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Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly significant in resource-poor countries in the tropics and semi-tropics. Some measures to meet this threat are outlined.

Surendran Sinnathamby N

2011-01-01

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Spatial modeling of human risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens based on epidemiological versus arthropod vector data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding spatial patterns of human risk of exposure to arthropod vectors and their associated pathogens is critical for targeting limited prevention, surveillance, and control resources (e.g., spatial targeting of vaccination, drug administration, or education campaigns; use of sentinel sites to monitor vector abundance; and identifying areas for most effective use of pesticides). Vector-borne disease risk can, in many cases, be modeled with high predictive accuracy by using geographic information system approaches because abundances of vectors and pathogen reservoirs often are associated with environmental factors. Spatial risk models for human exposure to vector-borne pathogens, which ideally should have high accuracy for predicting areas of elevated risk without overestimating risk coverage, can be constructed based on epidemiological data or abundance of vectors or infected vectors. We use five bacterial or viral vector-borne diseases occurring in the United States and with pathogen transmission by fleas (plague), ticks (Lyme disease and tularemia), or mosquitoes (dengue and West Nile virus disease) to 1) examine how spatial risk of human exposure to vector-borne pathogens typically is presented to the public health community and public and 2) evaluate the utility of basing spatial risk models on epidemiological data relative to data for arthropod vectors or infected vectors. Recommended future directions for vector-borne disease risk modeling include development of subcounty level spatial risk models combining epidemiological and vector data and the use of simulation or analytical models to assess critical vector abundance thresholds required for enzootic pathogen maintenance. PMID:18402133

Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars

2008-03-01

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[Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany. Epidemiological aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infections acquired abroad, mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, have to be systematically and intensively monitored as well, to assess the risk of infection for German residents traveling abroad and to adequately evaluate the risk of autochthonous transmission. Related issues, such as invasive species of mosquitoes in Germany and climate change, have to be taken into consideration. Such pathogens include West Nile, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). The article presents an overview of the epidemiological situation of selected relevant vector-borne infections in Germany. PMID:24781913

Frank, C; Faber, M; Hellenbrand, W; Wilking, H; Stark, K

2014-05-01

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Vector-borne Infections  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

2011-04-18

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VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO  

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Full Text Available Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ecological characteristics, the vectors and infective agents, present the accidence for expansion and increasing importance of these infections in national pathology. According to the fact that it is an international port of nautical, continental and air traffic, Montenegro has responsibility for control and management of diseases belonging to the group of the travel and tropical diseases.

Gordana Mijovic

2012-02-01

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Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

Dantas-Torres Filipe

2008-08-01

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Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

Dantas-Torres, Filipe

2008-01-01

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Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases  

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Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

Jay Prakash Gupta

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Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach  

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Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the ‘One Health initiative’ which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health.

Josip Margaleti?, PhD

2009-03-01

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Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) t...

2008-01-01

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Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decrea...

Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck

2011-01-01

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The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis. The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

Day Michael J

2011-04-01

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Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network. The framework built provides a flexible and robust informatics infrastructure by separating the modules of functionality through an ontological model for vector-borne disease. The VBD?AIR tool is designed as an evidence base for visualizing the risks of vector-borne disease by air travel for a wide range of users, including planners and decisions makers based in state and local government, and in particular, those at international and domestic airports tasked with planning for health risks and allocating limited resources.

Huang Zhuojie

2012-08-01

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[Climate- and vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may increase Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10/26

Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.

2009-01-01

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SEIR Model and Simulation for Vector Borne Diseases  

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Full Text Available An epidemic model is a simplified means of describing the transmission of infectious diseases through individuals. The modeling of infectious diseases is a tool which has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread, to predict the future course of an outbreak and to evaluate strategies to control an epidemic. Epidemic models are of many types. Here, SEIR model is discussed. We first discuss the basics of SEIR model. Then it is applied for vector borne diseases. Steady state conditions are derived. A threshold parameter R0 is defined and is shown that the disease will spread only if its value exceeds 1. We have applied the basic model to one specific diseases-malaria and did the sensitivity analysis too using the data for India. We found sensitivity analysis very important as it told us the most sensitive parameter to be taken care of. This makes the work more of practical use. Numerical simulation is done for vector and host which shows the population dynamics in different compartments.

Nita H. Shah

2013-07-01

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Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis) in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas) are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies) are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy. PMID:20145730

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

2010-01-01

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Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives  

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Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

Dantas-Torres Filipe

2010-01-01

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Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases  

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Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

2011-01-01

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Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance. PMID:22444826

Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

2012-12-01

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Vectors and vector-borne diseases of horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most diseases of horses with zoonotic importance are transmitted by arthropods. The vectors belong to two very distantly related groups, the chelicerate Ixodidae (Acari = ticks) and the hexapod Diptera (true flies). Almost all relevant species are predestined for transmitting pathogens by their blood-sucking habits. Especially species of Diptera, one of the megadiverse orders of holometabolan insects (ca. 150.000 spp.), affect the health status and performance of horses during the grazing period in summer. The severity of pathological effect depends on the pathogen, but also on the group of vectors and the intensity of the infection or infestation. Dipteran species but also blood-sucking representatives of Acari (Ixodidae) can damage their hosts by sucking blood, causing myiasis, allergy, paralysis and intoxication, and also transmit various bacterial, viral, parasitic, spirochetal and rickettsial diseases to animals and also humans. The aim of this review was to provide extensive information on the infectious diseases transmitted by members of the two arthropod lineages (Ixodidae, Diptera) and a systematic overview of the vectors. For each taxon, usually on the ordinal, family, and genus level a short characterisation is given, allowing non-entomologists easy identification. Additionally, the biology of the relevant species (or genera) is outlined briefly. PMID:23054414

Onmaz, A C; Beutel, R G; Schneeberg, K; Pavaloiu, A N; Komarek, A; van den Hoven, R

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

1996-12-31

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Disrupting the Transmission of a Vector-Borne Plant Pathogen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to...

Killiny, Nabil; Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

2012-01-01

23

From population structure to genetically-engineered vectors: new ways to control vector-borne diseases?  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies on vectors and the pathogens they can carry (such as Borrelia burgdorferi) are showing some correlations between infection rates and biodiversity highlighting the "dilution" effects on potential vectors. Meanwhile other studies comparing sympatric small rodent species demonstrated that rodent species transmitting more pathogens are parasitized by more ectoparasite species. Studies on population structure and size have also proven a difference on the intensity of the parasitic infection. Furthermore, preliminary results in genetic improvement in mosquitoes (genetic markers, sexing, and genetic sterilization) will also increase performance as it has already been shown in field applications in developing countries. Recent results have greatly improved the fitness of genetically-modified insects compared to wild type populations with new approaches such as the post-integration elimination of transposon sequences, stabilising any insertion in genetically-modified insects. Encouraging results using the Sterile Insect Technique highlighted some metabolism manipulation to avoid the viability of offspring from released parent insect in the wild. Recent studies on vector symbionts would also bring a new angle in vector control capabilities, while complete DNA sequencing of some arthropods could point out ways to block the deadly impact on animal and human populations. These new potential approaches will improve the levels of control or even in some cases would eradicate vector species and consequently the vector-borne diseases they can transmit. In this paper we review some of the population biology theories, biological control methods, and the genetic techniques that have been published in the last years that are recommended to control for vector-borne diseases. PMID:17560836

Sparagano, O A E; De Luna, C J

2008-07-01

24

Impact of climate change in the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in domestic carnivores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases are medically important in humans and animals but were long considered tropical and known to first affect production animals. This is no longer true and we can see today that they are common in domestic animals and that they are also present in temperate countries, especially in Europe. In recent years, an increase in the diagnosis of vector borne diseases among humans and animals has been observed, which may partly due to the development of diagnostic tools. Their study requires exchanges and collaborations between the many actors involved, especially since the epidemiology seems to be constantly evolving. The veterinary practitioner is the first one to notice the emergence of cases and to implement prevention measures. He also acts as a sentinel to alert epidemiologists. Many factors can explain the epidemiological changes, i.e. all human factors, such as the increase in commercial transportation, but also owners traveling with their pet during the holidays, the development of "outdoor" activities, the increase of individual housings with gardens; to these human factors must be added the ignorance of the risks, linked to animals in general and to wildlife in particular; then the environmental changes: forest fragmentation, establishment of parks; the increase of wild mammal populations (deer, carnivores, rodents, etc.); finally, climate changes. Climate change is a reality which may explain the increase of density of arthropod vectors, but also of their hosts, changes in periods of activity and variations in geographical distribution. The authors show the proof of the climate modifications and then explain how it has an impact in Europe on ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and even fleas. They conclude on the practical consequences for veterinary practitioners, especially with the diagnosis of parasitic diseases or diseases in areas where they usually do not occur. However, not any epidemiological modification should be linked to climate change, since many other factors are involved and often even overriding. PMID:23953958

Beugnet, F; Chalvet-Monfray, K

2013-12-01

25

Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98% had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%. Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%, E. canis in two (4%, and H. canis in one (2% out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%, November (27%, December (20%, February (13% and March (9%. Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50% out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9% included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected with L. infantum, E. canis or H. canis. Furthermore, this is the first molecular identification of H. canis in dogs from northern Portugal.

Machado João

2010-04-01

26

Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism. PMID:22101059

Killiny, Nabil; Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2012-02-01

27

Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

2014-08-22

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Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vector-borne infections (VBI are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S. Department of Defense (DoD personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the austere and unstable environments sometimes associated with military operations. In addition to the risk uniquely encountered by military populations, other factors have driven the worldwide emergence of VBIs. Unprecedented levels of global travel, tourism and trade, and blurred lines of demarcation between zoonotic VBI reservoirs and human populations increase vector exposure. Urban growth in previously undeveloped regions and perturbations in global weather patterns also contribute to the rise of VBIs. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS and its partners at DoD overseas laboratories form a network to better characterize the nature, emergence and growth of VBIs globally. In 2009 the network tested 19,730 specimens from 25 sites for Plasmodium species and malaria drug resistance phenotypes and nearly another 10,000 samples to determine the etiologies of non-Plasmodium species VBIs from regions spanning from Oceania to Africa, South America, and northeast, south and Southeast Asia. This review describes recent VBI-related epidemiological studies conducted by AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories within the OCONUS DoD laboratory network emphasizing their impact on human populations.

Pavlin Julie A

2011-03-01

29

Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The distribution of vector species is generally restricted by a range of different climatic and geographical factors, while the development and spread of the vector-borne diseases (veterinary and zoonotic) is often primarily temperature driven. Thus temperature and its derivatives are key factors in the modelling of vector-borne diseases. This puts a high demand on the quality and accuracy of the temperature data to be used as input in such models. In order to best capture the local temporal and spatial variation in the temperature surfaces, accurate daily temperature data were used in the present project. Temperature data for a 30 year period (1980-2009) were obtained directly from the Meteorological stations in the five Nordic countries. The temperature data consisted of daily min and max measurements from 200 climate stations, adding up to more than two million measurements. Temperature point-data were interpolated to daily climate surfaces, using a squared IDW method. In the absence of a more local lapse rate the generally accepted lapse rate of -0.006 C?/m was used to account for the relationship between temperature and altitude. The interpolation was carried out on temperatures at sea-level and subsequently adjusted for the altitude. As a spherical adjustment, the min and max temperature was interpolated on a grid with a spherical surface geometry. This ensures a more accurate estimate of the temperature isolines in the northernmost areas (above the Arctic Circle) of Scandinavia. Various temperature derivatives were calculated in order to assess the geographical and seasonal variation in the area. In order to evaluate the response of vector borne diseases to possible future climate changes and the subsequent potential spread into new areas, daily temperature predictions (mean, min and max) for three 20-year periods and 7 different prediction models were obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). Predicted temperature scenarios for year 2040 and 2060 were calculated and the data were incorporated in various models. Additionally, major geographical, topographical, husbandry and biological spatial parameters relevant to the distribution of vectors were included in the database and used as input in various distribution models. All collected datasets were assembled in a gridded climate database and presented at the website, www.nordrisk.dk. The website was created with the purpose of presenting the data to the public and making the data available to research projects in the Nordic countries. The website consists of an interactive web-application linked to a summarized climatic database. This allows for interactive selection of summary data for display. Detailed data files are available for research projects on request.

Kristensen, Birgit; BØdker, Rene

30

A review of trends in the distribution of vector-borne diseases: is international trade contributing to their spread?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is difficult to determine the part that international trade has played in the expansion of vector-borne diseases, because of the multitude of factors that affect the transformation of habitats and the interfaces between vectors and hosts. The introduction of pathogens through trade in live animals or products of animal origin, as well as the arrival of arthropod vectors, is probably quite frequent but the establishment of an efficient transmission system that develops into a disease outbreak remains the exception. In this paper, based on well-documented examples, the authors review the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of vector-borne diseases that may have been affected in their spread and change of distribution by international trade. In addition, they provide a detailed analysis of the risks associated with specific trade routes and recent expansions of vector populations. Finally, the authors highlight the importance, as well as the challenges, of preventive surveillance and regulation. The need for improved monitoring of vector populations and a readiness to face unpredictable epidemiological events are also emphasised, since this will require rapid reaction, not least in the regulatory context. PMID:21809758

de La Rocque, S; Balenghien, T; Halos, L; Dietze, K; Claes, F; Ferrari, G; Guberti, V; Slingenbergh, J

2011-04-01

31

One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

Day Michael J

2011-04-01

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The impact of community organization on vector-borne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne zoonotic disease agents, which are known to often infect multiple species in the wild, have been identified as an emerging threat to human health. Understanding the ecology of these pathogens is especially timely, given the continued anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity. Here, we integrate empirical scaling laws from community ecology within a theoretical reservoir-vector-pathogen framework to study the transmission consequences of host community structure and diversity within large assemblages. We show that heterogeneity in susceptibility of the reservoir species promotes transmission "dilution," while a greater vector species richness "amplifies" it. These contrasting transmission impacts of vector and reservoir communities can yield very different epidemiological patterns. We demonstrate that vector and reservoir species richness can explain per se most of the pathogen transmission observed for West Nile virus in different parts of the United States, giving empirical support for the validity of these opposing theoretically predicted effects. We conclude that, in the context of disease emergence, the integration of a community perspective can provide critical insights into the understanding of pathogen transmission in wildlife. PMID:23234841

Roche, Benjamin; Rohani, Pejman; Dobson, Andy P; Guégan, Jean-François

2013-01-01

33

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors' opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation. PMID:23324440

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Petri?, Dusan; Genchi, Claudio; Capelli, Gioia

2013-01-01

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Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters. In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high predictive power. Furthermore this PhD has provided a new method of estimating the effect of light traps, which can estimate the additive effect of closely placed traps, and determine trap range of individual traps based on emitted light intensity. Moreover there has been devised a method to sample in time which maximizes information about time dependence and is robust to changes.

GræsbØll, Kaare

2012-01-01

35

Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, the...

2011-01-01

36

Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases: Getting A Grip on Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathogens that are transmitted by arthropods to humans kill millions of people a year and have long been identified as systems likely affected by climate change. Despite this, there has been a long controversy of how to evaluate the responses of these infectious disease systems to climatic conditions so that meaningful programmatic dcisions can be made. We briefly review the rationale for overall expectations, using them to identify both the temporal and spatial resolution needed for decision making and then discuss progress to date, using the world global malaria eradication program as an example.

Glass, G. E.; Ellis, H.

2011-12-01

37

Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum  

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Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.

Baneth Gad

2012-03-01

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Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious diseases, with SIR models could be seen as an implicit standard in epidemiology. Unfortunately, these models are based on differential equations and, therefore, can become very rapidly unmanageable due to the too many parameters which need to be taken into consideration. For instance, in the case of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in wildlife many different potential host species could be involved in the life-cycle of disease transmission, and SIR models might not be the most suitable tool to truly capture the overall disease circulation within that environment. This limitation underlines the necessity to develop a standard spatial model that can cope with the transmission of disease in realistic ecosystems. Results Computational biology may prove to be flexible enough to take into account the natural complexity observed in both natural and man-made ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a new computational model to study the transmission of infectious diseases in a spatially explicit context. We developed a multi-agent system model for vector-borne disease transmission in a realistic spatial environment. Conclusion Here we describe in detail the general behavior of this model that we hope will become a standard reference for the study of vector-borne disease transmission in wildlife. To conclude, we show how this simple model could be easily adapted and modified to be used as a common framework for further research developments in this field.

Guégan Jean-François

2008-10-01

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IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases  

...Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have ... This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, ... The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. Using the Gravity ...Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied ...

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Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario. The most robust vaccination scenarios were all holdings vaccinated and the mandatory vaccination of hosts on pasture. Regional vaccination and trench vaccination display better results under some conditions, but are very sensitive to the incursion route. With this study we intended to test scenarios that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable. Results in this presentation were obtained building upon the model presented in: Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Kaare Græsbøll et al. Scientific Reports. 2:863 (2012).

GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

 
 
 
 
41

Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

2014-11-01

42

Arthropod-borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminths, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed. PMID:21169676

Romi, Roberto

2010-01-01

43

Remote Sensing Proxies for Vector-borne Disease Risk Assessment (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The spread of re-emerging vector-borne diseases such Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Chikungunya (CHIK) is a major issue of global public health concern. This combined with a variable climate regime has opened an avenue for satellite remote sensing to contribute towards a comprehensive understanding of some of the drivers influencing such vector-borne disease outbreaks. Satellite derived measurements such as vegetation indices, rainfall estimates, and land-surface temperature; can be used to infer the complex mosaic of factors that influence ecology and habitat suitability, emergence and population dynamics of disease vectors. However, there are still some gaps in application including appropriate temporal resolution of remote sensing measurements, the complexity of the virus-vector-disease-ecology system and human components that contribute to disease risk that need to be addressed. Geographic Distribution of Recent Rift Valley fever oubreaks

Anyamba, A.

2010-12-01

44

Relative Susceptibility of Vitis vinifera Cultivars to Vector-Borne Xylella fastidiosa through Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse cond...

Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P.; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

2013-01-01

45

Climate change and threat of vector-borne diseases in India: are we prepared?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is unequivocal that climate change is happening and is likely to expand the geographical distribution of several vector-borne diseases, including malaria and dengue etc. to higher altitudes and latitudes. India is endemic for six major vector-borne diseases (VBD) namely malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and visceral leishmaniasis. Over the years, there has been reduction in the incidence of almost all the diseases except chikungunya which has re-emerged since 2005. The upcoming issue of climate change has surfaced as a new threat and challenge for ongoing efforts to contain vector-borne diseases. There is greater awareness about the potential impacts of climate change on VBDs in India and research institutions and national authorities have initiated actions to assess the impacts. Studies undertaken in India on malaria in the context of climate change impact reveal that transmission windows in Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern states are likely to extend temporally by 2-3 months and in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu there may be reduction in transmission windows. Using PRECIS model (driven by HadRM2) at the resolution of 50 x 50 Km for daily temperature and relative humidity for year 2050, it was found that Orissa, West Bengal and southern parts of Assam will still remain malarious and transmission windows will open up in Himachal Pradesh and north-eastern states etc. Impact of climate change on dengue also reveals increase in transmission with 2 C rise in temperature in northern India. Re-emergence of kala-azar in northern parts of India and reappearance of chikungunya mainly in southern states of India has also been discussed. The possible need to address the threat and efforts made in India have also been highlighted. The paper concludes with a positive lead that with better preparedness threat of climate change on vector-borne diseases may be negated. PMID:20155369

Dhiman, Ramesh C; Pahwa, Sharmila; Dhillon, G P S; Dash, Aditya P

2010-03-01

46

Some vector borne diseases with structured host populations: extinction and spatial spread  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We derive from a structured population model a system of delay differential equations describing the interaction of five subpopulations, namely susceptible and infected adult and juvenile reservoirs and infected adult vectors, for a vector borne disease with particular reference to West Nile virus, and we also incorporate spatial movements by considering the analogue reaction diffusion systems with nonlocal delayed terms. Specific conditions for the disease eradication and sharp conditions...

Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Wu, Jianhong

2007-01-01

47

Epidemiological aspects on vector-borne infections in stray and pet dogs from Romania and Hungary with focus on Babesia spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine arthropod-borne infections are of major interest in small animal practice and have been widely investigated in Central and Western Europe. However, only limited epidemiological data are available from South-Eastern European countries, although diseases including babesiosis or dirofilariosis are widely recognised as important canine infections in these countries. A steadily increasing number of dogs imported from South-Eastern Europe into Germany require particular attention by small animal practitioners. In this study, a total of 216 dogs [29 local Romanian pet dogs presented at Salvavet Veterinary Clinic in Bucharest, Romania, and 187 imported stray dogs from Romania (n?=?109) and Hungary (n?=?78) into Germany] were screened by molecular biological, serological and haematological methods for canine arthropod-borne infections. Eleven different parasitic and bacterial vector-borne pathogens-Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Babesia felis-like, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Mycoplasma haemocanis-were detected. Fifty-six percent of the dogs were positive by direct methods. B. canis canis was the most prevalent pathogen in dogs imported to Germany (42.8%) and dogs submitted for clinical consultation in Bucharest (44.8%). Our data strongly suggest the introduction of an adjusted screening panel in dogs from South-East Europe in view of increasing importation of dogs into Germany. PMID:21947342

Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Lescai, Daniel; Pfister, Kurt

2012-04-01

48

MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

Christensen Jamie

2010-02-01

49

Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La R|[eacute]|union and Mayotte (2005|[ndash]|2006 and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995|[ndash]|2007. To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities|[rsquo]| efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious disease.

M Setbon

2009-01-01

50

Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease  

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Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. This model was examined relative to two mosquito vectors, both competent carriers of dengue fever, a viral, vector-borne disease. Models which incorporate public health considerations can enable decision makers to take proactive steps to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the changing environmental conditions. In this paper we provide a snapshot of our climate initiative and some examples relative to our public health practice work in vector-borne diseases to illustrate how integrated decision support could be of assistance to regional and local communities worldwide.

Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

2011-12-01

51

Modeling transmission dynamics and control of vector-borne neglected tropical diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neglected tropical diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide. The populations most impacted by such diseases are typically the most resource-limited. Mathematical modeling of disease transmission and cost-effectiveness analyses can play a central role in maximizing the utility of limited resources for neglected tropical diseases. We review the contributions that mathematical modeling has made to optimizing intervention strategies of vector-borne neglected diseases. We propose directions forward in the modeling of these diseases, including integrating new knowledge of vector and pathogen ecology, incorporating evolutionary responses to interventions, and expanding the scope of sensitivity analysis in order to achieve robust results. PMID:21049062

Luz, Paula M; Struchiner, Claudio J; Galvani, Alison P

2010-01-01

52

Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

2014-01-01

53

An environmental data set for vector-borne disease modeling and epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

2014-01-01

54

Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from ?zmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

Kerem Ural

2014-06-01

55

Climate change and the distribution of vector borne diseases with special reference to African horse sickness virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of climate change, those components of climate that are likely to have major effects upon distribution, seasonal incidence and prevalence of vector borne diseases are described. On the basis of a predicted, mean temperature increase of the order of 1 to 3.5 deg. C., examples are given of the sort of changes that are to be expected by using a range of internationally important human and animal pathogens. Recent dramatic alterations in the epidemiology of the OIE List ''A'' disease, African horse sickness, are drawn upon to put forward the proposition that climate change may already be having a major effect upon some vector borne diseases. (author)

56

Genetic shifting: a novel approach for controlling vector-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rendering populations of vectors of diseases incapable of transmitting pathogens through genetic methods has long been a goal of vector geneticists. We outline a method to achieve this goal that does not involve the introduction of any new genetic variants to the target population. Rather we propose that shifting the frequencies of naturally occurring alleles that confer refractoriness to transmission can reduce transmission below a sustainable level. The program employs methods successfully used in plant and animal breeding. Because no artificially constructed genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are introduced into the environment, the method is minimally controversial. We use Aedes aegypti and dengue virus (DENV) for illustrative purposes but point out that the proposed program is generally applicable to vector-borne disease control. PMID:24794113

Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J

2014-06-01

57

Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vector borne disease (VBD emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends.

