent dramatic alterations in the epidemiology of the OIE List ''A'' disease, African horse sickness, are drawn upon to put forward the proposition that climate change may already be having a major effect upon some vector borne diseases. (author)

  17. Evaluation of arthropod-borne viruses and other infectious disease pathogens as the causes of febrile illnesses in the Khartoum Province of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M C; Haberberger, R L; Salib, A W; Soliman, B A; El-Tigani, A; Khalid, I O; Watts, D M

    1996-02-01

    The relative importance of arthropod-borne and other disease pathogens as the cause of an outbreak of febrile illnesses was assessed during August 1988, following severe flooding in Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 200 patients with acute febrile illness and 100 afebrile controls were enrolled in the study during October and November 1988; at the Omdurman Military Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. Sera were tested for IgM and IgG antibodies to six arthropod-borne viruses by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and for similar antibodies to Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Ebola and Marburg viruses by an indirect fluorescence assay. Thick and thin blood smears were examined microscopically for malaria parasites, and fecal and blood specimens were tested for bacteria by standard culture methods. Among the acute and convalescent sera collected from 67 febrile patients, five cases were caused by sandfly fever Sicilian (SFS), six by sandfly fever Naples (SFN), and 12 by unidentified phleboviruses. Of 233 remaining unpaired, acute-phase sera collected from cases and controls, 49 (21%) had IgM antibodies to SFS or SFN, RVF, West Nile (WN), and Chikungunya (CHIK) viruses. Forty-three (22%) of 192 febrile cases and two of the 100 afebrile controls were positive for Plasmodium falciparum, and bacterial enteropathogens were associated with 25 (13%) cases and four controls. These data indicated that phleboviruses and to a lesser extent, WN, P. falciparum, and enterobacterial pathogens were causes of acute febrile illnesses following the 1988 flood in Khartoum, Sudan. PMID:8835346

  18. Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reusken Chantal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vector borne disease (VBD emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends.

  19. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorelei L., Clarke; Lora R., Ballweber; Kelly, Allen; Susan E., Little; Michael R., Lappin.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Convention [...] al polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsiaspp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  20. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Ballweber, Lora R; Allen, Kelly; Little, Susan E; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs. PMID:25686301

  1. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  2. Modelling vertical transmission in vector-borne diseases with applications to Rift Valley fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Nakul; Hyman, James M.; Manore, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    We present two ordinary differential equation models for Rift Valley fever (RVF) transmission in cattle and mosquitoes. We extend existing models for vector-borne diseases to include an asymptomatic host class and vertical transmission in vectors. We define the basic reproductive number, , and analyse the existence and stability of equilibrium points. We compute sensitivity indices of and a reactivity index (that measures epidemicity) to parameters for baseline wet and dry season values. is most sensitive to the mosquito biting and death rates. The reactivity index is most sensitive to the mosquito biting rate and the infectivity of hosts to vectors. Numerical simulations show that even with low equilibrium prevalence, increases in mosquito densities through higher rainfall, in the presence of vertical transmission, can result in large epidemics. This suggests that vertical transmission is an important factor in the size and persistence of RVF epidemics. PMID:23098257

  3. Towards a resource-based habitat approach for spatial modelling of vector-borne disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemink, Nienke; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Purse, Bethan V; Gilbert, Marius; Van Dyck, Hans

    2014-10-22

    Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional habitat of vectors or hosts, and hence of the pathogen. Empirical-statistical methods do not explicitly incorporate biological mechanisms, whereas current mechanistic models are rarely spatially explicit; both methods ignore the way animals use the landscape (i.e. movement ecology). We argue that applying a functional concept for habitat, i.e. the resource-based habitat concept (RBHC), can solve these issues. The RBHC offers a framework to identify systematically the different ecological resources that are necessary for the completion of the transmission cycle and to relate these resources to (combinations of) landscape features and other environmental factors. The potential of the RBHC as a framework for identifying suitable habitats for vector-borne pathogens is explored and illustrated with the case of bluetongue virus, a midge-transmitted virus affecting ruminants. The concept facilitates the study of functional habitats of the interacting species (vectors as well as hosts) and provides new insight into spatial and temporal variation in transmission opportunities and exposure that ultimately determine disease risks. It may help to identify knowledge gaps and control options arising from changes in the spatial configuration of key resources across the landscape. The RBHC framework may act as a bridge between existing mechanistic and statistical modelling approaches. PMID:25335785

  4. An Antivector Vaccine Protects against a Lethal Vector-Borne Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  5. Remote Sensing the Patterns of Vector-borne Disease in El Nino and non-El Nino Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. L.; Chang, J.; Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; DAntoni, Hector (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino and the patterns of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are long term predictions of changing precipitation and temperature patterns at continental and global scales. At the opposite extreme are the local or site specific ecological changes associated with the long term events. In order to understand and address the human health consequences of El Nino events, especially the patterns of vector-borne diseases, it is necessary to combine both scales of observation. At a local or regional scale the patterns of vector-borne diseases are determined by temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability. These factors, as well as disease incidence can be altered by El Nino events. Remote sensing data such as that acquired by the NOAA AVHRR and Landsat TM sensors can be used to characterize and monitor changing ecological conditions and therefore predict vector-borne disease patterns. The authors present the results of preliminary work on the analysis of historical AVHRR and TM data acquired during El Nino and nonfatal Nino years to characterize ecological conditions in Peru on a monthly basis. This information will then be combined with disease data to determine the relationship between changes in ecological conditions and disease incidence. Our goal is to produce a sequence of remotely sensed images which can be used to show the ecological and disease patterns associated with long term El Nino events and predictions.

  6. Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Lights, Camera, and Action: Vertebrate Skin Sets the Stage for Immune Cell Interaction with Arthropod-Vectored Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Shu Zhen; Evrard, Maximilien; Ng, Lai Guan

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing studies targeted at host-pathogen interactions, vector-borne diseases remain one of the largest economic health burdens worldwide. Such diseases are vectored by hematophagous arthropods that deposit pathogens into the vertebrate host’s skin during a blood meal. These pathogens spend a substantial amount of time in the skin that allows for interaction with cutaneous immune cells, suggesting a window of opportunity for development of vaccine strategies. In particular, the r...

  8. Lights, Camera, and Action: Vertebrate Skin Sets the Stage for Immune Cell Interaction with Arthropod-Vectored Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Shu Zhen; Evrard, Maximilien; Ng, Lai Guan

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing studies targeted at host-pathogen interactions, vector-borne diseases remain one of the largest economic health burdens worldwide. Such diseases are vectored by hematophagous arthropods that deposit pathogens into the vertebrate host’s skin during a blood meal. These pathogens spend a substantial amount of time in the skin that allows for interaction with cutaneous immune cells, suggesting a window of opportunity for development of vaccine strategies. In particular, the rec...

  9. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Morand; Katharine A. Owers; Agnes Waret-Szkuta; K. Marie McIntyre; Matthew Baylis

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven dis...

  10. Vector-borne diseases on Fire Island, New York (Fire Island National Seashore Science Synthesis Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses eleven tick-borne and five mosquito-borne pathogens that are known to occur at FIlS, or could potentially occur. The potential for future occurrence, and ecological factors that influence occurrence, are assessed for each disease. Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease on Fire Island. The Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is endemic in local tick and wildlife populations. Public education, personal precautions against tick bite, and prompt treatment of early-stage infections can help manage the risk of Lyme disease on Fire Island. The pathogens that cause Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis and Tularemia have been isolated from ticks or wildlife on Fire Island, and conditions suggest that other tickborne diseases (including Babesiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis) might also occur, but these are far less common than Lyme disease, if present. West Nile Virus (WNV) is the primary mosquito- borne human pathogen that is known to occur on Fire Island. Ecological conditions and recent epizootiological events suggest that WNV occurs in foci that can shift from year to year. Therefore, a surveillance program with appropriate responses to increasing epizootic activity can help manage the risk of WNV transmission on Fire Island.

  11. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  12. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  13. Climate, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Change Weighing up the Balance in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parham, Paul [University of Liverpool; Waldock, Johanna [Imperial College, London; Christophides, George [Imperial College, London; Hemming, Deborah [Met Office Hadley Centre, UK; Agusto, Folashade [Austin Peay State University; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Fefferman, Nina [Rutgers University; Gaff, Holly [Old Dominion University; Gumel, Abba [Arizona State University; LaDeau, Shannon [The University of Tennessee; Lenhart, Suzanne [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mickens, Ronald [Clark Atlanta University; Naumova, Elena [Tufts University; Ostfeld, Richard [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, New York; Ready, Paul [Natural History Museum; Thomas, Matthew [Pennsylvania State University; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Edwin, Michael [University of Notre Dame, IN

    2015-01-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is due not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but, perhaps most crucially, the multitude of epidemiological, ecological, and socioeconomic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the last 10-15 years. In this article, and Theme Issue, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions, and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field moving forwards. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. This Theme Issue seeks to cover both, reflected in the breadth and depth of the topics and VBD-systems considered, itself strongly indicative of the challenging, but necessary, multidisciplinary nature of this research field.

  14. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  15. Environmental change and water-related, vector borne diseases in eastern Africa: the HEALTHY FUTURES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Kienberger, Stefan; Tompkins, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Pathogens that spend time outside the human body, and any organisms involved in their transmission, have particular ecological requirements; as environment, including climate, conditions change, then the transmission characteristics of associated pathogens - and the diseases caused - are also likely to vary. Relationships between environment and health in many parts of the world remain poorly studied and are often overlooked, however. This is particularly the case in developing countries, because of budgetary and available expertise constraints. Moreover the relationship is often confounded by other factors. These other factors contribute to human vulnerability, and thus to the overall disease risk due to environmental change. This presentation will highlight the importance of environmental, including climate, change information to a better understanding of the risks to health of projected future environmental changes, and to the more efficient and effective use of scarce health resources in the developing world. The paper will focus on eastern Africa, and in particular the health effects of future projected environmental change impacts on water-related, vector borne diseases in the East African Community region. Moreover the paper will highlight how the EU FP7-funded project HEALTHY FUTURES is, through a broadly-based, integrative approach that distinguishes environmental change-induced health hazard from health risk aims to support the health decisions making process, thereby attempting to help mitigate negative health impacts.

  16. Serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs) comprise illnesses caused by a spectrum of pathogens that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Some dogs have persistent infections without apparent clinical, hematological or biochemical abnormalities, whereas other dogs develop acute illnesses, persistent subclinical infections, or chronic debilitating diseases. The primary objective of this study was to screen healthy dogs for serological and molecular evidence of regionally important CVBDs. Methods Clinically healthy dogs (n?=?118), comprising three different groups: Gp I blood donor candidates (n?=?47), Gp II healthy dog volunteers (n?=?50), and Gp III stray dogs (n?=?21) were included in the study. Serum and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anti-coagulated blood specimens collected from each dog were tested for CVBD pathogens. Results Of the 118 dogs tested, 97 (82%) dogs had been exposed to or were infected with one or more CVBD pathogens. By IFA testing, 9% of Gp I, 42% of Gp II and 19% of Gp III dogs were seroreactive to one or more CVBD pathogens. Using the SNAP 4DX® assay, Gp I dogs were seronegative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) antibodies and D. immitis antigen. In Gp II, 8 dogs were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive, 2 were infected with D. immitis and 1 was B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) seroreactive. In Gp III, 6 dogs were infected with D. immitis and 4 were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive. Using the BAPGM diagnostic platform, Bartonella DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from 19% of Gp I, 20% of Gp II and 10% of Gp III dogs. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, 6% of Gps I and II and 19% of Gp III dogs were infected with other CVBD pathogens. Conclusion The development and validation of specific diagnostic testing modalities has facilitated more accurate detection of CVBDs. Once identified, exposure to vectors should be limited and flea and tick prevention enforced. PMID:24655461

  17. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NathanChristopherNieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations, outbrea

  18. Spatial cognition: a geospatial analysis of vector borne disease transmission and the environment, using remote sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of geographical distribution of vector borne diseases has been increasingly public health important and challenging problems in more than 100 tropical countries and it has been affecting more than 50% of the population in the world, especially, it is very big problem in India. The change of vector borne disease epidemic transmission in to the endemic situation in the country has been caused by the land use / land cover changes, regional climate changes, increase of sea change population, urban agglomeration, industrial development and the past development of towns, consequently, the disease epidemics have been steadily increased too, and, besides, it has been found ubiquitous, such diseases known as, malaria, filariasis, JE, dengue and chikungunya, as a result, the increase of both mosquito nuisances and disease transmissions has become public health importance and very big challenging problems in India.

  19. Control of malaria and other vector-borne protozoan diseases in the tropics: enduring challenges despite considerable progress and achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Zofou, Denis; Nyasa, Raymond B.; Nsagha, Dickson S.; Ntie-kang, Fidele; Meriki, Henry D.; Assob, Jules Clement N.; Kuete, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne protozoan diseases represent a serious public health challenge, especially in the tropics where poverty together with vector-favorable climates are the aggravating factors. Each of the various strategies currently employed to face these scourges is seriously inadequate. Despite enormous efforts, vaccines—which represent the ideal weapon against these parasitic diseases—are yet to be sufficiently developed and implemented. Chemotherapy and vector control are therefore the sole...

  20. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman Glen T; Gatne Mukulesh; Irwin Peter J; Megat Abd Rani Puteri Azaziah; Traub Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current sta...

  1. Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the...

  2. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  3. Predictiveness of Disease Risk in a Global Outreach Tourist Setting in Thailand Using Meteorological Data and Vector-Borne Disease Incidences

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannapa Ninphanomchai; Chitti Chansang; Yien Ling Hii; Joacim Rocklöv; Pattamaporn Kittayapong

    2014-01-01

    Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity) regist...

  4. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene Technical University of Denmark,

    Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases. But mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread or limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. This is particular true for the relatively cool Nordic countries where periods of suitable temperatures, the ?windows of opportunity for transmission‘, may be very short and only appear in odd years DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance.In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) should an infected vector or host be introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps function as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of ?no possible transmission‘ and target costly active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighbouring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax-malaria in humans. Both the presently very restricted potential spatial and seasonal distribution was predicted to increase in the coming 50 years. While the predicted new areas potentially affected by vector borne diseases are relatively small they closely follow the spatial distribution of human habitation and agriculture. The practical impact of climate change on human health and agriculture may therefore be greater than simple distribution maps suggest. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases, compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia i 2008, and discuss the level of preventive measures needed to prevent large scale epidemics in the future.

  5. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Day Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most signific...

  6. Environmental monitoring to enhance comprehension and control of infectious diseases†

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Scott; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In a world of emerging and resurging infectious diseases, dominated by zoonoses, environmental monitoring plays a vital role in our understanding their dynamics and their spillover to humans. Here, we critically review the ecology, epidemiology and need for monitoring of a variety of directly transmitted (Sin Nombre virus, Avian Influenza) and vector-borne (Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis) zoonoses. We focus on the valuable role that existing monit...

  7. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1) the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2) the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alterna...

  8. Lights, Camera, and Action: Vertebrate Skin Sets the Stage for Immune Cell Interaction with Arthropod-Vectored Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shu Zhen; Evrard, Maximilien; Ng, Lai Guan

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing studies targeted at host-pathogen interactions, vector-borne diseases remain one of the largest economic health burdens worldwide. Such diseases are vectored by hematophagous arthropods that deposit pathogens into the vertebrate host’s skin during a blood meal. These pathogens spend a substantial amount of time in the skin that allows for interaction with cutaneous immune cells, suggesting a window of opportunity for development of vaccine strategies. In particular, the recent availability of intravital imaging approaches has provided further insights into immune cell behavior in living tissues. Here, we discuss how such intravital imaging studies have contributed to our knowledge of cutaneous immune cell behavior and specifically, toward pathogen and tissue trauma from the arthropod bite. We also suggest future imaging approaches that may aid in better understanding of the complex interplay between arthropod-vectored pathogens and cutaneous immunity that could lead to improved therapeutic strategies. PMID:24062751

  9. Lights, camera, and action: vertebrate skin sets the stage for immune cell interaction with arthropod-vectored pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shu Zhen; Evrard, Maximilien; Ng, Lai Guan

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing studies targeted at host-pathogen interactions, vector-borne diseases remain one of the largest economic health burdens worldwide. Such diseases are vectored by hematophagous arthropods that deposit pathogens into the vertebrate host's skin during a blood meal. These pathogens spend a substantial amount of time in the skin that allows for interaction with cutaneous immune cells, suggesting a window of opportunity for development of vaccine strategies. In particular, the recent availability of intravital imaging approaches has provided further insights into immune cell behavior in living tissues. Here, we discuss how such intravital imaging studies have contributed to our knowledge of cutaneous immune cell behavior and specifically, toward pathogen and tissue trauma from the arthropod bite. We also suggest future imaging approaches that may aid in better understanding of the complex interplay between arthropod-vectored pathogens and cutaneous immunity that could lead to improved therapeutic strategies. PMID:24062751

  10. Predicting and Mitigating Outbreaks of Vector-Borne Disease Utilizing Satellite Remote Sensing Technology and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Sue M.

    2009-01-01

    The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety. The program elements of the NASA Applied Sciences Program are: Agricultural Efficiency, Air Quality, Climate, Disaster Management, Ecological Forecasting, Water Resources, Weather, and Public Health.

  11. Cambio climático en España y riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias transmitidas por artrópodos y roedores / Climate Change in Spain and Risk of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Transmitted by Arthropods and Rodents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogelio, López-Vélez; Ricardo, Molina Moreno.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Por la proximidad con el continente africano, siendo lugar de tránsito obligado de aves migratorias y personas, y por las condiciones climáticas, cercanas a las de zonas donde hay transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales, España es un país en el que este tipo de enfermedades podrían verse potenciadas [...] por el cambio climático. El posible riesgo vendría por extensión geográfica de vectores ya establecidos o por la importación e instalación de vectores sub-tropicales adaptados a sobrevivir en climas menos cálidos y más secos. Hipotéticamente, las enfermedades vectoriales susceptibles de ser influidas por el cambio climático en España serían aquellas transmitidas por dípteros como dengue, encefalitis del Nilo occidental, fiebre del valle del Rift, malaria y leishmaniosis; las transmitidas por garrapatas como la fiebre de Congo Crimea, encefalitis por garrapata, enfermedad de Lyme, fiebre botonosa y fiebre recurrente endémica; y las transmitidas por roedores. Pero la mayor y más factible amenaza sería la instauración del mosquito Aedes albopictus, que sería capaz de transmitir enfermedades virales como la del Nilo occidental o el dengue. Pero para el establecimiento de auténticas áreas de endemia se necesitaría la conjunción de otros factores, tales como el aflujo masivo y simultáneo de reservorios animales o humanos y el deterioro de las condiciones socio-sanitarias y de los servicios de Salud Pública. Abstract in english Due to Spain's being located near Africa, being a stopping-off point for migrating birds and individuals and due to its climate conditions, nearing those of areas where there are vector-borne diseases, this is a country where this type of diseases could taken on greater importance due to the climate [...] change. The possible risk would result from the geographical spread of already established vectors or due to subtropical vectors adapted to surviving in cooler, dried climates being imported and taking up residence. Hypothetically, the vector-borne diseases subject to be influenced by the climate change in Spain would be those transmitted by dipterans, such as dengue fever, West Nile encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, malaria and leishmaniasis; tick-transmitted diseases, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, spotted fever and endemic relapsing fever; and rodent-transmitted diseases. But the greatest, most viable threat would be the Aedes albopictus mosquito, which would be capable of transmitting viral diseases such as West Nile encephalitis or dengue fever, taking up residence. But, for actual areas of endemia being established, a combination of other factors, such as the massive, simultaneous influx of animal or human reservoirs and the deterioration of the social healthcare conditions and of the Public Health services.

  12. An enzootic vector-borne virus is amplified at epizootic levels by an invasive avian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Valerie A; Moore, Amy T; Young, Ginger R; Komar, Nicholas; Reisen, William K; Brown, Charles R

    2011-01-22

    Determining the effect of an invasive species on enzootic pathogen dynamics is critical for understanding both human epidemics and wildlife epizootics. Theoretical models suggest that when a naive species enters an established host-parasite system, the new host may either reduce ('dilute') or increase ('spillback') pathogen transmission to native hosts. There are few empirical data to evaluate these possibilities, especially for animal pathogens. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that is enzootically transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to colonially nesting cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). In western Nebraska, introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus) invaded cliff swallow colonies approximately 40 years ago and were exposed to BCRV. We evaluated how the addition of house sparrows to this host-parasite system affected the prevalence and amplification of a bird-associated BCRV lineage. The infection prevalence in house sparrows was eight times that of cliff swallows. Nestling house sparrows in mixed-species colonies were significantly less likely to be infected than sparrows in single-species colonies. Infected house sparrows circulated BCRV at higher viraemia titres than cliff swallows. BCRV detected in bug vectors at a site was positively associated with virus prevalence in house sparrows but not with virus prevalence in cliff swallows. The addition of a highly susceptible invasive host species has led to perennial BCRV epizootics at cliff swallow colony sites. The native cliff swallow host confers a dilution advantage to invasive sparrow hosts in mixed colonies, while at the same sites house sparrows may increase the likelihood that swallows become infected. PMID:20685711

  13. Survey of Arthropod Associated with Refuse Disposal Sites in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Banjo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the abundance of arthropod pests and its diversity at different refuse disposal sites in Ijebu Ode. A survey of some refuse dumps for the presence of arthropod associated with them was carried out in Ijebu-ode Local government Area, of Ogun state. The refuse dumps were randomly selected based on their location within the town, these included Ikangba housing Estate, Wasimi, Olisa, Mobalufon and Sabo areas. Different methods were used for the collection of these Arthropods: such as Handpicking, water traps, sweep net and sticky traps. Arthropods collected included members of the family Muscidae, Culicidae, Blattidae, Scolopendridae, Diplopodae, Gryllidae and Sparassidae. Musca domestica (Houseflies were the most abundant (31.31%, while the least were Otiorrhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera (1.01%. Aedes egypti and Culex restuans (Diptera accounted for 12.12%, Blatta lateralis (Blattodea (10.61% and Chromatopelma yaneopubescens (Araneae (13.64%.The relative occurrence of these arthropods suggested the possibility of some vector borne diseases in Ijebu-Ode environs, hence the need for proper disposal of refuse to avert an epidemic status.

  14. Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andy

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least one million deaths annually, with 80% of malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has a large impact upon the incidence of vector-borne diseases; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the environmental conditions. A large ensemble of regional climate model simulations has been produced within the ENSEMBLES project framework for both the European and African continent. This work will present recent progress in human and animal disease modelling, based on high resolution climate observations and regional climate simulations. Preliminary results will be given as an illustration, including the impact of climate change upon bluetongue (disease affecting the cattle) over Europe and upon malaria and Rift Valley Fever over Africa. Malaria scenarios based on RCM ensemble simulations have been produced for West Africa. These simulations have been carried out using the Liverpool Malaria Model. Future projections highlight that the malaria incidence decreases at the northern edge of the Sahel and that the epidemic belt is shifted southward in autumn. This could lead to significant public health problems in the future as the demography is expected to dramatically rise over Africa for the 21st century.

  15. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn KyuSung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

  16. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemperière Guy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past.

  17. Climate and Population Health Vulnerabilities to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience Under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Kruczkiewicz, A.; Lessel, J.; Jensen, K.; Thomson, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases (i.e. malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities, ministries of health and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above.

  18. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Soo; Ejov Mikhail; Dash Aditya P; Ameneshewa Birkinesh; Mnzava Abraham; Soares Agnes; Hii Jeffrey; van den Berg Henk; Matthews Graham; Yadav Rajpal S; Zaim Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countri...

  19. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of chagas' disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-zaleta, Christopher M.; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Gourbie?re, Se?bastien; Menu, Fre?de?ric

    2013-01-01

    Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individu...

  20. Microbial symbiosis and the control of vector-borne pathogens in tsetse flies, human lice, and triatomine bugs

    OpenAIRE

    SASSERA, DAVIDE; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Bandi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Symbiosis is a widespread biological phenomenon, and is particularly common in arthropods. Bloodsucking insects are among the organisms that rely on beneficial bacterial symbionts to complement their unbalanced diet. This review is focused on describing symbiosis, and possible strategies for the symbiont-based control of insects and insect-borne diseases, in three bloodsucking insects of medical importance: the flies of the genus Glossina, the lice of the genus Pediculus, and triatomine bugs ...

  1. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rolla, Davide; Conti, Novella; Ansaldo, Francesca; Panaro, Laura; Lusenti, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of a patient with acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative mesangial nephropathy. Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN)secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in man could be fatal, as it is in canine Lyme borreliosis.

  2. Climate change & infectious diseases in India: Implications for health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Dhara, V. Ramana; Schramm, Paul J.; Luber, George

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. Developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. This article reviews common and prevalent infectious diseases in India, their links to climate change, and how health care providers might discuss preventive healt...

  3. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    Modelling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Temperature decreases with latitude, and in the Nordic countries periods of suitable temperatures, the windows of opportunity for transmission, may be very short and only appear in odd years. While average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases, mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread and limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. We present a system for continuous risk assessment of potential local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) in case an infected vector or host are introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps functions as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of ‘no possible transmission’ and target active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighbouring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated fromsuch models is therefore likely to deviate from the true R0. However assuming the models are qualitatively able to rank the estimated R0 correctly, a period resulting in a relatively high estimated R0 will also be a period with a relatively high true R0. This allows the estimated R0 to be used for targeted surveillance by focussing the surveillance on periods and areas with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction factor is obtained that may be used to adjust the model estimates in Denmark, and thus allowing a more quantitative interpretation of the estimated R0. We here demonstrate the system for bluetongue using 2008 climate data and compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia i 2008.

  4. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

  5. Perspectivas de controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil Perspectives of vector borne diseases control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Tauil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise do controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil necessita considerar três aspectos: a urbanização da população, a transformação do caráter eminentemente rural dessas doenças em concomitante transmissão urbana ou peri-urbana e a descentralização do controle para municípios. A imensa maioria da população está vivendo nas cidades. Algumas doenças passaram a ser transmitidas em áreas peri-urbanas ou urbanas, graças à emergência ou re-emergência de seus vetores nessas áreas, como dengue, leishmaniose visceral e malária. Há dificuldades para o controle: as atividades em áreas rurais são operacionalmente mais efetivas, pois atingem coberturas mais elevadas; são mais bem aceitas pela população do que as exercidas em áreas urbanas. A descentralização do controle para os estados e municípios está em implementação e há também dificuldades, pois o controle vetorial não fazia parte da prática desses entes federativos. Para um controle mais efetivo, há necessidade de determinação política, ações multi-setoriais e uso racional de inseticida.The analysis of vector borne disease control in Brazil should consider three aspects: the urbanization of the population, change from a rural pattern to concomitant urban or peri-urban transmission and decentralization of control to municipalities. The great majority of the population now lives in urban areas. Some diseases are being transmitted in urban areas, due to the emergence or reemergence of their vectors, such as dengue, malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. Difficulties in control occur, as it is easier to apply control measures in rural areas, because there is more population adherence than in urban areas and so the coverage is higher and disease control is better. The decentralization of control activities to states and municipalities is being implemented and difficulties occur as these levels of government have insufficient accumulated experience in control. For more effective control, political commitment, multi-sector articulation and rational use of insecticide are required.