Reusken Chantal

2011-10-01

58

Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector borne disease (VBD) emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends. PMID:21967706

Braks, Marieta; van der Giessen, Joke; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wifrid; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Reusken, Chantal; Zeller, Hervé; van Bortel, Wim; Sprong, Hein

2011-01-01

59

Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem / Malattie trasmesse da artropodi in Italia: un problema sanitario emergente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly [...] known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

Roberto, Romi.

2010-12-01

60

Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem / Malattie trasmesse da artropodi in Italia: un problema sanitario emergente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly [...] known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

Roberto, Romi.

 
 
 
 
61

Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

62

First report of Babesia gibsoni in Central America and survey for vector-borne infections in dogs from Nicaragua  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although many vector-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas and potential zoonoses, there is little information on these conditions in Central America. Methods Seven qPCRs for vector-borne pathogens were performed on a Roche LightCycler PCR Instrument to investigate their prevalence in a convenience sample of whole blood samples from apparently healthy dogs in Nicaragua. Also, a qPCR targeting the canine hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) gene was used as an endogenous internal control and verified the quality and quantity of DNA in the samples was appropriate for the study. Results We found DNA of Rickettsia felis (5%), Babesia spp. (26%), Hepatozoon canis (51%), Anaplasma platys (13%) and Ehrlichia canis (56%) in the 39 dogs studied. The qPCRs for Coxiella burnetii and Dirofilaria immitis were negative. Of the 30 (80%) dogs that were positive by qPCR, 12 (31%) were positive for one agent, 11 (28%) for two, 3 (8%) for three, and 4 (10%) for four agents. Conclusions This is the first report of B. gibsoni in dogs from Central America and the first recording of vector-borne agents in dogs from Nicaragua. Dogs in Nicaragua are commonly infected with a variety of vector-borne pathogens, some of which may also infect people. PMID:24667065

2014-01-01

63

Arthropod origins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reconsideration of the position of trilobite-like arthropods leads to an idea of the last shared ancestor of known (euarthropods. The ancestry and morphological evolution is traced back from this form to a hypothetical ciliated and pseudosegmented slug-like ancestor. Evolution logically passed through a lobopodian stage. Extant onychophorans, Cambrian xenusians, and perhaps anomalocaridids with their kin (the Dinocaridida may represent probable offshoots on the way. As such, these groups are highly derived and not ancestral to the arthropods. Results of molecular studies indicate a relationship to moulting worms, which at first could seem to be in conflict with what was just said. However, if this is correct, the arthropod and moulting worm lineages must have diverged when some 'coelomate' features such as specific vascular and neural systems were still present. The moulting worms would therefore have lost such characters, either only once or several times.

Bergström J

2003-12-01

64

Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

65

Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010–2012 period. We utilized 2000–2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ?10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

66

Relative susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to vector-borne Xylella fastidiosa through time.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce's disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols. PMID:23424629

Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2013-01-01

67

Bifurcation analysis in models for vector-borne diseases with logistic growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

We establish and study vector-borne models with logistic and exponential growth of vector and host populations, respectively. We discuss and analyses the existence and stability of equilibria. The model has backward bifurcation and may have no, one, or two positive equilibria when the basic reproduction number R 0 is less than one and one, two, or three endemic equilibria when R 0 is greater than one under different conditions. Furthermore, we prove that the disease-free equilibrium is stable if R 0 is less than 1, it is unstable otherwise. At last, by numerical simulation, we find rich dynamical behaviors in the model. By taking the natural death rate of host population as a bifurcation parameter, we find that the system may undergo a backward bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, and cusp bifurcation with the saturation parameter varying. The natural death rate of host population is a crucial parameter. If the natural death rate is higher, then the host population and the disease will die out. If it is smaller, then the host and vector population will coexist. If it is middle, the period solution will occur. Thus, with the parameter varying, the disease will spread, occur periodically, and finally become extinct. PMID:24790552

Li, Guihua; Jin, Zhen

2014-01-01

68

Common, emerging, vector-borne and infrequent abortogenic virus infections of cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review deals with the aetiology and the diagnosis of bovine viral abortion. While the abortion rates on beef and dairy cattle farms usually do not exceed 10%, significant economic losses because of abortion storms may be encountered. Determining the cause of abortions is usually a challenge, and it generally remains obscure in more than 50% of the necropsy submitted foetuses. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 are the most common viruses causally associated with bovine abortions in farmed cattle globally. Rift Valley fever virus and bluetongue virus are important insect-transmitted abortogenic viruses. The geographic distribution of these two viruses is primarily dependent on the distribution of the insect vector, but direct transmission is possible. Recent global warming and subsequent insect vector expansion, coupled with the increase in international trade of animals and animal products, have been important factors in recent geographic advances of those two viruses. Bovine herpesviruses-4 and 5 in cattle, as well as other less frequent vector-borne viruses including epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, Aino virus, Wesselsbron virus and lumpy skin disease virus, are discussed. PMID:21733134

Ali, H; Ali, A A; Atta, M S; Cepica, A

2012-02-01

69

Molecular survey of bovine vector-borne pathogens in Cebu, Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the Philippines. In the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in Cebu, Philippines, for various VBD pathogens using specific PCR assays. The results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Trypanosoma (Tr.) theileri, respectively. In contrast, none of the samples were positive for Trypanosoma (Tr.) evansi, Theileria (Th.) orientalis, and Theileria (Th.) annulata. Mixed infections were observed in 24.2% of the samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the Anaplasma spp. sequences from the present study were genetically close either to Anaplasma marginale or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, B. bovis RAP-1 and Babesia bigemina AMA-1 gene sequences were identical and monophyletic to other known B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences. On the other hand, Tr. theileri cathepsin-L like protein gene sequences shared 97.1-100% identities with those from the USA and Brazil and clustered within a single genotype in the phylogenetic tree. The molecular identification of several VBD pathogens in Cebu cattle calls for the implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of these pathogens to nearby localities or islands, and ultimately, economic losses to the Philippine economy. PMID:23499481

Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Vincoy, Mary Rose Bahian; Tingson, Jocelyn Acido; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Gabotero, Shirleny Reyes; Buchorno, Lyra Paglinawan; Inoue, Noboru; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2013-09-01

70

Shifting priorities in vector biology to improve control of vector-borne disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector control remains the primary measure available to prevent pathogen transmission for the most devastating vector-borne diseases (VBDs): malaria, dengue, trypanosomiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. Current control strategies, however, are proving insufficient and the remarkable advances in the molecular biology of disease vectors over the last two decades have yet to result in tangible tools that effectively reduce VBD incidence. Here we argue that vector biologists must fundamentally shift their approach to VBD research. We propose an agenda highlighting the most critical avenues to improve the effectiveness of vector control. Research priorities must be diversified to support simultaneous development of multiple, alternative control strategies. Knowledge across relevant diseases and disciplines should be better integrated and disease prevention efforts extended beyond the academic sector to involve private industry, ministries of health, and local communities. To obtain information of more immediate significance to public health, the research focus must shift from laboratory models to natural pathogen-transmission systems. Identification and characterization of heterogeneities inherent to VBD systems should be prioritized to allow development of local, adaptive control strategies that efficiently make use of limited resources. Importantly, increased involvement of disease-endemic country (DEC) scientists, institutes, and communities will be key to enhance and sustain the fight against VBD. PMID:19807899

Lambrechts, Louis; Knox, Tessa B; Wong, Jacklyn; Liebman, Kelly A; Albright, Rebecca G; Stoddard, Steven T

2009-12-01

71

How computational studies of mosquito repellents contribute to the control of vector Borne Diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector Borne Diseases (VBD) present a serious threat to millions of people. In this paper various computational approaches towards new drugs design against some of them are reviewed. Malaria attracts particular attention of computational medicinal chemists. A promising strategy of the fight with VBD is usage of insect repellents. N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been the mostly used mosquito repellent for over five decades. Its mode of action is still a matter of intensive studies and debate. A possible mechanism of DEET activity is inactivation of odorant receptor proteins expressed in female mosquitoes, and being critical for finding a prey. In order to check possible interactions of DEET with such a transmembrane protein and to indicate a plausible biophore, we have constructed a hybrid "ab initio" model of Anopheles gambiae Odorant Receptor Protein 1 (AgOR1). The transmembrane regions of AgOR1 were predicted using 10 different bioinformatics algorithms and a consensus approach. A full torsional potential energy surface of DEET was determined using the AM1 method and low energy conformers were further optimized using the HF/6-31G method. DEET and a series of diastereomers of alternative repellent cyclohex-3-enyl 2-methylpiperidin-1-yl ketone (220) was docked to the AgOR1 model using the AutoDock 3.0.5 code, and possible interactions sites inside this GPCR AgOR1 were identified. PMID:24010929

Miszta, Przemyslaw; Basak, Subhash C; Natarajan, Ramanathan; Nowak, Wieslaw

2013-09-01

72

Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ?10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

73

Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

Ginsberg, H.S.

2001-01-01

74

The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations, outbrea

NathanChristopherNieto

2012-07-01

75

Evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal studies evaluating the evolution of clinical, haematological, biochemical findings in young dogs exposed for the first time to multiple vector-borne pathogens have not been reported. With the objective of assessing the evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings, these parameters were serially monitored in naturally infected dogs throughout a 1-year follow-up period. Young dogs, infected by vector-borne pathogens based on cytology or polymerase chain reaction, were examined clinically and blood samples were obtained at seven different follow-up time points. Dogs were randomized to group A (17 dogs treated with a spot-on formulation of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50%) or to group B (17 dogs untreated). In addition, 10 4-month-old beagles were enrolled in each group and used as sentinel dogs. At baseline, Anaplasma platys was the most frequently detected pathogen, followed by Babesia vogeli, Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Co-infections with A. platys and B. vogeli, followed by E. canis and B. vogeli, A. platys and H. canis and A. platys and Bartonella spp. were also diagnosed. In dogs from group B, abnormal clinical signs were recorded at different time points throughout the study. No abnormal clinical signs were recorded in group A dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most frequent haematological alteration recorded in A. platys-infected dogs, B. vogeli-infected dogs and in dogs co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. Lymphocytosis was frequently detected among dogs infected with B. vogeli or co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli. Beagles were often infected with a single pathogen rather than with multiple canine vector-borne pathogens. There was a significant association (pspp. co-infections. This study emphasizes the clinical difficulties associated with assigning a specific clinical sign or haematological abnormality to a particular canine vector-borne disease. PMID:21106311

de Caprariis, Donato; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Capelli, Gioia; Mencke, Norbert; Stanneck, Dorothee; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Otranto, Domenico

2011-04-21

76

Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. The saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophagous arthropod species. The potential biological and epidemiological applications of these immunogenic salivary molecules will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as biomarkers of exposure to haematophagous arthropod bites or vaccine candidates that are liable to improve host protection against vector-borne diseases. PMID:21951834

Fontaine, Albin; Diouf, Ibrahima; Bakkali, Nawal; Missé, Dorothée; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusai, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

2011-01-01

77

Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. The saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophagous arthropod species. The potential biological and epidemiological applications of these immunogenic salivary molecules will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as biomarkers of exposure to haematophagous arthropod bites or vaccine candidates that are liable to improve host protection against vector-borne diseases.

Fontaine Albin

2011-09-01

78

Seroprevalence of some vector-borne infections of dogs in Hungary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first comprehensive study on the prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis) was carried in Hungary because, except for babesiosis and dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria repens, there were no data on their regional distribution and prevalence. In 2011 and 2012, 1305 blood samples were collected from randomly selected, apparently healthy pet dogs in 167 localities of 19 counties of Hungary. All sera samples from dogs were screened for simultaneous qualitative detection of circulating antibodies to E. canis and B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen using SNAP(®) 4Dx (IDEXX Laboratories). Overall, 170 dogs (13.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 11-15) were serologically positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. A. phagocytophilum was the most prevalent pathogen detected in 102 dogs by antibody titers (7.9%, 95% CI 6.5-9.5), followed by D. immitis (2.4%, 95% CI 1.0-4.0, n=64) and B. burgdorferi (0.4%, 95% CI 0.0-1.1, n=11) out of 1305 tested dogs. The least prevalent infection was with E. canis, with only two positive dogs (0.16%, 95% CI 0.03-0.6). Co-infection was found in eight dogs (0.61%, 95% CI 0.29-1.21), of which seven were seropositive to two pathogens (five with A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis, two with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi). One dog was serologically positive to three pathogens (A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi, and D. immitis). Purebred and crossbred animals did not show significantly different levels of seropositivity. There was no significant association between the gender and the results of diagnostic testing. Logistic regression analysis showed a higher chance of seropositivity in the older dogs. PMID:24689833

Farkas, Robert; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Lukács, Zoltán; Aladics, Balázs; Solymosi, Norbert

2014-04-01

79

Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: Surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more positive in the light of this combined approach in the EU. PMID:25236564

Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

2014-10-15

80

Retrospective evaluation of laboratory data on canine vector-borne infections from the years 2004-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection and therapy of canine vector-borne diseases in imported dogs are of major importance in small animal practice. Over the last years, the import of dogs from the Mediterranean region and Southeast Europe has increased, countries often endemic for a variety of vector-borne diseases such as babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis or ehrlichiosis. This retrospective study presents the evaluation of data from our diagnostic laboratory on vector-borne infections in imported dogs from the years 2004-2008. Specific antibodies were detectable in 20.5% of all samples with individual detection rates of 8.9%, 9.6% and 10.8% for Babesia canis ssp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis. A total of 5.5% of all samples tested by direct methods were positive. Up to 1.1% of Giemsa-stained blood/buffy coat smears were positive for B. canis ssp., Rickettsia spp. or Hepatozoon spp. Microfilariae were detectable by the Knott's Test in 6.4% and heartworm antigen was detectable using the DiroChek-ELISA in 3% of the examined samples. EDTA-blood samples were positive for Leishmania spp.-(14.9%), E. canis- (5.3%) and A. phagocytophilum-DNA (5.0%) by PCR. Therewith, imported dogs have a high chance of being carriers of pathogens. As some diseases may also be of a zoonotic concern, in case of the availability of competent vectors, the key focus in the future should be aimed at the prevention of importing infected dogs or at compulsory diagnostic screening and treatment of infected dogs at the time of import. PMID:21950219

Röhrig, Eva; Hamel, Dietmar; Pfister, Kurt

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases. But mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread or limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. This is particular true for the relatively cool Nordic countries where periods of suitable temperatures, the ?windows of opportunity for transmission‘, may be very short and only appear in odd years DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance.In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) should an infected vector or host be introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps function as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of ?no possible transmission‘ and target costly active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighbouring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax-malaria in humans. Both the presently very restricted potential spatial and seasonal distribution was predicted to increase in the coming 50 years. While the predicted new areas potentially affected by vector borne diseases are relatively small they closely follow the spatial distribution of human habitation and agriculture. The practical impact of climate change on human health and agriculture may therefore be greater than simple distribution maps suggest. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases, compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia i 2008, and discuss the level of preventive measures needed to prevent large scale epidemics in the future.

BØdker, Rene Technical University of Denmark,

82

Strategies, effectiveness and rationale of vector-borne disease control in the pastoralist system of south-western Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Uganda, control of vector-borne diseases is mainly in form of vector control, and chemotherapy. There have been reports that acaricides are being misused in the pastoralist systems in Uganda. This is because of the belief by scientists that intensive application of acaricide is uneconomical and unsustainable particularly in the indigenous cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the strategies, rationale and effectiveness of vector-borne disease control by pastoralists. To systematically carry out these investigations, a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods was used, in both the collection and the analysis of data. Cattle keepers were found to control tick-borne diseases (TBDs) mainly through spraying, in contrast with the control of trypanosomosis for which the main method of control was by chemotherapy. The majority of herders applied acaricides weekly and used an acaricide of lower strength than recommended by the manufacturers. They used very little acaricide wash, and spraying was preferred to dipping. Furthermore, pastoralists either treated sick animals themselves or did nothing at all, rather than using veterinary personnel. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was the drug commonly used in the treatment of TBDs. Nevertheless, although pastoralists may not have been following recommended practices in their control of ticks and tick-borne diseases, they were neither wasteful nor uneconomical and their methods appeared to be effective. Trypanosomosis was not a problem either in Sembabule or Mbarara district. Those who used trypanocides were found to use more drugs than were necessary. PMID:16248219

Mugisha, A; McLeod, A; Percy, R; Kyewalabye, E

2005-08-01

83

The virulence-transmission trade-off in vector-borne plant viruses: a review of (non-)existing studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adaptive hypothesis invoked to explain why parasites harm their hosts is known as the trade-off hypothesis, which states that increased parasite transmission comes at the cost of shorter infection duration. This correlation arises because both transmission and disease-induced mortality (i.e. virulence) are increasing functions of parasite within-host density. There is, however, a glaring lack of empirical data to support this hypothesis. Here, we review empirical investigations reporting to what extent within-host viral accumulation determines the transmission rate and the virulence of vector-borne plant viruses. Studies suggest that the correlation between within-plant viral accumulation and transmission rate of natural isolates is positive. Unfortunately, results on the correlation between viral accumulation and virulence are very scarce. We found only very few appropriate studies testing such a correlation, themselves limited by the fact that they use symptoms as a proxy for virulence and are based on very few viral genotypes. Overall, the available evidence does not allow us to confirm or refute the existence of a transmission-virulence trade-off for vector-borne plant viruses. We discuss the type of data that should be collected and how theoretical models can help us refine testable predictions of virulence evolution. PMID:20478886

Froissart, R; Doumayrou, J; Vuillaume, F; Alizon, S; Michalakis, Y

2010-06-27

84

Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases. PMID:21257353

Massad, Eduardo; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; da Silva, Daniel Rodrigues

2011-06-01

85

Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease prevalence, complete risk assessments, and impleme t timely preventive medicine and other preventive measures. The lower VBD prevalence rate in the canine samples from Fort Buchanan demonstrates the value of responsible pet ownership and importance of preventive medicine and public health. PMID:23817880

McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

2013-01-01

86

Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs. PMID:25271465

Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Ahid, Silvia Maria Mendes; Pereira, Josivânia Soares; Vale, André Mendes do; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

2014-09-01

87

Factors affecting the emergence and prevalence of vector borne infections (VBI and the role of vertical transmission (VT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vector-borne infections (VBI are very common around the globe and they account for many devastating diseases. They are not found exclusively in the third world or tropical regions but spread to every corner of the planet. The factors driving these infections are many and interact in very complex ways. This review attempts to put into perspective the external climate change and demographics, as well as the internal factors that drive these infections with particular attention to the role that verticle transmission (VT plays in the prevalence and emergence of these infections. VT has been widely demonstrated, its role in the maintenance of disease in nature has been suggested, but whether this role has a positive or negative effect seems to vary from species to species. The incorporation of this mechanism of transmission into the classic cycle of infection/maintenance of disease seems to explain important aspects of the epidemiology of VBI.

Francisco Miled Pherez

2007-09-01

88

Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott's-Test), molecular biological (PCR) as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek(®)-ELISA) methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries. PMID:23477298

Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt

2013-01-01

89

Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least one million deaths annually, with 80% of malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has a large impact upon the incidence of vector-borne diseases; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the environmental conditions. A large ensemble of regional climate model simulations has been produced within the ENSEMBLES project framework for both the European and African continent. This work will present recent progress in human and animal disease modelling, based on high resolution climate observations and regional climate simulations. Preliminary results will be given as an illustration, including the impact of climate change upon bluetongue (disease affecting the cattle) over Europe and upon malaria and Rift Valley Fever over Africa. Malaria scenarios based on RCM ensemble simulations have been produced for West Africa. These simulations have been carried out using the Liverpool Malaria Model. Future projections highlight that the malaria incidence decreases at the northern edge of the Sahel and that the epidemic belt is shifted southward in autumn. This could lead to significant public health problems in the future as the demography is expected to dramatically rise over Africa for the 21st century.

Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andy

2010-05-01

90

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

91

[Agriculture-health interface in the field of epidemiology of vector-borne diseases and the control of vectors].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a review of the interactions between agriculture and vector borne diseases. Rain forest clearing makes possible the development of heliophilous species of anophelines and snails leading to an increase of malaria and schistosomiasis in Africa. But in Asia, clearing is a control method against Anopheles balabacensis, an important malaria vector. Clearing of forest galleries is followed by the disappearance of shore-dwelling tsetse flies. Woodcutters and pioneer farmers are contaminated with arbovirus and leishmaniasis when entering in natural sylvatic foci of these diseases. Management of drinking water reduces guinea worm as well as cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases. More over when piped water becomes available people are no more obliged to store drinking water in containers where vectors use to breed. Reservoirs of dams offer large possibilities for the development of mosquitoes including anophelines vectors of malaria and filariasis and of snails hosts of schistosomiasis. The medical importance of these man-made breeding sites depends of the local epidemiological features of the diseases. Dam spillways provide breeding for blackflies and man-made foci of onchocerciasis have been described in West Africa. Irrigation channels mainly when non cleared of vegetation are good breeding places for anophelines and snails. Irrigated surfaces like rice fields are highly productive in anophelines and other dangerous species of Culicinae. Insecticides used in agriculture, mainly to control cotton and rice pests, have been at the origin of insecticide resistance of several anopheline species. On an other hand, sometimes rice pests control lead to the control of rice field mosquitoes until they become resistant, e.g. for Culex tritaeniorhynchus the vector of Japanese encephalitis in South Korea. Many international organizations have emphasized the role of intersectorial collaboration to control man-made vector borne diseases foci. Good planning of the infrastructures (e.g. twin spillways) and adequate maintenance are essential. Vector control in rice field is a puzzling question. Wet irrigation was a hope but it cannot be done everywhere. Biological control methods have not been proven to be very efficient. Even Bacillus thuringiensis H14 and B. sphaericus have severe limitation. New tools for intersectorial activities should be a goal for scientists imagination. PMID:2208469

Mouchet, J; Brengues, J

1990-01-01

92

Prevention of endemic canine vector-borne diseases using imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% in young dogs: a longitudinal field study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent and increasing in distribution worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted in southern Italy to determine the incidence of and protection against CVBD-causing pathogens in dogs treated with a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer). One hundred eleven autochthonous young dogs were divided into group A (n=63) and group B (n=48), both groups containing dogs positive and negative for one or more CVBD-causing pathogens. Additionally, 10 naïve male beagles were introduced in each group in May 2008. Group A was treated with ImPer on day 0 and every 21+/-2 days whereas group B was left untreated. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (March-April 2008) and at the first, second and third follow-up times (July and October 2008 and April 2009). Bone marrow was sampled at baseline and at the third follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect Anaplasma platys, Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum. Ectoparasites (fleas, ticks, and sand flies) were monitored throughout the study. The baseline prevalence of CVBDs was 39.6% with 44 dogs positive for at least one pathogen. A. platys (27.5%) and Babesia spp. (15.6%) were the most prevalent species and co-infections with up to two pathogens were detected in 16 (14.7%) individuals. At the end of the evaluation period, there was a 90.7% reduction in overall CVBD incidence density rate (IDR) in group A, as following: 100% reduction in L. infantum; 94.6% in E. canis; 94.4% in Babesia spp.; and 81.8% in A. platys. Initially positive treated dogs showed significantly lower pathogen prevalence at the third follow-up than untreated ones. At the end of the evaluation period, 8 of the 10 untreated beagles were infected with at least one pathogen whereas one of the treated beagles was A. platys positive at a single time point (second follow-up). Overall efficacy against ticks was 97.9%. In October 2009, samples were collected from the remaining 83 dogs (44 from group A and 39 from group B) to investigate the annual incidence of CVBDs in the same, at this time untreated, dog population. A high year incidence for tick-borne diseases (78.1%) and for L. infantum (13.6%) was detected in dogs from group A, seven months after the treatment had been withdrawn. The results demonstrate that ImPer preventive treatment against arthropods protects autochthonous and naïve beagle dogs against CVBD-causing pathogens. PMID:20591573

Otranto, D; de Caprariis, D; Lia, R P; Tarallo, V; Lorusso, V; Testini, G; Dantas-Torres, F; Latrofa, S; Diniz, P P V P; Mencke, N; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E; Capelli, G; Stanneck, D

2010-09-20

93

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

Ahn KyuSung

2010-04-01

94

Inter-Model Comparison of the Landscape Determinants of Vector-Borne Disease: Implications for Epidemiological and Entomological Risk Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions. PMID:25072884

Lorenz, Alyson; Dhingra, Radhika; Chang, Howard H.; Bisanzio, Donal; Liu, Yang; Remais, Justin V.

2014-01-01

95

Cambio climático en España y riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias transmitidas por artrópodos y roedores / Climate Change in Spain and Risk of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Transmitted by Arthropods and Rodents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Por la proximidad con el continente africano, siendo lugar de tránsito obligado de aves migratorias y personas, y por las condiciones climáticas, cercanas a las de zonas donde hay transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales, España es un país en el que este tipo de enfermedades podrían verse potenciadas [...] por el cambio climático. El posible riesgo vendría por extensión geográfica de vectores ya establecidos o por la importación e instalación de vectores sub-tropicales adaptados a sobrevivir en climas menos cálidos y más secos. Hipotéticamente, las enfermedades vectoriales susceptibles de ser influidas por el cambio climático en España serían aquellas transmitidas por dípteros como dengue, encefalitis del Nilo occidental, fiebre del valle del Rift, malaria y leishmaniosis; las transmitidas por garrapatas como la fiebre de Congo Crimea, encefalitis por garrapata, enfermedad de Lyme, fiebre botonosa y fiebre recurrente endémica; y las transmitidas por roedores. Pero la mayor y más factible amenaza sería la instauración del mosquito Aedes albopictus, que sería capaz de transmitir enfermedades virales como la del Nilo occidental o el dengue. Pero para el establecimiento de auténticas áreas de endemia se necesitaría la conjunción de otros factores, tales como el aflujo masivo y simultáneo de reservorios animales o humanos y el deterioro de las condiciones socio-sanitarias y de los servicios de Salud Pública. Abstract in english Due to Spain's being located near Africa, being a stopping-off point for migrating birds and individuals and due to its climate conditions, nearing those of areas where there are vector-borne diseases, this is a country where this type of diseases could taken on greater importance due to the climate [...] change. The possible risk would result from the geographical spread of already established vectors or due to subtropical vectors adapted to surviving in cooler, dried climates being imported and taking up residence. Hypothetically, the vector-borne diseases subject to be influenced by the climate change in Spain would be those transmitted by dipterans, such as dengue fever, West Nile encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, malaria and leishmaniasis; tick-transmitted diseases, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, spotted fever and endemic relapsing fever; and rodent-transmitted diseases. But the greatest, most viable threat would be the Aedes albopictus mosquito, which would be capable of transmitting viral diseases such as West Nile encephalitis or dengue fever, taking up residence. But, for actual areas of endemia being established, a combination of other factors, such as the massive, simultaneous influx of animal or human reservoirs and the deterioration of the social healthcare conditions and of the Public Health services.

Rogelio, López-Vélez; Ricardo, Molina Moreno.

2005-04-01

96

Cambio climático en España y riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias transmitidas por artrópodos y roedores / Climate Change in Spain and Risk of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Transmitted by Arthropods and Rodents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Por la proximidad con el continente africano, siendo lugar de tránsito obligado de aves migratorias y personas, y por las condiciones climáticas, cercanas a las de zonas donde hay transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales, España es un país en el que este tipo de enfermedades podrían verse potenciadas [...] por el cambio climático. El posible riesgo vendría por extensión geográfica de vectores ya establecidos o por la importación e instalación de vectores sub-tropicales adaptados a sobrevivir en climas menos cálidos y más secos. Hipotéticamente, las enfermedades vectoriales susceptibles de ser influidas por el cambio climático en España serían aquellas transmitidas por dípteros como dengue, encefalitis del Nilo occidental, fiebre del valle del Rift, malaria y leishmaniosis; las transmitidas por garrapatas como la fiebre de Congo Crimea, encefalitis por garrapata, enfermedad de Lyme, fiebre botonosa y fiebre recurrente endémica; y las transmitidas por roedores. Pero la mayor y más factible amenaza sería la instauración del mosquito Aedes albopictus, que sería capaz de transmitir enfermedades virales como la del Nilo occidental o el dengue. Pero para el establecimiento de auténticas áreas de endemia se necesitaría la conjunción de otros factores, tales como el aflujo masivo y simultáneo de reservorios animales o humanos y el deterioro de las condiciones socio-sanitarias y de los servicios de Salud Pública. Abstract in english Due to Spain's being located near Africa, being a stopping-off point for migrating birds and individuals and due to its climate conditions, nearing those of areas where there are vector-borne diseases, this is a country where this type of diseases could taken on greater importance due to the climate [...] change. The possible risk would result from the geographical spread of already established vectors or due to subtropical vectors adapted to surviving in cooler, dried climates being imported and taking up residence. Hypothetically, the vector-borne diseases subject to be influenced by the climate change in Spain would be those transmitted by dipterans, such as dengue fever, West Nile encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, malaria and leishmaniasis; tick-transmitted diseases, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, spotted fever and endemic relapsing fever; and rodent-transmitted diseases. But the greatest, most viable threat would be the Aedes albopictus mosquito, which would be capable of transmitting viral diseases such as West Nile encephalitis or dengue fever, taking up residence. But, for actual areas of endemia being established, a combination of other factors, such as the massive, simultaneous influx of animal or human reservoirs and the deterioration of the social healthcare conditions and of the Public Health services.

Rogelio, López-Vélez; Ricardo, Molina Moreno.

2005-04-01

97

Survey of Arthropod Associated with Refuse Disposal Sites in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the abundance of arthropod pests and its diversity at different refuse disposal sites in Ijebu Ode. A survey of some refuse dumps for the presence of arthropod associated with them was carried out in Ijebu-ode Local government Area, of Ogun state. The refuse dumps were randomly selected based on their location within the town, these included Ikangba housing Estate, Wasimi, Olisa, Mobalufon and Sabo areas. Different methods were used for the collection of these Arthropods: such as Handpicking, water traps, sweep net and sticky traps. Arthropods collected included members of the family Muscidae, Culicidae, Blattidae, Scolopendridae, Diplopodae, Gryllidae and Sparassidae. Musca domestica (Houseflies were the most abundant (31.31%, while the least were Otiorrhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera (1.01%. Aedes egypti and Culex restuans (Diptera accounted for 12.12%, Blatta lateralis (Blattodea (10.61% and Chromatopelma yaneopubescens (Araneae (13.64%.The relative occurrence of these arthropods suggested the possibility of some vector borne diseases in Ijebu-Ode environs, hence the need for proper disposal of refuse to avert an epidemic status.

F.M. Banjo

2012-07-01

98

MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne dis...

Christensen Jamie; Harrison Stanley; Birney Ian; Wilkerson Richard C; Foley Desmond H; Rueda Leopoldo M

2010-01-01

99

Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control. PMID:23951018

Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

2013-01-01

100

Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of chagas' disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individu...

Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-zaleta, Christopher M.; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Gourbie?re, Se?bastien; Menu, Fre?de?ric

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vect...

Tan Soo; Ejov Mikhail; Dash Aditya P; Ameneshewa Birkinesh; Mnzava Abraham; Soares Agnes; Hii Jeffrey; van den Berg Henk; Matthews Graham; Yadav Rajpal S; Zaim Morteza

2011-01-01

102

Insecticide-treated clothes for the control of vector-borne diseases: a review on effectiveness and safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insecticide-treated clothing has been used for many years by the military and in recreational activities as personal protection against bites from a variety of arthropods including ticks, chigger mites, sandflies and mosquitoes. Permethrin is the most commonly used active ingredient, but others, including bifenthrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenz-amide) and KBR3023, have also been trialled. Treatment is usually carried out by home or factory dipping. However, new microencapsulation technologies which may prolong the activity of insecticides on clothing are now available and may help to overcome the inevitable reduction in efficacy over time that occurs as a result of washing, ultraviolet light exposure, and the normal wear and tear of the fabric. The aim of this article is to review the evidence base for the use of insecticide-treated clothing for protection against bites from arthropods and its effect on arthropod-borne pathogen transmission. Although some studies do demonstrate protection against pathogen transmission, there are surprisingly few, and the level of protection provided varies according to the disease and the type of study conducted. For example, insecticide-treated clothing has been reported to give between 0% and 75% protection against malaria and between 0% and 79% protection against leishmaniasis. Studies vary in the type of treatment used, the age group of participants, the geographical location of the study, and the pathogen transmission potential. This makes it difficult to compare and assess intervention trials. Overall, there is substantial evidence that insecticide-treated clothing can provide protection against arthropod bites. Bite protection evidence suggests that insecticide-treated clothing may be useful in the prevention of pathogen transmission, but further investigations are required to accurately demonstrate transmission reduction. PMID:24912919

Banks, S D; Murray, N; Wilder-Smith, A; Logan, J G

2014-08-01

103

Perspectivas de controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil Perspectives of vector borne diseases control in Brazil  

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Full Text Available A análise do controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores no Brasil necessita considerar três aspectos: a urbanização da população, a transformação do caráter eminentemente rural dessas doenças em concomitante transmissão urbana ou peri-urbana e a descentralização do controle para municípios. A imensa maioria da população está vivendo nas cidades. Algumas doenças passaram a ser transmitidas em áreas peri-urbanas ou urbanas, graças à emergência ou re-emergência de seus vetores nessas áreas, como dengue, leishmaniose visceral e malária. Há dificuldades para o controle: as atividades em áreas rurais são operacionalmente mais efetivas, pois atingem coberturas mais elevadas; são mais bem aceitas pela população do que as exercidas em áreas urbanas. A descentralização do controle para os estados e municípios está em implementação e há também dificuldades, pois o controle vetorial não fazia parte da prática desses entes federativos. Para um controle mais efetivo, há necessidade de determinação política, ações multi-setoriais e uso racional de inseticida.The analysis of vector borne disease control in Brazil should consider three aspects: the urbanization of the population, change from a rural pattern to concomitant urban or peri-urban transmission and decentralization of control to municipalities. The great majority of the population now lives in urban areas. Some diseases are being transmitted in urban areas, due to the emergence or reemergence of their vectors, such as dengue, malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. Difficulties in control occur, as it is easier to apply control measures in rural areas, because there is more population adherence than in urban areas and so the coverage is higher and disease control is better. The decentralization of control activities to states and municipalities is being implemented and difficulties occur as these levels of government have insufficient accumulated experience in control. For more effective control, political commitment, multi-sector articulation and rational use of insecticide are required.

Pedro Luiz Tauil

2006-06-01

104

Regional seroreactivity and vector-borne disease co-exposures in dogs in the United States from 2004-2010: utility of canine surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Vector-borne disease (VBD) pathogens remain an emerging health concern for animals and humans throughout the world. Surveillance studies of ticks and humans have made substantial contributions to our knowledge of VBD epidemiology trends, but long-term VBD surveillance data of dogs in the United States is limited. This seroreactivity study assessed US temporal and regional trends and co-exposures to Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia in dogs from 2004-2010. Dog serum samples (N=14,496) were submitted to the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for vector-borne pathogens diagnostic testing using immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. These convenience samples were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The largest proportion of samples originated from the South (47.6%), with the highest percent of seroreactive samples observed in the Midatlantic (43.4%), compared to other US regions. The overall seroreactivity of evaluated VBD antigens were Rickettsia rickettsia (10.4%), B. burgdorferi (5.2%), Ehrlichia spp. (4.3%), Bartonella henselae (3.8%), Anaplasma spp. (1.9%), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (1.5%), Babesia canis (1.1%), and D. immitis (0.8%). Significant regional and annual seroreactivity variation was observed with B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia exposures. Seasonal seroreactivity variation was evident with Rickettsia. Seroreactivity to more than one antigen was present in 16.5% of exposed dogs. Nationally, the most prevalent co-exposure was Rickettsia with Ehrlichia spp. (5.3%), and the highest odds of co-exposure was associated with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi (odds ratio=6.6; 95% confidence interval 5.0, 8.8). Notable annual and regional seroreactivity variation was observed with certain pathogens over 7 years of study, suggesting canine surveillance studies may have value in contributing to future VBD knowledge. PMID:25325316

Yancey, Caroline B; Hegarty, Barbara C; Qurollo, Barbara A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Weber, David J; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-10-01

105

Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

2009-01-01

106

The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control / Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A [...] dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações) e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma análise antecipada da eficácia de intervenções, oferecer respostas para resultados inesperados provenientes de ações para controle de vetores e contribuir para o planejamento de medidas eficazes de gerenciamento em um ambiente em constante mudança. O objetivo deste trabalho é explorar a dimensão ecológica de doenças transmitidas por vetores e esclarecer o papel do "pensamento ecológico" no desenvolvimento e implantação de ações de controle vetorial, ou seja, abordagem ecossistêmica para o controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores. Abstract in english Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecologic [...] al dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations), and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases).

Brett R., Ellis; Bruce A., Wilcox.

107

The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control / Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A [...] dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações) e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma análise antecipada da eficácia de intervenções, oferecer respostas para resultados inesperados provenientes de ações para controle de vetores e contribuir para o planejamento de medidas eficazes de gerenciamento em um ambiente em constante mudança. O objetivo deste trabalho é explorar a dimensão ecológica de doenças transmitidas por vetores e esclarecer o papel do "pensamento ecológico" no desenvolvimento e implantação de ações de controle vetorial, ou seja, abordagem ecossistêmica para o controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores. Abstract in english Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecologic [...] al dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations), and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases).

Brett R., Ellis; Bruce A., Wilcox.

108

A review of mortality from parasitic and vector-borne diseases in the U.S. Air Force from 1970 to 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review a unique set of documents, death certificates, cataloged in the U.S. Air Force Mortality Registry database, which tracks deaths for all current and retired service members. We screened the records for all deaths caused by parasitic, vector-borne, or zoonotic diseases between 1970 and 2013. There were 78 deaths caused by a variety of diseases such as amebiasis, malaria, strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, and pneumocystosis. We compare these deaths to U.S. national deaths. U.S. Air Force service members are more likely to die from malaria, strongyloidiasis, and Q fever than the average American but are less likely to die from pneumocystosis. PMID:24224859

Reeves, Will K; Bettano, Amy L

2014-04-01

109

An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

1999-12-01

110

Canine vector-borne disease in travelled dogs in Germany--a retrospective evaluation of laboratory data from the years 2004-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

When importing dogs from various Mediterranean countries into Western Europe canine vector-borne infections are often considered as a major issue. Several diseases including babesiosis, leishmaniosis, hepatozoonosis, canine heartworm disease or ehrlichiosis can potentially be endemic in this region and pose a potential health risk for travelling dogs. Information on such infections in travelled dogs is scarce and therefore this study has been undertaken to examine the frequency of vector-borne infections in travelled dogs from the years 2004-2008. A total of 997 samples were screened by direct and/or indirect methods. Total seroprevalence was 7.5% with individual seroprevalence for the 3 species Leishmania spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis spp. ranging from 3.1 to 4.9%. Total detection rate for pathogens by direct methods was 3.5%. Nineteen Giemsa-stained blood smears were positive for large Babesia. None of the samples screened for microfilariae by Knott's test or for Dirofilaria immitis antigen by DiroChek(®) were positive. Using PCR methods Leishmania-DNA was detected in 1/42 samples but none of 59 animals screened for E. canis-DNA was positive. The prevalence values as established by indirect and direct pathogen detection are considered as rather low. PMID:21565447

Hamel, D; Röhrig, E; Pfister, K

2011-09-01

111

Predictiveness of Disease Risk in a Global Outreach Tourist Setting in Thailand Using Meteorological Data and Vector-Borne Disease Incidences  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity) registered from 2001 to 2011 on Koh Chang, Thailand were used in this study. Seasonal distribution of disease incidences and its correlation with local climatic factors were analyzed. Seasonal patterns in disease transmission differed between dengue and malaria. Monthly meteorological data and reported disease incidences showed good predictive ability of disease transmission patterns. These findings provide a rational basis for identifying the predictive ability of local meteorological factors on disease incidence that may be useful for the implementation of disease prevention and vector control programs on the tourism island, where climatic factors fluctuate. PMID:25325356

Ninphanomchai, Suwannapa; Chansang, Chitti; Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklov, Joacim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

2014-01-01

112

Predictiveness of disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting in Thailand using meteorological data and vector-borne disease incidences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity) registered from 2001 to 2011 on Koh Chang, Thailand were used in this study. Seasonal distribution of disease incidences and its correlation with local climatic factors were analyzed. Seasonal patterns in disease transmission differed between dengue and malaria. Monthly meteorological data and reported disease incidences showed good predictive ability of disease transmission patterns. These findings provide a rational basis for identifying the predictive ability of local meteorological factors on disease incidence that may be useful for the implementation of disease prevention and vector control programs on the tourism island, where climatic factors fluctuate. PMID:25325356

Ninphanomchai, Suwannapa; Chansang, Chitti; Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

2014-01-01

113

Predictiveness of Disease Risk in a Global Outreach Tourist Setting in Thailand Using Meteorological Data and Vector-Borne Disease Incidences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity registered from 2001 to 2011 on Koh Chang, Thailand were used in this study. Seasonal distribution of disease incidences and its correlation with local climatic factors were analyzed. Seasonal patterns in disease transmission differed between dengue and malaria. Monthly meteorological data and reported disease incidences showed good predictive ability of disease transmission patterns. These findings provide a rational basis for identifying the predictive ability of local meteorological factors on disease incidence that may be useful for the implementation of disease prevention and vector control programs on the tourism island, where climatic factors fluctuate.

Suwannapa Ninphanomchai

2014-10-01

114

Control of multiple arthropod vector infestations with subolesin/akirin vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health and thus their control is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. Recent results have suggested that subolesin/akirin (SUB/AKR) is good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here we describe the comparative effect of vaccination with SUB, AKR and Q38 and Q41 chimeras containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on tick, mosquitoes and sand flies vector mortality, molting, oviposition and/or fertility. We demonstrated that SUB vaccination had the highest efficacy (E) across all vector species (54-92%), Q41 vaccination had the highest vaccine E in mosquitoes (99%) by reducing female survival and fertility, and Q38 vaccination had the highest effect on reducing mosquito (28%) and sand fly (26%) oviposition. The effect of vaccination on different developmental processes in several important arthropod vectors encourages the development of SUB/AKR universal vaccines for the control of multiple vector infestations and reduction of VBD. PMID:23291476

Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Villar, Margarita; Jiménez, Maribel; Pinal, Rocío; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

2013-02-01

115

Decoding the ubiquitin-mediated pathway of arthropod disease vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein regulation by ubiquitin has been extensively described in model organisms. However, characterization of the ubiquitin machinery in disease vectors remains mostly unknown. This fundamental gap in knowledge presents a concern because new therapeutics are needed to control vector-borne diseases, and targeting the ubiquitin machinery as a means for disease intervention has been already adopted in the clinic. In this study, we employed a bioinformatics approach to uncover the ubiquitin-mediated pathway in the genomes of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ixodes scapularis, Pediculus humanus and Rhodnius prolixus. We observed that (1) disease vectors encode a lower percentage of ubiquitin-related genes when compared to Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (2) overall, there are more proteins categorized as E3 ubiquitin ligases when compared to E2-conjugating or E1-activating enzymes; (3) the ubiquitin machinery within the three mosquito genomes is highly similar; (4) ubiquitin genes are more than doubled in the Chagas disease vector (R. prolixus) when compared to other arthropod vectors; (5) the deer tick I. scapularis and the body louse (P. humanus) genomes carry low numbers of E1-activating enzymes and HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; (6) R. prolixus have low numbers of RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; and (7) C. quinquefasciatus present elevated numbers of predicted F-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, JAB and UCH deubiquitinases. Taken together, these findings provide novel opportunities to study the interaction between a pathogen and an arthropod vector. PMID:24205097

Choy, Anthony; Severo, Maiara S; Sun, Ruobai; Girke, Thomas; Gillespie, Joseph J; Pedra, Joao H F

2013-01-01

116

Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

117

A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii ssp. berkhoffii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine, and bartonellosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that is being reported with increasing frequency. Of 22 known species and subspecies of Bartonella, seven have been isolated from dogs, causing disease manifestations similar to those seen in human beings. The wide variety of clinical signs and the possible chronic progression of disease manifestations are illustrated in the case of an infected Labrador retriever. Here, the authors discuss the seemingly diverse spectrum of disease manifestations, the co-infections of Bartonella spp. with other vector-borne pathogens (mainly Ehrlichia spp. or Babesia spp.) and the difficulties in microbiological confirmation of an active Bartonella infection, all of which make the disease pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis more problematic. PMID:19426442

Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

2009-01-01

118

A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii ssp. berkhoffii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine, and bartonellosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that is being reported with increasing frequency. Of 22 known species and subspecies of Bartonella, seven have been isolated from dogs, causing disease manifestations similar to those seen in human beings. The wide variety of clinical signs and the possible chronic progression of disease manifestations are illustrated in the case of an infected Labrador retriever. Here, the authors discuss the seemingly diverse spectrum of disease manifestations, the co-infections of Bartonella spp. with other vector-borne pathogens (mainly Ehrlichia spp. or Babesia spp. and the difficulties in microbiological confirmation of an active Bartonella infection, all of which make the disease pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis more problematic.