  6. Perspectivas de controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil / Perspectives of vector borne diseases control in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Luiz, Tauil.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise do controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil necessita considerar três aspectos: a urbanização da população, a transformação do caráter eminentemente rural dessas doenças em concomitante transmissão urbana ou peri-urbana e a descentralização do controle para municípios. A imen [...] sa maioria da população está vivendo nas cidades. Algumas doenças passaram a ser transmitidas em áreas peri-urbanas ou urbanas, graças à emergência ou re-emergência de seus vetores nessas áreas, como dengue, leishmaniose visceral e malária. Há dificuldades para o controle: as atividades em áreas rurais são operacionalmente mais efetivas, pois atingem coberturas mais elevadas; são mais bem aceitas pela população do que as exercidas em áreas urbanas. A descentralização do controle para os estados e municípios está em implementação e há também dificuldades, pois o controle vetorial não fazia parte da prática desses entes federativos. Para um controle mais efetivo, há necessidade de determinação política, ações multi-setoriais e uso racional de inseticida. Abstract in english The analysis of vector borne disease control in Brazil should consider three aspects: the urbanization of the population, change from a rural pattern to concomitant urban or peri-urban transmission and decentralization of control to municipalities. The great majority of the population now lives in u [...] rban areas. Some diseases are being transmitted in urban areas, due to the emergence or reemergence of their vectors, such as dengue, malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. Difficulties in control occur, as it is easier to apply control measures in rural areas, because there is more population adherence than in urban areas and so the coverage is higher and disease control is better. The decentralization of control activities to states and municipalities is being implemented and difficulties occur as these levels of government have insufficient accumulated experience in control. For more effective control, political commitment, multi-sector articulation and rational use of insecticide are required.

  7. Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

  8. Regional seroreactivity and vector-borne disease co-exposures in dogs in the United States from 2004-2010: utility of canine surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Caroline B; Hegarty, Barbara C; Qurollo, Barbara A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Weber, David J; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Vector-borne disease (VBD) pathogens remain an emerging health concern for animals and humans throughout the world. Surveillance studies of ticks and humans have made substantial contributions to our knowledge of VBD epidemiology trends, but long-term VBD surveillance data of dogs in the United States is limited. This seroreactivity study assessed US temporal and regional trends and co-exposures to Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia in dogs from 2004-2010. Dog serum samples (N=14,496) were submitted to the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for vector-borne pathogens diagnostic testing using immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. These convenience samples were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The largest proportion of samples originated from the South (47.6%), with the highest percent of seroreactive samples observed in the Midatlantic (43.4%), compared to other US regions. The overall seroreactivity of evaluated VBD antigens were Rickettsia rickettsia (10.4%), B. burgdorferi (5.2%), Ehrlichia spp. (4.3%), Bartonella henselae (3.8%), Anaplasma spp. (1.9%), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (1.5%), Babesia canis (1.1%), and D. immitis (0.8%). Significant regional and annual seroreactivity variation was observed with B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia exposures. Seasonal seroreactivity variation was evident with Rickettsia. Seroreactivity to more than one antigen was present in 16.5% of exposed dogs. Nationally, the most prevalent co-exposure was Rickettsia with Ehrlichia spp. (5.3%), and the highest odds of co-exposure was associated with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi (odds ratio=6.6; 95% confidence interval 5.0, 8.8). Notable annual and regional seroreactivity variation was observed with certain pathogens over 7 years of study, suggesting canine surveillance studies may have value in contributing to future VBD knowledge. PMID:25325316

  9. The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control / Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brett R., Ellis; Bruce A., Wilcox.

    Full Text Available A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A [...] dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações) e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma análise antecipada da eficácia de intervenções, oferecer respostas para resultados inesperados provenientes de ações para controle de vetores e contribuir para o planejamento de medidas eficazes de gerenciamento em um ambiente em constante mudança. O objetivo deste trabalho é explorar a dimensão ecológica de doenças transmitidas por vetores e esclarecer o papel do "pensamento ecológico" no desenvolvimento e implantação de ações de controle vetorial, ou seja, abordagem ecossistêmica para o controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores. Abstract in english Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecologic [...] al dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations), and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases).

  10. Endemic tickborne infectious diseases in Louisiana and the Gulf South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2009-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today, such as West Nile virus and sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), arise from zoonotic reservoirs and many are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks are among the most competent and versatile arthropod vectors of infectious diseases because ticks of all ages and both sexes remain infectious for generations without having to reacquire infections from reservoir hosts. Today, ticks transmit the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in the United States (US), Lyme disease (LD); and the most lethal arthropod-borne infectious disease in the US, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Both LD and RMSF are endemic in Louisiana and the Gulf South. Ticks have also become frequent vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases in the Gulf South, including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), transmitted by the lone star tick, and Maculatum disease, transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick. Recent environmental changes and human lifestyle choices now place humans and ticks together outdoors in the Gulf South for longer periods in welcoming ecosystems for breeding, blood-feeding, and infectious disease transmission. An increasing incidence of emerging and re-emerging, endemic infectious diseases transmitted by existing and unanticipated tick vectors may be expected. PMID:20108827

  11. Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Remais Justin; Kazura James; Tisch Daniel; Bockarie Moses; Gambhir Manoj; Spear Robert; Michael Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical ev...

  12. Microbial symbiosis and the control of vector-borne pathogens in tsetse flies, human lice, and triatomine bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassera, Davide; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Bandi, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    Symbiosis is a widespread biological phenomenon, and is particularly common in arthropods. Bloodsucking insects are among the organisms that rely on beneficial bacterial symbionts to complement their unbalanced diet. This review is focused on describing symbiosis, and possible strategies for the symbiont-based control of insects and insect-borne diseases, in three bloodsucking insects of medical importance: the flies of the genus Glossina, the lice of the genus Pediculus, and triatomine bugs of the subfamily Triatominae. Glossina flies are vector of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness and other pathologies. They are also associated with two distinct bacterial symbionts, the primary symbiont Wigglesworthia spp., and the secondary, culturable symbiont Sodalis glossinidius. The primary symbiont of human lice, Riesia pediculicola, has been shown to be fundamental for the host, due to its capacity to synthesize B-group vitamins. An antisymbiotic approach, with antibiotic treatment targeted on the lice symbionts, could represent an alternative strategy to control these ectoparasites. In the case of triatominae bugs, the genetic modification of their symbiotic Rhodococcus bacteria, for production of anti-Trypanosoma molecules, is an example of paratransgenesis, i.e. the use of symbiotic microorganism engineered in order to reduce the vector competence of the insect host. PMID:24188239

  13. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a non-pyrethroid insecticide will lead to improvement in the efficiency treatments thus reducing both the concentration of active ingredients and side effects for non-target organisms. The discovery of this insect specific site may pave the way for the development of new strategies essential in the management of chemical use against resistant mosquitoes. PMID:25961834

  14. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a non-pyrethroid insecticide will lead to improvement in the efficiency treatments thus reducing both the concentration of active ingredients and side effects for non-target organisms. The discovery of this insect specific site may pave the way for the development of new strategies essential in the management of chemical use against resistant mosquitoes. PMID:25961834

  15. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  16. Laboratory Identification of Arthropod Ectoparasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Bobbi S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. Included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. The public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. The focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the United States. Other arthropods and other organisms not of public health concern, but routinely submitted to laboratories for identification, are also briefly discussed. PMID:24396136

  17. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1 the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2 the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  18. Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remais Justin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and its implications for the global elimination of the major macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis, by applying a novel Bayesian computer simulation procedure to fit a dynamic model of the transmission of this parasitic disease to field data from nine villages with different ecological and geographical characteristics. Baseline lymphatic filariasis microfilarial age-prevalence data from three geographically distinct endemic regions, across which the major vector populations implicated in parasite transmission also differed, were used to fit and calibrate the relevant vector-specific filariasis transmission models. Ensembles of parasite elimination thresholds, generated using the Bayesian fitting procedure, were then examined in order to evaluate site-specific heterogeneity in the values of these thresholds and investigate the ecological factors that may underlie such variability Results We show that parameters of density-dependent functions relating to immunity, parasite establishment, as well as parasite aggregation, varied significantly between the nine different settings, contributing to locally varying filarial elimination thresholds. Parasite elimination thresholds predicted for the settings in which the mosquito vector is anopheline were, however, found to be higher than those in which the mosquito is culicine, substantiating our previous theoretical findings. The results also indicate that the probability that the parasite will be eliminated following six rounds of Mass Drug Administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole decreases markedly but non-linearly as the annual biting rate and parasite reproduction number increases. Conclusions This paper shows that specific ecological conditions in a community can lead to significant local differences in population dynamics and, consequently, elimination threshold estimates for lymphatic filariasis. These findings, and the difficulty of measuring the key local parameters (infection aggregation and acquired immunity governing differences in transmission thresholds between communities, mean that it is necessary for us to rethink the utility of the current anticipatory approaches for achieving the elimination of filariasis both locally and globally.

  19. The role of the ratio of vector and host densities in the evolution of transmission modes in vector-borne diseases. The example of sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M

    2012-11-01

    Pathogens may use different routes of transmission to maximize their spread among host populations. Theoretical and empirical work conducted on directly transmitted diseases suggest that horizontal (i.e., through host contacts) and vertical (i.e., from mother to offspring) transmission modes trade off, on the ground that highly virulent pathogens, which produce larger parasite loads, are more efficiently transmitted horizontally, and that less virulent pathogens, which impair host fitness less significantly, are better transmitted vertically. Other factors than virulence such as host density could also select for different transmission modes, but they have barely been studied. In vector-borne diseases, pathogen transmission rate is strongly affected by host-vector relative densities and by processes of saturation in contacts between hosts and vectors. The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by triatomine bugs to several vertebrate hosts is responsible for Chagas' disease in Latin America. It is also widespread in sylvatic cycles in the southeastern U.S. in which it typically induces no mortality costs to its customary hosts. Besides classical transmission via vector bites, alternative ways to generate infections in hosts such as vertical and oral transmission (via the consumption of vectors by hosts) have been reported in these cycles. The two major T. cruzi strains occurring in the U.S. seem to exhibit differential efficiencies at vertical and classical horizontal transmissions. We investigated whether the vector-host ratio affects the outcome of the competition between the two parasite strains using an epidemiological two-strain model considering all possible transmission routes for sylvatic T. cruzi. We were able to show that the vector-host ratio influences the evolution of transmission modes providing that oral transmission is included in the model as a possible transmission mode, that oral and classical transmissions saturate at different vector-host ratios and that the vector-host ratio is between the two saturation thresholds. Even if data on parasite strategies and demography of hosts and vectors in the field are crucially lacking to test to what extent the conditions needed for the vector-host ratio to influence evolution of transmission modes are plausible, our results open new perspectives for understanding the specialization of the two major T. cruzi strains occurring in the U.S. Our work also provides an original theoretical framework to investigate the evolution of alternative transmission modes in vector-borne diseases. PMID:22892441

  20. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected joint One type of infectious arthritis is reactive arthritis. The reaction is to an infection somewhere else ... is usually the knee, ankle, or toe. Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set off by an infection in the ...

  1. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  3. Environmental monitoring to enhance comprehension and control of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard; Ostfeld, Richard S; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-11-01

    In a world of emerging and resurging infectious diseases, dominated by zoonoses, environmental monitoring plays a vital role in our understanding their dynamics and their spillover to humans. Here, we critically review the ecology, epidemiology and need for monitoring of a variety of directly transmitted (Sin Nombre virus, Avian Influenza) and vector-borne (Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis) zoonoses. We focus on the valuable role that existing monitoring plays in the understanding of these zoonoses, the demands for new monitoring, and how improvements can be made to existing monitoring. We also identify the fruitful outcomes which would result from implementation of the monitoring demands we have highlighted. This review aims to promote improvements in our understanding of zoonoses, their management, and public health by encouraging discussion among researchers and public health officials. PMID:20957286

  4. Volcanism and arthropods: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Elizalde.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulcanismo y artrópodos: una revisión: Las erupciones volcánicas son disturbios naturales que imponen múltiples cambios en los ecosistemas. Los artrópodos se ubican entre los organismos más diversos del planeta y desempeñan un papel clave en el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. Sin embargo, la info [...] rmación existente sobre los efectos de los disturbios volcánicos sobre ellos es dispersa. El objetivo de esta revisión es identifcar generalidades en las respuestas de los artrópodos al vulcanismo. Principalmente, (1) ¿qué efecto tienen las erupciones volcánicas sobre los artrópodos?, (2) ¿qué características hacen que ciertas especies sean más resistentes al vulcanismo?, (3) ¿cómo se ensamblan sus comunidades después de una erupción? Los artrópodos terrestres y acuáticos muestran respuestas similares al vulcanismo, que afecta a sus poblaciones y comunidades, y los ecosistemas a través de las funciones que los artrópodos realizan. La mayoría de los estudios que evaluaron el efecto de la ceniza volcánica encontraron efectos negativos sobre la mortalidad y diferente susceptibilidad entre especies. La mortalidad en una misma especie varía según la cantidad de ceniza y la forma de exposición (contacto con el cuerpo, alimentos contaminados, modificación del hábitat), y la humedad relativa. En las pocas comunidades de artrópodos donde se estudiaron los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas, la riqueza, composición y abundancia de las especies son afectadas de alguna forma. Identifiqué rasgos morfológicos, fisiológicos, comportamentales y de historia de vida que parecen importantes para determinar respuestas de las especies al vulcanismo. Sin embargo, los conocimientos actuales son limitados y acotados a pocas erupciones volcánicas. Los estudios de eventos volcánicos pueden proporcionar una validación a escala del ecosistema de las predicciones sobre cómo el cambio climático y los cambios inducidos por el hombre, como una mayor concentración de partículas en suspensión o de emisión de gases al ambiente, pueden afectar a las comunidades de artrópodos. Abstract in english Volcanic eruptions are natural disturbances that impose multiple changes in ecosystems. Arthropods are among the most diverse organisms on the planet and play key functional roles in all ecosystems. Existing information on the effects of volcanic disturbances on arthropods is scattered. The aim of t [...] his review is to fnd generalities in the responses of arthropods from terrestrial and aquatic environments to volcanism. Mainly (1) what effects do volcanic disturbances have on arthropods?, (2) what characteristics make certain species more or less susceptible to volcanic disturbances?, and (3) how do arthropod communities reassemble after a volcanic disturbance? Terrestrial and aquatic arthropods show similar responses to volcanic disturbances. Volcanism can affect arthropod populations, communities, and ecosystems through the functions that arthropods perform. Most studies evaluated the effect of volcanic ash as the primary volcanic disturbance type and found that most species have higher mortality than controls, but species show different susceptibility to volcanism. However, mortality of a certain species varies by the amount of ash, how the species was exposed to ash (i.e. body contact, contaminated food, modification of the habitat), and relative humidity. In the few arthropod communities studied, richness, composition and abundance of species are affected to some degree by volcanic eruptions. I gathered information on a number of morphological, physiological, behavioral and life-history traits that seem important to determine species responses to volcanic disturbance. However, current knowledge of arthropod responses to volcanism is limited, and limited to few volcanic eruptions. More broadly, studies of volcanic events may provide ecosystem-scale insights on how climate change and human-induced changes, such as higher concentration of particles in suspension or gas emission to the en

  5. Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.

  6. Use of radioisotopes to elucidate the role of regurgitation for direct transfer of parasites or disease agents between host organisms through arthropod vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the transmission of parasites and disease agents by bloodfeeding arthropods, the hitherto neglected phenomenon of regurgitation is of the greatest importance. It makes possible the direct transfer of ingested blood, together with these disease agents, within the shortest period of time after intake without the interaction of any circulative or transformative processes in the vector. Owing to such direct transmission from host to host, the epidemiology of vector borne diseases (e.g. arbo-viruses or certain protozoan diseases such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniosis or even malaria) is influenced by additional factors. Regurgitative transmission should be considered in programmes of eradication and procedures of quarantine or isolation. We have examined the occurrence of regurgitation in a systematic way with the use of tracer techniques, in combination with other methods. The main arthropods are ticks (especially Ornithodoros moubata Murray), bloodsucking Hemiptera (e.g. Triatoma phyllosoma Burmeister), bloodsucking Muscidae (mainly Stomoxys calcitrans L.) and also mosquitoes. As can be shown with aphid, in which THO was used as a tracer, immediate transmission occurs in stable flies and soft ticks after labelling with 32P and 14C, and it can even be quantified. Also, the output of saliva secreted into and collected from the crop must be regarded as regurgitation rather than salivation. Since it can mix with previously ingested fooce it can mix with previously ingested food (blood plus disease agents), this type of regurgitation can also contribute to the transmission of diseases by arthropods. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. J., López-Antuñano.

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1) the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the i [...] nfectious agents and (2) the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  8. Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Guégan Jean-François; Roche Benjamin; Bousquet François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious dis...

  9. A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Climatic Drivers of Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Mia Akin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is considered to be a significant influence for infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Climatic and non-climatic developments act together resulting in current and future infectious disease risk. This study uses a survey to explore Dutch expert perspectives on climate change induced infectious disease risk. The results show that the experts consider temperature change, precipitation change, humidity change, and climate change induced habitat change to be relatively important for water-related infectious disease risk, vector-borne disease risk excluding zoonoses, and the risk of zoonoses. The climatic drivers are seen as relatively less important for food-related infectious disease risk. The experts rate many non-climatic drivers to be highly important for infectious disease risk. Comparatively, the majority of the non-climatic drivers assessed are seen as more important than climate change drivers. The degree of uncertainty in the future development of climatic drivers is viewed as moderate to high, and for non-climatic drivers mostly as moderate. An analysis of subsamples based on professional backgrounds reveals differences in experts’ opinions for e.g., socio-cultural drivers, and similarities. Diversity and consensus amongst expert perspectives on climate change and infectious diseases can have implications for policy. Further research to uncover and compare prevailing perspectives is necessary.

  10. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph R. Coelho

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of st...

  11. Tomographic Reconstruction of Carboniferous Arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Garwood, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Carboniferous fossils are often found as three-dimensional voids within siderite (FeCO3) nodules. Traditional techniques of study – splitting the host concretion and inspecting the surfaces revealed – do not allow the investigation of morphology within the part / counterpart, and prevent complete data recovery. X-ray micro-tomography (XMT) and 'virtual palaeontology' can overcome such limitations. This thesis documents the application of XMT to a number of Carboniferous arthropod ...

  12. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is...

  13. Recent trends in infectious diseases for travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A D; Roberts, K I

    2000-11-01

    In the early 1970s medicine was considered to have conquered infectious diseases. The following three decades have shown this optimism to be misplaced, with both traditional infections increasing in prevalence and novel diseases appearing. Many of these diseases have become major problems in developing countries, and coupled with the exponential growth in international traffic now pose a significant risk to the traveller. The threat to the package tourist differs greatly from that to the businessman, soldier or backpacker. The latter groups may have little control over their food and water supplies and be exposed to vector-borne and zoonotic infections normally restricted to remote locations. However the package holidaymaker may be involved in mass outbreaks of food poisoning with novel pathogens or acquire unusual infections from close proximity to other tourists. All groups may be susceptible to diseases transmitted during travel, and these may be more common than is presently recognised. The common factor is that all such infections may be transported around the world within their incubation period, and that any disease can now present to any doctor. Today more than ever before it is incumbent on any practitioner to ask not only 'where have you been?' but also 'what were you doing there?' PMID:11220023

  14. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  15. Delays in Reducing Waterborne and Water-related Infectious Diseases in China under Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica; Carlton, Elizabeth; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy; Remais, Justin V.

    2014-12-01

    Despite China’s rapid progress improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) infrastructure and access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation, and 401 million people lacked access to household piped water. Infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in climate, particularly temperature, and WSH conditions. To explore possible impacts of climate change on these diseases in China in 2020 and 2030, we coupled estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal disease and three vector-borne diseases, temperature projections from global climate models using four emissions pathways, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios and projected demographic changes. By 2030, the projected impacts would delay China’s historically rapid progress toward reducing the burden of WSH-attributable infectious disease by 8-85 months. This developmental delay provides a key summary measure of the impact of climate change in China, and in other societies undergoing rapid social, economic, and environmental change.

  16. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. McFarlane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010 and historical (1788–1973 review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20 of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

  17. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (pinfections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

  18. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. PMID:25620292

  19. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Coelho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  20. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. PMID:25065640

  1. Arthropod evolution: great brains, beautiful bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, D; Averof, M; Bacon, J P

    1995-11-01

    While arthropod phylogeny remains controversial, comparative studies of the genetic control of segmentation and of the nervous system have begun to throw light on how mandibulate arthropods (myriapods, crustaceans and insects) reached their current level of morphological and behavioural complexity. Insects and crustaceans show remarkable similarities in the construction of their brains, suggesting that their common ancestor had typically arthropod behaviour, while developmental genetic studies are consistent with this ancestor having had distinct head, trunk and tail regions. This conclusion contrasts with the influential view, drawn from comparative embryology and functional anatomy, that insects and crustaceans evolved independently from a simple worm-like organism, perhaps resembling an annelid. PMID:21237100

  2. Arthropods (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arthropods@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  3. Role of Arthropods in Maintaining Soil Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Culliney, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    In terms of species richness, arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the soil. Within the litter/soil system, five groups are chiefly represented: Isopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Acari, and Collembola, the latter two being by far the most abundant and diverse. Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers or ecosystem engineers. Litte...

  4. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  5. Seroconversion for infectious pathogens among UK military personnel deployed to Afghanistan, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Edmund N C; Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008-2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments. PMID:25418685

  6. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  7. Reevaluating the arthropod tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are the most diverse group of animals and have been so since the Cambrian radiation. They belong to the protostome clade Ecdysozoa, with Onychophora (velvet worms) as their most likely sister group and tardigrades (water bears) the next closest relative. The arthropod tree of life can be interpreted as a five-taxon network, containing Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Hexapoda, the last two forming the clade Tetraconata or Pancrustacea. The unrooted relationship of Tetraconata to the three other lineages is well established, but of three possible rooting positions the Mandibulata hypothesis receives the most support. Novel approaches to studying anatomy with noninvasive three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, the application of these techniques to new and old fossils, and the so-called next-generation sequencing techniques are at the forefront of understanding arthropod relationships. Cambrian fossils assigned to the arthropod stem group inform on the origin of arthropod characters from a lobopodian ancestry. Monophyly of Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Tetraconata, and Hexapoda is well supported, but the interrelationships of arachnid orders and the details of crustacean paraphyly with respect to Hexapoda remain the major unsolved phylogenetic problems. PMID:21910637

  8. Night and crepuscular mosquitoes and risk of vector-borne diseases in areas of piassaba extraction in the middle Negro River basin, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Cecília, Suárez-Mutis; Nelson Ferreira, Fé; Wilson, Alecrim; José Rodrigues, Coura.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of crepuscular and night-biting mosquitoes was conducted at remote settlements along the Padauiri River, middle Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Collections were performed with human bait and a CDC-light trap on three consecutive days per month from June 2003-May 2004. In total, 1,203 [...] h of collection were performed, of which 384 were outside and 819 were inside houses. At total of 11,612 specimens were captured, and Anophelinae (6.01%) were much less frequent than Culicinae (93.94%). Anopheles darlingi was the most frequent Anophelinae collected. Among the culicines, 2,666 Culex (Ae.) clastrieri Casal & Garcia, 2,394 Culex. (Mel.) vomerifer Komp, and 1,252 Culex (Mel.) eastor Dyar were the most frequent species collected. The diversity of insects found reveals the receptivity of the area towards a variety of diseases facilitated by the presence of vectors involved in the transmission of Plasmodium, arboviruses and other infectious agents.

  9. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  10. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

  11. Major Arthropod Pests of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    0000-00-00

    A comprehensive listing of arthropod pests arranged and searchable by commodity type. The listing includes pests of small fruits, ornamental plants, flowers, forests, corn, tobacco, turf, peanuts, cotton, and much more. Pests are listed by common and species name with life history data, images, and control strategies.

  12. Delays in reducing waterborne and water-related infectious diseases in China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica H.; Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy J.; Remais, Justin V.

    2014-12-01

    Despite China's rapid progress in improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation and 401 million to household piped water. As certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in 2020 and 2030 by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrhoeal diseases and three vector-borne diseases, temperature projections from global climate models, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios, and projected demographic changes. By 2030, climate change is projected to delay China's rapid progress towards reducing WSH-attributable infectious disease burden by 8-85 months. This development delay summarizes the adverse impact of climate change on WSH-attributable infectious diseases in China, and can be used in other settings where a significant health burden may accompany future changes in climate even as the total burden of disease falls owing to non-climate reasons.

  13. Advanced megaesophagus (Group III) secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant / Lactente de um ano e oito meses de idade com megaesôfago (Grupo III) por doença de Chagas adquirida vetorialmente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anis, Rassi; Joffre Marcondes de, Rezende; Anis, Rassi Junior.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de lactente com megaesôfago do Grupo III por doença de Chagas vetorialmente adquirida, responsável por acentuada desnutrição, da qual se recuperou com a cirurgia de Heller. Submetida em seguida a tratamento da infecção chagásica com benzonidazol, logrou cura, parasito e so [...] rologicamente demonstrada. Seguiram-se anos sem qualquer incidente, com desenvolvimento pondo-estatural normal. Teve seu primeiro filho aos 23 anos, em quem as provas sorológicas para doença de Chagas resultaram negativas. Decorridos 30 anos após o atendimento inicial, continuava com eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma e/ou exame radiológico do coração normais. Abstract in english The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III) megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique). The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infectio [...] n was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

  14. Prevalence of arthropod antibodies in Korean patients with allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Kyu-Yoon; Park, Joon-Soo; Ahn, Hyun-Cheol; Nam, Hae-Seon

    2001-01-01

    Arthropod antigens are main causative agents which induce allergic reponses in humans. However, little information is known about the prevalence of specific arthropod allergens in Koreans with allergic diseases. The current study was designed to determine the positive rates of arthropod antibodies by the Korean inhalant panel of MAST-CLA. One hundred sixty patients, who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis from an out-patient center at the Soonchunhyang University Chunan Hospital, were studi...

  15. Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil / Estudo da coinfecção por patógenos transmitidos por vetores em cães e carrapatos no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Ricardo, Gonçalves; Kilder Dantas, Filgueira; Silvia Maria Mendes, Ahid; Josivânia Soares, Pereira; André Mendes do, Vale; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado; Marcos Rogério, André.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cães que apresentam diversas doenças transmitidas por vetores podem mostrar nenhum ou alguns sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Dependendo da fase da infecção, a confirmação dos agentes envolvidos é necessária. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Ana [...] plasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. e Leishmania spp. em amostras de sangue e carrapatos, coletados em dois cães do Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos, quando foram usadas técnicas moleculares. DNA de E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum foram detectados em amostras de sangue e carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados dos cães. Entre todas as amostras analisadas, duas mostraram a presença de infecções múltiplas por E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum chagasi. Destaca-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico molecular diferencial em cães com sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Abstract in english Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hep [...] atozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

  16. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  17. Landscape epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, William K

    2010-01-01

    Landscape epidemiology describes how the temporal dynamics of host, vector, and pathogen populations interact spatially within a permissive environment to enable transmission. The spatially defined focus, or nidus, of transmission may be characterized by vegetation as well as by climate, latitude, elevation, and geology. The ecological complexity, dimensions, and temporal stability of the nidus are determined largely by pathogen natural history and vector bionomics. Host populations, transmission efficiency, and therefore pathogen amplification vary spatially, thereby creating a heterogeneous surface that may be defined by remote sensing and statistical tools. The current review describes the evolution of landscape epidemiology as a science and exemplifies selected aspects by contrasting the ecology of two different recent disease outbreaks in North America caused by West Nile virus, an explosive, highly virulent mosquito-borne virus producing ephemeral nidi, and Borrelia burgdorferi, a slowly amplifying chronic pathogen producing semipermanent nidi. PMID:19737082

  18. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worms Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Immunizations ? Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should ...