Maggi Ricardo G

2009-03-01

119

Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield  

Science.gov (United States)

Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

2013-01-01

120

Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and its implications for the global elimination of the major macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis, by applying a novel Bayesian computer simulation procedure to fit a dynamic model of the transmission of this parasitic disease to field data from nine villages with different ecological and geographical characteristics. Baseline lymphatic filariasis microfilarial age-prevalence data from three geographically distinct endemic regions, across which the major vector populations implicated in parasite transmission also differed, were used to fit and calibrate the relevant vector-specific filariasis transmission models. Ensembles of parasite elimination thresholds, generated using the Bayesian fitting procedure, were then examined in order to evaluate site-specific heterogeneity in the values of these thresholds and investigate the ecological factors that may underlie such variability Results We show that parameters of density-dependent functions relating to immunity, parasite establishment, as well as parasite aggregation, varied significantly between the nine different settings, contributing to locally varying filarial elimination thresholds. Parasite elimination thresholds predicted for the settings in which the mosquito vector is anopheline were, however, found to be higher than those in which the mosquito is culicine, substantiating our previous theoretical findings. The results also indicate that the probability that the parasite will be eliminated following six rounds of Mass Drug Administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole decreases markedly but non-linearly as the annual biting rate and parasite reproduction number increases. Conclusions This paper shows that specific ecological conditions in a community can lead to significant local differences in population dynamics and, consequently, elimination threshold estimates for lymphatic filariasis. These findings, and the difficulty of measuring the key local parameters (infection aggregation and acquired immunity governing differences in transmission thresholds between communities, mean that it is necessary for us to rethink the utility of the current anticipatory approaches for achieving the elimination of filariasis both locally and globally.

Remais Justin

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Endemic tickborne infectious diseases in Louisiana and the Gulf South.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most emerging infectious diseases today, such as West Nile virus and sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), arise from zoonotic reservoirs and many are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks are among the most competent and versatile arthropod vectors of infectious diseases because ticks of all ages and both sexes remain infectious for generations without having to reacquire infections from reservoir hosts. Today, ticks transmit the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in the United States (US), Lyme disease (LD); and the most lethal arthropod-borne infectious disease in the US, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Both LD and RMSF are endemic in Louisiana and the Gulf South. Ticks have also become frequent vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases in the Gulf South, including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), transmitted by the lone star tick, and Maculatum disease, transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick. Recent environmental changes and human lifestyle choices now place humans and ticks together outdoors in the Gulf South for longer periods in welcoming ecosystems for breeding, blood-feeding, and infectious disease transmission. An increasing incidence of emerging and re-emerging, endemic infectious diseases transmitted by existing and unanticipated tick vectors may be expected. PMID:20108827

Diaz, James H

2009-01-01

122

An epidemiological model for externally sourced vector-borne viruses applied to Bean yellow mosaic virus in lupin crops in a Mediterranean-type environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hybrid mechanistic/statistical model was developed to predict vector activity and epidemics of vector-borne viruses spreading from external virus sources to an adjacent crop. The pathosystem tested was Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) spreading from annually self-regenerating, legume-based pastures to adjacent crops of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in the winter-spring growing season in a region with a Mediterranean-type environment where the virus persists over summer within dormant seed of annual clovers. The model uses a combination of daily rainfall and mean temperature during late summer and early fall to drive aphid population increase, migration of aphids from pasture to lupin crops, and the spread of BYMV. The model predicted time of arrival of aphid vectors and resulting BYMV spread successfully for seven of eight datasets from 2 years of field observations at four sites representing different rainfall and geographic zones of the southwestern Australian grainbelt. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the relative importance of the main parameters that describe the pathosystem. The hybrid mechanistic/statistical approach used created a flexible analytical tool for vector-mediated plant pathosystems that made useful predictions even when field data were not available for some components of the system. PMID:19000002

Maling, T; Diggle, A J; Thackray, D J; Siddique, K H M; Jones, R A C

2008-12-01

123

Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

Tan Soo

2011-05-01

124

Arthropod 7SK RNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is a key player in the regulation of polymerase (pol) II transcription. The 7SK RNA was long believed to be specific to vertebrates where it is highly conserved. Homologs in basal deuterostomes and a few lophotrochozoan species were only recently reported. On longer timescales, 7SK evolves rapidly with only few conserved sequence and structure motifs. Previous attempts to identify the Drosophila homolog thus have remained unsuccessful despite considerable efforts. Here we report on the discovery of arthropod 7SK RNAs using a novel search strategy based on pol III promoters, as well as the subsequent verification of its expression. Our results demonstrate that a 7SK snRNA featuring 2 highly structured conserved domains was present already in the bilaterian ancestor. PMID:18566019

Gruber, Andreas R; Kilgus, Carsten; Mosig, Axel; Hofacker, Ivo L; Hennig, Wolfgang; Stadler, Peter F

2008-09-01

125

Advanced megaesophagus (Group III) secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant Lactente de um ano e oito meses de idade com megaesôfago (Grupo III) por doença de Chagas adquirida vetorialmente  

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The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III) megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique). The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her ...

Anis Rassi; Joffre Marcondes de Rezende; Anis Rassi Junior

2012-01-01

126

Benefit of Insecticide-Treated Nets, Curtains and Screening on Vector Borne Diseases, Excluding Malaria: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and insecticide-treated house screening (ITS) against Chagas disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, human African trypanosomiasis, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Tropical Disease Bulletin databases were searched using intervention, vector- and disease-specific search terms. Cluster or individually randomised controlled trials, non-randomised trials with pre- and post-intervention data and rotational design studies were included. Analysis assessed the efficacy of ITNs, ITCs or ITS versus no intervention. Meta-analysis of clinical data was performed and percentage reduction in vector density calculated. Results Twenty-one studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of clinical data could only be performed for four cutaneous leishmaniasis studies which together showed a protective efficacy of ITNs of 77% (95%CI: 39%–91%). Studies of ITC and ITS against cutaneous leishmaniasis also reported significant reductions in disease incidence. Single studies reported a high protective efficacy of ITS against dengue and ITNs against Japanese encephalitis. No studies of Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis or onchocerciasis were identified. Conclusion There are likely to be considerable collateral benefits of ITN roll out on cutaneous leishmaniasis where this disease is co-endemic with malaria. Due to the low number of studies identified, issues with reporting of entomological outcomes, and few studies reporting clinical outcomes, it is difficult to make strong conclusions on the effect of ITNs, ITCs or ITS on other VBDs and therefore further studies be conducted. Nonetheless, it is clear that insecticide-treated materials such as ITNs have the potential to reduce pathogen transmission and morbidity from VBDs where vectors enter houses. PMID:25299481

Wilson, Anne L.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W.; van den Berg, Henk; Lindsay, Steven W.

2014-01-01

127

A Silurian 'marrellomorph' arthropod.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylokorys chledophilia, a new arthropod with three-dimensionally preserved soft tissues, is described from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte of England. The head and trunk are covered by a relatively featureless ovoid carapace, which comprises a domed central part and a flange-like border. The head bears five pairs of appendages. The first is uniramous, with dorsal and ventral projections distally. Appendages two to four are biramous and each endopod terminates in two projections. Appendage five is possibly biramous. The hypostome is very long and subrectangular in outline. There are approximately 35 pairs of biramous trunk appendages. Each exopod comprises a long slender shaft bearing numerous fine filaments; each endopod comprises a ribbon-like shaft bearing paddle-like endites. Morphological comparisons and cladistic analyses of X. chledophilia indicate affinity with Vachonisia rogeri from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, within the marrellomorphs, but assignment to Marrellomorpha is provisional pending revision of other members of this clade. Xylokorys is the first 'marrellomorph' to be reported from the Silurian. It is interpreted as a benthic particle filter feeder, which may also have consumed prey items. PMID:17646139

Siveter, Derek J; Fortey, Richard A; Sutton, Mark D; Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, David J

2007-09-22

128

Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases  

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Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1 the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2 the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

F. J. López-Antuñano

1992-01-01

129

Infectious Arthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

130

Infectious Arthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

... redness around the joint Fever and shaking chills Skin rash Other symptoms vary, depending on the cause. Some more common causes of infectious arthritis include: Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by bacteria that live in deer ticks and ...

131

Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.

Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas

2012-01-01

132

Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models. PMID:23239740

Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas; Cuénoud, Philippe; Didham, Raphael K; Guilhaumon, François; Missa, Olivier; Novotny, Vojtech; Ødegaard, Frode; Roslin, Tomas; Schmidl, Jürgen; Tishechkin, Alexey K; Winchester, Neville N; Roubik, David W; Aberlenc, Henri-Pierre; Bail, Johannes; Barrios, Héctor; Bridle, Jon R; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Corbara, Bruno; Curletti, Gianfranco; Duarte da Rocha, Wesley; De Bakker, Domir; Delabie, Jacques H C; Dejean, Alain; Fagan, Laura L; Floren, Andreas; Kitching, Roger L; Medianero, Enrique; Miller, Scott E; Gama de Oliveira, Evandro; Orivel, Jérôme; Pollet, Marc; Rapp, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Sérvio P; Roisin, Yves; Schmidt, Jesper B; Sørensen, Line; Leponce, Maurice

2012-12-14

133

Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1) the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the i [...] nfectious agents and (2) the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

F. J., López-Antuñano.

134

Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pcanine population. PMID:24315693

Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

2014-01-31

135

Key to marine arthropod larvae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is...

Fornshell, John A.

2012-01-01

136

Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,Âsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

137

A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Climatic Drivers of Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe  

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Full Text Available Climate change is considered to be a significant influence for infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Climatic and non-climatic developments act together resulting in current and future infectious disease risk. This study uses a survey to explore Dutch expert perspectives on climate change induced infectious disease risk. The results show that the experts consider temperature change, precipitation change, humidity change, and climate change induced habitat change to be relatively important for water-related infectious disease risk, vector-borne disease risk excluding zoonoses, and the risk of zoonoses. The climatic drivers are seen as relatively less important for food-related infectious disease risk. The experts rate many non-climatic drivers to be highly important for infectious disease risk. Comparatively, the majority of the non-climatic drivers assessed are seen as more important than climate change drivers. The degree of uncertainty in the future development of climatic drivers is viewed as moderate to high, and for non-climatic drivers mostly as moderate. An analysis of subsamples based on professional backgrounds reveals differences in experts’ opinions for e.g., socio-cultural drivers, and similarities. Diversity and consensus amongst expert perspectives on climate change and infectious diseases can have implications for policy. Further research to uncover and compare prevailing perspectives is necessary.

Su-Mia Akin

2014-11-01

138

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID 'events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940 and 2004, and demonstrate non-random global patterns. EID events have risen significantly over time after controlling for reporting bias, with their peak incidence (in the 1980s) concomitant with the HIV pandemic. EID events are dominated by zoonoses (60.3% of EIDs): the majority of these (71.8%) originate in wildlife (for example, severe acute respiratory virus, Ebola virus), and are increasing significantly over time. We find that 54.3% of EID events are caused by bacteria or rickettsia, reflecting a large number of drug-resistant microbes in our database. Our results confirm that EID origins are significantly correlated with socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, and provide a basis for identifying regions where new EIDs are most likely to originate (emerging disease 'hotspots'). They also reveal a substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne EIDs originating at lower latitudes where reporting effort is low. We conclude that global resources to counter disease emergence are poorly allocated, with the majority of the scientific and surveillance effort focused on countries from where the next important EID is least likely to originate. PMID:18288193

Jones, Kate E; Patel, Nikkita G; Levy, Marc A; Storeygard, Adam; Balk, Deborah; Gittleman, John L; Daszak, Peter

2008-02-21

139

Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs  

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Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

Bracha Y. Schindler

2011-01-01

140

Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

Joseph R. Coelho

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Night and crepuscular mosquitoes and risk of vector-borne diseases in areas of piassaba extraction in the middle Negro River basin, state of Amazonas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A study of crepuscular and night-biting mosquitoes was conducted at remote settlements along the Padauiri River, middle Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Collections were performed with human bait and a CDC-light trap on three consecutive days per month from June 2003-May 2004. In total, 1,203 [...] h of collection were performed, of which 384 were outside and 819 were inside houses. At total of 11,612 specimens were captured, and Anophelinae (6.01%) were much less frequent than Culicinae (93.94%). Anopheles darlingi was the most frequent Anophelinae collected. Among the culicines, 2,666 Culex (Ae.) clastrieri Casal & Garcia, 2,394 Culex. (Mel.) vomerifer Komp, and 1,252 Culex (Mel.) eastor Dyar were the most frequent species collected. The diversity of insects found reveals the receptivity of the area towards a variety of diseases facilitated by the presence of vectors involved in the transmission of Plasmodium, arboviruses and other infectious agents.

Martha Cecília, Suárez-Mutis; Nelson Ferreira, Fé; Wilson, Alecrim; José Rodrigues, Coura.

2009-02-01

142

Night and crepuscular mosquitoes and risk of vector-borne diseases in areas of piassaba extraction in the middle Negro River basin, state of Amazonas, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A study of crepuscular and night-biting mosquitoes was conducted at remote settlements along the Padauiri River, middle Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Collections were performed with human bait and a CDC-light trap on three consecutive days per month from June 2003-May 2004. In total, 1,203 h of collection were performed, of which 384 were outside and 819 were inside houses. At total of 11,612 specimens were captured, and Anophelinae (6.01% were much less frequent than Culicinae (93.94%. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequent Anophelinae collected. Among the culicines, 2,666 Culex (Ae. clastrieri Casal & Garcia, 2,394 Culex. (Mel. vomerifer Komp, and 1,252 Culex (Mel. eastor Dyar were the most frequent species collected. The diversity of insects found reveals the receptivity of the area towards a variety of diseases facilitated by the presence of vectors involved in the transmission of Plasmodium, arboviruses and other infectious agents.

Martha Cecília Suárez-Mutis

2009-02-01

143

Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. Efectos de las Plantas Invasoras sobre los Artrópodos. PMID:25065640

Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

2014-12-01

144

Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages. PMID:24160423

Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

2014-01-01

145

Arthropod evolution: great brains, beautiful bodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

While arthropod phylogeny remains controversial, comparative studies of the genetic control of segmentation and of the nervous system have begun to throw light on how mandibulate arthropods (myriapods, crustaceans and insects) reached their current level of morphological and behavioural complexity. Insects and crustaceans show remarkable similarities in the construction of their brains, suggesting that their common ancestor had typically arthropod behaviour, while developmental genetic studies are consistent with this ancestor having had distinct head, trunk and tail regions. This conclusion contrasts with the influential view, drawn from comparative embryology and functional anatomy, that insects and crustaceans evolved independently from a simple worm-like organism, perhaps resembling an annelid. PMID:21237100

Osorio, D; Averof, M; Bacon, J P

1995-11-01

146

Arthropods (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp  

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Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

arthropods@iaees.org

147

Key to marine arthropod larvae  

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Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

John A. Fornshell

2012-03-01

148

Advanced megaesophagus (Group III) secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant / Lactente de um ano e oito meses de idade com megaesôfago (Grupo III) por doença de Chagas adquirida vetorialmente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam um caso de lactente com megaesôfago do Grupo III por doença de Chagas vetorialmente adquirida, responsável por acentuada desnutrição, da qual se recuperou com a cirurgia de Heller. Submetida em seguida a tratamento da infecção chagásica com benzonidazol, logrou cura, parasito e so [...] rologicamente demonstrada. Seguiram-se anos sem qualquer incidente, com desenvolvimento pondo-estatural normal. Teve seu primeiro filho aos 23 anos, em quem as provas sorológicas para doença de Chagas resultaram negativas. Decorridos 30 anos após o atendimento inicial, continuava com eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma e/ou exame radiológico do coração normais. Abstract in english The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III) megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique). The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infectio [...] n was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

Anis, Rassi; Joffre Marcondes de, Rezende; Anis, Rassi Junior.

2012-04-01

149

Advanced megaesophagus (Group III) secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant / Lactente de um ano e oito meses de idade com megaesôfago (Grupo III) por doença de Chagas adquirida vetorialmente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam um caso de lactente com megaesôfago do Grupo III por doença de Chagas vetorialmente adquirida, responsável por acentuada desnutrição, da qual se recuperou com a cirurgia de Heller. Submetida em seguida a tratamento da infecção chagásica com benzonidazol, logrou cura, parasito e so [...] rologicamente demonstrada. Seguiram-se anos sem qualquer incidente, com desenvolvimento pondo-estatural normal. Teve seu primeiro filho aos 23 anos, em quem as provas sorológicas para doença de Chagas resultaram negativas. Decorridos 30 anos após o atendimento inicial, continuava com eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma e/ou exame radiológico do coração normais. Abstract in english The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III) megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique). The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infectio [...] n was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

Anis, Rassi; Joffre Marcondes de, Rezende; Anis, Rassi Junior.

150

Advanced megaesophagus (Group III secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant Lactente de um ano e oito meses de idade com megaesôfago (Grupo III por doença de Chagas adquirida vetorialmente  

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Full Text Available The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique. The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.Os autores relatam um caso de lactente com megaesôfago do Grupo III por doença de Chagas vetorialmente adquirida, responsável por acentuada desnutrição, da qual se recuperou com a cirurgia de Heller. Submetida em seguida a tratamento da infecção chagásica com benzonidazol, logrou cura, parasito e sorologicamente demonstrada. Seguiram-se anos sem qualquer incidente, com desenvolvimento pondo-estatural normal. Teve seu primeiro filho aos 23 anos, em quem as provas sorológicas para doença de Chagas resultaram negativas. Decorridos 30 anos após o atendimento inicial, continuava com eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma e/ou exame radiológico do coração normais.

Anis Rassi

2012-04-01

151

Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review  

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Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

Sameera Karnik

2013-05-01

152

Evolving specialization of the arthropod nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diverse array of body plans possessed by arthropods is created by generating variations upon a design of repeated segments formed during development, using a relatively small "toolbox" of conserved patterning genes. These attributes make the arthropod body plan a valuable model for elucidating how changes in development create diversity of form. As increasingly specialized segments and appendages evolved in arthropods, the nervous systems of these animals also evolved to control the function of these structures. Although there is a remarkable degree of conservation in neural development both between individual segments in any given species and between the nervous systems of different arthropod groups, the differences that do exist are informative for inferring general principles about the holistic evolution of body plans. This review describes developmental processes controlling neural segmentation and regionalization, highlighting segmentation mechanisms that create both ectodermal and neural segments, as well as recent studies of the role of Hox genes in generating regional specification within the central nervous system. We argue that this system generates a modular design that allows the nervous system to evolve in concert with the body segments and their associated appendages. This information will be useful in future studies of macroevolutionary changes in arthropod body plans, especially in understanding how these transformations can be made in a way that retains the function of appendages during evolutionary transitions in morphology. PMID:22723369

Jarvis, Erin; Bruce, Heather S; Patel, Nipam H

2012-06-26

153

Reevaluating the arthropod tree of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropods are the most diverse group of animals and have been so since the Cambrian radiation. They belong to the protostome clade Ecdysozoa, with Onychophora (velvet worms) as their most likely sister group and tardigrades (water bears) the next closest relative. The arthropod tree of life can be interpreted as a five-taxon network, containing Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Hexapoda, the last two forming the clade Tetraconata or Pancrustacea. The unrooted relationship of Tetraconata to the three other lineages is well established, but of three possible rooting positions the Mandibulata hypothesis receives the most support. Novel approaches to studying anatomy with noninvasive three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, the application of these techniques to new and old fossils, and the so-called next-generation sequencing techniques are at the forefront of understanding arthropod relationships. Cambrian fossils assigned to the arthropod stem group inform on the origin of arthropod characters from a lobopodian ancestry. Monophyly of Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Tetraconata, and Hexapoda is well supported, but the interrelationships of arachnid orders and the details of crustacean paraphyly with respect to Hexapoda remain the major unsolved phylogenetic problems. PMID:21910637

Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D

2012-01-01

154

[Protozoons and arthropods found in eyes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Protozoons and arthropods can be observed commonly all around the world including our country. These parasites can cause different kind of disorders in human and animals. Some of these can cause eye disorders. The aim of this review was to present information about how the protozoons such as Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp., Giardia spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Plasmodium spp., the arthropods insects of myiasis, Phthirus pubis, ticks, Demodex folliculorum and Linguatula serrata (under discussion as to which order it beongs) invade the eye of host leading to clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20597061

Gökpinar, Sami; Aydenzöz, Meral

2010-01-01

155

Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil / Estudo da coinfecção por patógenos transmitidos por vetores em cães e carrapatos no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cães que apresentam diversas doenças transmitidas por vetores podem mostrar nenhum ou alguns sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Dependendo da fase da infecção, a confirmação dos agentes envolvidos é necessária. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Ana [...] plasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. e Leishmania spp. em amostras de sangue e carrapatos, coletados em dois cães do Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos, quando foram usadas técnicas moleculares. DNA de E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum foram detectados em amostras de sangue e carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados dos cães. Entre todas as amostras analisadas, duas mostraram a presença de infecções múltiplas por E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum chagasi. Destaca-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico molecular diferencial em cães com sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Abstract in english Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hep [...] atozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

Luiz Ricardo, Gonçalves; Kilder Dantas, Filgueira; Silvia Maria Mendes, Ahid; Josivânia Soares, Pereira; André Mendes do, Vale; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado; Marcos Rogério, André.

156

Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil / Estudo da coinfecção por patógenos transmitidos por vetores em cães e carrapatos no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cães que apresentam diversas doenças transmitidas por vetores podem mostrar nenhum ou alguns sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Dependendo da fase da infecção, a confirmação dos agentes envolvidos é necessária. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Ana [...] plasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. e Leishmania spp. em amostras de sangue e carrapatos, coletados em dois cães do Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos, quando foram usadas técnicas moleculares. DNA de E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum foram detectados em amostras de sangue e carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados dos cães. Entre todas as amostras analisadas, duas mostraram a presença de infecções múltiplas por E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum chagasi. Destaca-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico molecular diferencial em cães com sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Abstract in english Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hep [...] atozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

Luiz Ricardo, Gonçalves; Kilder Dantas, Filgueira; Silvia Maria Mendes, Ahid; Josivânia Soares, Pereira; André Mendes do, Vale; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado; Marcos Rogério, André.

2014-09-01

157

Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas  

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Full Text Available Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4. The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected host and then feeds on a person who is uninfected. There is no vaccine or cure for dengue fever. Dengue fever is a growing cause for concern in The Bahamas. This year the incidence of dengue fever reached epidemic proportions in The Bahamas. This article will explore the etiology and epidemiology of dengue fever, and offer some insight into how future the Bahamas can begin to develop strategies for the eradication of dengue fever.

Bain, Sherrie Valarie

2011-10-01

158

Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases. PMID:24624953

Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

2014-10-01

159

Climate change and infectious diseases of wildlife: Altered interactions between pathogens, vectors and hosts  

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Full Text Available Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host, pathogens, and, in the case of vector-borne diseases, also vectors. The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions. Environmental change, therefore, will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and, consequently, the distribution, intensity, and dynamics of infectious diseases. Here, we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution, life cycle, and physiological status of hosts, pathogens and vectors. While a change in either host, pathogen or vector does not necessarily translate into an alteration of the disease, it is the impact of climate change on the interactions between the disease components which is particularly critical for altered disease risks. Finally, climate factors can modulate disease through modifying the ecological networks host-pathogen-vector systems are belonging to, and climate change can combine with other environmental stressors to induce cumulative effects on infectious diseases. Overall, the influence of climate change on infectious diseases involves different mechanisms, it can be modulated by phenotypic acclimation and/or genotypic adaptation, it depends on the ecological context of the host-pathogen-vector interactions, and it can be modulated by impacts of other stressors. As a consequence of this complexity, non-linear responses of disease systems under climate change are to be expected. To improve predictions on climate change impacts on infectious disease, we suggest that more emphasis should be given to the integration of biomedical and ecological research for studying both the physiological and ecological mechanisms which mediate climate change impacts on disease, and to the development of harmonized methods and approaches to obtain more comparable results, as this would support the discrimination of case-specific versus general mechanisms [Current Zoology 59 (3: 427–437, 2013].