  19. Infectious Diseases Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

  20. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war. Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war. Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients. Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  1. Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klink, R; van der Plas, F; van Noordwijk, C G E Toos; WallisDeVries, M F; Olff, H

    2015-05-01

    Both arthropods and large grazing herbivores are important components and drivers of biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, but a synthesis of how arthropod diversity is affected by large herbivores has been largely missing. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature search, which yielded 141 studies on this topic of which 24 simultaneously investigated plant and arthropod diversity. Using the data from these 24 studies, we compared the responses of plant and arthropod diversity to an increase in grazing intensity. This quantitative assessment showed no overall significant effect of increasing grazing intensity on plant diversity, while arthropod diversity was generally negatively affected. To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web. We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions. In general, heterogeneity in vegetation structure and abiotic conditions increases at intermediate grazing intensity, but declines at both low and high grazing intensity. We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate. This is expected to occur only at low herbivore densities or with spatio-temporal variation in herbivore densities. As we demonstrate that arthropod diversity is often more negatively affected by grazing than plant diversity, we strongly recommend considering the specific requirements of arthropods when applying grazing management and to include arthropods in monitoring schemes. Conservation strategies aiming at maximizing heterogeneity, including regulation of herbivore densities (through human interventions or top-down control), maintenance of different types of management in close proximity and rotational grazing regimes, are the most promising options to conserve arthropod diversity. PMID:24837856

  2. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. PMID:25700537

  3. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey / Distribución espacial de agentes patógenos transmitidos por vectores en perros en la región del Egeo, Turquía

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kerem, Ural; Mehmet, Gultekin; Abidin, Atasoy; Bulent, Ulutas.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la distribución espacial de la seroprevalencia de la infección de 4 agentes patógenos de transmisión por vectores Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi y Dirofilaria immitis, en los estados costeros de la región del Egeo con especial referencia a los sign [...] os clínicos y las variaciones hematológicas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron por conveniencia muestras de sangre de al menos 10 perros en las ciudades Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla y Manisa. Para la evaluación de las muestras se utilizó un kit de ELISA para la detencción de anticuerpos de las enfermedades del estudio. Resultados. De los 307 perros muestreados, la seroprevalencia más alta fue para E. canis (24.42%), seguido por la coinfección entre E. canis + A. phagocytophilum (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) y D. immitis (2.28%). Sólo 2 casos fueron seropositivos para B. burgdorferi aunque 10 perros fueron coinfectados con más de 2 agentes. En ambos perros infectados con E. canis y coinfectados con E. canis y A. phagocytophilum, se detectó comúnmente anemia, trombocitopenia y leucocitosis, mientras que la trombocitopenia y leucocitosis fueron significativos en perros infectados con A. phagocytophilum o D. immitis , respectivamente. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas para los promedios de RBC, hemoglobina, hematocrito y valores PLT (p Abstract in english Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and [...] haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%), followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) and D. immitis (2.28%). Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p

  4. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  5. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  6. Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene sil be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

  7. [Infectious pulmonary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D

    2014-11-01

    Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

  8. Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; ?ížek, Lukáš; Cuénoud, P.; Didham, R. K.; Guilhaumon, F.; Missa, O.; Novotný, Vojt?ch; Odegaard, F.; Roslin, T.; Schmidl, J.; Tishechkin, A. K.; Winchester, N. N.; Roubik, D. W.; Aberlenc, H.-P.; Bail, J.; Barrios, H.; Bridle, J. R.; Castano-Meneses, G.; Corbara, B.; Curletti, G.; Duarte da Rocha, W.; De Bakker, D.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Dejean, A.; Fagan, L. L.; Florean, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Medianero, E.; Miller, S. E.; Gama de Oliveira, E.; Orivel, J.; Pollet, M.; Rapp, M.; Riberio, S. P.; Roisin, Y.; Schmidt, J. B.; Sorensen, L.; Leponce, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 338, ?. 6113 (2012), s. 1481-1484. ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/0115; GA ?R GAP504/12/1952 Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0841885; University of Canterbury and Royal Scoiety of New Zealand(NZ) PNX0011-2009; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship(AU) FT100100040; Ciencia e a Tecnologia(PT) PTDC/AAC-AMB/098163/2008; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0516311; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0949790 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : arthropod diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 31.027, year: 2012 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6113/1481.full

  9. High levels of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA determined by qPCR and infectiousness to Triatoma infestans support dogs and cats are major sources of parasites for domestic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, G F; Bua, J; Orozco, M M; Wirth, S; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V

    2014-07-01

    The competence of reservoir hosts of vector-borne pathogens is directly linked to its capacity to infect the vector. Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, and exhibit a much higher infectiousness to triatomines than seropositive humans. We quantified the concentration of T. cruzi DNA in the peripheral blood of naturally-infected dogs and cats (a surrogate of intensity of parasitemia), and evaluated its association with infectiousness to the vector in a high-risk area of the Argentinean Chaco. To measure infectiousness, 44 infected dogs and 15 infected cats were each exposed to xenodiagnosis with 10-20 uninfected, laboratory-reared Triatoma infestans that blood-fed to repletion and were later individually examined for infection by optical microscopy. Parasite DNA concentration (expressed as equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL, Pe/mL) was estimated by real-time PCR amplification of the nuclear satellite DNA. Infectiousness increased steeply with parasite DNA concentration both in dogs and cats. Neither the median parasite load nor the mean infectiousness differed significantly between dogs (8.1Pe/mL and 48%) and cats (9.7Pe/mL and 44%), respectively. The infectiousness of dogs was positively and significantly associated with parasite load and an index of the host's body condition, but not with dog's age, parasite discrete typing unit and exposure to infected bugs in a random-effects multiple logistic regression model. Real-time PCR was more sensitive and less time-consuming than xenodiagnosis, and in conjunction with the body condition index, may be used to identify highly infectious hosts and implement novel control strategies. PMID:24732410

  10. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Sperança

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

  11. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Aparecida, Sperança; Margareth Lara, Capurro.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, ar [...] e not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

  12. How Infectious Was #Deflategate?

    CERN Document Server

    Eager, Eric; Peirce, James

    2015-01-01

    On Monday January 19, 2015 a story broke that the National Football League (NFL) had started an investigation into whether the New England Patriots deliberately deflated the footballs they used during their championship win over the Indianapolis Colts. Like an infectious disease, discussion regarding Deflategate grew rapidly on social media sites in the hours and days after the release of the story. However, after the Super Bowl was over, the scandal slowly began to dissipate and lost much of the attention it had originally had, as interest in the NFL wained at the completion of its season. We construct a simple epidemic model for the infectiousness of the Deflategate news story. We then use data from the social media site Twitter to estimate the parameters of this model using standard techniques from the study of inverse problems. We find that the infectiousness (as measured by the basic reproduction number) of Deflategate rivals that of any infectious disease that we are aware of, and is actually more infec...

  13. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems. (review article)

  14. Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Mobile Pocketcards The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) represents physicians, scientists and other health care ... CARB) >> Read More The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) welcomes the release of the National Action ...

  15. Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heraldo L., Vasconcelos; Emilio M., Bruna.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestatio [...] n and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects), and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.

  16. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Wolbachia of Nematodes and Arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Fenn, Katelyn; Conlon, Claire; Jones, Martin; Quail, Michael A; Holroyd, Nancy E.; Parkhill, Julian; Blaxter, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequence...

  17. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ober, Holly K.; Degroote, Lucas W.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  18. The incidence of bacterial endosymbionts in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Lucy A; Araujo-Jnr, Eli V; Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Welch, John J

    2015-05-22

    Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria are found in many terrestrial arthropods and have a profound influence on host biology. A basic question about these symbionts is why they infect the hosts that they do, but estimating symbiont incidence (the proportion of potential host species that are actually infected) is complicated by dynamic or low prevalence infections. We develop a maximum-likelihood approach to estimating incidence, and testing hypotheses about its variation. We apply our method to a database of screens for bacterial symbionts, containing more than 3600 distinct arthropod species and more than 150 000 individual arthropods. After accounting for sampling bias, we estimate that 52% (CIs: 48-57) of arthropod species are infected with Wolbachia, 24% (CIs: 20-42) with Rickettsia and 13% (CIs: 13-55) with Cardinium. We then show that these differences stem from the significantly reduced incidence of Rickettsia and Cardinium in most hexapod orders, which might be explained by evolutionary differences in the arthropod immune response. Finally, we test the prediction that symbiont incidence should be higher in speciose host clades. But while some groups do show a trend for more infection in species-rich families, the correlations are generally weak and inconsistent. These results argue against a major role for parasitic symbionts in driving arthropod diversification. PMID:25904667

  19. Management effect on bird and arthropod interaction in suburban woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Bengt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiments from a range of ecosystems have shown that insectivorous birds are important in controlling the populations of their invertebrate prey. Here, we report on a large field experiment testing the hypothesis that management for enhancing recreational values in suburban woodlands affects the intensity of bird predation on canopy-living arthropods. Bird exclosures were used in two types of management (understory clearance and dense understory at two foraging heights in oak Quercus robur canopies and the experiment was replicated at two sites. Results The biomass and abundance of arthropods were high on net-enclosed branches but strongly reduced on control branches in both types of management. In woods with dense understory, the effect of bird predation on arthropod abundance was about twice as high as in woods with understory clearance. The effect of bird predation on arthropod biomass was not significantly affected by management. Conclusions Our data provide experimental evidence to support the idea that bird predation on arthropods can be affected by forest management. We suggest that the mechanism is twofold: reduction of bird abundance and shift of foraging behaviour. In urban woodlands, there may be a management trade-off between enhancing recreational values and promoting bird predation rates on arthropods.

  20. What does not kill them makes them stronger: larval environment and infectious dose alter mosquito potential to transmit filarial worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Jennifer A; Schumacher, Molly K; Juliano, Steven A

    2014-07-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, larval environments can modify adult phenotypes. For mosquitoes and other vectors, when physiological impacts of stressors acting on larvae carry over into the adult stage they may interact with infectious dose of a vector-borne pathogen, producing a range of phenotypes for vector potential. Investigation of impacts of a common source of stress, larval crowding and intraspecific competition, on adult vector interactions with pathogens may increase our understanding of the dynamics of pathogen transmission by mosquito vectors. Using Aedes aegypti and the nematode parasite Brugia pahangi, we demonstrate dose dependency of fitness effects of B. pahangi infection on the mosquito, as well as interactions between competitive stress among larvae and infectious dose for resulting adults that affect the physiological and functional ability of mosquitoes to act as vectors. Contrary to results from studies on mosquito-arbovirus interactions, our results suggest that adults from crowded larvae may limit infection better than do adults from uncrowded controls, and that mosquitoes from high-quality larval environments are more physiologically and functionally capable vectors of B. pahangi. Our results provide another example of how the larval environment can have profound effects on vector potential of resulting adults. PMID:24827444

  1. Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The definition of "emerging" infectious diseases includes those diseases "whose incidences in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases continues to be an invaluable resource for public health professionals, scholars, and others. On the journal's homepage, users can read over the current issue and take a look at all of the articles and various commentaries contained within. Visitors can also peruse the archive, which dates back to the journal's first issue in 1995. As with many online journals, visitors can sign up to receive their RSS feed and they even have a podcast archive. The podcasts are a nice bonus, and they include programs like "Strategies For Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries" and "The Mystery of Increased Hospitalization of Elderly Patients".

  2. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health intera...

  3. Microspectrophotometry of arthropod visual screening pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, G K; Casella, A J

    1972-05-01

    Absorption spectra of visual screening pigments obtained in vitro with a microspectrophotometer using frozen sections are given for the insects Musca domestica, Phormia regina, Libellula luctuosa, Apis mellifera (worker honeybee only), Drosophila melanogaster (wild type only) and the arachnids Lycosa baltimoriana and Lycosa miami. The spectral range covered is 260-700 nm for Lycosa and Drosophila and 310-700 nm for the remainder of the arthropods. A complete description of the instrumentation is given. For the flies, Phormia and Musca, light absorption by the yellow and red pigments is high from 310 to about 610 nm. This implies that for these insects there should be no wavelength shift in electroretinogram (ERG) results due to light leakage among neighboring ommatidia for this wavelength range. The same comment applies to Calliphora erythrocephala, which is known to have similar screening pigments. For some of the insects studied a close correspondence is noted between screening pigment absorption spectra and spectral sensitivity curves for individual photoreceptors, available in the literature. In some cases the screening pigment absorption spectra can be related to chemical extraction results, with the general observation that some of the in vitro absorption peaks are shifted to the red. The Lycosa, Apis, and Libellula dark red pigments absorb strongly over a wide spectral range and therefore prevent chemical identification. PMID:4623852

  4. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury...Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, Funding...Surveillance, and Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA...

  5. Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Christensen, Stina

    2013-01-01

    1. Many plants are simultaneously attacked by arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens. These may affect each other directly and indirectly, enhancing or reducing the amount of plant resources they each consume. Ultimately, this may reduce or enhance plant performance relative to what should be expected from the added impacts of herbivore and pathogen when they attack alone. 2. Previous studies have suggested synergistic and antagonistic impacts on plant performance from certain combinations of arthropods and pathogens, for example, synergistic impacts from necrotrophic pathogens together with wounding arthropods because of facilitated infection and antagonistic impacts from induction of pathogen resistance by sucking herbivores. 3. We compiled published studies on the impact of plant–herbivore–pathogen interactions on plant performance and used meta-analysis to search for consistent patterns of impacts among plant, herbivore and pathogen characteristics and experimental conditions, and to test the suggested hypotheses on synergistic or antagonistic impacts. 4. None of the hypotheses based on proximate interactions between arthropods and pathogens were supported by our analysis; in contrast, the patterns we found were related to plant traits and experimental conditions. 5. Our results suggest that immediate loss of resources from interactions between arthropod herbivores and pathogens is generally moderated by compensation to an extent where there are no interactive effects on plant performance. However, as interactive impacts also differed among environments and parasite manipulation methods, this suggests that the ability of plants to compensate such losses may depend on environmental conditions and probably also overall infection load.

  6. Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

  7. Infectious Disease Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael

    2009-09-01

    The Infectious Disease Research Network (IDRN) has been in operation since 2001, with an overall aim to promote multidisciplinary collaborations and increase the capacity of multidisciplinary translational research in the UK. The Network has achieved this by utilizing several different forms of activity, including the running of research strategy workshops, organizing of protocol development groups and creation of a website containing several tools and resources. These resources include a researchers' database, funding and training bulletins, and hosting study webpages. The Network has >1500 members, and covers all regions in the UK. The IDRN website is www.idrn.org. Activity has encompassed several priority research areas, including antimicrobial resistance. PMID:19675015

  8. Infectious abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs

  9. The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medic...

  10. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine. PMID:15081501

  11. Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2006-10-01

    Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasite. The living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. Body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population. Fleas are widespread but are not adapted to a specific host and may occasionally bite humans. Most common fleas that parasite humans are the cat, the rat, and the human fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, Xenopsylla cheopis, and Pulex irritans, respectively. Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae, in particular, the genera Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Ixodes, are frequent parasites in humans. Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is a mite (Arachnida class) responsible for scabies. It is an obligate parasite of human skin. The hematophagic-biting mite, Liponyssoides sanguineus, is a mite of the rat, mouse, and other domestic rodents but can also bite humans. Finally, the incidence of skin disease secondary to infestation with the human bedbug, Cimex lectularius, has increased recently. Bacteria, such as Wolbacchia spp. have been detected in bedbug. The threat posed by the ectoparasite in homeless is not the ectoparasite themselves but the associated infectious diseases that they may transmit to humans. Except for scabies all these ectoparasites are potential vectors for infectious agents. Three louse-borne diseases are known at this time. Trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana (B. quintana), epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, and relapsing fever caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis. Fleas transmit plague (Xenopsylla cheopis and Pulex irritans), murine typhus (Xenopsylla cheopis), flea-borne spotted rickettsiosis on account of the recently described species Rickettsia felis (C. felis), and occasionally cat scratch disease on account of Bartonella henselae (C. felis). The role of fleas as potential vector of B. quintana has recently been suggested. Among the hematophagic-biting mites, L. sanguineus, is responsible for the transmission of Rickettsia akari, the etiologic agent of rickettsialpox. Virtually, no data are available on tick-borne disease in this population. This article will deal with epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these ectoparasite and the infectious diseases they transmit to the homeless people. PMID:17114713

  12. Inbreeding and the evolution of sociality in arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Nozari, Jamasb; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2012-10-01

    Animals have evolved strategies to optimally balance costs and benefits of inbreeding. In social species, these adaptations can have a considerable impact on the structure, the organization, and the functioning of groups. Here, we consider how selection for inbreeding avoidance fashions the social behavior of arthropods, a phylum exhibiting an unparalleled richness of social lifestyles. We first examine life histories and parental investment patterns determining whether individuals should actively avoid or prefer inbreeding. Next, we illustrate the diversity of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in arthropods, from the dispersal of individuals to the rejection of kin during mate choice and the production of unisexual broods by females. Then, we address the particular case of haplodiploid insects. Finally, we discuss how inbreeding may drive and shape the evolution of arthropods societies along two theoretical pathways.

  13. [2013 update about arthropod envenomations in French Guyana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, F; Imbert, C

    2014-02-01

    French Guiana, by its geographical situation, its climate and its biodiversity, is often called "the green hell". Indeed, this French department of America shelters a wildlife rich, abundant among which many species of arthropods, some of which are responsible for envenomations. These accidents consist of scorpion's or hymenoptera's stings or spider's bites. The associated clinical aspect is variable, from simple pain to circulatory collapse, or lung oedema. However, symptomatology is generally mild; four deaths associated to arthropod envenomations have been reported in the past 25 years. This article focuses on envenomations in French Guiana, describing favoring human behavior, risks and venoms associated with the main related animal species. PMID:24415535

  14. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  15. Global mapping of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

    2013-03-19

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

  16. Infectious keratitis following keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajpayee, Rasik B; Sharma, Namrata; Sinha, Rajesh; Agarwal, Tushar; Singhvi, Arun

    2007-01-01

    Infectious keratitis following corneal transplantation is one of the leading causes of failure of a corneal graft. The incidence of graft infection is variable, with developing countries having a higher incidence. The majority of the graft infections occur within 1 year of the corneal transplantation. Suture-related problems and persistent epithelial defect are the most common risk factors predisposing to graft infection. Pneumococcus species and Staphylococcus aureus have been found to be the commonest microorganisms in the developed world, whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most often detected microorganism in corneal graft infection in the developing world. The early identification of predisposing risk factors in patients and their appropriate management at the earliest may prevent the occurrence of graft infection and might improve graft survival. Visual prognosis in eyes with post-keratoplasty graft infection is poor even after optimal therapy and there is a high rate of graft decompensation. PMID:17212987

  17. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  18. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Article Body If your child has a recurring ... What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical doctors ...

  19. Introduction to the Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP): Systematics, Biogeography, Ecology, and Population Genetics of Arthropods of the Madrean Sky Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Wendy; Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; Wiens, John F.; Brusca, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP) is a new multi-disciplinary research program at the University of Arizona that combines systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics to study origins and patterns of arthropod diversity along elevation gradients and among mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Island Region. Arthropods represent taxonomically and ecologically diverse organisms that drive key ecosystem processes in this mountain archipelago. Using data from museum spec...

  20. Injuries caused by arthropods: diagnostic and therapeutic approach in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lauria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by arthropods, primarily insects and arachnids, represent a significant source of lesions and allergies even in Italy, a country that has a negligible number of species with important toxicological characteristics from an emergency medicine point of view; unlike areas such as the Americas or Africa (including northern Africa where highly toxic autochthonous species are present, whose bite or sting can be life-threatening. Medical consultation both in hospital Emergency Rooms and general practitioners’ surgeries is markedly seasonal, occurring mainly in the spring and summer (April – September, consistent with arthropod activity. At the current time, in Italy, urgent acute arthropod-related injuries are rare and usually involve type I hypersensitivity, and in most cases they are localised lesions that cause discomfort. The aim of the article is to briefly summarise the species of insects and arachnids that are most frequently cause for medical consultation in Italy and to provide assistance in the diagnostic and therapeutic plan, focusing in particular on the importance of health education that in many acute arthropod-derived cases can play an important part in preventing reoccurrence.

  1. Eversible vesicles- organ of water uptake in arthropods.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weyda, František

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Entomologický ústav AV ?R, 2002. s. 28. [Czech Republic- Taiwan New Entomological Techniques Cooperation and Development Symposium. 25.10.2002-28.10.2002, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : arthropod * Myriapoda * Apterygota Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  2. Eversible vesicles- organ of water uptake in arthropods.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weyda, František

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Entomology, 2002. s. 28. [Czech Republic - Taiwan New Entomological Techniques Cooperation and Development Symposium. 25.11.2002-28.11.2002, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Arthropods * water-absorbing Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  3. Molecular survey of arthropod-borne pathogens in ticks obtained from Japanese wildcats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Morihiro; Sunahara, Ayano; Nakanishi, Nozomi; Izawa, Masako; Matsuo, Tomohide; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Iriomote cat (IC), Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis, and the Tsushima leopard cat (TLC), Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, are endangered subspecies of leopard cats in Japan. In addition to habitat destruction and road kills, infectious diseases may threaten their populations, and infection with arthropod-borne pathogens has been reported in both subspecies. Infestations with ectoparasites, especially ticks, have frequently been observed in ICs and TLCs. In the present study, ticks collected from captured ICs and TLCs between November 2011 and January 2012 were morphologically identified and the prevalence of the pathogens Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Anaplasma sp., Hepatozoon sp., and hemoplasmas in the ticks was molecularly evaluated. The ticks Haemaphysalis longicornis, H. hystricis, and Amblyomma testudinarium were obtained from ICs, and H. megaspinosa, Ixodes tanuki, H. campanulata, and A. testudinarium were collected from TLCs. The pathogens Hepatozoon felis, Babesia sp., and Anaplasma bovis were detected in ticks obtained from ICs, while H. felis. Babesia sp., Ehrlichia sp., E. muris, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and Bartonella henselae were found in ticks from TLCs. To protect and conserve these endangered animals, continuous monitoring and additional surveys will be necessary to understand the role of ticks as disease vectors in Japanese wildcats. PMID:25682495

  4. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâ??s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  5. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Hidalgo.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to oc [...] cur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a) chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b) latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c) fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

  6. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hidalgo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

  7. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of defo...

  8. IDBD: Infectious Disease Biomarker Database

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P.; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an ea...

  9. Global mapping of infectious disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Si; Battle, Ke; Pigott, Dm; Smith, Dl; Moyes, Cl; Bhatt, S.; Brownstein, Js; Collier, N.; Myers, Mf; George, Db; Gething, Pw

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for ...

  10. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management / Responsabilisation des agriculteurs dans le cadre de la lutte intégrée contre les vecteurs pour faire reculer les maladies à transmission vectorielle / Reducir las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores empoderando a los agricultores en la lucha antivectorial integrada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henk, van den Berg; Alexander, von Hildebrand; Vaithilingam, Ragunathan; Pradeep K, Das.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEMA: La agricultura de regadío expone a la población rural a riesgos sanitarios asociados a las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y a los plaguicidas utilizados en la agricultura y para proteger la salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo se da una falta de colaboración entr [...] e los sectores agrícola y sanitario para abordar conjuntamente estos problemas. MÉTODOS: Presentamos una evaluación de un proyecto que utiliza el método de la «escuela de campo para agricultores» para enseñar a los campesinos la manera de controlar las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y mejorar la producción de arroz. El adiestramiento simultáneo de los agricultores en esos dos ámbitos es lo que se conoce como «control integrado de plagas y vectores». CONTEXTO LOCAL: Un proyecto intersectorial centrado en los sistemas de riego de plantaciones de arroz en Sri Lanka. CAMBIOS DESTACABLES: Los asociados del proyecto desarrollaron un nuevo programa de estudios para la escuela de campo que incluía un componente de control de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial. Los cultivadores de arroz de las aldeas de intervención salidos de la escuela de campo tomaron medidas de lucha antivectorial y de mejora tanto del saneamiento ambiental como de su protección personal contra la transmisión de enfermedades. Además redujeron su utilización de plaguicidas agrícolas, especialmente de insecticidas. ENSEÑANZAS EXTRAÍDAS: La intervención motivó a la población rural y le permitió participar en las actividades de control de los vectores y reducir varios riesgos para la salud ambiental. Es posible ampliar el programa de estudios para incluir información sobre los efectos perjudiciales de los plaguicidas en la salud humana y abordar otros aspectos preocupantes para la salud pública. Los beneficios de este enfoque para los programas de salud comunitarios todavía no se han evaluado de manera óptima. Además, es necesario ampliar la base institucional del control integrado para que puedan participar personas de una más amplia variedad de organizaciones, y hay que establecer un sistema de seguimiento y evaluación para medir el desempeño de las iniciativas de control integrado. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. A [...] PPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. Teaching farmers about these two concepts together is known as "integrated pest and vector management". LOCAL SETTING: An intersectoral project targeting rice irrigation systems in Sri Lanka. RELEVANT CHANGES: Project partners developed a new curriculum for the field school that included a component on vector-borne diseases. Rice farmers in intervention villages who graduated from the field school took vector-control actions as well as improving environmental sanitation and their personal protection measures against disease transmission. They also reduced their use of agricultural pesticides, especially insecticides. LESSONS LEARNED: The intervention motivated and enabled rural people to take part in vector-management activities and to reduce several environmental health risks. There is scope for expanding the curriculum to include information on the harmful effects of pesticides on human health and to address other public health concerns. Benefits of this approach for community-based health programmes have not yet been optimally assessed. Also, the institutional basis of the integrated management approach needs to be broadened so that people from a wider range of organizations take part. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to measure the performance of integrated management initiatives.

  11. Florida State Collection of Arthropods - Museum of Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website presents the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) Museum of Entomology, a great resource for researchers from around the world, currently housing an "estimated 8.15 million prepared specimens including 3,500 primary and at least 15,000 secondary types." The site links to sections on Collections and Major Holdings, Publications of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Research Associates Program, Entomology Links, and more. The site also links to a list of the FSCA Entomologists (including their research interests and contact information), and to the Center for Systematic Entomology which provides information about annual grants for taxonomic researchers, and publications such as their quarterly journal, _Insecta Mundi_. The site links to several Taxonomic Databases as well, although lightning damage to the server has rendered them non-operational at present.

  12. Invasive alien arthropod predators and parasitoids: an ecological approach.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Understanding invasion biology, and the dynamics of biological control practices, requires a multidisciplinary approach, embracing and integrating all the research tools at our disposal, particularly modern molecular and modelling techniques. This book provides a comprehensive and current overview of invasive alien arthropod predators and parasitoids through 20 chapters, contributed by 69 internationally renowned scientists (previously published as peer-reviewed papers in BioControl – Augus...

  13. Ad-Hoc vs. Standardized and Optimized Arthropod Diversity Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cardoso; Crespo, Luís C.; Rui Carvalho; Rufino, Ana C.; Henriques, Sérgio S

    2009-01-01

    The use of standardized and optimized protocols has been recently advocated for different arthropod taxa instead of ad-hoc sampling or sampling with protocols defined on a case-by-case basis. We present a comparison of both sampling approaches applied for spiders in a natural area of Portugal. Tests were made to their efficiency, over-collection of common species, singletons proportions, species abundance distributions, average specimen size, average taxonomic distinctness and behavior of ric...

  14. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the arthropod tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusemann, Karen; von Reumont, Björn M; Simon, Sabrina; Roeding, Falko; Strauss, Sascha; Kück, Patrick; Ebersberger, Ingo; Walzl, Manfred; Pass, Günther; Breuers, Sebastian; Achter, Viktor; von Haeseler, Arndt; Burmester, Thorsten; Hadrys, Heike; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard

    2010-11-01

    Arthropods were the first animals to conquer land and air. They encompass more than three quarters of all described living species. This extraordinary evolutionary success is based on an astoundingly wide array of highly adaptive body organizations. A lack of robustly resolved phylogenetic relationships, however, currently impedes the reliable reconstruction of the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we show that phylogenomic data can substantially advance our understanding of arthropod evolution and resolve several conflicts among existing hypotheses. We assembled a data set of 233 taxa and 775 genes from which an optimally informative data set of 117 taxa and 129 genes was finally selected using new heuristics and compared with the unreduced data set. We included novel expressed sequence tag (EST) data for 11 species and all published phylogenomic data augmented by recently published EST data on taxonomically important arthropod taxa. This thorough sampling reduces the chance of obtaining spurious results due to stochastic effects of undersampling taxa and genes. Orthology prediction of genes, alignment masking tools, and selection of most informative genes due to a balanced taxa-gene ratio using new heuristics were established. Our optimized data set robustly resolves major arthropod relationships. We received strong support for a sister group relationship of onychophorans and euarthropods and strong support for a close association of tardigrades and cycloneuralia. Within pancrustaceans, our analyses yielded paraphyletic crustaceans and monophyletic hexapods and robustly resolved monophyletic endopterygote insects. However, our analyses also showed for few deep splits that were recently thought to be resolved, for example, the position of myriapods, a remarkable sensitivity to methods of analyses. PMID:20534705

  15. Low-cost wind tunnel for micro-arthropods.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav; Reindl, František

    Wageningen : Noldus Information Technology bv, 2008 - (Spink, A.; Ballintijn, M.; Bogers, N.; Grieco, F.; Loijens, L.; Noldus, L.; Smit, G.; Zimmerman, P.), s. 263-264 ISBN 978-90-74821-81-0. [International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research /6./. Maastricht (NL), 26.08.2008-29.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : micro -arthropods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Arthropod colonisation of a debris-covered glacier

    OpenAIRE

    Isaia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The largest debris-covered glacier in the Alps (Miage Glacier, western Italian Alps) has been studied to explore the effects of debris-cover extent and depth on the spatial distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods. A multitaxa approach has been used to compare taxa richness and distribution to the functional role (dietary habits) of each taxon along the glacier tongue. Spiders and ground beetles have been studied in detail. Taxa richness declines with distance from the wooded sites (in fron...

  17. Interaction between arthropod filiform hairs in a fluid enviroment

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Bree; Gedeon, Toma?s?; Klapper, Isaac; Cortez, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Many arthropods use filiform hairs as mechanoreceptors to detect air motion. In common house crickets (Acheta domestica) the hairs cover two antenna-like appendages called cerci at the rear of the abdomen. The biomechanical stimulus-response properties of individual filiform hairs have been investigated and modeled extensively in several earlier studies. However, only a few previous studies have considered viscosity-mediated coupling between pairs of hairs, and only in particular configuratio...

  18. The i5K Initiative: advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world's terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effort via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists. With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind. PMID:23940263

  19. RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthropods (ISSN 2224-4255

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  20. Changes in Arthropod Fauna From Weed Management Practices in Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Albajes; Belén Lumbierres; Xavier Pons; Jordi Comas

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified maize tolerant to broad-spectrum herbicides may greatly alter weed flora composition, abundance and therefore affect organisms of higher trophic levels, including herbivore and detritivore arthropods and their natural enemies. This three-year study measured the effects on arthropods of an intensive use of broad-spectrum herbicides in comparison with one application of conventional pre-emergence herbicide. Numbers of arthropods were measured by three techniques: visual cou...

  1. Vertical T-maze Choice Assay for Arthropod Response to Odorants

    OpenAIRE

    Stelinski, Lukasz; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of insects and arachnids as pests of agricultural crops, urban environments or as vectors of plant and human diseases, various technologies are being developed as control tools. A subset of these tools focuses on modifying the behavior of arthropods by attraction or repulsion. Therefore, arthropods are often the focus of behavioral investigations. Various tools have been developed to measure arthropod behavior, including wind tunnels, flight mills, servospheres, ...

  2. Bioinformatic prediction of arthropod/nematode-like peptides in non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Nolan, Daniel H; Garcia, Zachery A; McCoole, Matthew D; Harmon, Sarah M; Congdon-Jones, Benjamin; Ohno, Paul; Hartline, Niko; Congdon, Clare Bates; Baer, Kevin N; Lenz, Petra H

    2011-02-01

    The Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, along with the Arthropoda, Nematoda and several other small phyla, form the superphylum Ecdysozoa. Numerous peptidomic studies have been undertaken for both the arthropods and nematodes, resulting in the identification of many peptides from each group. In contrast, little is known about the peptides used as paracrines/hormones by species from the other ecdysozoan taxa. Here, transcriptome mining and bioinformatic peptide prediction were used to identify peptides in members of the Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, the only non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa for which there are publicly accessible expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The extant ESTs for each phylum were queried using 106 arthropod/nematode peptide precursors. Transcripts encoding calcitonin-like diuretic hormone and pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) were identified for the onychophoran Peripatopsis sedgwicki, with transcripts encoding C-type allatostatin (C-AST) and FMRFamide-like peptide identified for the priapulid Priapulus caudatus. For the Tardigrada, transcripts encoding members of the A-type allatostatin, C-AST, insect kinin, orcokinin, PDH and tachykinin-related peptide families were identified, all but one from Hypsibius dujardini (the exception being a Milnesium tardigradum orcokinin-encoding transcript). The proteins deduced from these ESTs resulted in the prediction of 48 novel peptides, six onychophoran, eight priapulid and 34 tardigrade, which are the first described from these phyla. PMID:21074533

  3. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  4. Influence of Agricultural Activities on Grassland Arthropods in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyan Sorgog

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod pest outbreaks are becoming more common in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China, most likely due to the expansion of agriculture. The area of cropland has increased from 43,300 km2 in 1949 to 76,300 km2 in 2005. To understand the effects of agricultural activities on arthropod distribution, sweep net sampling was conducted in a natural grassland. We collected 1287 individuals belonging to 23 families and 9 orders of arthropods from 41 sites. We divided these samples into two guild types (predator and herbivore and analyzed six groups (grasshoppers, herbivorous Coleoptera, herbivorous Hemiptera, Cicaddidae, Araneae, predatory Coleoptera of them. Using a negative binomial regression analysis we analyzed the relationships between each group’s sampled population size and measured environmental factors including pesticide application and mean temperature of the previous year, agricultural site, and vegetation condition. The best model for each group was determined using Akaike’s information criterion. Grasshoppers showed a significant positive response to pesticide application and degraded vegetation, whereas spider (natural enemies of some insect pests showed a negative response to these factors. The population of grasshoppers increased at sites where pesticides were applied, vegetation was degraded, and spider numbers were reduced. Other groups were not significantly correlated with pesticide application and degraded vegetation. Some of the environmental factors we studied promoted pests the following year. Our results also suggest that the current use of pesticides may not be effective for pest control and that alternative options should be considered in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia.

  5. cuticleDB: a relational database of Arthropod cuticular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Judith H

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect exoskeleton or cuticle is a bi-partite composite of proteins and chitin that provides protective, skeletal and structural functions. Little information is available about the molecular structure of this important complex that exhibits a helicoidal architecture. Scores of sequences of cuticular proteins have been obtained from direct protein sequencing, from cDNAs, and from genomic analyses. Most of these cuticular protein sequences contain motifs found only in arthropod proteins. Description cuticleDB is a relational database containing all structural proteins of Arthropod cuticle identified to date. Many come from direct sequencing of proteins isolated from cuticle and from sequences from cDNAs that share common features with these authentic cuticular proteins. It also includes proteins from the Drosophila melanogaster and the Anopheles gambiae genomes, that have been predicted to be cuticular proteins, based on a Pfam motif (PF00379 responsible for chitin binding in Arthropod cuticle. The total number of the database entries is 445: 370 derive from insects, 60 from Crustacea and 15 from Chelicerata. The database can be accessed from our web server at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/cuticleDB. Conclusions CuticleDB was primarily designed to contain correct and full annotation of cuticular protein data. The database will be of help to future genome annotators. Users will be able to test hypotheses for the existence of known and also of yet unknown motifs in cuticular proteins. An analysis of motifs may contribute to understanding how proteins contribute to the physical properties of cuticle as well as to the precise nature of their interaction with chitin.

  6. Ad-Hoc vs. Standardized and Optimized Arthropod Diversity Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standardized and optimized protocols has been recently advocated for different arthropod taxa instead of ad-hoc sampling or sampling with protocols defined on a case-by-case basis. We present a comparison of both sampling approaches applied for spiders in a natural area of Portugal. Tests were made to their efficiency, over-collection of common species, singletons proportions, species abundance distributions, average specimen size, average taxonomic distinctness and behavior of richness estimators. The standardized protocol revealed three main advantages: (1 higher efficiency; (2 more reliable estimations of true richness; and (3 meaningful comparisons between undersampled areas.

  7. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Mar?i?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

  8. Disturbance In Dry Coastal Dunes Promotes Diversity Of Plants And Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; JØrgensen, Gorm Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    Naturally disturbed coastal dunes have become strongly reduced during the last century due to the cessation of grazing by domestic herbivores, dune stabilization initiatives, and increasing nitrogen deposition, all promoting encroachment by grasses, shrubs and woody plants. We assessed the effects of three disturbance types (burning, trampling and blowouts) on plant and arthropod species richness and composition in dry coastal dunes in Jutland, Denmark. Environmental variables, plant presence–absence and arthropod abundance were measured in 150 1 × 2 m plots along transects in blowouts, burned areas, trampled paths and their paired controls. We used Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) ordination to assess differences in species composition of disturbed areas and controls. Ordination scores were used as response variables in Linear Mixed Effect (LME) models to test for the effects of disturbances on plant and arthropod composition. Indicator species analysis revealed plant and arthropod species indicative for different disturbances. Plant and arthropod species richness and the number of annual plant species generally increased with disturbance, and plant and arthropod richness and composition responded differently to different disturbances. Arthropod communities were more diverse in disturbed plots and hosted species often found in early successional habitats of potential conservation value. Disturbance promoted ?-diversity, but affected plants more than arthropods, likely because of the difference in colonization potential. A combination of disturbances maximized diversity, suggesting that re-installment of a diverse disturbance regime should be considered in dune management.

  9. Disturbance in dry coastal dunes in Denmark promotes diversity of plants and arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; JØrgensen, Gorm Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    Naturally disturbed coastal dunes have become strongly reduced during the last century due to the cessation of grazing by domestic herbivores, dune stabilization initiatives, and increasing nitrogen deposition, all promoting encroachment by grasses, shrubs and woody plants. We assessed the effects of three disturbance types (burning, trampling and blowouts) on plant and arthropod species richness and composition in dry coastal dunes in Jutland, Denmark. Environmental variables, plant presence–absence and arthropod abundance were measured in 150 1 × 2 m plots along transects in blowouts, burned areas, trampled paths and their paired controls. We used Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) ordination to assess differences in species composition of disturbed areas and controls. Ordination scores were used as response variables in Linear Mixed Effect (LME) models to test for the effects of disturbances on plant and arthropod composition. Indicator species analysis revealed plant and arthropod species indicative for different disturbances. Plant and arthropod species richness and the number of annual plant species generally increased with disturbance, and plant and arthropod richness and composition responded differently to different disturbances. Arthropod communities were more diverse in disturbed plots and hosted species often found in early successional habitats of potential conservation value. Disturbance promoted ?-diversity, but affected plants more than arthropods, likely because of the difference in colonization potential. A combination of disturbances maximized diversity, suggesting that re-installment of a diverse disturbance regime should be considered in dune management.

  10. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Parkinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.

  11. The fluid mechanics of arthropod sniffing in turbulent odor plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M A R

    2006-02-01

    Many arthropods capture odorant molecules from the environment using antennae or antennules bearing arrays of chemosensory hairs. The penetration of odorant-carrying water or air into the spaces between these chemosensory hairs depends on the speed at which they are moved through the surrounding fluid. Therefore, antennule flicking by crustaceans and wing fanning by insects can have a profound impact on the odorant encounter rates of the chemosensory sensilla they bear; flicking and fanning are examples of sniffing. Odors are dispersed in the environment by turbulent wind or water currents. On the scale of an antenna or antennule, an odor plume is not a diffuse cloud but rather is a series of fine filaments of scent swirling in odor-free water. The spatiotemporal pattern of these filaments depends on distance from the odor source. The physical interaction of a hair-bearing arthropod antennule with the surrounding fluid affects the temporal patterns of odor concentration an animal intercepts when it sniffs in a turbulent odor plume. PMID:16339271

  12. Infectious diseases and social stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan L. Williams

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stigma creates a barrier between the sick and the rest of society that prevents them from acting on their instinctive desire to seek curative treatment that will enable them to reenter into their every day social activity. For these ailing persons, the cost of beingstigmatized far outweighs the desire to rehabilitate their lifestyle. Further, social stigma associated with infectious disease undermines the overall health of society, and the effectiveness of community efforts to offer unabridged healthcare services to treatand prevent the spread of communicable disease. In the wake of the latest pandemic influenza outbreak, the global community witnessed how under the stress H1N1, communities, regions, and countries can suffer socially and economically. Our research finds a statistically significant relationship between infectious diseaseand social stigma. We also identify the role the media plays in exacerbating this issue, and address preliminary policy implications to mitigate these issues in the future.

  13. Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ekanem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic pig (Sus scrofa was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh, bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.O porco branco (Sus scrofa foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise, intumescido (putrefação, deteriorado e seco (diagênese. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condições. Foram registradas quatro classes de Artrópodes: insetos, aranhas (Arachnida, Diplópodes e Crustáceos. Os insetos foram a classe predominante representada por 24 famílias no total de 94% das coletas. Para cada uma das três classes restantes registrou-se apenas uma família no total de 2% das coletas. As moscas das famílias Calliphoridae, Phoridae e Sarcophagidae tomaram lugar e desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres apenas algumas horas após a morte dos animais. As famílias de coleópteros surgiram na fase de putrefação e alimentaram-se de insetos dípteros jovens e dos próprios cadáveres. As formigas (Hymenoptera ocorreram em grande número para se alimentar dos cadáveres e usurpar, à restante fauna presente, a fonte de alimento. Na fase de deterioração desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres uma espécie de Diptera da família Muscidae e uma de Stratiomydae. Outros insetos dípteros e artrópodes surgiram para se alimentar dos cadáveres sobretudo na fase de deterioração. O ponto de maior riqueza de espécies (S foi registrado na fase de deterioração dos cadáveres.

  14. Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Ekanem; Mike C., Dike.

    Full Text Available O porco branco (Sus scrofa) foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24, [...] 5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise), intumescido (putrefação), deteriorado e seco (diagênese). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condições. Foram registradas quatro classes de Artrópodes: insetos, aranhas (Arachnida), Diplópodes e Crustáceos. Os insetos foram a classe predominante representada por 24 famílias no total de 94% das coletas. Para cada uma das três classes restantes registrou-se apenas uma família no total de 2% das coletas. As moscas das famílias Calliphoridae, Phoridae e Sarcophagidae tomaram lugar e desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres apenas algumas horas após a morte dos animais. As famílias de coleópteros surgiram na fase de putrefação e alimentaram-se de insetos dípteros jovens e dos próprios cadáveres. As formigas (Hymenoptera) ocorreram em grande número para se alimentar dos cadáveres e usurpar, à restante fauna presente, a fonte de alimento. Na fase de deterioração desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres uma espécie de Diptera da família Muscidae e uma de Stratiomydae. Outros insetos dípteros e artrópodes surgiram para se alimentar dos cadáveres sobretudo na fase de deterioração. O ponto de maior riqueza de espécies (S) foi registrado na fase de deterioração dos cadáveres. Abstract in english The domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh [...] , bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera) came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.

  15. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari A; Agarwal J; Garg A

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD) is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic ...

  16. Infectious diseases and social stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joan L.; Gonzalez-medina, Diego J.; Quan Vu Le

    2011-01-01

    Stigma creates a barrier between the sick and the rest of society that prevents them from acting on their instinctive desire to seek curative treatment that will enable them to reenter into their every day social activity. For these ailing persons, the cost of being stigmatized far outweighs the desire to rehabilitate their lifestyle. Further, social stigma associated with infectious disease undermines the overall health of society, and the effectiveness of community efforts to offer unabridg...

  17. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  18. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With a Little Help from Bacteria Up to top This page last reviewed on May 15, 2013 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube RSS Feeds Page Footer NIGMS Home Site Map Contact Us Your Privacy Accessibility Disclaimers FOIA ...

  19. Remote Sensing, GIS, and Vector-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Louisa R.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of global climate change encompasses more than merely an alteration in temperature; it also includes spatial and temporal covariations in precipitation and humidity, and more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events. The impact of these variations, which can occur at a variety of temporal and spatial scales, could have a direct impact on disease transmission through their environmental consequences for pathogen, vector, and host survival, as well as indirectly through human demographic and behavioral responses. New and future sensor systems will allow scientists to investigate the relationships between climate change and environmental risk factors at multiple spatial, temporal and spectral scales. Higher spatial resolution will provide better opportunities for mapping urban features previously only possible with high resolution aerial photography. These opportunities include housing quality (e.g., Chagas'disease, leishmaniasis) and urban mosquito habitats (e.g., dengue fever, filariasis, LaCrosse encephalitis). There are or will be many new sensors that have higher spectral resolution, enabling scientists to acquire more information about parameters such as soil moisture, soil type, better vegetation discrimination, and ocean color, to name a few. Although soil moisture content is now detectable using Landsat, the new thermal, shortwave infrared, and radar sensors will be able to provide this information at a variety of scales not achievable using Landsat. Soil moisture could become a key component in transmission risk models for Lyme disease (tick survival), helminthiases (worm habitat), malaria (vector-breeding habitat), and schistosomiasis (snail habitat).

  20. Global climate change and vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming will have different effects on different diseases because of the complex and idiosynchratic interactions between vectors, hosts, and pathogens that influence transmission dynamics of each pathogen. Human activities, including urbanization, rapid global travel, and vector management, have profound effects on disease transmission that can operate on more rapid time scales than does global climate change. The general concern about global warming encouraging the spread of tropical diseases is legitimate, but the effects vary among diseases, and the ecological implications are difficult to predict.

  1. COMMUNITY LEVEL ANALYSIS OF VECTOR-BORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of ecological community structure of a communicable disease is a key factor in understanding the risk to public health of disease emergency, the mode of transmission, and control options (Forget and Lebel, 2001). Deterministic and stochastic models have been important i...

  2. Multiscale Analysis for a Vector-Borne Epidemic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Max O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a classical mass-action model for diseases transmitted by arbovirus. Most traditional studies have focused on global stability issues and oscillatory behaviour. Here, we take a different view and we study the dynamics of the model, under the hypothesis that the typical timescale for the host and the vector are distinct. In this way, two asymptotic dynamics naturally appear: the fast host dynamics and the fast vector dynamics. The former yields, at leading order, a SIR model for the hosts, but with a modified incidence rate. Thus, the vector disappears from the model, and the dynamics is similar to a directly contagious disease. The latter yields a SI model for the vectors, with the hosts disappearing from the model. Numerical results show the performance of the approximation, and a rigorous proof validates the reduced models.

  3. The genetics of African trypanosomes : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tait

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of genetic exchange is not only a fundamental property of an organism but its occurrence provides us with methods of analysis that can be used to dissect the basis of important traits. This paper will review the current evidence for a sexual cycle in Trypanosoma brucei and illustrate how genetic analysis can be used as a tool to identify genes of relevance to the disease, its treatment and transmission. The role of this process in the generation of diversity in the field will be illustrated by considering populations of the three sub-species of T. brucei and how the availability of genome sequence data has been exploited to study whether genetic exchange occurs in the trypanosomes infecting livestock. Finally, the use of population genetics as a methodology to identify genes under selection will be discussed and this will be illustrated as an approach to validating markers for drug resistance with examples from other parasitic protozoa.

  4. The genetics of African trypanosomes : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, A.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of genetic exchange is not only a fundamental property of an organism but its occurrence provides us with methods of analysis that can be used to dissect the basis of important traits. This paper will review the current evidence for a sexual cycle in Trypanosoma brucei and illustrate how genetic analysis can be used as a tool to identify genes of relevance to the disease, its treatment and transmission. The ...

  5. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, René; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2014-10-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable. PMID:25457604

  6. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable.

  7. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults) and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering). Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean. PMID:25110881

  8. Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy Anbarashan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  9. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Clemes Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for people, especially for those living in rural areas.

  10. Acquisition of Cry1Ac Protein by Non-Target Arthropods in Bt Soybean Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Huilin; Romeis, Jo?rg; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentra...

  11. The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host–pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host–pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host–pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host–pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotiis complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases. - Highlights: ? Infectious diseases are important regulating factors in the way wildlife respond to contaminants. ? An assessment of the effects of radioactive exposure to host–pathogen relationships in animals is given. ? Radioactive exposure has a profound effect on host–pathogen interactions. ? Both hosts and pathogens may be either negatively or positively affected by radioactive contamination.

  12. Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sineo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

  13. Particle films for managing arthropod pests of apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanian, N J; Racette, G

    2008-02-01

    A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). PMID:18330129

  14. Arthropod symbiotes of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V; Abramov, A V; Durden, L A; Apanaskevich, D A; Stekolnikov, A A; Stanyukovich, M K; Gnophanxay, S; Tikhonov, A N

    2011-04-01

    Arthropod symbiotes of the Laotian rock-rat, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae), from Laos are examined. This host is a member of Diatomyidae previously thought to have gone extinct >10 million yr ago. Permanent symbiotes are represented by 2 species, a new species of sucking louse, Polyplax sp., near rhizomydis (Phthiraptera:Polyplacidae), and a new species of fur mite, Afrolistrophorus sp., near maculatus (Acariformes:Listrophoridae). The temporary parasites are represented by 18 species, i.e., 1 mesostigmatan species, i.e., a new species of Androlaelaps near casalis (Parasitiformes:Laelapidae); immature stages of 2 tick species, Ixodes granulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. (Parasitiformes:Ixodidae); and a rich fauna of chiggers (Acariformes:Trombiculidae) comprising 8 genera and 15 species. It is hypothesized that this host completely lost its initial fauna of ectosymbiotes and that ancestors of the recorded symbiotes switched to this host from rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. PMID:21506873

  15. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram?s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  16. Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe: Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W.; Knols, B. G. J.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides examples of the most likely pests and diseases affecting man and animals in Europe, with emphasis on ecological factors favouring these diseases and methods for prevention and intervention.

  17. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.

  18. Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl Dybas (Freelance; )

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

  19. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90. ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  20. Complex responses to invasive grass litter by ground arthropods in a Mediterranean scrub ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth Mary; Bolger, Douglas T.; Holway, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant invasions have tremendous potential to alter food webs by changing basal resources. Recent studies document how plant invasions may contribute to increased arthropod abundances in detritus-based food webs. An obvious mechanism for this phenomenon—a bottom-up effect resulting from elevated levels of detritus from the invasive plant litter—has not been explicitly studied. We examined the effects of an annual grass invasion on ground arthropod assemblages in the coastal sage scrub (CSS) of...

  1. Avirulence Effector Discovery in a Plant Galling and Plant Parasitic Arthropod, the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor)

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Rajat; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Zhao, Chaoyang; Chen, Ming-shun; Harris, Marion O.; Stuart, Jeff J

    2014-01-01

    Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution mol...

  2. Arthropod diversity in pure oak forests of coppice origin in northern Thrace (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keten A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus spp. forests are among the most important forest types in Turkey. In the past, oak forests were managed through coppice clear-cutting, but in recent decades they have mostly been converted to high forest. This study was aimed at explaining how arthropod diversity is affected during conversion from coppice to high oak forest and during the early stages of coppice succession. We tested the hypothesis that arthropod richness, abundance and diversity in coppice oak sites varied according to stand age and a number of other forest characteristics. Arthropod communities were sampled in 50 plots using four different methods: pitfall traps, sweep nets, sticky cards and cloth shaking. A total of 13 084 individuals were collected and classified into 193 Recognizable Taxonomic Units (RTUs, with the most RTUs and the greatest number of specimens captured by sweep netting. We identified 17 taxa within RTU’s with more than 1% of the captured arthropods, which constituted 75% of the total specimens. The number of RTUs varied significantly according to trap type. Arthropod richness and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H? increased with elevation and precipitation. In young (1-40 yrs-old and middle-aged (41-80 yrs stands, arthropod biodiversity was not significantly affected by stand type, but slightly increased with diameter at breast height and tree height. Forest characteristics, such as the litter layer, understory and crown diameter, weakly influenced arthropod richness and abundance. Cluster analysis revealed that stand types and trap types differed taxonomically. Principal component analysis showed that stand types were clearly separated by the stand parameters measured. Insect families (Formicidae, Thripidae, Lygaeidae, Dolichopodidae, Luaxanidae, Cicadellidae and Ichneumonidae could potentially be used as indicators of coppice oak conditions. As the coppice oak changes to mature fo­rest, further studies are needed to better assess the relation between arthropods, forest types and structural characteristics of stands.

  3. Commercial implications and IPR related to the use of transgenic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently created a company (Insecta, Ltd.) for the express purpose of fully exploiting both the traditional Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the potential benefits of using transgenic arthropods to control agricultural and medical pest insects or, more generally, animal and human diseases. This short paper briefly considers some of the general issues surrounding the commercial exploitation of transgenic arthropods both through the improvement of the SIT and for other, more innovative, approaches to disease and pest control. (author)

  4. A NEW ARTHROPOD IN CHAIN-LIKE ASSOCIATIONS FROM THE CHENGJIANG LAGERSTATTE (LOWER CAMBRIAN), YUNNAN, CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Xian-Guang, Hou; Siveter, Derek J.; Aldridge, Richard J.; Siveter, David J.

    2009-01-01

    A new arthropod, Synophalos xynos gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte, Yunnan, China. It is provisionally assigned to Crustacea, Waptiida and Waptiidae. Just one example of an isolated individual of S. xynos is known. Typically, individuals of the new species occur together in similar, robustly integrated chain-like associations. Such a strongly linked configuration is apparently unique for any arthropod, fossil or living. The chain-like assoc...

  5. Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy Anbarashan; Poyyamoli Gopalswamy

    2013-01-01

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides...

  6. Bartonella and Rickettsia in arthropods from the Lao PDR and from Borneo, Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kernif, T; Socolovschi, C; Wells, K.; Lakim, MB; Inthalad, S; Slesak, G; Boudebouch, N; Beaucournu, JC; Newton, PN; Raoult, D.; Parola, P.