Milena GALLANA, Marie-Pierre RYSER-DEGIORGIS, Thomas WAHLI, Helmut SEGNER

2013-06-01

160

Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey / Distribución espacial de agentes patógenos transmitidos por vectores en perros en la región del Egeo, Turquía  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar la distribución espacial de la seroprevalencia de la infección de 4 agentes patógenos de transmisión por vectores Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi y Dirofilaria immitis, en los estados costeros de la región del Egeo con especial referencia a los sign [...] os clínicos y las variaciones hematológicas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron por conveniencia muestras de sangre de al menos 10 perros en las ciudades Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla y Manisa. Para la evaluación de las muestras se utilizó un kit de ELISA para la detencción de anticuerpos de las enfermedades del estudio. Resultados. De los 307 perros muestreados, la seroprevalencia más alta fue para E. canis (24.42%), seguido por la coinfección entre E. canis + A. phagocytophilum (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) y D. immitis (2.28%). Sólo 2 casos fueron seropositivos para B. burgdorferi aunque 10 perros fueron coinfectados con más de 2 agentes. En ambos perros infectados con E. canis y coinfectados con E. canis y A. phagocytophilum, se detectó comúnmente anemia, trombocitopenia y leucocitosis, mientras que la trombocitopenia y leucocitosis fueron significativos en perros infectados con A. phagocytophilum o D. immitis , respectivamente. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas para los promedios de RBC, hemoglobina, hematocrito y valores PLT (p Abstract in english Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and [...] haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%), followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) and D. immitis (2.28%). Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p

Kerem, Ural; Mehmet, Gultekin; Abidin, Atasoy; Bulent, Ulutas.

 
 
 
 
161

Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey / Distribución espacial de agentes patógenos transmitidos por vectores en perros en la región del Egeo, Turquía  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar la distribución espacial de la seroprevalencia de la infección de 4 agentes patógenos de transmisión por vectores Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi y Dirofilaria immitis, en los estados costeros de la región del Egeo con especial referencia a los sign [...] os clínicos y las variaciones hematológicas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron por conveniencia muestras de sangre de al menos 10 perros en las ciudades Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla y Manisa. Para la evaluación de las muestras se utilizó un kit de ELISA para la detencción de anticuerpos de las enfermedades del estudio. Resultados. De los 307 perros muestreados, la seroprevalencia más alta fue para E. canis (24.42%), seguido por la coinfección entre E. canis + A. phagocytophilum (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) y D. immitis (2.28%). Sólo 2 casos fueron seropositivos para B. burgdorferi aunque 10 perros fueron coinfectados con más de 2 agentes. En ambos perros infectados con E. canis y coinfectados con E. canis y A. phagocytophilum, se detectó comúnmente anemia, trombocitopenia y leucocitosis, mientras que la trombocitopenia y leucocitosis fueron significativos en perros infectados con A. phagocytophilum o D. immitis , respectivamente. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas para los promedios de RBC, hemoglobina, hematocrito y valores PLT (p Abstract in english Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and [...] haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%), followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) and D. immitis (2.28%). Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p

Kerem, Ural; Mehmet, Gultekin; Abidin, Atasoy; Bulent, Ulutas.

2014-05-01

162

Role of Arthropods in Maintaining Soil Fertility  

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Full Text Available In terms of species richness, arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the soil. Within the litter/soil system, five groups are chiefly represented: Isopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Acari, and Collembola, the latter two being by far the most abundant and diverse. Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers or ecosystem engineers. Litter transformers fragment, or comminute, and humidify ingested plant debris, which is deposited in feces for further decomposition by micro-organisms, and foster the growth and dispersal of microbial populations. Large quantities of annual litter input may be processed (e.g., up to 60% by termites. The comminuted plant matter in feces presents an increased surface area to attack by micro-organisms, which, through the process of mineralization, convert its organic nutrients into simpler, inorganic compounds available to plants. Ecosystem engineers alter soil structure, mineral and organic matter composition, and hydrology. The burrowing by arthropods, particularly the subterranean network of tunnels and galleries that comprise termite and ant nests, improves soil porosity to provide adequate aeration and water-holding capacity below ground, facilitate root penetration, and prevent surface crusting and erosion of topsoil. Also, the movement of particles from lower horizons to the surface by ants and termites aids in mixing the organic and mineral fractions of the soil. The feces of arthropods are the basis for the formation of soil aggregates and humus, which physically stabilize the soil and increase its capacity to store nutrients.

Thomas W. Culliney

2013-09-01

163

Physical conditions affecting pyrethroid toxicity in arthropods.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this thesis was to obtain mechanistic information about how the toxicity of pesticides in the field is affected by physical factors, pesticide bioavailability and arthropod behaviour. The pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and linyphiid spiders were selected as pesticide-effect model. In Part I of this thesis the relationships between the toxic action of deltamethrin, physical factors and spider behaviour were studied in field experiments, and attention was focused on the contribu...

Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

1993-01-01

164

Arthropod community organization and development in pear  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

1991-01-01

165

Arthropod-borne bacterial diseases in pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod-borne bacterial diseases affect more than 25,000 Americans every year and thousands more around the world. These infections present a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians because they mimic many other pathologic conditions and are often low on or absent from the differential diagnosis list. Diagnosis is particularly challenging during pregnancy, as these infections may mimic common pregnancy-specific conditions, such as typical and atypical preeclampsia, or symptoms of pregnancy itself. Concerns regarding the safety in pregnancy of some indicated antibiotics add a therapeutic challenge for the prescriber, requiring knowledge of alternative therapeutic options for many arthropod-borne bacterial diseases. Physicians, especially those in endemic areas, must keep this class of infections in mind, particularly when the presentation does not appear classic for more commonly seen conditions. This article discusses presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the most common of these arthropod-borne bacterial diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tick-borne relapsing fever, typhus, plague, cat-scratch disease, and Carrión disease. PMID:25102120

Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Kuller, Jeffrey; Heine, R Phillips

2013-09-01

166

Research ethics. Managing risks of arthropod vector research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field research with vectors is an essential aspect of vector biology research and vector-borne disease prevention and control. This type of research, which brings experimental vector manipulations into endemic areas, can present risks to human populations. This paper seeks to stimulate a full discussion within the medical entomology community of the risks associated with vector field research. Such discussions will promote development of a consensus, among investigators, sponsoring agencies and the communities within which the work is done, so that appropriate steps can be taken to minimize and manage the risks, and adequate oversight can be maintained. PMID:10917830

Aultman, K S; Walker, E D; Gifford, F; Severson, D W; Beard, C B; Scott, T W

2000-06-30

167

Infectious diseases seen in a primary care clinic in Leogane, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

All diseases diagnosed in a primary healthcare clinic situated in Leogane, Haiti, were recorded prospectively during a 7-month period. Among the patients in this cohort, 2,821 of 6,631 (42.6%) presented with an infectious disease. The three most common syndromes among the patients presenting with infections were respiratory tract infections (33.5%), suspected sexually transmitted diseases--mostly among females with recurrent disease (18.1%)--and skin and soft tissue infections, including multiple cases of tinea capitis (12.8%). Of the 255 patients presenting with undifferentiated fever, 76 (29.8%) were diagnosed with falciparum malaria. Other vector-borne diseases included 13 cases of filariasis and 6 cases of dengue fever. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was diagnosed in 19 patients. Four cases of mumps were detected among unimmunized children. A large proportion of these infections are preventable. Concerted efforts should be made to create large-scale preventive medicine programs for various infectious diseases. PMID:22232443

Neuberger, Ami; Tenenboim, Shiri; Golos, Miri; Pex, Racheli; Krakowsky, Yonah; Urman, Marnina; Vernet, Spencer; Schwartz, Eli

2012-01-01

168

Ecophysiology of Desert Arthropods and Reptiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second book of a Springer series on the adaptations of desert organisms (the first was R.T. Wilson's Ecophysiology of the Camelidal! and Desert Ruminants in 1989. It is entirely appropriate to deal with arthropods and reptiles together: both are in a sense pre-adapted to desert living because they possess relatively waterproof integuments, excrete insoluble nitrogenous waste, are ectotherms with low metabolic rates, and are small enough to escape from enviromnental extremes. Both groups are highly successful in deserts throughout the world, and desert lizards in particular have had a major influence on the discipline of ecophysiology.

Sue Nicolson

2012-01-01

169

Mosquito Cellular Factors and Functions in Mediating the Infectious entry of Chikungunya Virus  

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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus responsible for recent epidemics in the Asia Pacific regions. A customized gene expression microarray of 18,760 transcripts known to target Aedes mosquito genome was used to identify host genes that are differentially regulated during the infectious entry process of CHIKV infection on C6/36 mosquito cells. Several genes such as epsin I (EPN1), epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15 (EPS15) and Huntingtin interacting protein ...

Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Hussain, Khairunnisa Mohamed; Chen, Huixin; Low, Swee Ling; Ng, Lee Ching; Lin, Raymond; Ng, Mary Mah-lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2013-01-01

170

What Are the Connections Between Plants and Arthropods?  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit gives students insight into how various living things, inanimate objects, and environmental factors are related. It is designed to be completed in four to seven sessions. The unit investigates the following two questions. What kinds of relationships exist among plants, arthropods, and abiotic factors? Can the presence of a plant species predict the presence of an arthropod species, and visa versa?

171

Differential spatial distribution of arthropods under epiphytic lichens on trees  

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Full Text Available Epiphytic lichen thalli on trees may protect arthropods - herbivores or their natural enemies. Although the relationships between lichens on the forest floor to arthropods have been widely studied in boreal regions, those between epiphytic lichens and the arboreal arthropod fauna in temperate and Mediterranean climates are poorly investigated. In particular it is unknown if the animals use lichens differently located on different part of the trees. Our results indicate that numerous arthropods, herbivores and predators, may live in epiphytic lichen cover, and that more of them are found on the trunk than on old or young branches: an average of 2000 individuals were found under each meter square of the thallus covering the trunk of 20 trees, but fewer on branches. In particular more insects from more Orders were detected on trunks than on branches. We propose that this issue should be investigated further to clarify the exact status of epiphytic lichens in arthropod biodiversity conservation.

Jean-Jacques Itzhak Martinez

2014-08-01

172

Infectious abortions in swine  

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Full Text Available Abortions in pigs can be caused by infectious or non-infectious factors About 38% of all diagnosed abortions in pigs were caused by infectious agents. Consequences of infection can be early embryonal deaths or abortions which occur after the 40th day following conception. Causes of abortions include different species of viruses (parvoviruses, enteroviruses pseudorabies viruses, PRRS or bacteria (Brucella, Leptospira, and others. A precise diagnosis is imperative for therapy and prevention of abortions in pigs, and it is necessary to apply measures to prevent reproductive disorders in pigs.

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2003-01-01

173

A comparison of concentration methods applied to non-infectious flavivirus recombinant antigens for use in diagnostic serological assays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the introduction of West Nile virus into the United States in 1999, there has been a greater awareness of arboviruses, consequently, diagnostic testing for West Nile virus and other arboviruses has increased both in U.S. and international public health laboratories. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases/Arbovirus Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory produces and provides the serodiagnostic reagents which are not available commercially. Reagents needed to conduct the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) include a virus-specific non-infectious antigen. Antigens for Japanese encephalitis and the four dengue virus serotypes have been developed from COS-1 transformed cells that secrete non-infectious, virus-like particles into the cell culture supernatant. Four methods for concentrating the supernatant are discussed here. The methods are ultracentrifugation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, and two ultrafiltration methods: the Stirred Cell (Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA) and the Pellicon 2 (Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA). Ultracentrifugation and the Pellicon 2 ultrafiltration system produced antigen at a sufficient concentration for use in the ELISA. Large volumes were concentrated in a shorter time in the Pellicon 2 ultrafiltration system. An additional filtration step was necessary to produce antigen of sufficient concentration for use in the microsphere-based immunoassay, which requires antigen concentrated an additional 10 times. PMID:17570536

Russell, Brandy J; Velez, Jason O; Laven, Janeen J; Johnson, Alison J; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Johnson, Barbara W

2007-10-01

174

A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted as stem chelicerates, or stem euarthropods, but when Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus are added to the most comprehensive morphological database available, a stem euarthropod position is supported. Enalikter represents the only fully three-dimensionally preserved stem-group euarthropod, it falls in the sister clade to the crown-group euarthropods, and it provides new insights surrounding the origin and early evolution of the euarthropods. Recognition of Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus as megacheirans indicates that this major arthropod group survived for nearly 100 Myr beyond the mid-Cambrian. PMID:24452026

Siveter, Derek J; Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, David J; Sutton, Mark D; Legg, David; Joomun, Sarah

2014-03-01

175

Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each. PMID:20733292

Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

2010-01-01

176

Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

177

Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene sil be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

178

The immune role of the arthropod exoskeleton  

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Full Text Available The exoskeleton or cuticle of arthropods is an important feature that contributes to their great success in colonising numerous habitats on earth. It has numerous functions among which to provide protection against parasites. Whereas often regarded as a simple physical barrier to the outside world, the immune protection of the cuticle is slightly more complex than that. Here, we provide an overview of the cuticle defensive traits against parasites and examine their variation as a response to parasitism. It appears that the cuticle is an efficient line of defense, which includes physical, biochemical and physiological defensive components that are potentially subject to genetic and plastic variation in response to parasitism. It also appears that the cuticle defense systems are relatively understudied despite it may determine for large part the success of parasitic attacks.

J Moreau

2012-11-01

179

Ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs) from endocrine Inka cells initiate the ecdysis sequence through action on central neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHR) in model moth and dipteran species. We used various biochemical, molecular and BLAST search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology searches, we identified ETHs in a variety of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Most insects produce two related ETHs, but only a single active peptide was isolated from the cricket and one peptide is encoded by the eth gene of the honeybee, parasitic wasp and aphid. Immunohistochemical staining with antiserum to Manduca PETH revealed Inka cells on tracheal surface of diverse insects. In spite of conserved ETH sequences, comparison of natural and the ETH-induced ecdysis sequence in the honeybee and beetle revealed considerable species-specific differences in pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. DNA sequences coding for putative ETHR were deduced from available genomes of several hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. In all insects examined, the ethr gene encodes two subtypes of the receptor (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these receptors fall into a family of closely related GPCRs. We report for the first time the presence of putative ETHs and ETHRs in genomes of other arthropods, including the tick (Arachnida) and water flea (Crustacea). The possible source of ETH in ticks was detected in paired cells located in all pedal segments. Our results provide further evidence of structural and functional conservation of ETH-ETHR signaling. PMID:19951734

Roller, Ladislav; Zitnanová, Inka; Dai, Li; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong; Satake, Honoo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Adams, Michael E; Zitnan, Dusan

2010-03-01

180

Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 522-528

Javed Jameel

 
 
 
 
181

Emergent infectious uveitis  

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Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

Khairallah Moncef

2009-01-01

182

Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. PMID:24155227

Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

2014-05-01

183

Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

Trape, J.F

2005-04-15

184

Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestatio [...] n and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects), and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.

Heraldo L., Vasconcelos; Emilio M., Bruna.

2012-12-01

185

Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can be used to understand fundamental processes in the biology and ecology of arthropods, which range from nutrition and resource allocation to dispersal, food-web structure, predation, etc. It is concl...

Hood-nowotny, R. C.; Knols, B. G. J.

2007-01-01

186

Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP, located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects, and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.

Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

2012-12-01

187

Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestatio [...] n and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects), and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.

Heraldo L., Vasconcelos; Emilio M., Bruna.

188

Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods  

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The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods.

PaoloPelosi

2014-08-01

189

Management effect on bird and arthropod interaction in suburban woodlands  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiments from a range of ecosystems have shown that insectivorous birds are important in controlling the populations of their invertebrate prey. Here, we report on a large field experiment testing the hypothesis that management for enhancing recreational values in suburban woodlands affects the intensity of bird predation on canopy-living arthropods. Bird exclosures were used in two types of management (understory clearance and dense understory at two foraging heights in oak Quercus robur canopies and the experiment was replicated at two sites. Results The biomass and abundance of arthropods were high on net-enclosed branches but strongly reduced on control branches in both types of management. In woods with dense understory, the effect of bird predation on arthropod abundance was about twice as high as in woods with understory clearance. The effect of bird predation on arthropod biomass was not significantly affected by management. Conclusions Our data provide experimental evidence to support the idea that bird predation on arthropods can be affected by forest management. We suggest that the mechanism is twofold: reduction of bird abundance and shift of foraging behaviour. In urban woodlands, there may be a management trade-off between enhancing recreational values and promoting bird predation rates on arthropods.

Gunnarsson Bengt

2011-03-01

190

Arthropod diversity in peas with normal or reduced waxy bloom  

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Full Text Available Crop traits can alter economically important interactions between plants, pests, and biological control agents. For example, a reduced waxy bloom on the surface of pea plants alters interactions between pea aphids and their natural enemies. In this study, we assess whether the effect of wax reduction extends beyond the 2 or 3 arthropod species closely associated with the plants and into the structure of the broader arthropod community of over 200 taxa at our site. We sampled arthropods on lines of peas with normal and reduced wax in Latah Co., Idaho using pitfall traps within randomly assigned pairs of 5 × 5 meter plots. During the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons, we collected 12,113 individual arthropods from 221 unambiguously identified morphospecies. The number of individuals collected from each morphospecies responded idiosyncratically to the reduced wax peas. To test whether arthropod community structure differed between the collections from plots having peas with normal or reduced wax, we performed a randomization test. The collection from peas with reduced wax had higher species evenness and thus higher community diversity despite having lower species richness. Our results demonstrate the potential of a single plant trait, epicuticular wax, to affect a community of arthropods. Two pests of peas had opposite responses to peas with reduced wax. The number of pea aphids collected was greater from peas with normal wax peas than those with reduced wax. In contrast, the number of pea leaf weevils collected was greater from peas with reduced wax.

Gary C. Chang

2004-05-01

191

Selected infectious disease disasters for nursing staff training at Egyptian Eastern Border.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious disease disasters are events that involve a biological agent, disease and that result in mass casualties, such as a bioterrorism attack, an emerging outbreak of infectious disease; all disasters pose a risk of infection transmission. But, infectious disease disasters pose the great-risk to illness or death from an infectious disease. This study raised the awareness and improved knowledge by educational program for Military Nursing Staff on selected infectious disease disasters acquired at Egyptian Eastern Border. The selected arthropod-borne diseases were Anthrax, Tick borne relapsing, Louse borne replasing fever and liver fluke; Clonorchis sinensis. An interventional study was used, for 125 staff nurse who accepted to participate. The tools dealt with four questionnaires: (1) Some sociodemographic characteristics data (2) Educational needs assessment a structured questionnaire. (3) Knowledge test (pre/post-test) and (4) Participants' reactions questionnaire. The results showed that educational intervention significantly improvements the nursing staff knowledge, which were achieved at the immediate post intervention phase, and retained via three months post-test phase. In the service training programs about infectious disease disasters at Egyptian Eastern Border must be established and continued on regular basis. This would improve their knowledge about the epidemiology of these infectious disease disasters. PMID:24961011

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Labib, Nargis Albert; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Ibrahim, Abeer Mohammad Abdallah; Morsy, Tosson A

2014-04-01

192

Sarotrocercus oblitus - Small arthropod with great impact on the understanding of arthropod evolution?  

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Full Text Available Sarotrocercus oblitus is a small arthropod from the Cambrian Burgess Shale. It was originally described with a short head with only two appendage-bearing segments (the first appendage being limb-shaped, a short trunk of nine segments and lamellate trunk limbs. This rather “unusual” morphology inspired various authors to propose evolutionary scenarios concerning segmentation and appendages. The head of S. oblitus served also for scenarios about the evolution of the arthropod head, because it seemed to document the evolutionary step between the level of Arthropoda sensu stricto (head with one appendage-bearing segment and that of Euarthropoda (head comprising four appendage-bearing segments. Here we report that the morphology of S. oblitus differs in several significant aspects from its original description, e.g., in the composition of the head, number of trunk segments, and appendage morphology. In consequence, many earlier assumptions based on the original description must be rejected. Although the material consists of only seven individuals, ontogenetic variation of the number of trunk segments was observed, pointing to, at least, two developmental stages. Therefore, S. oblitus is morphologically less different from other Cambrian arthropods than previously thought, but possesses a head with three appendage-bearing segments and lacks a prominent antenn(ula. These characters point to a position of S. oblitus inside Arthropoda s. str., deriving from the lineage towards Euarthropoda. The morphology also indicates a special life style, e.g., by the presence of large, stalked eyes, apparently in convergence to one of the Cambrian “Orsten” crustacean stem-lineage derivatives, Henningsmoenicaris scutula.

Waloszek D

2011-11-01

193

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, ar [...] e not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Márcia Aparecida, Sperança; Margareth Lara, Capurro.

2007-06-01

194

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Márcia Aparecida Sperança

2007-06-01

195

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission. PMID:17612761

Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Capurro, Margareth Lara

2007-06-01

196

What does not kill them makes them stronger: larval environment and infectious dose alter mosquito potential to transmit filarial worms.  

Science.gov (United States)

For organisms with complex life cycles, larval environments can modify adult phenotypes. For mosquitoes and other vectors, when physiological impacts of stressors acting on larvae carry over into the adult stage they may interact with infectious dose of a vector-borne pathogen, producing a range of phenotypes for vector potential. Investigation of impacts of a common source of stress, larval crowding and intraspecific competition, on adult vector interactions with pathogens may increase our understanding of the dynamics of pathogen transmission by mosquito vectors. Using Aedes aegypti and the nematode parasite Brugia pahangi, we demonstrate dose dependency of fitness effects of B. pahangi infection on the mosquito, as well as interactions between competitive stress among larvae and infectious dose for resulting adults that affect the physiological and functional ability of mosquitoes to act as vectors. Contrary to results from studies on mosquito-arbovirus interactions, our results suggest that adults from crowded larvae may limit infection better than do adults from uncrowded controls, and that mosquitoes from high-quality larval environments are more physiologically and functionally capable vectors of B. pahangi. Our results provide another example of how the larval environment can have profound effects on vector potential of resulting adults. PMID:24827444

Breaux, Jennifer A; Schumacher, Molly K; Juliano, Steven A

2014-07-01

197

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

...workers have occupational exposure even though they don't...standard to limit occupational exposure to infectious diseases...and written standard operating procedures (SOPs) to minimize or prevent exposure to infectious...

2011-07-05

198

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... visits to office-based physicians for infectious and parasitic diseases: 23.6 million Source: National Ambulatory Medical Care ... of hospital outpatient department visits for infectious and parasitic diseases: 3.2 million Source: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical ...

199

Arthropod community structure on strip-mined lands in Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1978-79, biomass, density, diversity, and taxonomic composition of above-ground, non-acarine arthropods were studied on newly reclaimed areas planted to grass-legumes (1-4 years after reclamation), older mined lands planted to crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) and unmined old field habitat in Harrison County, Ohio. The reclaimed areas were rapidly colonized and productive. In the herbaceous layer, newly reclaimed areas had highest annual arthropod densities (1062.5 individuals/m/sup 2/) and biomass (553.6 mg/m/sup 2/). Larvae of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal) were major contributors to arthropod density in the herbaceous layer during spring 1978, accounting for 47.4% and 18.8% of individuals on the areas examined 1 and 3 years after reclamation, respectively. During September, grasshoppers (Acrididae) accounted for up to 70% of arthropod biomass in the herbaceous layer on newly reclaimed areas. A significant decline in arthropod biomass from 1 to 2 years after reclamation was due to a large decrease in weevil and spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L.) populations, associated with a decline in yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). The crown vetch area supported low numbers and biomass of arthropods in the herbaceous layer but moderate to high numbers and biomass in the litter layer. Nematoceran larvae (Cecidomyiidae, Chironomidae) were abundant during May on the area examined 2 years after reclamation and comprised 73.5% of litter arthropod individuals. The unmined old field was generally richer (48.0% more morphotypes, 32.2% more families per sampling period) than the mined sites. On newly reclaimed areas richness in the herbaceous layer was positively related to biomass of clovers.