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. We conducted entomological field surveys in the Lao PDR (Laos) and Borneo, Malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domesti...

  7. Species richness-environment relationships of European arthropods at two spatial grains: habitats and countries

    OpenAIRE

    Entling, Martin H.; Schweiger, Oliver; Bacher, Sven; Espadaler, Xavier; Hickler, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Woodcock, Ben A.; Netwig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We study how species richness of arthropods relates to theories concerning net primary productivity, ambient energy, water-energy dynamics and spatial environmental heterogeneity. We use two datasets of arthropod richness with similar spatial extents (Scandinavia to Mediterranean), but contrasting spatial grain (local habitat and country). Samples of ground-dwelling spiders, beetles, bugs and ants were collected from 32 paired habitats at 16 locations across Europe. Species richness of these ...

  8. Survey of Arthropod Associated with Refuse Disposal Sites in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State

    OpenAIRE

    Banjo, F. M.; Banjo, A. D.; Fasunwon, B. T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the abundance of arthropod pests and its diversity at different refuse disposal sites in Ijebu Ode. A survey of some refuse dumps for the presence of arthropod associated with them was carried out in Ijebu-ode Local government Area, of Ogun state. The refuse dumps were randomly selected based on their location within the town, these included Ikangba housing Estate, Wasimi, Olisa, Mobalufon and Sabo areas. Different methods were used for the collection of...

  9. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  10. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

  11. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  12. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    OpenAIRE

    Derek To; Aaron Wong; Valentina Montessori

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  13. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

  14. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease. PMID:10935278

  15. The tripartite associations between bacteriophage, Wolbachia, and arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available By manipulating arthropod reproduction worldwide, the heritable endosymbiont Wolbachia has spread to pandemic levels. Little is known about the microbial basis of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI except that bacterial densities and percentages of infected sperm cysts associate with incompatibility strength. The recent discovery of a temperate bacteriophage (WO-B of Wolbachia containing ankyrin-encoding genes and virulence factors has led to intensifying debate that bacteriophage WO-B induces CI. However, current hypotheses have not considered the separate roles that lytic and lysogenic phage might have on bacterial fitness and phenotype. Here we describe a set of quantitative approaches to characterize phage densities and its associations with bacterial densities and CI. We enumerated genome copy number of phage WO-B and Wolbachia and CI penetrance in supergroup A- and B-infected males of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We report several findings: (1 variability in CI strength for A-infected males is positively associated with bacterial densities, as expected under the bacterial density model of CI, (2 phage and bacterial densities have a significant inverse association, as expected for an active lytic infection, and (3 CI strength and phage densities are inversely related in A-infected males; similarly, males expressing incomplete CI have significantly higher phage densities than males expressing complete CI. Ultrastructural analyses indicate that approximately 12% of the A Wolbachia have phage particles, and aggregations of these particles can putatively occur outside the Wolbachia cell. Physical interactions were observed between approximately 16% of the Wolbachia cells and spermatid tails. The results support a low to moderate frequency of lytic development in Wolbachia and an overall negative density relationship between bacteriophage and Wolbachia. The findings motivate a novel phage density model of CI in which lytic phage repress Wolbachia densities and therefore reproductive parasitism. We conclude that phage, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. Clarifying the roles of lytic and lysogenic phage development in Wolbachia biology will effectively structure inquiries into this research topic.

  16. Rickettsial pathogens and arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary significance on Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durden, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern surveys of ectoparasites and potential vector-borne pathogens in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Wake Island are poorly documented. We report on field surveys of ectoparasites from 2010 with collections from dogs, cats, and rats. Five ectoparasites were identified: the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, a sucking louse Hoplopleura pacifica, the mites Laelaps nuttalli and Radfordia ensifera, and the brown dog tickRhipicephalus sanguineus. Ectoparasites were screened for rickettsial pathogens. DNA from Anaplasma platys, a Coxiella symbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, anda Rickettsia sp. were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing from ticks and fleas on Kwajalein Atoll. An unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in a pool of Laelaps nuttalli and Hoplopleura pacifica from Wake Island. The records of Hoplopleura pacifica, Laelaps nuttalli, and Radfordia ensifera and the pathogens are new for Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island.

  17. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WM, Cardoso; JLC, Aguiar Filho; JM, Romão; RPR, Salles; SR, Câmara; AA, Siqueira; WF, Oliveira; MHNR, Sobral; RSC, Texeira.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into [...] eight experimental groups (n=80/group) and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

  18. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schro?der, Reinhard; Torres-oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologue...

  19. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationships of major clades within the Arthropoda remain one of the most contentious issues in systematics, which has traditionally been the domain of morphologists. A growing body of DNA sequences and other types of molecular data has revitalized study of arthropod phylogeny and has inspired new considerations of character evolution. Novel hypotheses such as a crustacean-hexapod affinity were based on analyses of single or few genes and limited taxon sampling, but have received recent support from mitochondrial gene order, and eye and brain ultrastructure and neurogenesis. Here we assess relationships within Arthropoda based on a synthesis of all well sampled molecular loci together with a comprehensive data set of morphological, developmental, ultrastructural and gene-order characters. The molecular data include sequences of three nuclear ribosomal genes, three nuclear protein-coding genes, and two mitochondrial genes (one protein coding, one ribosomal). We devised new optimization procedures and constructed a parallel computer cluster with 256 central processing units to analyse molecular data on a scale not previously possible. The optimal 'total evidence' cladogram supports the crustacean-hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.

  20. An arthropod deterrent attracts specialised bees to their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Hannah; Dötterl, Stefan; Häberlein, Christopher M; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2012-03-01

    Many bee species are adapted to just a few specific plants in order to collect pollen (oligolecty). To reproduce successfully, it is important for oligolectic bees to find and recognise the specific host flowers. In this study, we investigated the role of floral volatiles used by an oligolectic bee to recognise its host plants. We compared the attractiveness of natural and synthetic scent samples of host flowers to foraging-naïve and -experienced Hoplitis adunca (Megachilidae) bees that are specialised on Echium and Pontechium (Boraginaceae) plants. The investigations showed that naïve H. adunca females are attracted to 1,4-benzoquinone. During their lifetime, bees learn additional floral cues while foraging on host flowers. In contrast to naïve ones, experienced H. adunca females use, in addition to 1,4-benzoquinone, other compounds to recognise their host plants. 1,4-Benzoquinone is an uncommon floral compound only known from the host plants of H. adunca, and is therefore ideally suited to be used as a plant-specific recognition cue. Several arthropods use this compound to deter insect predators. Therefore, 1,4-benzoquinone as an attractant in Echium flowers may have evolved from a primary function as a defensive compound against insect herbivores. PMID:21964494

  1. Inhibitory motoneurons in arthropod motor control: organisation, function, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Miniaturisation of somatic cells in animals is limited, for reasons ranging from the accommodation of organelles to surface-to-volume ratio. Consequently, muscle and nerve cells vary in diameters by about two orders of magnitude, in animals covering 12 orders of magnitude in body mass. Small animals thus have to control their behaviour with few muscle fibres and neurons. Hexapod leg muscles, for instance, may consist of a single to a few 100 fibres, and they are controlled by one to, rarely, 19 motoneurons. A typical mammal has thousands of fibres per muscle supplied by hundreds of motoneurons for comparable behavioural performances. Arthopods--crustaceans, hexapods, spiders, and their kin--are on average much smaller than vertebrates, and they possess inhibitory motoneurons for a motor control strategy that allows a broad performance spectrum despite necessarily small cell numbers. This arthropod motor control strategy is reviewed from functional and evolutionary perspectives and its components are described with a focus on inhibitory motoneurons. Inhibitory motoneurons are particularly interesting for a number of reasons: evolutionary and phylogenetic comparison of functional specialisations, evolutionary and developmental origin and diversification, and muscle fibre recruitment strategies. PMID:24965579

  2. Habitat and species identity, not diversity, predict the extent of refuse consumption by urban arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Henderson, Ryanna C; Savage, Amy M; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that the magnitude and resilience of this service should increase with biological diversity. We measured food removal by presenting known quantities of cookies, potato chips, and hot dogs in street medians (24 sites) and parks (21 sites) in New York City, USA. At the same sites, we assessed ground-arthropod diversity and abiotic conditions, including history of flooding during Hurricane Sandy 7 months prior to the study. Arthropod diversity was greater in parks (on average 11 hexapod families and 4.7 ant species per site), than in medians (nine hexapod families and 2.7 ant species per site). However, counter to our diversity-based prediction, arthropods in medians removed 2-3 times more food per day than did those in parks. We detected no effect of flooding (at 19 sites) on this service. Instead, greater food removal was associated with the presence of the introduced pavement ant (Tetramorium sp. E) and with hotter, drier conditions that may have increased arthropod metabolism. When vertebrates also had access to food, more was removed, indicating that arthropods and vertebrates compete for littered food. We estimate that arthropods alone could remove 4-6.5 kg of food per year in a single street median, reducing its availability to less desirable fauna such as rats. Our results suggest that species identity and habitat may be more relevant than diversity for predicting urban ecosystem services. Even small green spaces such as street medians provide ecosystem services that may complement those of larger habitat patches across the urban landscape. PMID:25463151

  3. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population-based Danish cohorts of patients who were tested for infectious mononucleosis: 17,045 with serologic evidence of having had acute EBV infection, and 24,614 with no such evidence. We combined the cohort of patients who had serologically verified infectious mononucleosis with a cohort of 21,510 Swedish patients with infectious mononucleosis (combined total, 38,555). Biopsy specimens of Hodgkin's lymphomas occurring during follow-up in this combined cohort were tested serologically for the presence of EBV. Using this information, we modeled the relative risk of EBV-negative and EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma in different periods after the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and estimated the median incubation time for mononucleosis-related EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma. RESULTS: Only serologically confirmed infectious mononucleosis was associated with a persistently increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Sixteen of 29 tumors (55 percent), obtained from patients with infectious mononucleosis, had evidence of EBV. There was no evidence of an increased risk of EBV-negative Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis. In contrast, the risk of EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly increased (relative risk, 4.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.4 to 4.5). The estimated median incubation time from mononucleosis to EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma was 4.1 years (95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 8.3). CONCLUSIONS: A causal association between infectious mononucleosis-related EBV infection and the EBV-positive subgroup of Hodgkin's lymphomas is likely in young adults. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Oct-2

  4. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  5. Abundance of epigaeic arthropods in a Brazilian savanna under different fire frequencies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio, Uehara-Prado; Ayr de M., Bello; Juliana de O., Fernandes; Adalberto J., Santos; Igor A., Silva; Marcus V., Cianciaruso.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently [...] and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were subjected to three burning frequencies: frequent (HighFi), intermediary (MidFi), and infrequent (LowFi). In general, we found a positive relationship between the abundance of epigaeic arthropods and fire frequency. When arthropods were analyzed by orders, the abundance of Collembola and Orthoptera was lower in the LowFi site, while for Hemiptera, it was higher in the MidFi site. No significant differences were found for Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae. The abundance of detritivores and herbivores decreased from HighFi to LowFi, but did not change significantly for omnivores and predators. These results indicate that some arthropod groups may not only be resilient to fire effects, but actually might benefit from fire effects in the cerrado. Characterizing arthropod responses to burning frequency at high taxonomic or functional levels is important for applied studies. Based on the results of the current study, springtails and ants seem to be particularly appropriate focal groups for further exploratory studies on the effects of fire at the species level.

  6. Tuning the white light spectrum of light emitting diode lamps to reduce attraction of nocturnal arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Travis; Aldern, Hannah L; Eggers, John F; Flores, Steve; Franco, Lesly; Hirshfield-Yamanishi, Eric; Petrinec, Laina N; Yan, Wilson A; Barroso, André M

    2015-05-01

    Artificial lighting allows humans to be active at night, but has many unintended consequences, including interference with ecological processes, disruption of circadian rhythms and increased exposure to insect vectors of diseases. Although ultraviolet and blue light are usually most attractive to arthropods, degree of attraction varies among orders. With a focus on future indoor lighting applications, we manipulated the spectrum of white lamps to investigate the influence of spectral composition on number of arthropods attracted. We compared numbers of arthropods captured at three customizable light-emitting diode (LED) lamps (3510, 2704 and 2728 K), two commercial LED lamps (2700 K), two commercial compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs; 2700 K) and a control. We configured the three custom LEDs to minimize invertebrate attraction based on published attraction curves for honeybees and moths. Lamps were placed with pan traps at an urban and two rural study sites in Los Angeles, California. For all invertebrate orders combined, our custom LED configurations were less attractive than the commercial LED lamps or CFLs of similar colour temperatures. Thus, adjusting spectral composition of white light to minimize attracting nocturnal arthropods is feasible; not all lights with the same colour temperature are equally attractive to arthropods. PMID:25780237

  7. Diversity of Soil Arthropods in Teak Forest Plantation Forests at Cepu, Blora, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farikhah Haneda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are the main group of soil arthropod and the most dominant animals in the terrestrial ecosystems.  The aims of this study were to get information about soil arthropod diversity in relation to environmental influence at teak plantations at Cepu, Central Java. The sampling plot design was based on forest health monitoring design method. Pitfall trap and Berlese-Tullgren funnel were employed to collect the soil arthropods. The trapped specimens were sorted in the laboratory and then identified up to family or genus.  The result of the study revealed that young-age plantation has higher abundance and diversity of arthropod than old-age plantation. Totally we found 3 classes, 11 orders, 29 families, and 714 individuals from young teak plantation, and 3 classes, 11 orders, 25 families, and 397 individuals from the old one. The dominant class was insect and the dominant order of the insects was Hymenoptera. The thickness of the teak litter was the most important factor to the abundance of soil arthropods (R2 = 0.891.Keywords: forest health monitoring, environmental factor, teak litter, pitfall, Berlese-Tullgren funnel DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.169

  8. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  9. A Holistic View of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himgauri K. Kulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance; Lisa A. Beltz; (2011. Jossey-Bass, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. San Francisco, CA. 700 pages.

  10. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  11. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear.

  12. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods, and drink water. ? Avoid excessive amounts of caffeine and alcohol. ? Do not use tobacco or illegal drugs. ? Get enough sleep and rest. ? Get physical exercise. 3 COPING WITH STRESS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS ...

  13. Infectious diarrhea: Cellular and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Kim; Gill, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. An estimated 2–4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. This review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. Several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including Vibrio cholerae as a classical example...

  14. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-01-01

    Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant...

  15. Latex test for serodiagnosis of infectious mononucleosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Levey, B. A.; Lo, T. M.; Caldwell, K. E.; Fletcher, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A glycoprotein was isolated from bovine erythrocytes which has 20% carbohydrate and migrates on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a single band. This glycoprotein carries the reactivity of bovine erythrocytes with Paul-Bunnell heterophile antibody of infectious mononucleosis. This bovine glycoprotein was coupled to carboxyl-modified latex particles with water-soluble carbodiimide. The resulting reagent was then used to develop a new test for the detection of infecti...

  16. Infectious Agents are Associated with Psychiatric Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Lydia Krause; Elif Weidinger; Judith Matz; Agnes Wildenauer; Jenny Katharina Wagner; Michael Obermeier; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Michael Riedel; Norbert Müller

    2012-01-01

    There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection and later persist as silent viruses and bacteria within the body. However, these chronic infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndrome (TS). We investigated the distribution of different neurotrophic infectious agents in TS, schizophrenia and controls. A total of 93 indivi...

  17. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for infectious and non-infectious corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha; Burcu, Ayse; Do?an, Emine; Onat, Mustafa; Ornek, Firdevs

    2015-04-01

    This study reports the outcomes of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasties, defined as keratoplasties performed to eradicate active infectious corneal diseases or to repair a structural defect of the cornea. The records of 24 eyes of 24 patients (17 female and 7 male) treated with therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty between 2002 and 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into infectious keratitis group and non-infectious keratitis group. The mean age was 52.12 ± 17.91 years. The median follow-up time was 22 months (min-max: 6-96). Therapeutic success was achieved and eyes were preserved in 23 patients and one patient required evisceration for recurrent fungal infection. At the end of the follow-up period, 92.9 % (n = 13) and 77.8 % (n = 7) of grafts remained clear in the infectious and non-infectious groups, respectively (p = 0.538). Visual acuity (VA) improved at least one Snellen line in 23 patients. The mean postoperative decimal VA was 0.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 ± 0.3 in the infectious and non-infectious groups, respectively (p = 0.12). Amniotic membrane transplantation was performed in two eyes preoperatively and in four eyes postoperatively. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty continues to be an effective method in the treatment process of serious perforated and non-perforated corneal infectious and non-infectious diseases resistant to medical and other surgical interventions. PMID:24652460

  18. [Associated vaccination of poultry against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and infectious bursitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, R

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of immunity was studied following a mixed vaccination with live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (strains H120 and H52), Newcastle disease (strain La Sota), and infectious bursitis (strain Th75Vn82). The three vaccines were applied simultaneously via the drinking water, through the spray method, and nasally. Experiments were carried out with a total of 31,466 birds: broilers, growing layers, broiler parents--all without preliminary treatment with biopreparations. Immunity against Newcastle disease was followed up through the hemagglutination-inhibition test and challenging with a virulent virus; against infectious bursitis--through immunodiffusion in agar gel after Ouchterlony; and against infectious bronchitis--through virus-neutralization with strain Beaudette. The birds were treated with mixed vaccines in the following combinations: infectious bronchitis--Newcastle disease; infectious bursitis--Gumboro; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Gumboro. The simultaneous application of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursitis was shown to be well tolerated with no harmful aftereffects whatever. The immunity built up with the simultaneous use of the three vaccines was not inferior in effectiveness to that conferred with the use of two vaccines or only one of them. PMID:3002010

  19. Interference of boll weevil trapping by spiders (Araneida) and an evaluation of trap modification to reduce unwanted arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our evaluation of a boll weevil trap modified to reduce the number of unwanted arthropods had little effect on reducing spiders, the arthropod species that made up > 95% of the individuals that entered boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) traps and interfere with weekly capture of boll w...

  20. A Comparison of Conservation Reserve Program Habitat Plantings with Respect to Arthropod Prey for Grassland Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.E.; Thompson, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was designed to reduce soil erosion and curb agricultural overproduction by converting highly erodible agricultural land to various forms of perennial habitat. It has had an incidental benefit of providing habitat for wildlife and has been beneficial in reversing population declines of several grassland bird species. However, the mechanisms behind these reversals remain unknown. One such mechanism may be differences in food availability on CRP vs. non-CRP land or between different types of CRP. The influence of CRP habitat type on the abundance of arthropod prey used by grassland birds has not been previously explored. We compared the abundance and diversity of arthropods among four CRP habitat types in Texas [replicated plots of exotic lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), mixed native grasses with buffalograss (Buchloe?? dactyloides) and mixed native grasses without buffalograss] and native shortgrass prairie. Attention was focused on adult and juvenile spiders (Order Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), orthopterans (Orthroptera: grasshoppers and crickets) and lepidopterans (Lepidoptera: butterflies and moths), as these taxa are the primary prey items of grassland birds during the breeding season. Arthropod diversity and abundance were higher on indigenous prairie compared to CRP, reflecting differences in vegetative diversity and structure, but there were no differences in arthropod richness or abundance among CRP types. These results indicate that, although CRP is not equivalent to native prairie in terms of vegetation or arthropod diversity, CRP lands do support arthropod prey for grassland birds. More direct assays of the survivorship and fitness of birds on CRP compared to native shortgrass prairie are clearly warranted.

  1. Effect of host-plant genetic diversity on oak canopy arthropod community structure in central Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Efraín, Tovar-Sánchez; Leticia, Valencia-Cuevas; Patricia, Mussali-Galante; Rolando, Ramírez-Rodríguez; Elgar, Castillo-Mendoza.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently it has been proposed that the genetic diversity of foundation species influences the structure and function of the community by creating locally stable conditions for other species and modulating ecosystem dynamics. Oak species are an ideal system to test this hypothesis because [...] many of them have a wide geographical distribution, and they are dominant elements of the forest canopy. In this study we explored the response of canopy arthropod community structure (diversity and biomass) to the level of genetic diversity of Quercus crassipes and Q. rugosa, two important canopy species. Also, we examined the effect of oak species and locality on some community structure parameters (diversity, biomass, rare species, and richness of arthropod fauna) of canopy arthropods. In total, 160 canopies were fogged in four localities at the Mexican Valley (ten trees per species per locality per season) RESULTS: Q. crassipes registered the highest number of rare species, diversity index, biomass, and richness in comparison with Q. rugosa. We found a positive and significant relationship between genetic diversity parameters and canopy arthropod diversity. However, canopy arthropod biomass registered an inverse pattern. Our results support the hypothesis that the genetic diversity of the host-plant species influences the assemblage of the canopy arthropod community CONCLUSIONS: The pattern found in our study provides a powerful tool when trying to predict the effects of the genetic diversity of the host-plant species on different community structure parameters, which permits assignment of a new conservation status to foundation species based on their genetic diversity.

  2. Feeding and the rhodopsin family G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs in nematodes and arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoaoCarlos dos ReisCardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologues of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster, suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologues of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors.

  3. Isomin: a novel cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein from an arthropod species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupetti Pietro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of intermediate filaments (IFs is a hallmark feature of metazoan cells. IFs play a central role in cell organization and function, acting mainly as structural stress-absorbing elements. There is growing evidence to suggest that these cytoskeletal elements are also involved in the integration of signalling networks. According to their fundamental functions, IFs show a widespread phylogenetic expression, from simple diblastic animals up to mammals, and their constituent proteins share the same molecular organization in all species so far analysed. Arthropods represent a major exception in this scenario. Only lamins, the nuclear IF proteins, have so far been identified in the model organisms analysed; on this basis, it has been considered that arthropods do not express cytoplasmic IFs. Results Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, we named it isomin, is a component of the intestinal terminal web and shares with IFs typical biochemical properties, molecular features and reassembly capability. Sequence analysis indicates that isomin is mostly related to the Intermediate Filament protein C (IFC subfamily of Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins, which are molecular constituents of the nematode intestinal terminal web. This finding is coherent with, and provides further support to, the most recent phylogenetic views of arthropod ancestry. Interestingly, the coil 1a domain of isomin appears to have been influenced by a substantial molecular drift and only the aminoterminal part of this domain, containing the so-called helix initiation motif, has been conserved. Conclusions Our results set a new basis for the analysis of IF protein evolution during arthropod phylogeny. In the light of this new information, the statement that the arthropod phylum lacks cytoplasmic IFs is no longer tenable. See commentary article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007-9-16.

  4. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease ...

  5. The use of expert opinion to assess the risk of emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases in Canada associated with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ruth; Revie, Crawford W; Sanchez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required, and given limited resources, policy decision makers need rational methods with which to prioritise pathogen threats. Here expert opinion was collected to determine what criteria could be used to prioritise diseases according to the likelihood of emergence in response to climate change and according to their impact. We identified a total of 40 criteria that might be used for this purpose in the Canadian context. The opinion of 64 experts from academic, government and independent backgrounds was collected to determine the importance of the criteria. A weight was calculated for each criterion based on the expert opinion. The five that were considered most influential on disease emergence or impact were: potential economic impact, severity of disease in the general human population, human case fatality rate, the type of climate that the pathogen can tolerate and the current climatic conditions in Canada. There was effective consensus about the influence of some criteria among participants, while for others there was considerable variation. The specific climate criteria that were most likely to influence disease emergence were: an annual increase in temperature, an increase in summer temperature, an increase in summer precipitation and to a lesser extent an increase in winter temperature. These climate variables were considered to be most influential on vector-borne diseases and on food and water-borne diseases. Opinion about the influence of climate on air-borne diseases and diseases spread by direct/indirect contact were more variable. The impact of emerging diseases on the human population was deemed more important than the impact on animal populations. PMID:22848536

  6. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3?yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  7. Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    Monophyly of Arthropoda is emphatically supported from both morphological and molecular perspectives. Recent work finds Onychophora rather than Tardigrada to be the closest relatives of arthropods. The status of tardigrades as panarthropods (rather than cycloneuralians) is contentious from the perspective of phylogenomic data. A grade of Cambrian taxa in the arthropod stem group includes gilled lobopodians, dinocaridids (e.g., anomalocaridids), fuxianhuiids and canadaspidids that inform on character acquisition between Onychophora and the arthropod crown group. A sister group relationship between Crustacea (itself likely paraphyletic) and Hexapoda is retrieved by diverse kinds of molecular data and is well supported by neuroanatomy. This clade, Tetraconata, can be dated to the early Cambrian by crown group-type mandibles. The rival Atelocerata hypothesis (Myriapoda+Hexapoda) has no molecular support. The basal node in the arthropod crown group is embroiled in a controversy over whether myriapods unite with chelicerates (Paradoxopoda or Myriochelata) or with crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata). Both groups find some molecular and morphological support, though Mandibulata is presently the stronger morphological hypothesis. Either hypothesis forces an unsampled ghost lineage for Myriapoda from the Cambrian to the mid Silurian. PMID:19854297

  8. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  9. Teaching Students about Biodiversity by Studying the Correlation between Plants & Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

    2008-01-01

    On Earth there is a huge diversity of arthropods, many of which are highly adaptive and able to exploit virtually every terrestrial habitat. Because of their prevalence even in urban environments, they make an excellent model system for any life science class. Since plants also exploit virtually every terrestrial habitat, studying the relationship…

  10. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara P, Pais; Elenice M, Varanda.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored site [...] s of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.

  11. Natural products from forest resources for use as arthropod and fungal biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products from Pacific Northwest forest resources can offer alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides in the control of both arthropods of public health concern and forest fungal pathogens. Tree heartwood extracts with high toxicity (low LC50) in preliminary brine shrimp bioassays were...

  12. Weeds as viable habitat for arthropod species in croplands of central Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)

  13. NERISK: AN EXPERT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE THE INTEGRATION OF PESTICIDES WITH ARTHROPOD BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An expert system termed NERISK was developed to evaluate the effects of pesticides on arthropod predators and parasitoids in a variety of agroecosystems. ased on a shell system (RECOG) with minor coding modifications, the system was designed to let even a novice user access the v...

  14. ASSESSING PESTICIDE RISK TO ARTHROPOD NATURAL ENEMIES USING EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prototype expert system (NERISK) has been developed to help users assess the impact of pesticides on beneficial arthropod predators and parasitoids in agricultural systems. hell program (RECOG) was adapted with minor modifications to allow the encoding of expert opinion on this...

  15. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    OpenAIRE

    Hautier, L.; Jansen, J. -p; Mabon, N.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps- Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinida...

  16. Natural Products from Forest Resources for Use as Arthropod and Fungal Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products from Pacific Northwest forest resources can offer alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides in the control of both arthropods of public health concern and forest fungal pathogens. Tree heartwood extracts with high toxicity (low LC50) in preliminary brine shrimp bioassays were...

  17. Infectious disease prevention and control functions of the medical institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-min YANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease is a major global public issue and social medical problem to human health. Our country implements a policy of putting the emphasis on prevention, combining prevention with treatment to infectious disease. Medical institutions is the main source of information on infectious diseases. The medical institutions monitor the epidemic situation of infectious disease for early detection and timely accurate report of infectious disease, which provides an important scientific basis for the prevention and control of infectious disease. Medical treatment for infectious disease is carried in medical institutions, and patients with infectious diseases were isolated to prevent and control the propagation of infectious diseases. An in-depth study of epidemic area and accurate diagnosis and treatment provide scientific basis for the prevention of infectious diseases. Medical institution is an effective way for health education of infectious diseases prevention. We should strengthen the legal responsibility for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in medical institutions, establish and improve the mechanism of prevention and control of infectious diseases, give full play to the functions of medical institutions, due to medical staff’s less awareness of infectious diseases prevention.

  18. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  19. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteo-arthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatric patients as follows: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 4 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases and other different diseases 9 cases

  20. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases

  1. Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century. Overview of the Updated CDC plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-11

    Societal, technological, and environmental factors continue to have a dramatic effect on infectious diseases worldwide, facilitating the emergence of new diseases and the reemergence of old ones, sometimes in drug-resistant forms. Modern demographic and ecologic conditions that favor the spread of infectious diseases include rapid population growth; increasing poverty and urban migration; more frequent movement across international boundaries by tourists, workers, immigrants, and refugees; alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease; increasing numbers of persons with impaired host defenses; and changes in the way that food is processed and distributed. Several recent health events underscore the need for a public health system ready to address whatever disease problems that might arise. For example, in 1997, an avian strain of influenza that had never before infected humans began to kill previously healthy persons in Hong Kong, and strains of Sta phylococcus aureus with diminished susceptibility to the antibiotic vancomycin were reported in Japan and the United States. In addition, researchers recently discovered that a strain of the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been infecting humans for at least 20 years before AIDS emerged as a worldwide epidemic. Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century describes CDC's plan to combat today's infectious diseases and prevent those of tomorrow. It represents the second phase of the effort launched in 1994 with the publication of CDC's Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States. This overview of the updated plan outlines specific objectives under four major goals: a) surveillance and response, b) applied research, c) infrastructure and training, and d) prevention and control. Achieving these objectives will enhance understanding of infectious diseases and bolster their detection, control, and prevention. The plan also targets nine categories of problems that cause human suffering and place a burden on society. The aim of this plan is to build a stronger, more flexible U.S. public health system that is well-prepared to respond to known disease problems, as well as to address the unexpected, whether it be an influenza pandemic, a disease caused by an unknown organism, or a bioterrorist attack. The implementation of this plan will require the dedicated efforts of many partners, including state and local health departments, other federal agencies, professional societies, universities, research institutes, health-care providers and organizations, the World Health Organization, and many other domestic and international organizations and groups. PMID:9751113

  2. Lake to land subsidies: experimental addition of aquatic insects increases terrestrial arthropod densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, David; Dreyer, Jamin; Jackson, Randall D; Townsend, Philip A; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-11-01

    Aquatic insects are a common and important subsidy to terrestrial systems, yet little is known about how these inputs affect terrestrial food webs, especially around lakes. Mývatn, a lake in northern Iceland, has extraordinary midge (Chironomidae) emergences that result in large inputs of biomass and nutrients to terrestrial arthropod communities. We simulated this lake-to-land resource pulse by collecting midges from Mývatn and spreading their dried carcasses on 1-m2 plots at a nearby site that receives very little midge deposition. We hypothesized a positive bottom-up response of detritivores that would be transmitted to their predators and would persist into the following year. We sampled the arthropod community once per month for two consecutive summers. Midge addition resulted in significantly different arthropod communities and increased densities of some taxa in both years. Detritivores, specifically Diptera larvae, Collembola, and Acari increased in midge-addition plots, and so did some predators and parasitoids. Arthropod densities were still elevated a year after midge addition, and two years of midge addition further increased the density of higher-order consumers (e.g., Coleoptera and Hymenoptera). Midge addition increased arthropod biomass by 68% after one year and 108% after two years. By manipulating the nutrient pulse delivered by midges we were able to elucidate food web consequences of midge deposition and spatial and temporal dynamics that are difficult to determine based on comparative approaches alone. Resources cross ecosystem boundaries and are assimilated over time because of life-history strategies that connect aquatic and terrestrial food webs and these systems cannot be fully understood in isolation from each other. PMID:22164831

  3. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so that eventually even communities of low-mobility species become connected. Furthermore, improving the design of green roofs (composition and configuration of vegetation and soil types) could enhance the ecological value, particularly for low-mobility species. PMID:24933819

  4. Employing citizen science to study defoliation impacts on arthropod communities on tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Audrey L.

    The invasive tamarisk tree is widespread across the southwestern landscape of the United States and has been dominant in regulated river reaches, outcompeting native vegetation and impacting trophic webs in riparian ecosystems. The changes in riparian habitat and recreation opportunities along southwestern rivers, like the San Juan River in Utah, led to the implementation of a biocontrol program in the form of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.). It is unknown what the long term effects on riparian ecosystems are as a result of the beetles' defoliation of tamarisk each summer. This study sought to identify the current arthropod community composition and abundance over one growing season on the San Juan River between Bluff and Mexican Hat, UT and second, to involve the public in this research through a citizen science component. I found that non-native insects, including the tamarisk leaf beetle, dominated the arboreal arthropod communities within the tamarisk and there are relatively few native arthropods residing in tamarisk throughout the summer season. Foliation levels (the quantity of leaves in the canopy of tamarisk) were inconclusive predictors of arthropod abundances but varied by species and by feeding guild. This may indicate that the defoliation of the tamarisk is not necessarily negatively impacting trophic interactions in tamarisk. I incorporated youth participants on educational river rafting trips to assist in data collection of arthropods from tamarisk trees as a way to educate and bring attention to the issue of invasive species in the Southwest. After completing my own citizen science project and after doing a literature review of other, similar citizen science projects, I found that striving for both rigorous scientific data and quality educational programming is challenging for a small scale project that does not target broad spatial, geographic, or temporal data. Citizen science project developers should clearly identify their objectives and spend time developing and evaluating both the data quality and the educational quality of citizen science programs to achieve credibility in both realms.

  5. Use of Google EarthTM to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments / Utilisation de Google EarthTM pour renforcer les capacités de la santé publique et faciliter la prise en charge des maladies à transmission vectorielle dans les environnements pauvres en ressources / Uso de Google EarthTM para fortalecer la capacidad de salud pública y facilitar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en entornos con recursos escasos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saul, Lozano-Fuentes; Darwin, Elizondo-Quiroga; Jose Arturo, Farfan-Ale; Maria Alba, Loroño-Pino; Julian, Garcia-Rejon; Salvador, Gomez-Carro; Victor, Lira-Zumbardo; Rosario, Najera-Vazquez; Ildefonso, Fernandez-Salas; Joaquin, Calderon-Martinez; Marco, Dominguez-Galera; Pedro, Mis-Avila; Natashia, Morris; Michael, Coleman; Chester G, Moore; Barry J, Beaty; Lars, Eisen.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Se necesitan soluciones novedosas y de bajo costo para mejorar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y de otro tipo en los entornos con recursos escasos. Las nuevas opciones de software gratuito que dan acceso a imágenes por satélite y a instrumentos de edición sencillos [...] (por ejemplo Google EarthTM) complementan el software del sistema de información geográfica (SIG) existente y brindan nuevas oportunidades para: (i) reforzar la capacidad global de salud pública mediante la elaboración de información para infraestructuras urbanas; y (ii) mostrar los datos de salud pública directamente en una imagen del entorno físico. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron imágenes por satélite de libre acceso y una serie de prestaciones de generación de detalles incluidas en el software (que permiten crear polígonos, líneas y puntos) para añadir información sobre las infraestructuras urbanas y representar datos sobre las enfermedades en el marco de un sistema de apoyo decisional para el dengue (DDSS). RESULTADOS: Se utilizaron dos ciudades de México (Chetumal y Mérida) para demostrar que es posible desarrollar rápidamente y con un costo mínimo una representación básica de la infraestructura urbana que revista utilidad como urdimbre espacial en un DDSS. Las capas de información generadas comprendían polígonos etiquetados que representaban cuadras, líneas que reproducían las calles, y puntos que indicaban la localización de las escuelas y los dispensarios. Las cuadras se codificaron mediante colores en función de los casos de dengue. Las capas de información se pudieron importar satisfactoriamente a un software SIG en el formato conocido como shapefiles. CONCLUSIÓN: La combinación de Google EarthTM y software SIG gratuito (por ejemplo, HealthMapper, desarrollado por la OMS, y SIGEpi, desarrollado por la OPS) brinda enormes posibilidades para reforzar la capacidad general de salud pública y facilitar la aplicación de sistemas de apoyo decisional a la prevención y el control de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en los entornos con recursos escasos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google EarthTM) complement existing geographic information system ( [...] GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. METHODS: We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. FINDINGS: Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. CONCLUSION: The combination of Google EarthTM and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

  6. Reactive arthritis or chronic infectious arthritis?

    OpenAIRE

    Sibilia, J; Limbach, F.

    2002-01-01

    Microbes reach the synovial cavity either directly during bacteraemia or by transport within lymphoid cells or monocytes. This may stimulate the immune system excessively, triggering arthritis. Some forms of ReA correspond to slow infectious arthritis due to the persistence of microbes and some to an infection triggered arthritis linked to an extra-articular site of infection.

  7. [Blood transfusion: control of infectious risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, Syria; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Morel, Pascal; Pouchol, Elodie; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    From blood donor collection to transfusion of the recipient, there are several layers of protection of the blood supply. These measures combined with huge progresses over the three past decades in pathogen discovery and blood testing for specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)), provide the greatest safety. With the implementation of serological and molecular testing, at least in high-income countries, transfusion-transmitted infections have become extremely rare. However, for pathogen agents, which are not tested and especially those which are responsible for emerging infectious disease, it became apparent that full control of infectious disease had not been achieved. In addition, the immune status of the recipient has also an impact in the outcome of infectious diseases transmitted by transfusion. Blood safety is based on several measures: education and deferral of donors with risk factors for transmissible disease, blood testing, pathogen reduction interventions, and patient blood management. This paper proposes a review of the residual risk of transmission of infectious diseases by transfusion and of the additional interventions able to further reduce it. PMID:25547992

  8. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  9. Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Final Reclaimed Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Gennaccaro, Angela L.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Quintero-Betancourt, Walter; Huffman, Debra E; Joan B. Rose

    2003-01-01

    Water samples collected throughout several reclamation facilities were analyzed for the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum by the focus detection method-most-probable-number cell culture technique. Results revealed the presence of infectious C. parvum oocysts in 40% of the final disinfected effluent samples. Sampled effluent contained on average seven infectious oocysts per 100 liters. Thus, reclaimed water is not pathogen free but contains infectious C. parvum.

  10. Substance Abuse Treatment Clinician Opinions and Infectious Disease Service Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, Kathlene; Brown, Lawrence S.; Kritz, Steven; Alderson, Donald; Robinson, Jim; Bini, Edmund J.; Levy, Michael; Calsyn, Donald; Rieckmann, Traci; Fuller, Bret; Mcauliffe, Pat; Rotrosen, John

    2009-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs are an important platform for delivery of services for infectious diseases associated with drug and alcohol use. However, important components of infectious disease care are not universally provided. Clinician training often focuses on information about infectious diseases and less attention is paid to provider opinions and attitudes that may be barriers to providing infectious diseases services. In a national multi-site trial conducted by the National Drug ...

  11. Fatal Infectious Disease Surveillance in a Medical Examiner Database1

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Yoon, Steven S.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing infectious disease deaths, the emergence of new infections, and bioterrorism have made surveillance for infectious diseases a public health concern. Medical examiners and coroners certify approximately 20% of all deaths that occur within the United States and can be a key source of information regarding infectious disease deaths. We hypothesized that a computer-assisted search tool (algorithm) could detect infectious disease deaths from a medical examiner database, thereby reducing...

  12. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J

    2000-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparsely studied.

  13. Arthropods in Natural Communities in Mescal Agave (Agave durangensis Gentry in an Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Gonzalez-Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The arthropods have a very important role in the arid zones due to their interactions with many organism and because they constituted an important element in the structure of the plant community. Nevertheless their importance there are few knowledge about the community of arthropods associated to vegetation in arid zones in the North of Mexico. The present study had the objective of determining the abundance, richness and diversity of arthropods in three localities where there are natural populations of mescal agave in the State of Durango, Mexico. Approach: In order to know the structure community of the arthropods associated to the mescal agave, we perform a sampling schedule during March 2008 to November 2010 by direct collection, using transects in three different localities with the presence of mescal agave. The relative abundance, species richness, Shannon’s diversity index, Pielou’s Index of evenness, Jaccard’s similitude and Simpson’s dominance indexes were determined. Results: A total of 4665 individual arthropods associated to mescal agave corresponding to 39 species were found. El Mezquital had the highest abundance and relative abundance (44.1% with 29 species. The mean species abundance was not significantly different between localities using Turkey’s test. The highest density per unit of area was found in El Mezquital (La Brena had the highest species diversity (1.89, evenness (0.61 and dominance (0.78. At the taxon level, Hymenoptera had the highest number of species represented (14, followed by Coleoptera (9 and hemiptera (5, with the remaining taxons with four, two and one species each. Conclusion: The greatest similitude was observed between La Brena and El Mezquital (46% which shared seven taxons, while the least similitude was observed between El Venado and La Brena (29%. Dominance/diversity curves are presented for each locality. The species Caulotops sp., Acutaspis agavis, Chilorus sp., Scyphophorus acupunctatus and Peltophorus polymitus were the ones with highest relative abundance. Although the diversity values are above the minimum, previously unreported arthropod species associated to mescal agave were recorded. The results can be useful to know the dynamic in the community associated to agave, in order to development best conservation and exploit management of that important plant.

  14. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed.

  15. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  16. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed

  17. Neurotropic Infectious Agents and Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Yolken, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    The links between infectious agents and risk for schizophrenia have been widely debated, but few investigations have focused on “epidiagnostic” effects, eg, whether exposures to infectious agents alter key clinical aspects of the disorder, such as cognitive impairment. The present theme issue evaluates epidiagnostic cognitive effects of two common infectious agents, namely Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 and Toxoplasma gondii.

  18. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-12

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/13/2014.

  19. Molecular detection of hemoprotozoa and Rickettsia species in arthropods collected from wild animals in the Burgos Province, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; de Sousa, Rita; Gegúndez, Maria Isabep; Casado, Nieves; Criado, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Limited information on the presence of bacterial and hematozoan infections in parasitic arthropods from Spain is available. In an attempt to address this issue, the prevalence of Theileria, Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Rickettsia species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction plus sequencing. In a survey for zoonotic pathogens in ectoparasites, 42 wild animals (which included rodents, carnivores, Sciuridae, and Cervidae) were captured in Burgos (Spain). A total of 256 arthropods (including...

  20. Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sze?na?si, A?gnes; Pa?linka?s, Zolta?n; Zalai, Miha?ly; Schmitz, Oswald J.; Balog, Adalbert

    2014-01-01

    There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt t...

  1. The i5k Workspace@NAL—enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's geno...

  2. Arthropod but Not Bird Predation in Ethiopian Homegardens Is Higher in Tree-Poor than in Tree-Rich Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding...

  3. The Increase of Arthropods Biodiversity in Paddy Field Ecosystem Managed by Using Integrated Pest Management at South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samharinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the arthropods biodiversity in two paddy field ecosystems, namely, paddy field ecosystem using Integrated Pest Management (IPM system and non-IPM paddy field ecosystem. This study was conducted from April 2011 – November 2011 in three locations, that is, Pasar Kamis village and Sungai Rangas village in Banjar regency, and Guntung Payung village in Banjarbaru city, South Borneo Province. In this study, we used insect nets, yellow sticky traps, light trap and pitfall trap to get the sample or catch the arthropods in one period of planting season. The arthropods caught were then classified into some classes: pest (herbivore, natural enemy (parasitoid and predator, and other arthropods. After that, the Species Diversity Index was determined using its Shannon-Wiener Index (H’, Evenness (e, Species Richness (R, and Species Similarity Index (IS. The sum of arthropods which have the characteristic of pest and parasitoid were higher in the IPM paddy fields than in the non-IPM paddy fields, and the sum of other arthropods were the same. The highest H’ and e values were in the IPM paddy field in Pasar Kamis village. The IS value for each three locations were 77.5% in Pasar Kamis village, 93.42% in Guntung Payung village, and 78.76% in Sungai Rangas village.

  4. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests. PMID:25961306

  5. Non-Structural Proteins of Arthropod-Borne Bunyaviruses: Roles and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Kohl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses within the Bunyaviridae family are tri-segmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses. The family includes several emerging and re-emerging viruses of humans, animals and plants, such as Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, La Crosse virus, Schmallenberg virus and tomato spotted wilt virus. Many bunyaviruses are arthropod-borne, so-called arboviruses. Depending on the genus, bunyaviruses encode, in addition to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the different structural proteins, one or several non-structural proteins. These non-structural proteins are not always essential for virus growth and replication but can play an important role in viral pathogenesis through their interaction with the host innate immune system. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge and understanding of insect-borne bunyavirus non-structural protein function(s in vertebrate, plant and arthropod.

  6. Disturbance and Recovery of Salt Marsh Arthropod Communities following BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Mccall, Brittany D.; Pennings, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Oil spills represent a major environmental threat to coastal wetlands, which provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to humanity. The U.S. Gulf of Mexico is a hub of oil and gas exploration activities that historically have impacted intertidal habitats such as salt marsh. Following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we sampled the terrestrial arthropod community and marine invertebrates found in stands of Spartina alterniflora, the most abundant plant in coastal salt marshes. Sampli...

  7. The Upper Ordovician arthropod Zonozoe drabowiensis Barrande (Libe? and Letná formations, Sandbian, Barrandian area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Š

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new find of an isolated prosoma of the possible aglaspidid arthropod Zonozoe drabowiensis from the ?evnice Quartzite of the Libe? Formation is described. All previously described specimens from the Letná Formation were measured and compared to this specimen, which shows the so far unknown external surface of the exoskeleton and represents the first occurrence outside the Letná Formation.

  8. Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Saporito, Ralph A; Garraffo, H. Martin; Donnelly, Maureen A.; Edwards, Adam L.; Longino, John T.; DALY, JOHN W.

    2004-01-01

    A remarkable diversity of bioactive lipophilic alkaloids is present in the skin of poison frogs and toads worldwide. Originally discovered in neotropical dendrobatid frogs, these alkaloids are now known from mantellid frogs of Madagascar, certain myobatrachid frogs of Australia, and certain bufonid toads of South America. Presumably serving as a passive chemical defense, these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from a variety of alkaloid-containing arthropods. The pumiliotoxins represent a ma...

  9. Alp, an Arthropod-Associated Outer Membrane Protein of Borrelia Species That Cause Relapsing Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Marcsisin, Renee A.; Campeau, Shelley A.; Lopez, Job E.; Barbour, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii and other relapsing fever (RF) species are noted for their highly polymorphic surface antigens, the variable major proteins (VMP). Less is known about other surface proteins of these pathogens in either their vertebrate reservoirs or arthropod vectors. To further characterize these proteins, we elicited antibodies against VMP-less cells, noted antibody reactions against whole cells and cell components, and then subjected selected antigens to mass spectroscopy for amino acid s...

  10. Arthropod-derived histamine-binding protein prevents murine allergic asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Couillin, I; Maillet, I.; Vargaftig, BB; JACOBS, M.; Paesen, GC; Nuttall, PA; J. Lefort; Moser, R.; Weston-Davies, W; Ryffel, B

    2004-01-01

    Because histamine receptor type I blockade attenuates allergic asthma, we asked whether complete neutralization of histamine by an arthropod-derived, high affinity histamine-binding protein (EV131) would prevent allergic asthma. Intranasal administration of EV131 given before Ag challenge in immunized mice prevented airway hyperreactivity by 70%, and abrogated peribronchial inflammation, pulmonary eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion, and IL-4 and IL-5 secretion. Saturation with histamine abrog...

  11. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habi...

  12. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Jonathon N.; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen.; Firn, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these “urban plantings” are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant “ecological values” by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for...

  13. Effects of Timing of Grazing on Arthropod Communities in Semi-Natural Grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir, Lisette; Lennartsson, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod communities were investigated in two Swedish semi-natural grasslands, each subject to two types of grazing regime: conventional grazing from May to September (continuous grazing) and traditional late management from mid-July (late grazing). Pitfall traps were used to investigate abundance of carabids, spiders, and ants over the grazing season. Ant abundance was also measured by mapping nest density during three successive years. Small spiders, carabids and ants (Myrmica spp.) were m...

  14. Phytophagous Arthropods and a Pathogen Sharing a Host Plant: Evidence for Indirect Plant-Mediated Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Bearez, Philippe; Thomas, Cécile; Desneux, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that ...

  15. Effects of Vegetated Field Borders on Arthropods in Cotton Fields in Eastern North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Bradley, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurr...

  16. Are herbivore-induced plant volatiles reliable indicators of herbivore identity to foraging carnivorous arthropods?

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, M.

    1999-01-01

    Plants that are damaged by herbivorous arthropods provide carnivorous enemies of the herbivores with important information. They emit an induced volatile blend that is highly detectable to the carnivores from a distance. Such detectable signals that indicate herbivore presence are important for the carnivores because herbivores themselves are under strong selection not to expose themselves. In addition, carnivores would benefit from a specificity of the induced plant volatiles. Whether herbiv...

  17. The value of urban vacant land to support arthropod biodiversity and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; Burkman, Caitlin E; Prajzner, Scott P

    2013-12-01

    The expansion of urban areas is occurring globally, but not all city neighborhoods are gaining population. Because of economic decline and the recent foreclosure crisis, many U.S. cities are demolishing abandoned residential structures to create parcels of vacant land. In some cities, weak housing markets have, or will likely, recover in the near term, and these parcels will be redeveloped. However, in other cities, large numbers of abandoned parcels have no significant market value and no likelihood of near-term redevelopment. The creation of these vacated green spaces could offer opportunities to preserve declining species, restore ecosystem functions, and support diverse ecosystem services. Arthropods are an important indicator of the ability of urban vacant land to serve multiple functions, from conservation to food production. Across Europe, vacant lands have been found to support a diversity of rare species, and similar examinations of arthropods within this habitat are underway in the United States. In addition, using vacant land as a resource for local food production is growing rapidly worldwide. Arthropods play key roles in the sustainability of food production in cities, and land conversion to farming has been found to influence their community composition and function. A greater focus on quantifying the current ecological value of vacant land and further assessment of how changes in its ecosystem management affect biodiversity and ecosystem processes is clearly needed. Herein, we specifically focus on the role of arthropods in addressing these priorities to advance our ecological understanding of the functional role of vacant land habitats in cities. PMID:24468552

  18. ASGARD: an open-access database of annotated transcriptomes for emerging model arthropod species

    OpenAIRE

    Extavour, Cassandra G.; Zeng, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The increased throughput and decreased cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have shifted the bottleneck genomic research from sequencing to annotation, analysis and accessibility. This is particularly challenging for research communities working on organisms that lack the basic infrastructure of a sequenced genome, or an efficient way to utilize whatever sequence data may be available. Here we present a new database, the Assembled Searchable Giant Arthropod Read Database (ASGARD). This da...

  19. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbi?, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. ...

  20. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Paz-ferreiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied we...

  1. Speculations on biting midges and other bloodsucking arthropods as alternative vectors of Leishmania

    OpenAIRE

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Carpenter, Simon; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Sand flies remain the only proven vectors of Leishmania spp. but recent implementation of PCR techniques has led to increasing speculation about "alternative vectors", including biting midges. Here, we summarize that PCR has considerable limits for studing the role of bloodsucking arthropods in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. The Leishmania life cycle in the sand fly includes a complex series of interactions which are in many cases species-specific, the early phase of the infection is, how...

  2. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Bruno B.; Teixeira, Clarissa R.; Aldina Barral; Manoel Barral-Netto

    2005-01-01

    The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targe...

  3. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  4. Biotic integrity of the arthropod communities in the natural forests of Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gaspar, Clara

    2007-01-01

    The loss of biotic integrity in ecosystems due to human pressure has been receiving much attention from the scientific community. The primary aim of this study is to understand how the increasing human pressure on natural forests in the Azorean archipelago (North Atlantic) is affecting their epigean arthropod communities and which biological parameters it affects most. An expert team did fieldwork covering most of the natural forests (mainly inside nature reserves) of the archipelago using st...

  5. Impact of Pesticide Treatment on an Arthropod Community in the Korean Rice Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hong-hyun; Joon-Ho Lee

    2009-01-01

    An arthropod community in a rice ecosystem was surveyed to determine the impact of twoinsecticides frequently used in Korean rice ecosystems: carbofuran 3GR, which targets the rice water weevil,Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the early season and fenobucarb EC, whichtargets the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in the mid- and lateseasons, respectively. Overall, the application of the insecticides reduced density of total a...

  6. Faunal turnover of arthropod assemblages along a wide gradient of disturbance in Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Basset, Yves; Missa, Oliver; Alonso, Alfonso; Miller, Scott E.; Curletti, G.; Meyer, Marc; Eardley, C. D.; Mansell, Mervyn W.; Novotny, V.; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We examined the results of a study in Gamba, Gabon, focusing on the impacts of disturbance on arthropods, including more than 400 000 individuals, from which 21 focal taxa were separated into 1534 morphospecies by parataxonomists. Replication included the understorey of three sites in each of four different stages of forest succession and land use (= ‘habitats’) after logging (old and young forests, savanna and gardens), surveyed over a whole year with three sampling methods. Generally...

  7. RNAi in Arthropods: Insight into the Machinery and Applications for Understanding the Pathogen-Vector Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Stutzer; Christine Maritz-Olivier; Nijhof, Ard M.; Wilma Fick; Annette-Christi Barnard

    2012-01-01

    The availability of genome sequencing data in combination with knowledge of expressed genes via transcriptome and proteome data has greatly advanced our understanding of arthropod vectors of disease. Not only have we gained insight into vector biology, but also into their respective vector-pathogen interactions. By combining the strengths of postgenomic databases and reverse genetic approaches such as RNAi, the numbers of available drug and vaccine targets, as well as number of transgenes for...

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of arthropods using two nuclear protein-encoding genes supports a crustacean + hexapod clade.

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, J W; Regier, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses using molecular data suggest that hexapods are more closely related to crustaceans than to myriapods, a result that conflicts with long-held morphology-based hypotheses. Here we contribute additional information to this debate by conducting phylogenetic analyses on two nuclear protein-encoding genes, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), from an extensive sample of arthropod taxa. Results were obtained from t...

  9. The Four Phases of Plant-Arthropod Associations in Deep Time

    OpenAIRE

    Labandeira, C C

    2006-01-01

    Vascular-plant hosts, their arthropod herbivores, and associated functional feeding groups are distributed spatiotemporally into four major herbivore expansions during the past 420 m.y. They are: (1) a Late Silurian to Late Devonian (60 m.y.) phase of myriapod and apterygote, hexapod (perhaps pterygote) herbivores on several clades of primitive vascular-plant hosts and a prototaxalean fungus; (2) a Late Mississippian to end-Permian (85 m.y.) phase of mites and apterygote and basal pterygote h...