Urbanek, R.P.

1982-01-01

200

Infectious diseases epidemiology  

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In this glossary the authors have reviewed old and new terms contemporarily used in the infectious disease epidemiology. Many of these concepts were established throughout the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century (classic terms), however, the meanings of old terms have been revised and new terms are continually being added. This glossary has therefore reviewed the classic and the more recently established terminology defining the most relevant terms contemporarily used in thi...

Barreto, Mauricio L.; Teixeira, Maria Glo?ria; Carmo, Eduardo Hage

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Renaissance of infectious diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, infectious diseases are one of the eight most common causes of illness since 1990. Due to breaking down barriers of interspecies, the state of immunosuppression, widespread use of antibiotics, there are still new threats, and earlier known to cause disease of a different course, resistant to previously effective therapies. The evolution of infectious diseases directs our attention primarily on the validity of the principles of rational antibiotic use to the increasing resistance of microorganisms. The movements of the opponents of vaccination appear to be more effective than the planned education of doctors and their patients, and the absence of sufficient administrative control performance of vaccination, raises a serious problem in contemporary clinical researcher. Infectious diseases will continue to exist as long as host organisms. It is important to the fight against them, making the best use of expertise and funds. In such a situation, the balance may move to benefit us--humans. PMID:21675130

G?adysz, Andrzej; Fleischer-Stepniewska, Katarzyna

2011-05-01

202

Chronic infectious mononucleosis  

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Full Text Available Introduction Chronic infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity recognized 15 years ago with clearly defined serological criteria: high titres of IgG Epstein-Barr virus (EBV virus capsid antigen (VCA, IgG EBV early antigen without IgG Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA antibodies. Material and methods This follow-up study lasted for 2 years and included 100 acute infectious mononucleosis patients who were investigated every 6 months. Apart from physical examination we evaluated history, complete blood count and liver function together with 5 commercial ELISA tests: IgM EBV VCA, IgG EBV VCA, IgG EB NA, IgG EBV EA and IgA EBV EA. Results Although malaise and fatigue with cervical lymphadenopathy were the most frequent symptoms, their statistical significance was not established. All laboratory analyses were completely normal during the follow-up period, but there were four patients with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses. After 6 months of acute illness, two patients without IgG EB NA antibodies who were candidates for chronic disease, presented no other serological findings for chronic disease. It was confirmed that they had delayed serological response due to EBV infection, because one year later they had a completely normal immune status on EBV infection. Conclusion Chronic infectious mononucleosis seems to be an extraordinary event after acute disease. This conclusion corresponds with literature reports of sporadic cases of this disease.

Brki? Snežana V.

2003-01-01

203

Arthropod abundance and diversity in transgenic bt soybean.  

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Before the commercialization of any insect-resistant genetically modified crop, it must be subjected to a rigorous premarket risk assessment. Here, possible effects of growing of transgenic Cry1Ac soybean on arthropod communities under field conditions were assessed for 2 yr and quantified in terms of arthropod community indices including the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, richness index, and dominance index. Our results showed no significant differences of diversity, richness, or dominant indices for Bt soybean compared with the recipient cultivar, conventional soybean, or sprayed conventional soybean. Conventional soybean treatment with insecticide had an adverse effect on the arthropod community after spraying, but arthropod community diversity recovered quickly. Bt soybean had no negative effect on the dominant distribution of subcommunities, including sucking pests, other pests, predators, parasitoids, and others except for lepidopteran pests. The dominance distribution of lepidopteran pests decreased significantly in Bt soybean because of the significant decrease in the numbers of Spodoptera litura (F.) and Ascotis selenaria Schiffermüller et Denis compared with the recipient cultivar. Our results showed that there were no negative effects of Cry1Ac soybean on the arthropod community in soybean field plots in the short term. PMID:24915416

Yu, Huilin; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

2014-08-01

204

Skimming the surface with Burgess Shale arthropod locomotion.  

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The first arthropod trackways are described from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Formation of Canada. Trace fossils, including trackways, provide a rich source of biological and ecological information, including direct evidence of behaviour not commonly available from body fossils alone. The discovery of large arthropod trackways is unique for Burgess Shale-type deposits. Trackway dimensions and the requisite number of limbs are matched with the body plan of a tegopeltid arthropod. Tegopelte, one of the rarest Burgess Shale animals, is over twice the size of all other benthic arthropods known from this locality, and only its sister taxon, Saperion, from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, approaches a similar size. Biomechanical trackway analysis demonstrates that tegopeltids were capable of rapidly skimming across the seafloor and, in conjunction with the identification of gut diverticulae in Tegopelte, supports previous hypotheses on the locomotory capabilities and carnivorous mode of life of such arthropods. The trackways occur in the oldest part (Kicking Horse Shale Member) of the Burgess Shale Formation, which is also known for its scarce assemblage of soft-bodied organisms, and indicate at least intermittent oxygenated bottom waters and low sedimentation rates. PMID:22072605

Minter, Nicholas J; Mángano, M Gabriela; Caron, Jean-Bernard

2012-04-22

205

Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

2012-11-01

206

Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Many plants are simultaneously attacked by arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens. These may affect each other directly and indirectly, enhancing or reducing the amount of plant resources they each consume. Ultimately, this may reduce or enhance plant performance relative to what should be expected from the added impacts of herbivore and pathogen when they attack alone. 2. Previous studies have suggested synergistic and antagonistic impacts on plant performance from certain combinations of arthropods and pathogens, for example, synergistic impacts from necrotrophic pathogens together with wounding arthropods because of facilitated infection and antagonistic impacts from induction of pathogen resistance by sucking herbivores. 3. We compiled published studies on the impact of plant–herbivore–pathogen interactions on plant performance and used meta-analysis to search for consistent patterns of impacts among plant, herbivore and pathogen characteristics and experimental conditions, and to test the suggested hypotheses on synergistic or antagonistic impacts. 4. None of the hypotheses based on proximate interactions between arthropods and pathogens were supported by our analysis; in contrast, the patterns we found were related to plant traits and experimental conditions. 5. Our results suggest that immediate loss of resources from interactions between arthropod herbivores and pathogens is generally moderated by compensation to an extent where there are no interactive effects on plant performance. However, as interactive impacts also differed among environments and parasite manipulation methods, this suggests that the ability of plants to compensate such losses may depend on environmental conditions and probably also overall infection load.

Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Christensen, Stina

2013-01-01

207

Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: We report a case of a patient with acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative mesangial nephropathy. Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN)secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in man could be fatal, as it is in canine Lyme borreliosis. Case: A 61-year old man with chronic ethanolic hepatitis was admitted to a provincial hospital, complaining of nausea, diarrhoea and loss of his sense of taste. A few days prior hospitalization, he had been bitten by a tick. He developed erythema gyratum repens in the right leg, thorax and face. Kidney function was altered despite normal urine flow: creatinine 5.04 mg/dl and BUN 126 mg/dl. Urinalysis showed light proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. IgG and IgM antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were detected by ELISA and Western blot confirmed the diagnosis. Renal biopsy showed mild mesangial proliferation and mesangial and paramesangial deposits on AFOG stain. A diagnosis of acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative IgA nephropathy was made. Intravenous antibiotic medication was started (ceftriaxone 1 gram daily i.v.). The patient was later discharged, serum creatinine had decreased to 3.5 mg/dl with a BUN of 58 mg/dl, and a slight improvement was observed on follow-up. Conclusion: Borrelia burgdorferi is a possible cause of post-infectious GN in humans as it is in dogs. Difficulties in identifying Borrelia burgdorferi may also be one of the reasons for the paucity of reports on the association of this infection with glomerulonephritis in humans. Currently, various types of histological renal lesions have been reported.

Rolla, Davide; Conti, Novella; Ansaldo, Francesca; Panaro, Laura; Lusenti, Tiziano

2014-01-01

208

Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless.  

Science.gov (United States)

Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasite. The living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. Body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population. Fleas are widespread but are not adapted to a specific host and may occasionally bite humans. Most common fleas that parasite humans are the cat, the rat, and the human fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, Xenopsylla cheopis, and Pulex irritans, respectively. Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae, in particular, the genera Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Ixodes, are frequent parasites in humans. Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is a mite (Arachnida class) responsible for scabies. It is an obligate parasite of human skin. The hematophagic-biting mite, Liponyssoides sanguineus, is a mite of the rat, mouse, and other domestic rodents but can also bite humans. Finally, the incidence of skin disease secondary to infestation with the human bedbug, Cimex lectularius, has increased recently. Bacteria, such as Wolbacchia spp. have been detected in bedbug. The threat posed by the ectoparasite in homeless is not the ectoparasite themselves but the associated infectious diseases that they may transmit to humans. Except for scabies all these ectoparasites are potential vectors for infectious agents. Three louse-borne diseases are known at this time. Trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana (B. quintana), epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, and relapsing fever caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis. Fleas transmit plague (Xenopsylla cheopis and Pulex irritans), murine typhus (Xenopsylla cheopis), flea-borne spotted rickettsiosis on account of the recently described species Rickettsia felis (C. felis), and occasionally cat scratch disease on account of Bartonella henselae (C. felis). The role of fleas as potential vector of B. quintana has recently been suggested. Among the hematophagic-biting mites, L. sanguineus, is responsible for the transmission of Rickettsia akari, the etiologic agent of rickettsialpox. Virtually, no data are available on tick-borne disease in this population. This article will deal with epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these ectoparasite and the infectious diseases they transmit to the homeless people. PMID:17114713

Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

2006-10-01

209

Inbreeding and the evolution of sociality in arthropods  

Science.gov (United States)

Animals have evolved strategies to optimally balance costs and benefits of inbreeding. In social species, these adaptations can have a considerable impact on the structure, the organization, and the functioning of groups. Here, we consider how selection for inbreeding avoidance fashions the social behavior of arthropods, a phylum exhibiting an unparalleled richness of social lifestyles. We first examine life histories and parental investment patterns determining whether individuals should actively avoid or prefer inbreeding. Next, we illustrate the diversity of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in arthropods, from the dispersal of individuals to the rejection of kin during mate choice and the production of unisexual broods by females. Then, we address the particular case of haplodiploid insects. Finally, we discuss how inbreeding may drive and shape the evolution of arthropods societies along two theoretical pathways.

Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Nozari, Jamasb; Lihoreau, Mathieu

2012-10-01

210

Melioidosis: An emerging infectious disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including ...

Raja N; Ahmed M; Singh N

2005-01-01

211

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps ...

212

Association of climatic factors with infectious diseases in the Arctic and subarctic region – a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The Arctic and subarctic area are likely to be highly affected by climate change, with possible impacts on human health due to effects on food security and infectious diseases. Objectives: To investigate the evidence for an association between climatic factors and infectious diseases, and to identify the most climate-sensitive diseases and vulnerable populations in the Arctic and subarctic region. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. A search was made in PubMed, with the last update in May 2013. Inclusion criteria included human cases of infectious disease as outcome, climate or weather factor as exposure, and Arctic or subarctic areas as study origin. Narrative reviews, case reports, and projection studies were excluded. Abstracts and selected full texts were read and evaluated by two independent readers. A data collection sheet and an adjusted version of the SIGN methodology checklist were used to assess the quality grade of each article. Results: In total, 1953 abstracts were initially found, of which finally 29 articles were included. Almost half of the studies were carried out in Canada (n=14, the rest from Sweden (n=6, Finland (n=4, Norway (n=2, Russia (n=2, and Alaska, US (n=1. Articles were analyzed by disease group: food- and waterborne diseases, vector-borne diseases, airborne viral- and airborne bacterial diseases. Strong evidence was found in our review for an association between climatic factors and food- and waterborne diseases. The scientific evidence for a link between climate and specific vector- and rodent-borne diseases was weak due to that only a few diseases being addressed in more than one publication, although several articles were of very high quality. Air temperature and humidity seem to be important climatic factors to investigate further for viral- and bacterial airborne diseases, but from our results no conclusion about a causal relationship could be drawn. Conclusions: More studies of high quality are needed to investigate the adverse health impacts of weather and climatic factors in the Arctic and subarctic region. No studies from Greenland or Iceland were found, and only a few from Siberia and Alaska. Disease and syndromic surveillance should be part of climate change adaptation measures in the Arctic and subarctic regions, with monitoring of extreme weather events known to pose a risk for certain infectious diseases implemented at the community level.

Christina Hedlund

2014-07-01

213

Investigation of arthropods associated with agroforestry in Machakos, Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?A survey of arthropods associated with exotic multipurpose trees and food crops used in agroforestry and indigenous tree species (Tamarindus indicus) grown in the wild was conducted in 1990 and 1991. The exotic multipurpose tree species (MPTs) used were: Gliricidia septum, Leucaena leucocephala and Cassia siamea growing in an alley cropping system and the food crops were Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, and Cajanus caj...

Opondo-mbai, Martin Luther; Speight, Martin R.; Speight, Dr Martin R.

1995-01-01

214

Successive Gain of Insulator Proteins in Arthropod Evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Alteration of regulatory DNA elements or their binding proteins may have drastic consequences for morphological evolution. Chromatin insulators are one example of such proteins and play a fundamental role in organizing gene expression. While a single insulator protein, CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor), is known in vertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster utilizes six additional factors. We studied the evolution of these proteins and show here that—in contrast to the bilaterian-wide distribution of CTCF—all other D. melanogaster insulators are restricted to arthropods. The full set is present exclusively in the genus Drosophila whereas only two insulators, Su(Hw) and CTCF, existed at the base of the arthropod clade and all additional factors have been acquired successively at later stages. Secondary loss of factors in some lineages further led to the presence of different insulator subsets in arthropods. Thus, the evolution of insulator proteins within arthropods is an ongoing and dynamic process that reshapes and supplements the ancient CTCF-based system common to bilaterians. Expansion of insulator systems may therefore be a general strategy to increase an organism’s gene regulatory repertoire and its potential for morphological plasticity. PMID:24094345

Heger, Peter; George, Rebecca; Wiehe, Thomas

2013-01-01

215

Study of Species Biodiversity of Arthropod Community in Chestnut Orchard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A systematic and atochastic investigation into species biodiversity of arthropod community in chestnut orchard is carried out in Hechuan, Chongqing in 2001-2004. 12 orders, 63 families and 136 species of arthropods are collected in the investigation, in which identified 120 special occupy 88% of tatal collected species. The species list and the composition of arthropod community are presented, and the ecological and economic significance of major species is discussed in the paper. The seasonal quantity dynamics of major classification groups in top part of chestnut orchard in 2001 are analyzed, and the Homopteran is shown to be the predominant group through the seasons. Moreover, the seasonal quantity dynamics of the quantity and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index of whole community are pest and natural enemy sub-community in top part of chestnut orchard in 2001 are analyzed as well. In brief, the investigation has established an overall framework of information for the species biodiversity of arthropod community in chestnut orchard in Chongqing, which may facilitate the understanding of chestnut orchard ecosystem and an integrated pest control of the chestnut orchard.

CHEN Bin

2009-06-01

216

Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated ?(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: ?(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes. PMID:22166153

Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

2011-12-01

217

Wetlands and infectious diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

Zimmerman Robert H.

2001-01-01

218

Dynamic Communicability Predicts Infectiousness  

Science.gov (United States)

Using real, time-dependent social interaction data, we look at correlations between some recently proposed dynamic centrality measures and summaries from large-scale epidemic simulations. The evolving network arises from email exchanges. The centrality measures, which are relatively inexpensive to compute, assign rankings to individual nodes based on their ability to broadcast information over the dynamic topology. We compare these with node rankings based on infectiousness that arise when a full stochastic SI simulation is performed over the dynamic network. More precisely, we look at the proportion of the network that a node is able to infect over a fixed time period, and the length of time that it takes for a node to infect half the network. We find that the dynamic centrality measures are an excellent, and inexpensive, proxy for the full simulation-based measures.

Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Higham, Desmond J.

219

Infectious Diseases Society of America  

Science.gov (United States)

... the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is beneficial for the 5 to 10 percent of HIV-infected patients with reduced kidney function, although tenofovir – ... Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and published in the journal ...

220

BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

 
 
 
 
221

NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

222

Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

H Hidalgo

2003-12-01

223

Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to oc [...] cur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a) chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b) latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c) fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

H, Hidalgo.

2003-12-01

224

Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods and other moulting animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arthropods constitute the most diverse animal group, but, despite their rich fossil record and a century of study, their phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Taxa previously proposed to be sister groups to the arthropods include Annelida, Onychophora, Tardigrada and others, but hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships have been conflicting. For example, onychophorans, like arthropods, moult periodically, have an arthropod arrangement of haemocoel, and have been related to arthropods in morphological and mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses. Like annelids, they possess segmental nephridia and muscles that are a combination of smooth and obliquely striated fibres. Our phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences indicates a close relationship between arthropods, nematodes and all other moulting phyla. The results suggest that ecdysis (moulting) arose once and support the idea of a new clade, Ecdysozoa, containing moulting animals: arthropods, tardigrades, onychophorans, nematodes, nematomorphs, kinorhynchs and priapulids. No support is found for a clade of segmented animals, the Articulata, uniting annelids with arthropods. The hypothesis that nematodes are related to arthropods has important implications for developmental genetic studies using as model systems the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster, which are generally held to be phylogenetically distant from each other. PMID:9168109

Aguinaldo, A M; Turbeville, J M; Linford, L S; Rivera, M C; Garey, J R; Raff, R A; Lake, J A

1997-05-29

225

Infectious Diseases in the Homeless  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâ??s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

2008-08-26

226

A phylogenomic approach to resolve the arthropod tree of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropods were the first animals to conquer land and air. They encompass more than three quarters of all described living species. This extraordinary evolutionary success is based on an astoundingly wide array of highly adaptive body organizations. A lack of robustly resolved phylogenetic relationships, however, currently impedes the reliable reconstruction of the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we show that phylogenomic data can substantially advance our understanding of arthropod evolution and resolve several conflicts among existing hypotheses. We assembled a data set of 233 taxa and 775 genes from which an optimally informative data set of 117 taxa and 129 genes was finally selected using new heuristics and compared with the unreduced data set. We included novel expressed sequence tag (EST) data for 11 species and all published phylogenomic data augmented by recently published EST data on taxonomically important arthropod taxa. This thorough sampling reduces the chance of obtaining spurious results due to stochastic effects of undersampling taxa and genes. Orthology prediction of genes, alignment masking tools, and selection of most informative genes due to a balanced taxa-gene ratio using new heuristics were established. Our optimized data set robustly resolves major arthropod relationships. We received strong support for a sister group relationship of onychophorans and euarthropods and strong support for a close association of tardigrades and cycloneuralia. Within pancrustaceans, our analyses yielded paraphyletic crustaceans and monophyletic hexapods and robustly resolved monophyletic endopterygote insects. However, our analyses also showed for few deep splits that were recently thought to be resolved, for example, the position of myriapods, a remarkable sensitivity to methods of analyses. PMID:20534705

Meusemann, Karen; von Reumont, Björn M; Simon, Sabrina; Roeding, Falko; Strauss, Sascha; Kück, Patrick; Ebersberger, Ingo; Walzl, Manfred; Pass, Günther; Breuers, Sebastian; Achter, Viktor; von Haeseler, Arndt; Burmester, Thorsten; Hadrys, Heike; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard

2010-11-01

227

About Equine Infectious Anaemia (factsheet)  

Jan 22, 2010 ... This is in accordance with the Code of Practice for Equine Infectious Anaemia, ... \\Equine Influenza, Equine Herpes Virus, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, ... Myanmar, \\Philippines, Thailand) Europe (Austria, France, Greece, Italy, ...

228

The Okinawa Infectious Diseases Initiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the Kyushu-Okinawa Group of Eight summit in 2000, Japan announced the Okinawa Infectious Diseases Initiative (IDI) and pledged to spend US$3 billion over a five year period to combat infectious and parasitic diseases in developing countries. The IDI has exceeded expectations, spending more than US$4 billion over four years. The IDI is a unique initiative with its own philosophical basis and specifically tailored interventions and measures that helped to initiate worldwide political and financial commitments in the fight against infectious diseases. Notably, it promoted partnerships among stakeholders and emphasized comprehensive and inter-sectoral approaches (i.e. coordination and collaboration between health and other sectors). It helped to create a new vision of what is possible in the global effort against communicable diseases and has been instrumental in shaping the changing environments of development assistance, poverty reduction and other trends to reduce the impact of infectious and parasitic diseases. PMID:17188573

Kunii, Osamu

2007-02-01

229

Infectious spondylitis in adults  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In adults, infectious spondylitis is a rare but sever disease, caused by a bacterial thrombus in tissue of reduced resistance. In conventional radiographs initial findings are a narrowing of the intervertebral space, local osteoporosis and poorly defined erosive borders of the vertebral endplates. These changings can be found at least three to six weeks after the onset of disease. However, in Szintigraphy and MRT pathologic alterations are evident after ten to twelve days. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment becomes possible. In early stages of the disease of localized lysis surrounded by a reactive sclerosis appears in predisposed areas of the vertebral body (subchondral, anterobasal, ventral, central). Apparently, a soft tissue tumor is associated. Sclerosis and reduction of the soft tissue tumor are the first signs of repair processes. After at least 12 weeks, computed tomography can reveal typical sintering of the vertebral body and occasionally the development of a bony sequester. In addition, MRT as well as CT can be helpful in the detection and localization of complications as abscesses or affection of the vertebral canal. The tuberculous spondylitis can sometimes cause difficulties in differential diagnosis. Clinical findings, affection of several vertebral bodies, large soft tissue tumors with appearance of calcification as well as not typical locations are strongly suggestive of tuberculous spondylitis, but these findings are not specific of the disease. Degdings are not specific of the disease. Degenerative disorders such as erosive osteochondrosis or changings due ot chronic dialysis (e.g amyloid or crystal arthropathies) may cause even more problems in differential diagnosis. Typical for a blastomatous process is the integrity of the interverebral disc space, which is a rare finding in spondylitis. (orig.)

230

Remote Sensing, GIS, and Vector-Borne Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of global climate change encompasses more than merely an alteration in temperature; it also includes spatial and temporal covariations in precipitation and humidity, and more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events. The impact of these variations, which can occur at a variety of temporal and spatial scales, could have a direct impact on disease transmission through their environmental consequences for pathogen, vector, and host survival, as well as indirectly through human demographic and behavioral responses. New and future sensor systems will allow scientists to investigate the relationships between climate change and environmental risk factors at multiple spatial, temporal and spectral scales. Higher spatial resolution will provide better opportunities for mapping urban features previously only possible with high resolution aerial photography. These opportunities include housing quality (e.g., Chagas'disease, leishmaniasis) and urban mosquito habitats (e.g., dengue fever, filariasis, LaCrosse encephalitis). There are or will be many new sensors that have higher spectral resolution, enabling scientists to acquire more information about parameters such as soil moisture, soil type, better vegetation discrimination, and ocean color, to name a few. Although soil moisture content is now detectable using Landsat, the new thermal, shortwave infrared, and radar sensors will be able to provide this information at a variety of scales not achievable using Landsat. Soil moisture could become a key component in transmission risk models for Lyme disease (tick survival), helminthiases (worm habitat), malaria (vector-breeding habitat), and schistosomiasis (snail habitat).