  10. [These infectious diseases imported with food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Y; Marié, J L; Davoust, B

    2008-10-01

    People are sometimes frightened by food scares and foodstuffs are increasingly suspected of containing dangerous substances or infectious agents, as a result of the unprecedented development of the industry and food trade in the world. Rightly or wrongly, imported food is held responsible for the greatest risks. Importing an infectious disease along with food can be a source of danger, involving multiple agents, mainly bacterial (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, Listeria...), but also parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp...), and viral (Norovirus, hepatitis A virus), as well as non conventional communicable agents and mycotoxins. Prevention of food risks means enforcing international regulations on the part of the 149 member states of the WTO, increasing vigilance with regard to illegal imports of food, systematically investigating collective food-borne outbreaks, and finally implementing controls according to the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) method. PMID:18956818

  11. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, ?-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

  12. Anti-infectious agents against MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Nobuhiro; Inokoshi, Junji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Clinically useful antibiotics, ?-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652) targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP) synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described. PMID:23262449

  13. Efficient sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods using pitfall traps in arid steppes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán H, Cheli; Juan C, Corley.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitfall trapping is probably the most frequently used method for sampling grounddwelling arthropods. While the capture of specimens in pitfall traps largely depends on the number of individuals in the sampled area, trap design and trapping effort for a given environment, can also affect sampling suc [...] cess. The aim of this study was to determine the best pitfall trapping design for collecting ground-dwelling arthropods in the wind-blown and cold arid steppe areas of Patagonia. We tested four designs of traps, six types of preservative and different times of activation as well as the quantity of traps. Both preservation attributes and sampling efficiency differed between different trap designs and fluids compared. We conclude that in order to obtain reliable data on the structure of a community of ground-dwelling arthropods in Patagonia, at least three pitfall traps per experimental unit are required. In addition, traps should be opened for a minimum of 10 days filled with 300 ml of 30% ethylene glycol. We also suggested the use of a simple trap design (i. e. without funnel or roof). We believe these findings will contribute to more appropriate sampling of the ground dwelling fauna of Patagonia as well as other arid areas, leading to more reliable diversity studies.

  14. Arthropod prey of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mississippi sweetpotato fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Tahir; Chen, Jian; Vogt, James T; McLeod, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    The red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), are generally considered pests. They have also been viewed as beneficial predators feeding on other insect pests of various agroecosystems. This study documents the foraging habits of fire ants in a sweetpotato field in Mississippi. Fire ant foraging trails connecting outside colonies to a sweetpotato field were exposed and foraging ants moving out of the field toward the direction of the colony were collected along with the solid food particles they were carrying. The food material was classified as arthropod or plant in origin. The arthropod particles were identified to orders. Fire ant foragers carried more arthropods than plant material. Coleoptera and Homoptera were the most abundant groups preyed upon. These insect orders contain various economically important pests of sweetpotato. Other major hexapod groups included the orders Hemiptera, Diptera and Collembola. The quantity of foraged material varied over the season. No damage to sweetpotato roots could be attributed to fire ant feeding. Imported fire ant foraging may reduce the number of insect pests in sweetpotato fields. PMID:23955942

  15. Effect of the application of chlorpyrifos to maize on pests and beneficial arthropods in Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed between 1994 and 1997 to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos insecticide on arthropods in maize agroecosystem. The experiments were carried out in Boaco (Central zone) and Managua (Pacific zone) areas. Experiments were set up according to randomized block design, with large plots (750 m2) and four replications. The treatments were 1L/ha Lorsban 4E (containing 480 g a.i../L) and control. Visual sampling, pitfall traps and yellow traps were used to estimate numbers of pest insects and beneficial arthropods. Chlorpiryfos had a measureable affect on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Dalbulus maidis. The plots sprayed with the insecticide had the lowest population of S. frugiperda and the highest population of D. maidis. Beneficials insects, mainly parasitoids were more affected than pests by the insecticide sprays. The highest parasitism was found in the unsprayed plots. Overall, the lowest population of arthropods was found in the sprayed plots, except that in Managua the highest number of D. maidis were found in the sprayed plots. (author)

  16. Cephalic and appendage morphology of the Cambrian arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans Walcott, 1911

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sidneyia inexpectans Walcott, 1911 from the Cambrian Series 3 Burgess Shale of British Columbia is largely accepted as a representative of the artiopodans, an assemblage of Paleozoic arthropod taxa, including trilobites and their immediate relatives. Its appendage morphology was never fully understood, but the exopod seemed to differ from that of other artiopodans, except for the shared presence of lamellae. The head was considered to comprise only the ocular and antennular segments, these being covered entirely on the ventral side by a large doublure. This short head was often taken as an evidence for variability of head segment counts in Cambrian arthropods, and to falsify the hypothesis of a head with three postantennular segments in the euarthropod ground pattern. Restudy of a substantial amount of material of S. inexpectans shows that previous interpretations of a short head were based on taphonomically deformed specimens, where the head was either partly folded, or entirely flipped under the thorax, resulting in the dorsal shield being mistaken for an extensive doublure. Rather than an extensive doublure, there is a broad hypostome, and the head comprises ocular, antennular, and at least two postantennular appendage bearing segments. The appendage morphology is shown to be consistent with artiopodan affinities. The exopod is of the bilobate flap-like type with lamellae inserting on the proximal portion, earlier proposed as a potential autapomorphy of Artiopoda. Reinforcement of artiopodan affinities for S. inexpectans and reinterpretation of its head reconciles this species with current understanding of arthropod phylogeny and head segmentation. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Development and validation of an arthropod maceration protocol for zoonotic pathogen detection in mosquitoes and fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Genelle F; Scheirer, Jessica L; Melanson, Vanessa R

    2015-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases remain a pressing international public health concern. While progress has been made in the rapid detection of arthropod-borne pathogens via quantitative real-time (qPCR), or even hand-held detection devices, a simple and robust maceration and nucleic acid extraction method is necessary to implement biosurveillance capabilities. In this study, a comparison of maceration techniques using five types of beads followed by nucleic acid extraction and detection were tested using two morphologically disparate arthropods, the Aedes aegypti mosquito and Xenopsylla spp. flea, to detect the zoonotic diseases dengue virus serotype-1 and Yersinia pestis. Post-maceration nucleic acid extraction was carried out using the 1-2-3 Platinum-Path-Sample-Purification (PPSP) kit followed by qPCR detection using the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS). We found that the 5mm stainless steel beads added to the beads provided in the PPSP kit were successful in macerating the exoskeleton for both Ae. aegypti and Xenopsylla spp. Replicates in the maceration/extraction/detection protocol were increased in a stepwise fashion until a final 128 replicates were obtained. For dengue virus detection there was a 99% positivity rate and for Y. pestis detection there was a 95% positive detection rate. In the examination of both pathogens, there were no significant differences between qPCR instruments, days ran, time of day ran, or operators. PMID:26047188

  18. Bad guys turned nice? A critical assessment of Wolbachia mutualisms in arthropod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, Roman; Hammerstein, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Wolbachia are the most abundant bacterial endosymbionts among arthropods. Although maternally inherited, they do not conform to the widespread view that vertical transmission inevitably selects for beneficial symbionts. Instead, Wolbachia are notorious for their reproductive parasitism which, although lowering host fitness, ensures their spread. However, even for reproductive parasites it can pay to enhance host fitness. Indeed, there is a recent upsurge of reports on Wolbachia-associated fitness benefits. Therefore, the question arises how such instances of mutualism are related to the phenotypes of reproductive parasitism. Here, we review the evidence of Wolbachia mutualisms in arthropods, including both facultative and obligate relationships, and critically assess their biological relevance. Although many studies report anti-pathogenic effects of Wolbachia, few actually prove these effects to be relevant to field conditions. We further show that Wolbachia frequently have beneficial and detrimental effects at the same time, and that reproductive manipulations and obligate mutualisms may share common mechanisms. These findings undermine the idea of a clear-cut distinction between Wolbachia mutualism and parasitism. In general, both facultative and obligate mutualisms can have a strong, and sometimes unforeseen, impact on the ecology and evolution of Wolbachia and their arthropod hosts. Acknowledging this mutualistic potential might be the key to a better understanding of some unresolved issues in the study of Wolbachia-host interactions. PMID:24618033

  19. Discontinuous gas exchange in a tracheate arthropod, the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus: Occurrence, characteristics and temperature dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R.B. Lighton

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The discontinuous gas exchange cycle of the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus, mean mass 5.9 mg, is rudimentary and is characterized by bursts of CO2 at frequencies ranging from 3.6 mHz at 15 °C to 13.3 mHz at 35 °C. The mean volume of CO2 emitted per burst is 3.6 µl g-1 at 25 °C, about a tenth of the amount emitted by tracheate arthropods with a well developed discontinuous gas exchange cycle. Interburst CO2 emission is high and increases with temperature, reaching near 45% of total CO2 production rate at 35 °C. No fluttering spiracle phase is evident. The metabolic rate of G. californicus at 25 °C (8.4 µW is typical of other arthropods. We infer from the high rate of interburst CO2 emission in G. californicus that trans-spiracular O2 partial pressure gradients are small and that spiracular conductance is correspondingly high, which may lead to high rates of respiratory water loss relative to arthropods with more stringent spiracular control and higher CO2 buffering capacity. The typical moist, hypogeal environments and small body sizes of pseudoscorpions correlate well with their respiratory physiology

  20. The diversity of reproductive parasites among arthropods: Wolbachia do not walk alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria have come to be recognised as important components of arthropod biology. In addition to mutualistic symbioses, a range of other inherited bacteria are known to act either as reproductive parasites or as secondary symbionts. Whilst the incidence of the ?-proteobacterium Wolbachia is relatively well established, the current knowledge of other inherited bacteria is much weaker. Here, we tested 136 arthropod species for a range of inherited bacteria known to demonstrate reproductive parasitism, sampling each species more intensively than in past surveys. Results The inclusion of inherited bacteria other than Wolbachia increased the number of infections recorded in our sample from 33 to 57, and the proportion of species infected from 22.8% to 32.4%. Thus, whilst Wolbachia remained the dominant inherited bacterium, it alone was responsible for around half of all inherited infections of the bacteria sampled, with members of the Cardinium, Arsenophonus and Spiroplasma ixodetis clades each occurring in 4% to 7% of all species. The observation that infection was sometimes rare within host populations, and that there was variation in presence of symbionts between populations indicates that our survey will itself underscore incidence. Conclusion This extensive survey demonstrates that at least a third of arthropod species are infected by a diverse assemblage of maternally inherited bacteria that are likely to strongly influence their hosts' biology, and indicates an urgent need to establish the nature of the interaction between non-Wolbachia bacteria and their hosts.

  1. Importance of terrestrial arthropods as subsidies in lowland Neotropical rain forest stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Gaston E.; Torres, Pedro J.; Schwizer, Lauren M.; Duff, John H.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of terrestrial arthropods has been documented in temperate stream ecosystems, but little is known about the magnitude of these inputs in tropical streams. Terrestrial arthropods falling from the canopy of tropical forests may be an important subsidy to tropical stream food webs and could also represent an important flux of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in nutrient-poor headwater streams. We quantified input rates of terrestrial insects in eight streams draining lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. In two focal headwater streams, we also measured capture efficiency by the fish assemblage and quantified terrestrially derived N- and P-excretion relative to stream nutrient uptake rates. Average input rates of terrestrial insects ranged from 5 to 41 mg dry mass/m2/d, exceeding previous measurements of aquatic invertebrate secondary production in these study streams, and were relatively consistent year-round, in contrast to values reported in temperate streams. Terrestrial insects accounted for half of the diet of the dominant fish species, Priapicthys annectens. Although terrestrially derived fish excretion was found to be a small flux relative to measured nutrient uptake rates in the focal streams, the efficient capture and processing of terrestrial arthropods by fish made these nutrients available to the local stream ecosystem. This aquatic-terrestrial linkage is likely being decoupled by deforestation in many tropical regions, with largely unknown but potentially important ecological consequences.

  2. Arthropod parasites of the red-bellied squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus introduced into Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, A C; Guichón, M L; Benitez, V V; Lareschi, M

    2013-06-01

    The introduction of an exotic species usually modifies parasite-host dynamics by the import of new parasites or the exotic species' acquiral of local parasites. The loss of parasites may determine the outcome of an invasion if the introduced species is liberated from co-evolved parasites in its range of invasion. In addition, an introduced species may pose sanitary risks to humans and other mammals if it serves as a reservoir of pathogens or carries arthropod vectors. The red-bellied squirrel, Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas) (Rodentia: Sciuridae), was introduced into Argentina in 1970, since when several foci of invasion have been closely associated with humans. Investigation of the parasitological fauna of C. erythraeus in Argentina will generate new information about novel parasite-host dynamics and may provide new insight into the reasons for the successful invasion of this species. The objective of this study was to describe the arthropod parasites of C. erythraeus in Argentina in comparison with previous studies of parasites of this species in its native habitat and in the ranges of its invasion. Occasional host-parasite associations with local arthropod parasites not previously described for C. erythraeus are reported; these include the mites Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Ewing) (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) and Ornithonyssus cf. bacoti (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae), the flea Polygenis (Polygenis) rimatus Jordan (Siphonaptera: Rhopalopsyllidae) and the botfly Cuterebra Clark (Diptera: Oestridae: Cuterebrinae). Cheyletus sp. mites (Trombidiformes: Cheyletidae) were also found. The low prevalence and mean intensity of ectoparasite species may influence invasion dynamics. PMID:23252828

  3. Effects of land management strategies on the dispersal pattern of a beneficial arthropod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchi, Chiara; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Several arthropods are known to be highly beneficial to agricultural production. Consequently it is of great relevance to study the importance of land management and land composition for the conservation of beneficial aphid-predator arthropod species in agricultural areas. Therefore our study focusing on the beneficial arthropod Bembidion lampros had two main purposes: I) identifying the physical barriers to the species' dispersal in the agricultural landscape, and II) assessing the effect of different land management strategies (i.e. use of pesticides and intensiveness) on the dispersal patterns. The study was conducted using genetic analysis (microsatellite markers) applied to samples from two agricultural areas (in Denmark) with different agricultural intensity. Land management effects on dispersal patterns were investigated with particular focus on: physical barriers, use of pesticide and intensity of cultivation. The results showed that Bembidion lampros disperse preferably through hedges rather than fields, which act as physical barriers to gene flow. Moreover the results support the hypothesis that organic fields act as reservoirs for the re-colonization of conventional fields, but only when cultivation intensity is low. These results show the importance of non-cultivated areas and of low intensity organic managed areas within the agricultural landscape as corridors for dispersal (also for a species typically found within fields). Hence, the hypothesis that pesticide use cannot be used as the sole predictor of agriculture's effect on wild species is supported as land structure and agricultural intensity can be just as important.

  4. Infectious Diseases in returning Swedish travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Askling, Helena Hervius

    2009-01-01

    The number of travellers to â tropicalâ parts of the world has increased substantially during the past decades. Identifying risk groups and providing preventive measures is important both to reduce the number of travellers falling ill and to prevent introduction of diseases into new countries. The aim of this thesis is to describe the epidemiology of imported infectious diseases in Sweden and to identify risk groups. To investigate epidemiology and use of chemoprophyla...

  5. PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Iftikhar Hussain, Atif Nisar Ahmad, M. Ashfaque, M.Shahid Mahmood and Masood Akhtar1

    2001-01-01

    The study was conducted to test the pathogenic effect of six commercially available infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines claimed to be intermediate in their pathogenicity. Three week old chickens were inoculated with these vaccines. The pathogenic effects of the IBD vaccines were evaluated by hemorrhages on the thigh and breast muscles, bursa weight to body weight ratio and virulence; two of the strain were found to be highly virulent; two others were moderate and two could be classified ...

  6. PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Hussain, Atif Nisar Ahmad, M. Ashfaque, M.Shahid Mahmood and Masood Akhtar1

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to test the pathogenic effect of six commercially available infectious bursal disease (IBD vaccines claimed to be intermediate in their pathogenicity. Three week old chickens were inoculated with these vaccines. The pathogenic effects of the IBD vaccines were evaluated by hemorrhages on the thigh and breast muscles, bursa weight to body weight ratio and virulence; two of the strain were found to be highly virulent; two others were moderate and two could be classified as mild.

  7. Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

    2011-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantige...

  8. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, J. A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the mo...

  9. Decontaminating infectious laboratory waste by autoclaving.

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, J L; Battles, D R; Vesley, D.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature profile of infectious laboratory waste being autoclaved was examined relative to the type of containers used in the process. A standardized waste load (1,750 +/- 4 g) placed in the container was evaluated by using a direct readout thermocouple. The sensor of the thermocouple was placed within an unused and outdated agar plate, centrally located about 5 cm from the bottom of the container. The gravity displacement autoclave tested reached 121 degrees C within 3 min. Waste withi...

  10. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuhiro Koyama; Junji Inokoshi; Hiroshi Tomoda

    2012-01-01

    Clinically useful antibiotics, ?-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652) targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were...

  11. Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalov...

  12. Human genomics and preparedness for infectious threats

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Nicole F.; Gwinn, Marta; Mawle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Public health preparedness requires effective surveillance of and rapid response to infectious disease outbreaks. Inclusion of research activities within the outbreak setting provides important opportunities to maximize limited resources, to enhance gains in scientific knowledge, and ultimately to increase levels of preparedness. With rapid advances in laboratory technologies, banking and analysis of human genomic specimens can be conducted as part of public health investigations, enabling va...

  13. Health systems perspectives – infectious diseases of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization’s charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty – its social, political and economic dimensions – remain in the reader’s mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor popul...

  14. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The connection between the severity of clinical manifestations and immune response features in patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM was studied. It was established, that in IM patients with minor disease severity dominated the cellular-mediated response. In IM patients with mild disease severity the humoral-oriented immune response predominated. The described above findings suggest the need of differential approach of immune modulators application in IM therapy, depending on the level of disease severity

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous myositis, magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical manifestations may help in this respect.=20.

  16. Evaluation of mild acute infectious myocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkila?, J.; Karjalainen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute mild myocarditis in vaguely defined. Therefore we studied 185 consecutive young men in military service with electrocardiographic changes arousing a suspicion of myocarditis in connection with an acute infectious disease. It was possible to classify 160 patients into seven electrocardiographic groups; definite or probable myocarditis was observed in 104 patients. The electrocardiographic patterns considered characteristic for acute myocarditis were: ST segment elevation...

  17. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    EK Shuman

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengu...

  18. Non-infectious chronic blepharitis pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sakhnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of complex treatment included the eyelid hygiene in non-infectious chronic blepharitis patients.Methods: 50 non-infectious chronic blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye patients (18?46 years were examined before and after the treatment (eyelid hygiene using Blepharoshampoo, Blepharolotion or Blepharosalfetka, Blepharogel-1; anti-inflammatory therapy; artificial tears. Traditional ophthalmological examination, consideration of subjective discomfort level, evaluation of meibomian gland function (compression test and severity of eyelid epitheliopaty (lyssamine green staining, lipid-interferential test, Schirmer’s test, tear film break up time, optical coherent meniscometry, computer evaluation of xerosis indicator (lyssamine green staining and ocular surface microbiological examination were performed in all the patients.Results: Positive therapeutic effect was noted in all of the observed. It included the following significant changes: reducing the level of subjective discomfort; decreasing of sins of eyelid inflammation; increasing of meibomian gland function; improvement of tear film and ocular surface tissues.Conclusion: Complex treatment, including eyelid hygiene (using Blepharoshampoo, Blepharolotion or Blepharosalfetka, Blepharogel-1, antiinflammatory therapy and artificial tears, allows achieving significant reduction of subjective symptoms and both functional and objective signs of the disease in non-infectious chronic blepharitis patients.

  19. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

  20. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-05-01

    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops ( p < 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed four categories of soil arthropods according to abundance, i.e., highly abundant (Collembola, Acarina, Myripoda, Hymenoptera), moderately abundant (Orthoptera, Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface arthropods were the major contributors of variation in overall abundance in extreme temperature months while microarthropods in low-temperature months. CCA analysis revealed the occurrence of different arthropod groups in correspondence with different abiotic variables. Results are discussed in view of position of these arthropods as useful indicators under changing environmental conditions impacting agroecosystems in the study area.

  1. Extended studies on the diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in Austria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies on diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in selected habitats in Austria and Poland carried out in the years 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 are discussed. In total 47 species of entomopathogenic fungi were found as pathogens of different arthropods in Austria. Twenty six entomophthoralean species from different insects and one species from mites were identified and 16 of them are recorded as new to Austria. From among 21 species of anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota affecting arthropods in Austria, 13 species so far have not been known from this country. In total 51 species of fungi affecting different arthropods in Poland were recorded, among them 28 species of Entomophthorales and 23 anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota were separated. The most frequent species of the entomopathogenic fungi both in agricultural and afforested areas in Austria were the common and usually worldwide distributed cordycipitaceous anamorphs Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and in areas of this study less numerous I. farinosa. The most frequent pathogens occurring in mite communities on plants and in wood infested by insects were Hirsutella species. Several entomophthoralean species developed epizootics that caused high reduction in host populations of different arthropods in both countries. Especially interesting is the first record of mycoses (up to 60% mortality, caused by Zoophthora spp. on Phyllobius beetles in a mixed forest near Bia?owie?a. During our joint research, we found the first time in Poland and Europe, the presence of the fungus Furia cf. shandongensis on earwigs and Hirsutella entomophila on Ips typographus adults in forest habitats. From the feeding sites of the latter bark beetle and other subcortical species in oak bark (mostly Dryocoetes villosus and D. alni in black alder over a dozen of various Lecanicillium strains - including few of the features not allowing to classify them to any of so far known species – were isolated both from the scolytids and from accompanying them mites, but these materials have now been successively elaborated. From the commonly occurring in these materials acaropathogenic species Hirsutella cf. brownorum, H. minnesotensis, H. nodulosa and H. rostrata, the two latter infected also adult bark beetles, whereas from the larvae and pupae some supposed nematophagous anamorphs were isolated, among them Harposporium janus and Haptocillium sp.

  2. Arthropods associated with the crown of Mauritia flexuosa (Arecaceae) palm trees in three different environments from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Palma, Alexandre R T; Motta, Paulo C; Bar, Maria E; Cuba, Cesar A C

    2006-01-01

    Canopy arthropods, mainly from palm trees, are little known in the Brazilian Cerrado. In order to describe the arthropod community structure associated with the crown of Mauritia flexuosa (Arecaceae), we sampled 150 palm trees in six "veredas" of the Federal District, Brazil, in wild, rural and periurban areas in the rainy season. The arthropods within abandoned bird nests, mammal refuges, leaves and organic matter were manually collected, preserved in ethanol 70% and separated by order, family, morphospecies and feeding guilds. Stem height and diameter of the palm crowns were measured and leaves and bird nests were counted. We collected 3,862 arthropods, from 15 orders, 45 families and 135 morphospecies. The most abundant orders were Coleoptera (28.6%), Blattodea (21.8%), Collembola (11.4%) and Hemiptera (10.2%). The families Blaberidae, Entomobryidae, Reduviidae, Oniscidae, Staphylinidae, Carabidae and Formicidae, represented 82.1% of all individuals collected. The majority of morphospecies was not abundant, 71 (52.6%) were represented by less than 1 individual/tree. Coleopterans accounted for the highest number of morphospecies (43.7%) followed by Araneae (20.0%). The analysis of the arthropod feeding guilds showed prevalence of predatory/hematophagous ones (36.0%). Arthropod richness and abundance presented smaller values for periurban environment. The number of bird nests presented positive correlation with abundance and richness; this was not found when considering the measurements of the palm trees. The importance of M. flexuosa for the maintenance of the arthropod fauna of the "veredas" in Cerrado biome is discussed. PMID:18575689

  3. [Infectious endocarditis complicated with preoperative infectious intracranial aneurysm;report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezure, Masahiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Chieri; Okada, Shuichi; Okonogi, Shuichi; Takihara, Hitomi; Naito, Noritsugu

    2015-02-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted with the diagnosis of active infective endocarditis( IE) due to Streptococcus mitis, complicated with infectious intracranial aneurysm. Preoperative echocardiography showed mobile vegetation on the mitral leaflet, size of which was 20 mm. The magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) demonstrated that the size of aneurysm was increasing, and infectious intracranial aneurysm was treated surgically. Twenty one days after the operation, the mitral valve plasty was performed. He was discharged on foot without any neurological findings. The duration between the brain surgery and the cardiac surgery was thought to be important to prevent the new neurological complication. PMID:25743362

  4. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  5. The influence of weather conditions on the activity of high-arctic arthropods inferred from long-term observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høye Toke T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is particularly pronounced in the High Arctic and a better understanding of the repercussions on ecological processes like herbivory, predation and pollination is needed. Arthropods play an important role in the high-arctic ecosystem and this role is determined by their density and activity. However, density and activity may be sensitive to separate components of climate. Earlier emergence due to advanced timing of snowmelt following climate change may expose adult arthropods to unchanged temperatures but higher levels of radiation. The capture rate of arthropods in passive open traps like pitfall trap integrates density and activity and, therefore, serves as a proxy of the magnitude of such arthropod-related ecological processes. We used arthropod pitfall trapping data and weather data from 10 seasons in high-arctic Greenland to identify climatic effects on the activity pattern of nine arthropod taxa. Results We were able to statistically separate the variation in capture rates into a non-linear component of capture date (density and a linear component of weather (activity. The non-linear proxy of density always accounted for more of the variation than the linear component of weather. After accounting for the seasonal phenological development, the most important weather variable influencing the capture rate of flying arthropods was temperature, while surface-dwelling species were principally influenced by solar radiation. Conclusion Consistent with previous findings, air temperature best explained variation in the activity level of flying insects. An advancement of the phenology in this group due to earlier snowmelt will make individuals appear earlier in the season, but parallel temperature increases could mean that individuals are exposed to similar temperatures. Hence, the effect of climatic changes on the activity pattern in this group may be unchanged. In contrast, we found that solar radiation is a better proxy of activity levels than air temperature in surface-dwelling arthropods. An advancement of the phenology may expose surface-dwelling arthropods to higher levels of solar radiation, which suggest that their locomotory performance is enhanced and their contribution to ecological processes is increased.

  6. Pulmonary endarterectomy after pulmonary infectious embolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Johan; Ilkjær, Lars B

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a well-established procedure in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). The procedure is known to increase functional outcome and to raise the 5-year survival rate. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis and secondary embolisms causing sustained pulmonary hypertension. Both were treated with PEA. In none of the cases, a cleavage between the thrombotic masses and the vessel wall was obtainable, and both attempts were therefore inadequate. Based on our reports, we recommend not attempting PEA in cases of CTPH after infectious embolisms.

  7. [Pathomorphology of infectious bursitis in chicks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, N; Liutskanov, D

    1977-01-01

    Morphologic studies were carried out on birds aged 17 to 90 days, affected with Gumboro disease and occasionally died from the same disease (infectious bursitis). Established were hemorrhages in the leg and breast musculature, substantial enlargement of the bursa of Fabricius, and lesions in the kidneys. In some cases hemorrhages were also found on the serous membrane of the parenchymal organs. The histologic investigation of the involved parenchymal organs revealed necrobiotic changes (karyopycnosis, karyorrhexis) in the cellular elements, which were evaluated as a possible diagnostic symptom. Discussed is the problem of the dynamics of the morphologic changes observed in the bursa of Fabricius in view of their differential-diagnostic value. PMID:201083

  8. Emerging Ranaviral Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Robert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases caused by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae not only affect wild amphibian populations but also agriculture and international animal trade. Although, the prevalence of RV infections and die offs has markedly increased over the last decade, it is still unclear whether these viruses are direct causal agents of extinction or rather are the resulting (secondary consequences of weakened health of amphibian populations leading to increased susceptibility to viral pathogens. In either case, it is important to understand the critical role of host immune defense in controlling RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission; this is the focus of this review.