Beck, Louisa R.

2001-01-01

231

Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... can carry and transmit bacteria, viruses and other pathogens to us that cause dengue fever, Lyme disease ... research Share Print E-mail Related Advance Fighting Malaria, With a Little Help from Bacteria Up to ...

232

Multiscale Analysis for a Vector-Borne Epidemic Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional studies about disease dynamics have focused on global stability issues, due to their epidemiological importance. We study a classical SIR-SI model for arboviruses in two different directions: we begin by describing an alternative proof of previously known global stability results by using only a Lyapunov approach. In the sequel, we take a different view and we argue that vectors and hosts can have very distinctive intrinsic time-scales, and that such distinctiven...

Souza, Max O.

2011-01-01

233

Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable.

GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

2014-01-01

234

Global climate change and vector-borne diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming will have different effects on different diseases because of the complex and idiosynchratic interactions between vectors, hosts, and pathogens that influence transmission dynamics of each pathogen. Human activities, including urbanization, rapid global travel, and vector management, have profound effects on disease transmission that can operate on more rapid time scales than does global climate change. The general concern about global warming encouraging the spread of tropical diseases is legitimate, but the effects vary among diseases, and the ecological implications are difficult to predict.

Ginsberg, H.S.

2002-01-01

235

Modeling and Optimal Control applied to a vector borne disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A model with six mutually-exclusive compartments related to Dengue disease is presented. In this model there are three vector control tools: insecticides (larvicide and adulticide) and mechanical control. The problem is studied using an Optimal Control (OC) approach. The human data for the model is based on the Cape Verde Dengue outbreak. Some control measures are simulated and their consequences analyzed.

Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Torres, Delfim F. M.

2012-01-01

236

RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

Arthropods (ISSN 2224-4255

237

A checklist of arthropods associated with rat carrion in a montane locality of northern Venezuela  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first report of arthropods associated with carrion in Venezuela, using laboratory bred rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rat carcasses were exposed to colonization by arthropods in neighboring montane savanna and cloud forest habitats in the state of Miranda. The taxonomic composition of the arthropods varied between both ecosystems. Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Micropezidae, Phoridae, Vespidae and one species of ant, were collected only in the cloud forest. Dermestes maculatus, Chrysomya ...

Vela?squez Zambrano, Yelitza

2007-01-01

238

Bioinformatic prediction of arthropod/nematode-like peptides in non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, along with the Arthropoda, Nematoda and several other small phyla, form the superphylum Ecdysozoa. Numerous peptidomic studies have been undertaken for both the arthropods and nematodes, resulting in the identification of many peptides from each group. In contrast, little is known about the peptides used as paracrines/hormones by species from the other ecdysozoan taxa. Here, transcriptome mining and bioinformatic peptide prediction were used to identify peptides in members of the Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, the only non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa for which there are publicly accessible expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The extant ESTs for each phylum were queried using 106 arthropod/nematode peptide precursors. Transcripts encoding calcitonin-like diuretic hormone and pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) were identified for the onychophoran Peripatopsis sedgwicki, with transcripts encoding C-type allatostatin (C-AST) and FMRFamide-like peptide identified for the priapulid Priapulus caudatus. For the Tardigrada, transcripts encoding members of the A-type allatostatin, C-AST, insect kinin, orcokinin, PDH and tachykinin-related peptide families were identified, all but one from Hypsibius dujardini (the exception being a Milnesium tardigradum orcokinin-encoding transcript). The proteins deduced from these ESTs resulted in the prediction of 48 novel peptides, six onychophoran, eight priapulid and 34 tardigrade, which are the first described from these phyla. PMID:21074533

Christie, Andrew E; Nolan, Daniel H; Garcia, Zachery A; McCoole, Matthew D; Harmon, Sarah M; Congdon-Jones, Benjamin; Ohno, Paul; Hartline, Niko; Congdon, Clare Bates; Baer, Kevin N; Lenz, Petra H

2011-02-01

239

Canopy arthropods community within and among oak species in central Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quercus rugosa and Q.laurina are species that presents a wide geographical distribution range in temperate forests of Mexico. Oak canopies contain a considerable portion of arthropod diversity and the arthropods fauna fulfill a wide variety of ecological roles. We examined the effect of oak species and seasonal changes on some community structure parameters (diversity, composition, similarity, biomass, rare species, and density of arthropod fauna of canopy arthropods. In total, 40 oak canopies were fogged during rainy and dry season. A total of 614 identified arthropod morphospecies were recognized belonging to 22 orders associated with tree canopies. A separation of host tree species during both seasons, suggesting a different community structure on host plants species was demonstrated by the principal component analyses (PCA, therefore, differences between oak species results in phenotypes that structure the composition of the arthropod community. Q.laurina registered the highest densities, diversity index and number of rare species in comparison with Q.rugosa. While arthropod biomass showed an inverse pattern. Trees more close to one another (spatial distance register a more similar canopy arthropod fauna. This study suggests that the trees of Q.laurina could act as a center of biodiversity by the accumulation of arthropod fauna with a considerable number of rare species, which presents wide ecological roles or is involved in critical processes that maintain forest ecosystems.

Efraín TOVAR-SANCHEZ

2009-04-01

240

The infectious etiology of vasculitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious agents have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of various vasculitides via numerous and overlapping mechanisms including direct microbial invasion of endothelial cells, immune complex mediated vessel wall damage and stimulation of autoreactive B and/or T cells through molecular mimicry and superantigens. While the causative role of hepatitis B virus in polyarteritis nodosa and hepatitis C virus in mixed cryoglobulinemia is clearly established, evidence for the association of other infectious agents with vasculitis, including human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, Staphylococcus aureus, rickettsiaceae, Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi, among numerous others, is accumulating. The spectrum of association of infectious agents; bacteria, viruses and parasites, with systemic vasculitides, will be reviewed herewith. PMID:19811260

Lidar, Merav; Lipschitz, Noga; Langevitz, Pnina; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Melioidosis: An emerging infectious disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.

Raja N

2005-01-01

242

Influence of Agricultural Activities on Grassland Arthropods in Inner Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod pest outbreaks are becoming more common in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China, most likely due to the expansion of agriculture. The area of cropland has increased from 43,300 km2 in 1949 to 76,300 km2 in 2005. To understand the effects of agricultural activities on arthropod distribution, sweep net sampling was conducted in a natural grassland. We collected 1287 individuals belonging to 23 families and 9 orders of arthropods from 41 sites. We divided these samples into two guild types (predator and herbivore and analyzed six groups (grasshoppers, herbivorous Coleoptera, herbivorous Hemiptera, Cicaddidae, Araneae, predatory Coleoptera of them. Using a negative binomial regression analysis we analyzed the relationships between each group’s sampled population size and measured environmental factors including pesticide application and mean temperature of the previous year, agricultural site, and vegetation condition. The best model for each group was determined using Akaike’s information criterion. Grasshoppers showed a significant positive response to pesticide application and degraded vegetation, whereas spider (natural enemies of some insect pests showed a negative response to these factors. The population of grasshoppers increased at sites where pesticides were applied, vegetation was degraded, and spider numbers were reduced. Other groups were not significantly correlated with pesticide application and degraded vegetation. Some of the environmental factors we studied promoted pests the following year. Our results also suggest that the current use of pesticides may not be effective for pest control and that alternative options should be considered in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia.

Kiyan Sorgog

2012-10-01

243

cuticleDB: a relational database of Arthropod cuticular proteins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect exoskeleton or cuticle is a bi-partite composite of proteins and chitin that provides protective, skeletal and structural functions. Little information is available about the molecular structure of this important complex that exhibits a helicoidal architecture. Scores of sequences of cuticular proteins have been obtained from direct protein sequencing, from cDNAs, and from genomic analyses. Most of these cuticular protein sequences contain motifs found only in arthropod proteins. Description cuticleDB is a relational database containing all structural proteins of Arthropod cuticle identified to date. Many come from direct sequencing of proteins isolated from cuticle and from sequences from cDNAs that share common features with these authentic cuticular proteins. It also includes proteins from the Drosophila melanogaster and the Anopheles gambiae genomes, that have been predicted to be cuticular proteins, based on a Pfam motif (PF00379 responsible for chitin binding in Arthropod cuticle. The total number of the database entries is 445: 370 derive from insects, 60 from Crustacea and 15 from Chelicerata. The database can be accessed from our web server at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/cuticleDB. Conclusions CuticleDB was primarily designed to contain correct and full annotation of cuticular protein data. The database will be of help to future genome annotators. Users will be able to test hypotheses for the existence of known and also of yet unknown motifs in cuticular proteins. An analysis of motifs may contribute to understanding how proteins contribute to the physical properties of cuticle as well as to the precise nature of their interaction with chitin.

Willis Judith H

2004-09-01

244

Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher-level arthropod phylogenetics is an intensely active field of research, not least as a result of the hegemony of molecular data. However, not all areas of arthropod phylogenetics have so far received equal attention. The application of molecular data to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Crustacea is still in its infancy, and several emerging results are conspicuously at odds with morphology-based studies. In this study, we present a series of molecular phylogenetic analyses of 88 arthropods, including 57 crustaceans, representing all the major lineages, with Onychophora and Tardigrada as outgroups. Our analyses are based on published and new sequences for two mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S rDNA. We designed our phylogenetic analyses to assess the effects of different strategies of sequence alignment, alignment masking, nucleotide coding, and model settings. Our comparisons show that alignment optimization of ribosomal markers based on secondary structure information can have a radical impact on phylogenetic reconstruction. Trees based on optimized alignments recover monophyletic Arthropoda (excluding Onychophora), Pancrustacea, Malacostraca, Insecta, Myriapoda and Chelicerata, while Maxillopoda and Hexapoda emerge as paraphyletic groups. Our results are unable to resolve the highest-level relationships within Arthropoda, and none of our trees supports the monophyly of Myriochelata or Mandibulata. We discuss our results in the context of both the methodological variations between different analyses, and of recently proposed phylogenetic hypotheses. This article offers a preliminary attempt to incorporate the large diversity of crustaceans into a single molecular phylogenetic analysis, assessing the robustness of phylogenetic relationships under varying analysis parameters. It throws into sharp relief the relative strengths and shortcomings of the combined molecular data for assessing this challenging phylogenetic problem, and thereby provides useful pointers for future studies. PMID:19854296

Koenemann, Stefan; Jenner, Ronald A; Hoenemann, Mario; Stemme, Torben; von Reumont, Björn M

2010-01-01

245

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

246

Oxygen limitation and thermal tolerance in two terrestrial arthropod species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of marine invertebrates and fish have suggested that lower and upper critical temperatures (CT(min) and CT(max)) are coupled by a common mechanism: oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLT). Using thermolimit respirometry, we tested the predictions of this theory for terrestrial arthropods by measuring maxima and minima for both critical temperatures and metabolic rate in two arthropods, the isopod Porcellio scaber and the beetle Tenebrio molitor, at 40%, 21%, 10% and 2.5% ambient O(2). Critical temperatures were identified as particular points on both activity and traces in four ways. In the first two instances, we identified the inflection points in regressions of absolute difference sum (ADS) residuals calculated for activity (aADS) and (VI), respectively. In the third, we visually identified the lowest point before the post-mortal peak in CO(2) release (PMV). Finally, we pinpointed the sudden drop in at death, where fell outside the 95% confidence intervals of the 5 min period immediately preceding the drop-off (CI). Minimum and maximum metabolic rates were determined using CO(2) traces, and the temperatures corresponding to these identified as T(MetMin) and T(MetMax). For both species, ambient oxygen concentration did not influence CT(min), minimum metabolic rate, or T(MetMin). By contrast, severe hypoxia (2.5% O(2)) caused a 6.9 degrees C decline in activity-based CT(max) for T. molitor and a 10.6 degrees C decline for P. scaber, relative to normoxia (21% O(2)). The magnitude of this decrease differed between methods used to estimated critical thermal limits, highlighting the need for a standard method to determine these endpoints during thermolimit respirometry. Maximum metabolic rate also declined with decreasing ambient oxygen in both species. The combination of increasing metabolic rate and oxygen limitation affected upper thermal limits in these arthropods only in severe hypoxia (2.5% O(2)). In both species, CT(min) and CT(max) responded differently to oxygen limitation, suggesting that this is not a common mechanism coupling upper and lower limits in terrestrial arthropods. PMID:20543119

Stevens, Meagan M; Jackson, Sue; Bester, Susan A; Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L

2010-07-01

247

Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O porco branco (Sus scrofa) foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24, [...] 5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise), intumescido (putrefação), deteriorado e seco (diagênese). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condições. Foram registradas quatro classes de Artrópodes: insetos, aranhas (Arachnida), Diplópodes e Crustáceos. Os insetos foram a classe predominante representada por 24 famílias no total de 94% das coletas. Para cada uma das três classes restantes registrou-se apenas uma família no total de 2% das coletas. As moscas das famílias Calliphoridae, Phoridae e Sarcophagidae tomaram lugar e desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres apenas algumas horas após a morte dos animais. As famílias de coleópteros surgiram na fase de putrefação e alimentaram-se de insetos dípteros jovens e dos próprios cadáveres. As formigas (Hymenoptera) ocorreram em grande número para se alimentar dos cadáveres e usurpar, à restante fauna presente, a fonte de alimento. Na fase de deterioração desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres uma espécie de Diptera da família Muscidae e uma de Stratiomydae. Outros insetos dípteros e artrópodes surgiram para se alimentar dos cadáveres sobretudo na fase de deterioração. O ponto de maior riqueza de espécies (S) foi registrado na fase de deterioração dos cadáveres. Abstract in english The domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh [...] , bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera) came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.

M.S., Ekanem; Mike C., Dike.

248

Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The domestic pig (Sus scrofa was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh, bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.O porco branco (Sus scrofa foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise, intumescido (putrefação, deteriorado e seco (diagênese. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condições. Foram registradas quatro classes de Artrópodes: insetos, aranhas (Arachnida, Diplópodes e Crustáceos. Os insetos foram a classe predominante representada por 24 famílias no total de 94% das coletas. Para cada uma das três classes restantes registrou-se apenas uma família no total de 2% das coletas. As moscas das famílias Calliphoridae, Phoridae e Sarcophagidae tomaram lugar e desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres apenas algumas horas após a morte dos animais. As famílias de coleópteros surgiram na fase de putrefação e alimentaram-se de insetos dípteros jovens e dos próprios cadáveres. As formigas (Hymenoptera ocorreram em grande número para se alimentar dos cadáveres e usurpar, à restante fauna presente, a fonte de alimento. Na fase de deterioração desenvolveram-se nos cadáveres uma espécie de Diptera da família Muscidae e uma de Stratiomydae. Outros insetos dípteros e artrópodes surgiram para se alimentar dos cadáveres sobretudo na fase de deterioração. O ponto de maior riqueza de espécies (S foi registrado na fase de deterioração dos cadáveres.

M.S. Ekanem

2010-01-01

249

Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

2012-04-04

250

The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host-pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host-pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host-pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host-pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases. PMID:22265006

Morley, N J

2012-04-01

251

Potential impacts of climate change on infectious diseases in the Arctic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change could cause changes in the incidence of infectious diseases in Arctic regions. Higher ambient temperatures in the Arctic may result in an increase in some temperature sensitive foodborne diseases such as gastroenteritis, paralytic shellfish poisoning and botulism. An increase in mean temperature may also influence the incidence of infectious diseases of animals that are spread to humans (zoonoses) by changing the population and range of animal hosts and insect vectors. An increase in flooding events may result in outbreaks of waterborne infection, such as Giardia lamblia or Cryptospordium parvum. A change in rodent and fox populations may result in an increase in rabies or echinococcosis. Temperature and humidity influence the distribution and density of many arthropod vectors which in turn may influence the incidence and northern range of vectorborne diseases such as West Nile virus. Recommendations include: the strenghtening of public health systems, disease surveillance coordinated with climate monitoring, and research into the detection, prevention, control and treatment of temperature-sensitive infectious diseases. PMID:16440610

Parkinson, Alan J; Butler, Jay C

2005-12-01

252

Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. PMID:25317383

Parkinson, Alan J; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C; Ogden, Nicholas; Børresen, Malene L; Berner, Jim; Brubaker, Michael; Sjöstedt, Anders; Evander, Magnus; Hondula, David M; Menne, Bettina; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Gounder, Prabhu; Larose, Tricia; Revich, Boris; Hueffer, Karsten; Albihn, Ann

2014-01-01

253

Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. PMID:25317383

Parkinson, Alan J.; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C.; Ogden, Nicholas; B?rresen, Malene L.; Berner, Jim; Brubaker, Michael; Sjostedt, Anders; Evander, Magnus; Hondula, David M.; Menne, Bettina; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Gounder, Prabhu; Larose, Tricia; Revich, Boris; Hueffer, Karsten; Albihn, Ann

2014-01-01

254

Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.

Alan J. Parkinson

2014-09-01

255

Aerial arthropod communities of native and invaded forests, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive species significantly contribute to biological change and threaten biodiversity, with a growing body of evidence that plant invasions affect higher trophic levels. We explored the relative importance of plant invasion and forest structure on aerial arthropod abundance, diversity, and composition on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. We used flight intercept traps to sample aerial arthropods within distinct canopy strata of native and invaded forests over 3-mo periods in 2006 and 2007. Arthropod abundance and diversity were higher in native than invaded forest, and arthropod communities were distinct between forest types. In both forest types, arthropod abundance was highest in the lower canopy, and canopy strata exhibited some differences in arthropod community composition. Several morphospecies were distinctly associated with each forest type. The strong differences in aerial arthropod communities associated with the invasion of native forest by non-native plants may affect other trophic levels, such as insectivorous birds. Steps to stop invasive plant spread and to restore native forest composition and structure are needed to safeguard the integrity of native communities, from plants to higher-level consumers. PMID:22127166

Hagen, Erin N; Bakker, Jonathan D; Gara, Robert I

2010-08-01

256

Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

2012-03-01

257

Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

Padmavathy Anbarashan

2013-01-01

258

Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes. PMID:20550788

Fork, Susanne K

2010-06-01

259

Infectious diseases and social stigma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stigma creates a barrier between the sick and the rest of society that prevents them from acting on their instinctive desire to seek curative treatment that will enable them to reenter into their every day social activity. For these ailing persons, the cost of being stigmatized far outweighs the desire to rehabilitate their lifestyle. Further, social stigma associated with infectious disease undermines the overall health of society, and the effectiveness of community efforts to offer unabridged healthcare services to treat and prevent the spread of communicable disease. In the wake of the latest pandemic influenza outbreak, the global community witnessed how under the stress H1N1, communities, regions, and countries can suffer socially and economically. Our research finds a statistically significant relationship between infectious disease and social stigma. We also identify the role the media plays in exacerbating this issue, and address preliminary policy implications to mitigate these issues in the future.

Joan L. Williams

2011-04-01

260

Infectious diseases and social stigma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stigma creates a barrier between the sick and the rest of society that prevents them from acting on their instinctive desire to seek curative treatment that will enable them to reenter into their every day social activity. For these ailing persons, the cost of beingstigmatized far outweighs the desire to rehabilitate their lifestyle. Further, social stigma associated with infectious disease undermines the overall health of society, and the effectiveness of community efforts to offer unabridged healthcare services to treatand prevent the spread of communicable disease. In the wake of the latest pandemic influenza outbreak, the global community witnessed how under the stress H1N1, communities, regions, and countries can suffer socially and economically. Our research finds a statistically significant relationship between infectious diseaseand social stigma. We also identify the role the media plays in exacerbating this issue, and address preliminary policy implications to mitigate these issues in the future.

Joan L. Williams

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Infectious mononucleosis: observations on transmission.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epsten-Barr virus oropharyngeal shedding has been demonstrated in infectious mononucleosis patients many months after acute illness and long after the disease hallmarks, atypical lymphocytes and heterophile antibody, have disappeared. Extracellular virus is present more frequently in saliva than in other oropharyngeal samples. Prolonged excretion of EBV in asymptomatic carriers explains the difficulty in tracing case-to-case spread and increased transmissibility in age groups in which salivar...

Niederman, J. C.

1982-01-01

262

Future rainfall patterns will reduce arthropod abundance in model arable agroecosystems with different soil types  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change scenarios for eastern Austria predict a seasonal shift in precipitation patterns with fewer but heavier rainfall events and longer drought periods during the growing season and more precipitation during winter. This is expected to alter arthropods living in natural and agricultural ecosystems with consequences for several ecosystem functions and services. In order to better understand the effects of future rainfall patterns on aboveground arthropods inhabiting an agroecosystem, we conducted an experiment where we simulated rainfall patterns in model arable systems with three different soil types. Experiments were conducted in winter wheat cultivated in a lysimeter facility near Vienna, Austria, where three different soil types (calcaric phaeozem, calcic chernozem and gleyic phaeozem) were subjected to long-term current vs. predicted rainfall patterns according to regionalized climate change projections for 2071-2100. Aboveground arthropods were assessed by suction sampling in April, May and June 2012. We found significant differences in mean total arthropod abundances between the sampling dates with 20 ± 2 m-2, 90 ± 20 m-2 and 289 ± 54 m-2 in April, May and June, respectively. Across all three sampling dates, future rainfall patterns significantly reduced the abundance of Araneae (-43%), Auchenorrhyncha (-39%), Coleoptera (-48%), Carabidae (-41%), Chrysomelidae (-64%), Collembola (-58%), Diptera (-75%) and Neuroptera (-73%). Generally, different soil types had no effect on the abundance of arthropods. The diversity of arthropod communities was unaffected by rainfall patterns or soil types. Correlation analyses of arthropod abundances with crop biomass, weed density and abundance suggest that rainfall effects indirectly affected arthropods via changes on crops and weeds. In conclusion, these results show that future rainfall patterns will have detrimental effects on the abundance of a variety of aboveground arthropods in winter wheat with potential consequences for their role as herbivores, biological control agents or food source for predatory fauna within agroecosystems.