  9. Breeding Westland petrels as providers of detrital carbon and nitrogen for soil arthropods : a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabirds deposit large quantities of marine detritus on land, but little is known of the soil arthropods processing this material. Burrow-nesting seabirds concentrate their activities within their burrows, so we tested the hypothesis that burrow arthropod fauna is more marine-like in its isotopic enrichment (13C/12C, 15N/14N); expressed as ?13C and ?15N) than the arthropods on the adjacent forest floor. Results from a Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) colony on the South Island of New Zealand did not support the hypothesis. Instead, ?15N was universally marine (13-22 per mil). While ?13C separated into two clusters, the distribution was not according to arthropod provenance. Most taxa had a terrestrial ?13C; only two taxa (a leiodid beetle and the mesostigmatic mite Ayersacarus woodi) incorporated marine C. The leiodid beetle occurs both in burrows and on the forest floor; beetles from both habitats had a marine ?13C. Ayersacarus woodi is found only in burrows. We conclude that, in this system, marine and terrestrial detrital C is processed separately, and that marine detrital C enters the terrestrial ecosystem through a very few arthropod taxa. (author). 33 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Infectious and Non-Infectious Complications among Undiagnosed Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lida Atarod; Seyed-Alireza Mahdaviani; Abdolreza Allahverdi; Kasra Moazzami; Nima Parvaneh; Hassan Abolhassani; Mahmoud Tavassoli; Nima Rezaei; Asghar Aghamohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, defective specific antibody responses to pathogens and increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. Delay in diagnosis and inadequate treatment can lead to irreversible complications and mortality. In order to determine infectious complications among undiagnosed CVID patients, 47 patients diagnosed in the Childrens Medical Center Hospital during a per...

  11. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    Editor's note In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  12. Infectious delivery of alphaherpesvirus bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Kurt; Fraefel, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) can accommodate and stably propagate the genomes of large DNA viruses in E. coli. As DNA virus genomes are often per se infectious upon transfection into mammalian cells, their cloning in BACs and easy modification by homologous recombination in bacteria has become an important strategy to investigate the functions of individual virus genes. This chapter describes a strategy to clone the genomes of viruses of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily within the family of the Herpesviridae, which is a group of large DNA viruses that can establish both lytic and latent infections in most animal species including humans. The cloning strategy includes the following steps: (1) Construction of a transfer plasmid that contains the BAC backbone with selection and screening markers, and targeting sequences which support homologous recombination between the transfer plasmid and the alphaherpesvirus genome. (2) Introduction of the transfer plasmid sequences into the alphaherpesvirus genome via homologous recombination in mammalian cells. (3) Isolation of recombinant virus genomes containing the BAC backbone sequences from infected mammalian cells and electroporation into E. coli. (4) Preparation of infectious BAC DNA from bacterial cultures and transfection into mammalian cells. (5) Isolation and characterization of progeny virus. PMID:25239748

  13. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles.

    Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  14. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations Spectralon(R) (reflectance: 99 %), which was equipped with high power light emitting diodes (? = 670 nm). Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) from keratitis patients were tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 ?M) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  15. Emerging viral diseases and infectious disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, M L

    2006-03-01

    New pathogens and antimicrobial-resistant forms of older pathogens continue to emerge, some with the potential for rapid, global spread and high morbidity and mortality. Pathogens can emerge either through introduction into a new population or when the interaction with the vector changes; emergence is also influenced by microbiological adaptation and change, global travel patterns, domestic and wild animal contact and other variants in human ecology and behaviour. Quick, decisive action to detect and control novel pathogens, and thereby contain outbreaks and prevent further transmission, is frequently hampered by incomplete or inadequate data about a new or re-emerging pathogen. Three examples of pathogens that are current causes for human health concern are avian influenza, West Nile virus (WNV) and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. Pathogens directly or indirectly transmitted by aerosolized droplets, such as avian influenza and SARS, pose considerable containment challenges. Rapid screening tests for other newly described pathogens such as WNV require time for development and may be <100% reliable. The importance of vigilance in the detection and control of newly recognized infectious threats cannot be overstressed. The presence of infectious agents in the blood supply could again have a significant impact on the safe use of both blood and blood-derived products in the care of patients with haemophilia, as did the human immunodeficiency virus in the 1980s. Emerging pathogens will continue to be a reality requiring the collaborative efforts of public health and individual healthcare providers worldwide to contain outbreaks and prevent transmission. PMID:16445811

  16. Effects of vegetated field borders on arthropods in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bradley, J R

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens. PMID:20345293

  17. A congruent solution to arthropod phylogeny: phylogenomics, microRNAs and morphology support monophyletic Mandibulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Campbell, Lahcen; Brinkmann, Henner; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Longhorn, Stuart J; Peterson, Kevin J; Pisani, Davide; Philippe, Hervé; Telford, Maximilian J

    2011-01-22

    While a unique origin of the euarthropods is well established, relationships between the four euarthropod classes-chelicerates, myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods-are less clear. Unsolved questions include the position of myriapods, the monophyletic origin of chelicerates, and the validity of the close relationship of euarthropods to tardigrades and onychophorans. Morphology predicts that myriapods, insects and crustaceans form a monophyletic group, the Mandibulata, which has been contradicted by many molecular studies that support an alternative Myriochelata hypothesis (Myriapoda plus Chelicerata). Because of the conflicting insights from published molecular datasets, evidence from nuclear-coding genes needs corroboration from independent data to define the relationships among major nodes in the euarthropod tree. Here, we address this issue by analysing two independent molecular datasets: a phylogenomic dataset of 198 protein-coding genes including new sequences for myriapods, and novel microRNA complements sampled from all major arthropod lineages. Our phylogenomic analyses strongly support Mandibulata, and show that Myriochelata is a tree-reconstruction artefact caused by saturation and long-branch attraction. The analysis of the microRNA dataset corroborates the Mandibulata, showing that the microRNAs miR-965 and miR-282 are present and expressed in all mandibulate species sampled, but not in the chelicerates. Mandibulata is further supported by the phylogenetic analysis of a comprehensive morphological dataset covering living and fossil arthropods, and including recently proposed, putative apomorphies of Myriochelata. Our phylogenomic analyses also provide strong support for the inclusion of pycnogonids in a monophyletic Chelicerata, a paraphyletic Cycloneuralia, and a common origin of Arthropoda (tardigrades, onychophorans and arthropods), suggesting that previous phylogenies grouping tardigrades and nematodes may also have been subject to tree-reconstruction artefacts. PMID:20702459

  18. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  19. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  20. ASGARD: an open-access database of annotated transcriptomes for emerging model arthropod species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Victor; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2012-01-01

    The increased throughput and decreased cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have shifted the bottleneck genomic research from sequencing to annotation, analysis and accessibility. This is particularly challenging for research communities working on organisms that lack the basic infrastructure of a sequenced genome, or an efficient way to utilize whatever sequence data may be available. Here we present a new database, the Assembled Searchable Giant Arthropod Read Database (ASGARD). This database is a repository and search engine for transcriptomic data from arthropods that are of high interest to multiple research communities but currently lack sequenced genomes. We demonstrate the functionality and utility of ASGARD using de novo assembled transcriptomes from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We have annotated these transcriptomes to assign putative orthology, coding region determination, protein domain identification and Gene Ontology (GO) term annotation to all possible assembly products. ASGARD allows users to search all assemblies by orthology annotation, GO term annotation or Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. User-friendly features of ASGARD include search term auto-completion suggestions based on database content, the ability to download assembly product sequences in FASTA format, direct links to NCBI data for predicted orthologs and graphical representation of the location of protein domains and matches to similar sequences from the NCBI non-redundant database. ASGARD will be a useful repository for transcriptome data from future NGS studies on these and other emerging model arthropods, regardless of sequencing platform, assembly or annotation status. This database thus provides easy, one-stop access to multi-species annotated transcriptome information. We anticipate that this database will be useful for members of multiple research communities, including developmental biology, physiology, evolutionary biology, ecology, comparative genomics and phylogenomics. Database URL: asgard.rc.fas.harvard.edu. PMID:23180770

  1. [Dermatitis and arthropods (Anobium punctatum and Cimex lectularius) in summer: three case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darles, Chrystelle; Pons, Sandrine; Gaillard, Tiphaine; Fournier, Béatrice; Brisou, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of pruritic dermatitis with erythematous maculopapules, having a similar clinical presentation, in summer, and caused by two different arthropods. In wandering diagnosis since sometimes several months, patients have made entomologic investigations in their home. Two of three samples, have shown an infestation by Anobium punctatum, the common furniture beetle, a xylophagous beetle (usually harmless for human). It may be parasited by Pyemotes ventricosus, a mite known since the 19th century to cause this type of hurt. The third sample contained Cimex lectularius or bedbug, haematophagous insect, classically looked for in endemic zone. PMID:23587582

  2. Diversification of mowing regime increases arthropods diversity in species-poor cultural hay meadows.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ížek, O.; Záme?ník, J.; Tropek, Robert; Ko?árek, P.; Konvi?ka, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2012), s. 215-226. ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ?R GD206/08/H044; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Grant ostatní: Czech Agency for Nature Conservation(CZ) PPK-35a/62/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hay meadows * arthropods conservation * mowing regimes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.muzeumhk.cz/files/jaroslav_zamecnik/2012_cizek_zamecnik.pdf

  3. Water vapor absorption in arthropods by accumulation of myoinositol and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark; Holmstrup, no-firstname

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophilic soil arthropods have been thought to respond to soil desiccation exclusively by migrating to deeper soil layers. Numerous studies have shown that their survival below 90 percent relative humidity dry weight, is limited to hours. However, little attention has been paid to physiological adaptations to more realistic desiccation regimes, such as at the permanent wilting point of plants (98.9 percent relative humidity). A water vapor absorption mechanism is described that allows a common soil collembolan, Folsomia candida, to remain active down to below the permanent wilting point. A reevaluation of the water physiology of this widespread and diverse animal group is required.

  4. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Bruno B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  5. A new arthropod from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Fossil-Lagerstätte of North Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel J S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aaveqaspis inesoni gen. et sp. nov., is described from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Fossil-Lagerstätte of Peary Land, North Greenland. It has a semicircular head shield and a thorax with 5 tergites. The tail shield carries 2 pairs of spines, the most anterior of which is enormous and dominates the trunk. A. inesoni lacks any preserved trace of eyes, as is also the case with several other Sirius Passet arthropods, suggesting that the fossils accumulated in deeper water than the contemporaneous Chengjiang Fossil-Lagerstätte of China or the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale assemblages of British Columbia.

  6. Discontinuous gas exchange in a tracheate arthropod, the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus: Occurrence, characteristics and temperature dependence.

    OpenAIRE

    Lighton, John R.B.; Barbara Joos

    2002-01-01

    The discontinuous gas exchange cycle of the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus, mean mass 5.9 mg, is rudimentary and is characterized by bursts of CO2 at frequencies ranging from 3.6 mHz at 15 °C to 13.3 mHz at 35 °C. The mean volume of CO2 emitted per burst is 3.6 µl g-1 at 25 °C, about a tenth of the amount emitted by tracheate arthropods with a well developed discontinuous gas exchange cycle. Interburst CO2 emission is high and increases with temperature, reaching near 45% of total CO2 pr...

  7. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one

  8. Arthropod community structure on bark of koa (Acacia koa) and ??hi?? (Metrosideros polymorpha) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai?i Island, Hawai?i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.; Stelmach, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The arthropod community associated with tree bark contains a wide variety of taxa but is poorly described, particularly in Hawai?i. Our overall goals were to evaluate the abundance of arthropods available to foraging birds and how variation in bark substrates may contribute to arthropod distributions in native forests. Our study aimed to identify this fauna on the dominant canopy-forming trees koa (Acacia koa) and ??hi?a (Metrosideros polymorpha) within wet montane forest at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai?i Island. At two sites roughly similar in elevation and habitat structure, we deployed three trap types designed to intercept arthropods moving along bark within tree canopies: a bole trap based on a pre-existing design and two traps specially designed for this study. Bole traps were placed on koa and ??hi?a while branch traps were established on large and small branches of ??hi?a. In total, 15 arthropod orders were identified, with Collembola most abundant (number/trap-day) generally followed by Isopoda and Araneae. Differences in abundance were found in some instances, but overall, few differences were detected between tree species or sites. Relative abundances of arthropod groups were also generally similar between trees and sites and among different parts of ??hi?a. These results indicate that bark-dwelling arthropod communities are similar on koa and ??hi?a, and birds should not develop strong preferences for gleaning arthropods from the bark of either species of tree based on prey availability.

  9. NUMBERS AND TYPES OF ARTHROPODS OVERWINTERING ON COMMON MULLEIN, VERBASCUM THAPUS L. (SCROPHULARIACEAE), IN A CENTRAL WASHINGTON FRUIT-GROWING REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densities and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L., in a fruit-growing region of Central Washington were determined. Over 45,000 arthropods were collected from 55 plants (5 plants from each of 11 sites), dominated numerically by Acari and Thysanoptera. Insects r...

  10. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history. PMID:25423365

  11. Influence of forest type and host plant genetic relatedness on the canopy arthropod community structure of Quercus crassifolia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Efraín, Tovar-Sánchez; Erwin, Martí-Flores; Leticia, Valencia-Cuevas; Patricia, Mussali-Galante.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quercus crassifolia is an oak species with characteristics of foundation species, which is a canopy dominant element of different forest types that supports a wide diversity of associated species. Therefore, it is an excellent system to address important ecological questions. We analyzed [...] the effect of individual genetic relatedness of the host plant, forest type (Abies-Quercus, Quercus-Pinus, and Quercus forest), and season (dry vs. rainy) on the canopy arthropod community structure. Thirty oak canopies were fogged (five individuals/season/forest type). RESULTS: We identified 442 arthropod species belonging to 22 orders. The highest values of density, diversity, and richness were recorded during the rainy season for each forest type. Also, the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed a separation of the host tree species for each forest type. During the rainy season, the highest values of density, diversity, and richness in each forest type were recorded. A separation of host tree was found for each forest type. In general, diversity and richness of canopy arthropods showed the following pattern: Abies-Quercus > Quercus-Pinus > Quercus, while density showed an inverse pattern. An increase of the diversity of canopy arthropods is significantly related to an increase of host plant genetic diversity, independently of the type of forest and of the season. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of conservation, if arthropod species respond to genetic differences among host plants, it becomes important to conserve genetic diversity of foundation species, since it is fundamental to preserve diversity of their associated arthropod communities.

  12. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.P., Gilmore; C.P., Da Costa; D.P.F., Duarte.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variat [...] ion. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  13. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  14. The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations.

  15. Predicting and controlling the dynamics of infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Robin J.; Mammadov, Musa

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new optimal control model to describe and control the dynamics of infectious diseases. In the present model, the average time of isolation (i.e. hospitalization) of infectious population is the main time-dependent parameter that defines the spread of infection. All the preventive measures aim to decrease the average time of isolation under given constraints.

  16. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  17. Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issarow, Chacha M; Mulder, Nicola; Wood, Robin

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a flexible mathematical model that predicts the risk of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis under steady state and non-steady state conditions by monitoring exhaled air by infectors in a confined space. In the development of this model, we used the rebreathed air accumulation rate concept to directly determine the average volume fraction of exhaled air in a given space. From a biological point of view, exhaled air by infectors contains airborne infectious particles that cause airborne infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in confined spaces. Since not all infectious particles can reach the target infection site, we took into account that the infectious particles that commence the infection are determined by respiratory deposition fraction, which is the probability of each infectious particle reaching the target infection site of the respiratory tracts and causing infection. Furthermore, we compute the quantity of carbon dioxide as a marker of exhaled air, which can be inhaled in the room with high likelihood of causing airborne infectious disease given the presence of infectors. We demonstrated mathematically and schematically the correlation between TB transmission probability and airborne infectious particle generation rate, ventilation rate, average volume fraction of exhaled air, TB prevalence and duration of exposure to infectors in a confined space. PMID:25702940

  18. Bridging Taxonomic and Disciplinary Divides in Infectious Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Antonovics, Janis; Kinkel, Linda L.; Hudson, Peter J.; Daszak, Peter; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Garrett, Karen A.; Parrish, Colin R.; Read, Andrew F.; Rizzo, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens traverse disciplinary and taxonomic boundaries, yet infectious disease research occurs in many separate disciplines including plant pathology, veterinary and human medicine, and ecological and evolutionary sciences. These disciplines have different traditions, goals, and terminology, creating gaps in communication. Bridging these disciplinary and taxonomic gaps promises novel insights and important synergistic advances in control of infectious disease. An approach integrated across ...

  19. A History of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-17

    EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/17/2015.

  20. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities

  1. IMPACT OF DELTAMETHRIN ON ARTHROPOD PESTS AND PREDATORS IN A CORN FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL MICHEREFF FILHO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the impact of deltamethrin, sprayed on the aerial part of cornplants, on pests and on predator arthopod populations was evaluated. The experimental designwas randomized blocks with four replicates. The insecticide (Decis 25 CE, 7.5 g. a. i./ha wasapplied on the plant whorl when the corn plant reached 10 expanded leaves. Samples weretaken from 10 plants per plot, one day before, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days after spraying, toevaluate population density or occurence of arthropods and the percentage of plants attackedby Spodoptera frugiperda. The insecticide controlled this pest infestation up to 7 days afterspraying and also significantly reduced population density of the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis.The insecticide did not affect negatively the complex of arthropod predators associated withthe aerial part of the corn plant. It showed selective toxicity, favoring both nymphs and adults ofDoru luteipes and of an unidentified group of ants and spiders. These results support the use of deltamethrin on integrated pest management programs of S. frugiperda on corn, specially inagroecossistems with high predator abundance.

  2. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Markow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones. For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation.

  3. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbi?, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001. PMID:24843024

  4. ARTHROPODS AND HELMINTHS ASSEMBLAGE IN SIGMODONTINE RODENTS FROM WETLANDS OF THE RIO DE LA PLATA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela T. Navone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The assemblage of arthropods and helminths, present in sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae from a broad wetland area of the Río de la Plata, Argentina, was studied. A total of 250 sigmodontines were captured during a two-year sampling period: Scapteromys aquaticus and Oxymycterus rufus were the most abundant hosts, followed by Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon azarae, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Deltamys kempi. There were 33102 parasites collected, corresponding with Rhopalopsyllidae fleas (Siphonaptera, Hoplopleuridae lice (Phtiraptera, Laelapidae and Macronyssidae mites, Ixodidae ticks, and Trombiculidae chiggers (Acari, the trematodes Echinostomidae, Microphallidae, and Dicrocoelidae, the flatworm Ciclophyllidea, the nematods Trichuridae, Spiruridae, Onchocercidae, Physalopteridae, Aspidoderidae, Oxyuridae, and Nippostrongylinae, and the thorny-headed worm Acanthocephala. A list of arthropods and helminths species associated with each rodent species was given, as well as the prevalence and mean abundance. New host and geographic records were provided. The phenogram of the relationships of the parasite assemblages showed a high value of similarity between both species of Oligoryzomys, and between S. aquaticus and O. rufus. Variation of the values observed in the prevalence and the mean abundance of the host-parasite association suggests that there could be environmental barriers between the rodent populations, or that differential behavior of the host species (i.e. use of microhabitats, tropics behaviors may influence these indexes. This knowledge may be used to determine targets for biological conservation and ecological impact of parasitism in the area.

  5. Influence of plant parameters on occurrence and abundance of arthropods in residential turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S V; Braman, S K

    2009-06-01

    The effect of taxa [common Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon (L.); centipedegrass, Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro Hack; St. Augustinegrass, Stenotaphrum secundatum [Walt.] Kuntze; and zoysiagrass, Zoysia spp.], density, height, and weed density on abundance of natural enemies, and their potential prey were evaluated in residential turf. Total predatory Heteroptera were most abundant in St. Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass and included Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae, Geocoridae, and Miridae. Anthocoridae and Lasiochilidae were most common in St. Augustinegrass, and their abundance correlated positively with species of Blissidae and Delphacidae. Chinch bugs were present in all turf taxa, but were 23-47 times more abundant in St. Augustinegrass. Anthocorids/lasiochilids were more numerous on taller grasses, as were Blissidae, Delphacidae, Cicadellidae, and Cercopidae. Geocoridae and Miridae were most common in zoysiagrass and were collected in higher numbers with increasing weed density. However, no predatory Heteroptera were affected by grass density. Other beneficial insects such as staphylinids and parasitic Hymenoptera were captured most often in St. Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass. These differences in abundance could be in response to primary or alternate prey, or reflect the influence of turf microenvironmental characteristics. In this study, Simpson's diversity index for predatory Heteroptera showed the greatest diversity and evenness in centipedegrass, whereas the herbivores and detritivores were most diverse in St. Augustinegrass lawns. These results demonstrate the complex role of plant taxa in structuring arthropod communities in turf. An increased understanding of how turf species and cultivars help shape pest and beneficial arthropod communities will enhance predictive abilities and further pest management objectives. PMID:19610427

  6. Application of satellite remote sensing for tracking of arthropod vectors of diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Hanafi bojd

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Arthropod-borne diseases are one of the major causes of human mortality. Since launch of the first meteorological satellites in 1960s, remote sensing has been increasingly implicated in the field of human health research and the data from satellites and their sensors with different spatial and temporal resolutions opened a new field of research in human health for scientists. Material and Methods: Search engines and national/international scientific databanks were used to search keywords of remote sensing, satellite, tick, mosquito and sand fly and obtained articles were analyzed.   Results: Some ecological indices were used more in remote sensing of arthropod-borne diseases, including NDVI, SST, LST and CCD. Conclusion: Data of environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, land use/ land cover help us to detect the habitats of vectors of diseases regard to their ecology. However, the scope of applications, beyond theoretical large potentialities, appears limited both by their technical nature and the related models developed. The main problem for application of remote sensing in health science and epidemiology of diseases, is the costs of satellite images as well as the availability in the studied times to monitor a specific subject like vector or agent of the disease. Although the majority of health studies and diseases monitoring need to application of high spatial resolution images.

  7. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Pigino, Gaia; Bianchi, Nicola; Bernini, Fabio; Leonzio, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities.

  8. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  9. A Survey on Residential Areas Infestation to House Pests (Arthropods in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to importance of arthropods as urban pest, such Health and Nutritional, Textile, Structural, Storage pest and role of them in human being, this study was done to show determine of houses infestation status to urban pest (Arthropods city of Kashan in 2010. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive-analytical study has been done on houses The houses were selected by cluster random and Urban pests of them, by use of hand lens were identified. The results were analyzed using abundance tables and SPSS-11.5 software and statistic tests ?P2P and fisher exact3T. Results: The results of study have shown that prevalence of urban pest, Health pest 99.6%, Nutritional pest 32.6%, textile and structural pest 37.4% were seen3T.3T Out of total houses, 98% mosquitoes, 96.4% ant, 92.6% fly, 78% cockroaches species, 56.8% spider, 37.6% termite, 34.6% storage pests, 12% clothes moth, 8.2% scorpion species, 3.6% bug, 3.2% tick and 2.6% millipede were identified. Conclusion: The prevalence of infestation urban pest is high. Mosquitoes, ant, fly and cockroach were seen more the other. So methods control training, houses protection and solid and water waste management is being suggested.

  10. Impact of Pesticide Treatment on an Arthropod Community in the Korean Rice Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park, Hong-Hyun

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An arthropod community in a rice ecosystem was surveyed to determine the impact of twoinsecticides frequently used in Korean rice ecosystems: carbofuran 3GR, which targets the rice water weevil,Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in the early season and fenobucarb EC, whichtargets the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in the mid- and lateseasons, respectively. Overall, the application of the insecticides reduced density of total arthropods by 48.4%compared to the untreated field, but their impact on each functional group were different. Carbofuran GRtreatment on 1 June reduced the L. oryzophilus population significantly until mid-season. The population of filterfeedingchironomids was also reduced by 50%, whereas the spider population was less disturbed. FenobucarbEC treatment on 16 August significantly reduced N. lugens and detrivorous entomobryid populationsuntil the late season. Both web-building and wandering spiders were also significantly disturbed by fenobucarbEC although the impact differed according to their behavioral differences. While the population of web-buildingspiders significantly decreased over time, that of wandering spiders recovered from the disturbance a fewweeks later.

  11. Integrated Amplification Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell P. Chandler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview describes microarray-based tests that combine solution-phase amplification chemistry and microarray hybridization within a single microfluidic chamber. The integrated biochemical approach improves microarray workflow for diagnostic applications by reducing the number of steps and minimizing the potential for sample or amplicon cross-contamination. Examples described herein illustrate a basic, integrated approach for DNA and RNA genomes, and a simple consumable architecture for incorporating wash steps while retaining an entirely closed system. It is anticipated that integrated microarray biochemistry will provide an opportunity to significantly reduce the complexity and cost of microarray consumables, equipment, and workflow, which in turn will enable a broader spectrum of users to exploit the intrinsic multiplexing power of microarrays for infectious disease diagnostics.

  12. Infectious eczematoid dermatitis: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamany, T; Schwartz, R A

    2015-02-01

    Infectious eczematoid dermatitis (IED) is characterized by an acute eczematous eruption triggered by purulent discharge from a primary infected site. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and occupations with higher incidences of contact dermatitis portend increased risk for IED. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly cultured microbe from affected skin, with Streptococcus species the second most. Patients are first evident with peripherally spreading vesicles and pustules radiating from an infected site. Older areas of involvement become crusty, scaly and erythematous. Diagnosis is clinical. Other eczematous rashes, including autoeczemitization and contact dermatitis, should be on the differential diagnosis list. The treatment centres on topical antibiotics and soaks. Prognosis has improved since the advent of antibiotics. However, cases with multiple relapses and poor response to therapy are still observed. PMID:25209074

  13. Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

    2012-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role. PMID:22254152

  14. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  15. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    CERN Document Server

    Danon, Leon; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P; Keeling, Matt J; Roberts, Gareth O; Ross, Joshua V; Vernon, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent ...

  16. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF INFECTIOUS NOSOCOMIAL MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswar Reddy K*, Archana Giri, P Ranjit, Saleema Mohammadi Fahmida, E Deepthi and M Hemalatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death across the world. Evolution of antimicrobial drug resistant bacteria is a major health concern and extremely difficult to overcome. Nosocomial infections encompass all the clinical infections that do not originate from patients, originally admitting diagnosis. Critically ill patients have greater risk of developing nosocomial infections with resistant strains. Its incidence in developing nations is 5-10%. However, in India one in four patients admitted in hospital acquire nosocomial infections. These incidences are 4-5 times greater in general ward. In the present investigation strains of E. coli, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter were isolated and identified based on morphological and biochemical tests, and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibilities. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin; however, they were sensitive to streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. This study is an attempt to detect the presence of antibiotic sensitive / resistant pathogens in government hospital.

  17. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

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    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  18. Role of glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis. PMID:25325982

  19. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

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    Marroon Thabane, John K Marshall

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS is a common disorder wherein symptoms of IBS begin after an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Published studies have reported incidence of PI-IBS to range between 5% and 32%. The mechanisms underlying the development of PI-IBS are not fully understood, but are believed to include persistent sub-clinical inflammation, changes in intestinal permeability and alteration of gut flora. Individual studies have suggested that risk factors for PI-IBS include patients’ demographics, psychological disorders and the severity of enteric illness. However, PI-IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion with no specific disease markers and, to date, no definitive therapy exists. The prognosis of PI-IBS appears favorable with spontaneous and gradual resolution of symptoms in most patients.

  20. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.