Zaller, Johann; Simmer, Laura; Tabi Tataw, James; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas

2013-04-01

263

CT evaluation of infectious colitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

264

Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

Carrière, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

2014-09-14

265

CT evaluation of infectious colitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-08-01

266

Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

L. Sineo

2011-08-01

267

Mosquito vectors of infectious diseases: are they neglected health disaster in Egypt?  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the great technological progress achieved worldwide, still arthropod borne infectious diseases is a puzzle disturbing the health authorities. Among these arthropods, mosquitoes from medical, veterinary and economic point of view top all groups. They are estimated to transmit disease to more than 700 million people annually worldwide mainly in Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and much of Asia with millions of deaths. In Europe, Russia, Greenland, Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and other temperate and developed countries, mosquito bites are now mostly an irritating nuisance; but still cause some deaths each year. Mosquito-borne diseases include Malaria, West Nile Virus, Elephantiasis, Rift Valley Fever, Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever and Dog Heartworm....etc. Apart from diseases transmission, mosquitoes can make human life miserable. The successful long term mosquito control requires the ecological and biological knowledge of where and how they develop. The importance of mosquitoes is given herein to clarify the problem and to think together what one must do? PMID:24260815

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Fadil, Eman Ebrahim Abdel; Morsy, Tosson A

2013-08-01

268

New insights on arthropod toxins that potentiate erectile function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of natural substances for the treatment of diseases or injuries is an ancient practice of many cultures. According to folklore, natural aphrodisiacs may help to raise libido and increase desire. The supposed aphrodisiacs mainly include a plethora of preparations of plants, among other substances. However, the real boundary between myth and reality has not been established yet in most cases and such boundaries must be drawn by scientific methods. A growing interest of the scientific community has been focused on animal venoms, especially those from arthropods, i.e. spiders and scorpions, which cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. This review highlights the studies that have been performed with venoms and toxins from arthropods known to cause priapism, among other toxic symptoms, pointing out some pharmacological approaches for better understanding this effect. To date, the venom of some spiders, mainly Phoneutria nigriventer, and scorpions, such as the yellow South American scorpion Tityus serrulatus, among others, have been known to cause priapism. Since erectile dysfunction (ED) is a growing health problem in the world, more common in patients with vascular diseases as diabetes and hypertension, the use of animal venoms and toxins as pharmacological tools could not only shed light to the mechanisms involved in erectile function, but also represent a possible model for new drugs to treat ED. Unfortunately, attempts to correlate the structure of those priapism-related toxins were unfruitful. Such difficulties lie firstly on the poor data concerning purified priapism-related toxins, instead of whole venoms and/or semi-purified fractions, and secondly, on the scarce available primary sequences and structural data, mainly from spider toxins. It has been shown that all these toxins modify the sodium (Na(+)) channel activity, mostly slowing down its inactivation current. Improving the knowledge on the tertiary structure of these toxins could provide a key in the search of a new drug for ED treatment. PMID:23583324

Nunes, Kenia P; Torres, Fernanda S; Borges, Marcia H; Matavel, Alessandra; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria E

2013-07-01

269

Longleaf Pine Characterists Associated with Arthropods Available for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors sampled arthropods on 300 longleaf pine under varying stand conditions and ranging in age from 20 to 100 years. The most diverse orders were beetles, spiders, ants, wasps and bees. The most abundant were aphids and Hymenoptera with a large number of ants. Arthropod biomass per tree increased in age up to 65-70 years, but biomass was highest in the youngest stands. Arthropods were positively correlated to bark thickness and tree diameter, but negatively related to the stand basal area. No relationships were found between abundance and ground vegetation conditions.

Hanula, J.L.; Franzreb, K.E.; Pepper, W.D.

1999-01-25

270

Surveillance of zoonotic and infectious diseases in Ecuador: implications for special operations forces medical operations, personnel, and canines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne diseases (VBD) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes are effective vectors parasitizing canines, making dogs adequate reservoirs for zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys personnel and government-owned animals around the world with possible risk of exposure to VBD. Canine VBD have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for the U.S. troops and its working animals deployed in the theater of operations. These factors make disease surveillance a great importance. The objective of this work was to survey canines from the cities of Manta and Guayaquil in Ecuador to determine prevalence of heartworm disease (D. immitis), ehrlichi os is (E. canis), Lyme disease (B. burgdorf eri), and anapl asmosis (A. phagocytophilum). Canine blood samples (1-3ml) collected from the cities of Manta (n=50) and Guayaquil (n=50) were tested on site using a SNAPR 4DxR Test Kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each city. In the city of Manta the overall prevalence of diseases was 78%; 52% for E. canis alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. The overall prevalence for the city of Guayaquil was 88%; 40% for E. canis alone, 22% for A. phagocytophilum alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. Neither heartworm disease nor Lyme disease was detected in any samp le. In conclusion, this study showed the extensive presence of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum in both cities in Ecuador, emphasizing the value of surveillance for zoonotic diseases to determine disease prevalence and risk assessments, as well as to implement control measures. PMID:22173599

McCown, Michael; Monterroso, Victor H; Grzeszak, Benjamin

2011-01-01

271

DIVERSITY OF ARTHROPODS ON COCOA PLANTATION IN THREE STRATA OF SHADE TREE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Research was aimed to identifythe diversity of arthropods in Cocoa plantation inthree strataof shade tree. Research was conducted in Rahmat village, the sub-district of Palolo, District of Sigi, the Province of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia from December 2012 to June 2013.Berlese funnel, Pitfall, Malaise and Light trap were used to collect arthropod samples. There were five indices such as species richness (R, species evenness (E, species diversity (H`and D, and species similarity (Iss to analyze the diversity of arthropods in cocoa plantations. The result showed that species richness (R of arthropods under the two strata of shade tree, species evenness (E and both of species diversity indices, Shannon (H` & Simpson (D was the highest, with value of 18,216, 0.839, 4.383, and 0.833 respectively. In addition, percentage of species similarity (Iss was the highest under two strata of shade tree with value 72.297%.

Moh. Hibban Toana

2014-06-01

272

Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram?s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Gupta Noopur

2008-01-01

273

Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram's stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. PMID:18417821

Gupta, Noopur; Tandon, Radhika

2008-01-01

274

Commercial implications and IPR related to the use of transgenic arthropods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have recently created a company (Insecta, Ltd.) for the express purpose of fully exploiting both the traditional Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the potential benefits of using transgenic arthropods to control agricultural and medical pest insects or, more generally, animal and human diseases. This short paper briefly considers some of the general issues surrounding the commercial exploitation of transgenic arthropods both through the improvement of the SIT and for other, more innovative, approaches to disease and pest control. (author)

275

Bison grazing increases arthropod abundance and diversity in a tallgrass prairie.  

Science.gov (United States)

How grazing-induced ecosystem changes by ungulates indirectly affect other consumers is a question of great interest. I investigated the effect of grazing by American Bison (Bos bison L.) on an arthropod community in tallgrass prairie. Grazing increased the abundance of arthropods, an increase that was present in both herbivorous and carnivorous assemblages, but not in detritivores. The increase in herbivores and reduction in plant biomass from grazing resulted in an arthropod herbivore load almost three times higher in grazed plots compared with controls. Among herbivores, the sap-feeding insect guild was dramatically more abundant, while chewing herbivores were not affected. Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropod richness was higher in grazed plots, although the response was strongest among herbivores. Arthropod abundance on individual grasses and forbs was significantly higher in grazed areas, while plant type had no effect on abundance, indicating that the change was ecosystem-wide and not simply in response to a reduction in grass biomass from grazing. The response of arthropods to grazing was strongest in the early part of the growing season. Published research shows that ungulate grazing, although decreasing available biomass to other consumers, enhances plant quality by increasing nitrogen level in plants. The arthropod results of this study suggest higher plant quality outweighs the potential negative competitive effects of plant biomass removal, although other activities of bison could not be ruled out as the causative mechanism. Because arthropods are extremely abundant organisms in grasslands and a food source for other consumers, bison may represent valuable management tools for maintaining biodiversity. PMID:25198902

Moran, Matthew D

2014-10-01

276

Survey of Arthropod Associated with Refuse Disposal Sites in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to investigate the abundance of arthropod pests and its diversity at different refuse disposal sites in Ijebu Ode. A survey of some refuse dumps for the presence of arthropod associated with them was carried out in Ijebu-ode Local government Area, of Ogun state. The refuse dumps were randomly selected based on their location within the town, these included Ikangba housing Estate, Wasimi, Olisa, Mobalufon and Sabo areas. Different methods were used for the collection of...

Banjo, F. M.; Banjo, A. D.; Fasunwon, B. T.

2012-01-01

277

Mixed blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles and foraging succes of carnivorous arthropods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food webs are overlaid with infochemical webs that mediate direct and indirect interactions. Behavioural ecologists have extensively documented that carnivorous arthropods exploit herbivore-induced plant volatiles during foraging for herbivorous arthropods. Most studies on the role of infochemicals in multitrophic interactions have been conducted against an odour-free background, although field studies show that carnivores also use herbivore-induced plant volatiles under more complex conditio...

Dicke, M.; Boer, J. G.; Ho?fte, M.; Rocha-granados, C.

2003-01-01

278

Identification and functional characterization of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase from parasitic and nonparasitic arthropods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the PhD project was the molecular and enzymological characterization of SSADH in parasitic and nonparasitic insects and acarids, organism groups where this enzyme was virtually unexplored. In this project, the list of investigated non-arthropod organisms included the bacterium Escherichia coli (Ec) and the mammal Mus musculus (mouse). Their SSADH served as reference enzymes or were used for biophysical experiments. Amongst the arthropods, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) (fruit f...

Rothacker, Boris

2008-01-01

279

Study of Arthropod Communities in A Virginia Tobacco Agro-Ecosystem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cultivation of tobacco is one of users of agro-chemical substances such as insecticides, herbi-cides, defoliants, and fertilizers among other food crops and plants with high economical value. The use of these chemicals may bring negative effects regarding the richness and abundance of arthropods. The study of arthropod community in the Virginia tobacco ecosystem was carried out in Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Province, during the 2010 plantation year. It was aimed at finding the composition, structure, and dynamic of the arthropod diversity around the tobacco field. Samples were obtained by using trapping techniques (pitfall traps, yellow-pan traps, and sweep net. The number of arthropods found in Virginia tobacco field are 69, consisting of 65 species of insects (belonging to 46 families and 8 orders and 4 species of spiders (belonging to 4 families. The majority of insects found was Hymenoptera, dominated by bees. Based on the ecological functions, the major group of arthro-pods documented was phytophagous (20 species, mostly Coleoptera and Orthoptera. Yet, the number of predators was relatively more abundant than that of the phytophagous. The number of kinds of ar-thropods commonly interacting around the field fluctuated during the growing period, while in the cul-tivation period the number decreased. The diversity of the species (H’ and the ratio of abundance of the natural enemies and phytophagous in the field was high.

Ruth Stella Thei

2013-05-01

280

Changes in Arthropod Fauna From Weed Management Practices in Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Maize  

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Full Text Available Genetically modified maize tolerant to broad-spectrum herbicides may greatly alter weed flora composition, abundance and therefore affect organisms of higher trophic levels, including herbivore and detritivore arthropods and their natural enemies. This three-year study measured the effects on arthropods of an intensive use of broad-spectrum herbicides in comparison with one application of conventional pre-emergence herbicide. Numbers of arthropods were measured by three techniques: visual counts on plants, catches in pitfall and yellow sticky traps. Weed density was much higher in conventional treatment in the first year, showed significant difference in the second year, but was no significant difference in the third year. Counts of arthropod taxa were significantly different only in the first year in the two kinds of weed management systems. In visual counts Cicadellidae and Aphididae among herbivores, the two main generalist predators, Orius spp. and Araneae, and the family Coccinellidae were more abundant on plants treated twice with glyphosate. In pitfall there were higher records in glyphosate-treated plots for Myriapoda but the opposite was seen for Carabidae counts. The yellow sticky traps catches were higher in the glyphosate-treated plots for Cicadellidae and Mymaridae, and lower for Thysanoptera. Most of the significant differences found between herbicide regimes disappeared when abundances of weeds (monocotyledons and dicotyledons were introduced into the analysis as covariates; this finding signals weed abundance as the main cause of arthropod abundance alteration. However, only a drastic alteration of weed abundance causes significant changes in arthropod densities.

Ramon Albajes

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

The tripartite associations between bacteriophage, Wolbachia, and arthropods.  

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Full Text Available By manipulating arthropod reproduction worldwide, the heritable endosymbiont Wolbachia has spread to pandemic levels. Little is known about the microbial basis of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI except that bacterial densities and percentages of infected sperm cysts associate with incompatibility strength. The recent discovery of a temperate bacteriophage (WO-B of Wolbachia containing ankyrin-encoding genes and virulence factors has led to intensifying debate that bacteriophage WO-B induces CI. However, current hypotheses have not considered the separate roles that lytic and lysogenic phage might have on bacterial fitness and phenotype. Here we describe a set of quantitative approaches to characterize phage densities and its associations with bacterial densities and CI. We enumerated genome copy number of phage WO-B and Wolbachia and CI penetrance in supergroup A- and B-infected males of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We report several findings: (1 variability in CI strength for A-infected males is positively associated with bacterial densities, as expected under the bacterial density model of CI, (2 phage and bacterial densities have a significant inverse association, as expected for an active lytic infection, and (3 CI strength and phage densities are inversely related in A-infected males; similarly, males expressing incomplete CI have significantly higher phage densities than males expressing complete CI. Ultrastructural analyses indicate that approximately 12% of the A Wolbachia have phage particles, and aggregations of these particles can putatively occur outside the Wolbachia cell. Physical interactions were observed between approximately 16% of the Wolbachia cells and spermatid tails. The results support a low to moderate frequency of lytic development in Wolbachia and an overall negative density relationship between bacteriophage and Wolbachia. The findings motivate a novel phage density model of CI in which lytic phage repress Wolbachia densities and therefore reproductive parasitism. We conclude that phage, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. Clarifying the roles of lytic and lysogenic phage development in Wolbachia biology will effectively structure inquiries into this research topic.

2006-05-01

282

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance;)

2009-01-01

283

Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.

Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert

2014-01-01

284

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

Science.gov (United States)

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Cruz, Arnel D.

2012-06-28

285

Inhibitory motoneurons in arthropod motor control: organisation, function, evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Miniaturisation of somatic cells in animals is limited, for reasons ranging from the accommodation of organelles to surface-to-volume ratio. Consequently, muscle and nerve cells vary in diameters by about two orders of magnitude, in animals covering 12 orders of magnitude in body mass. Small animals thus have to control their behaviour with few muscle fibres and neurons. Hexapod leg muscles, for instance, may consist of a single to a few 100 fibres, and they are controlled by one to, rarely, 19 motoneurons. A typical mammal has thousands of fibres per muscle supplied by hundreds of motoneurons for comparable behavioural performances. Arthopods--crustaceans, hexapods, spiders, and their kin--are on average much smaller than vertebrates, and they possess inhibitory motoneurons for a motor control strategy that allows a broad performance spectrum despite necessarily small cell numbers. This arthropod motor control strategy is reviewed from functional and evolutionary perspectives and its components are described with a focus on inhibitory motoneurons. Inhibitory motoneurons are particularly interesting for a number of reasons: evolutionary and phylogenetic comparison of functional specialisations, evolutionary and developmental origin and diversification, and muscle fibre recruitment strategies. PMID:24965579

Wolf, Harald

2014-08-01

286

Silurian horseshoe crab illuminates the evolution of arthropod limbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic arrangement of limbs in euarthropods consists of a uniramous head appendage followed by a series of biramous appendages. The body is divided into functional units or tagmata which are usually distinguished by further differentiation of the limbs. The living horseshoe crabs are remnants of a much larger diversity of aquatic chelicerates. The limbs of the anterior and posterior divisions of the body of living horseshoe crabs differ in the loss of the outer and inner ramus, respectively, of an ancestral biramous limb. Here we report a new fossil horseshoe crab from the mid-Silurian Lagerstätte in Herefordshire, United Kingdom (approximately 425 Myr B.P.), a site that has yielded a remarkably preserved assemblage of soft-bodied fossils. The limbs of the new form can be homologized with those of living Limulus, but retain an ancestral biramous morphology. Remarkably, however, the two limb branches originate separately, providing fossil evidence to suggest that repression or loss of gene expression might have given rise to the appendage morphology of Limulus. Both branches of the prosomal limbs of this new fossil are robust and segmented in contrast to their morphology in Cambrian arthropods, revealing that a true biramous limb was once present in chelicerates as well as in the mandibulates. PMID:22967511

Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, Derek J; Siveter, David J; Sutton, Mark D; Garwood, Russell J; Legg, David

2012-09-25

287

Systemic immediate allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the encounters with biting and stinging insects result in more or less pronounced localized reactions. Typically, urticarial wheals and papular reactions are observed. Less often local bullous or hemorrhagic or disseminated papular reactions, particularly in children and immunologically naive adults, may be seen. With the exception of bee and wasp venom allergies, immediate-type allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites are rare. Systemic IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has also been reported from additional hymenoptera species, e.g. hornets, bumble bees and ants. Rare are systemic reactions to mosquitoes, flies or kissing bugs and exceptional from ticks, bed bugs, moths, caterpillars and spiders. A major problem is the often lacking standardization of extracts for skin testing and for the determination of specific IgE. Some of the allergens have been characterized and few of them synthesized using recombinant techniques. Most investigations have been made with whole-body extracts or extracts from salivary glands, while desensitization has rarely been attempted. Currently, primary prevention by avoidance of stings and bites, and adequate instruction of sensitized individuals in the use of emergency drugs are mandatory. PMID:15724094

Bircher, Andreas J

2005-01-01

288

Large-scale experimental landscapes reveal distinctive effects of patch shape and connectivity on arthropod communities.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The size, shape, and isolation of habitat patches can affect organism behavior and population dynamics, but little is known about the relative role of shape and connectivity in affecting ecological communities at large spatial scales. Using six sampling sessions from July 2001 until August 2002, we collected 33,685 arthropods throughout seven 12-ha experimental landscapes consisting of clear-cut patches surrounded by a matrix of mature pine forest. Patches were explicitly designed to manipulate connectivity (via habitat corridors) independently of area and edge effects. We found that patch shape, rather than connectivity, affected ground-dwelling arthropod richness and beta diversity (i.e. turnover of genera among patches). Arthropod communities contained fewer genera and exhibited less turnover in high-edge connected and high-edge unconnected patches relative to low-edge unconnected patches of similar area. Connectivity, rather than patch shape, affected the evenness of ground-dwelling arthropod communities; regardless of patch shape, high-edge connected patches had lower evenness than low- or high-edge unconnected patches. Among the most abundant arthropod orders, increased richness in low-edge unconnected patches was largely due to increased richness of Coleoptera, whereas Hymenoptera played an important role in the lower evenness in connected patches and patterns of turnover. These findings suggest that anthropogenic habitat alteration can have distinct effects on ground-dwelling arthropod communities that arise due to changes in shape and connectivity. Moreover, this work suggests that corridors, which are common conservation tools that change both patch shape and connectivity, can have multiple effects on arthropod communities via different mechanisms, and each effect may alter components of community structure.

Orrock, John, L.; Curler, Gregory, R.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Coyle, David. R.

2011-09-14

289

The return of infectious disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US. PMID:12349255

Garrett, L

1996-11-01

290

[How to fight parasitic infectious diseases with bacteria. The case of Wolbachia pipientis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nature, no individual can live in isolation; hence, living organisms are forced to interact with each other. This necessity has led many organisms to establish heterogeneous relations to enhance their ability to adapt to the environment, thus acquiring evolutionary advantages. These relationships are sometimes so intense, that on the long term the organisms may lose their individual identity. An example of these associations is the endosymbiotic ones, where eukaryote organisms generally harbor different prokaryote organisms. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is a species described by Hertig and Wolbach in 1924. This microorganism can be isolated in a large variety of eukaryote organisms, with which it maintains different links. Until now, this species has only been described with 11 serogroups numbered from A to K within the Wolbachia genus. This work is intended to illustrate the relationship of Wolbachia pipientis with human pathogenic filaria and with arthropods, as well as to describe the implications of this bacterium in the treatment of filariasis. Finally, this work tries to describe recent studies that have targeted the use of artificially-created Wolbachia pipientis virulent strains that, once inoculated in infectious diseases-transmitting vectors, develop negative effects within them in order to, in this way, erradicate mosquito-transmitted infectious diseases for which no treatment is available at the moment or the prevention of its transmissibility has not been achieved. PMID:25354059

March-Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Eiros-Bouza, José María

2014-01-01

291

[Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

Flahault, Antoine

2007-01-01

292

Use of Google EarthTM to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments / Utilisation de Google EarthTM pour renforcer les capacités de la santé publique et faciliter la prise en charge des maladies à transmission vectorielle dans les environnements pauvres en ressources / Uso de Google EarthTM para fortalecer la capacidad de salud pública y facilitar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en entornos con recursos escasos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Se necesitan soluciones novedosas y de bajo costo para mejorar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y de otro tipo en los entornos con recursos escasos. Las nuevas opciones de software gratuito que dan acceso a imágenes por satélite y a instrumentos de edición sencillos [...] (por ejemplo Google EarthTM) complementan el software del sistema de información geográfica (SIG) existente y brindan nuevas oportunidades para: (i) reforzar la capacidad global de salud pública mediante la elaboración de información para infraestructuras urbanas; y (ii) mostrar los datos de salud pública directamente en una imagen del entorno físico. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron imágenes por satélite de libre acceso y una serie de prestaciones de generación de detalles incluidas en el software (que permiten crear polígonos, líneas y puntos) para añadir información sobre las infraestructuras urbanas y representar datos sobre las enfermedades en el marco de un sistema de apoyo decisional para el dengue (DDSS). RESULTADOS: Se utilizaron dos ciudades de México (Chetumal y Mérida) para demostrar que es posible desarrollar rápidamente y con un costo mínimo una representación básica de la infraestructura urbana que revista utilidad como urdimbre espacial en un DDSS. Las capas de información generadas comprendían polígonos etiquetados que representaban cuadras, líneas que reproducían las calles, y puntos que indicaban la localización de las escuelas y los dispensarios. Las cuadras se codificaron mediante colores en función de los casos de dengue. Las capas de información se pudieron importar satisfactoriamente a un software SIG en el formato conocido como shapefiles. CONCLUSIÓN: La combinación de Google EarthTM y software SIG gratuito (por ejemplo, HealthMapper, desarrollado por la OMS, y SIGEpi, desarrollado por la OPS) brinda enormes posibilidades para reforzar la capacidad general de salud pública y facilitar la aplicación de sistemas de apoyo decisional a la prevención y el control de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en los entornos con recursos escasos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google EarthTM) complement existing geographic information system ( [...] GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. METHODS: We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. FINDINGS: Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. CONCLUSION: The combination of Google EarthTM and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

Saul, Lozano-Fuentes; Darwin, Elizondo-Quiroga; Jose Arturo, Farfan-Ale; Maria Alba, Loroño-Pino; Julian, Garcia-Rejon; Salvador, Gomez-Carro; Victor, Lira-Zumbardo; Rosario, Najera-Vazquez; Ildefonso, Fernandez-Salas; Joaquin, Calderon-Martinez; Marco, Dominguez-Galera; Pedro, Mis-Avila; Natashia, Morris; Michael, Coleman; Chester G, Moore; Barry J, Beaty; Lars, Eisen.

293

Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial arthropods survive subzero temperatures by becoming either freeze tolerant (survive body fluid freezing) or freeze avoiding (prevent body fluid freezing). Protein ice nucleators (PINs), which limit supercooling and induce freezing, and antifreeze proteins (AFPs), which function to prevent freezing, can have roles in both freeze tolerance and avoidance. Many freeze-tolerant insects produce hemolymph PINs, which induce freezing at high subzero temperatures thereby inhibiting lethal intracellular freezing. Some freeze-tolerant species have AFPs that function as cryoprotectants to prevent freeze damage. Although the mechanism of this cryoprotection is not known, it may involve recrystallization inhibition and perhaps stabilization of the cell membrane. Freeze-avoiding species must prevent inoculative freezing initiated by external ice across the cuticle and extend supercooling abilities. Some insects remove PINs in the winter to promote supercooling, whereas others have selected against surfaces with ice-nucleating abilities on an evolutionary time scale. However, many freeze-avoiding species do have proteins with ice-nucleating activity, and these proteins must be masked in winter. In the beetle Dendroides canadensis, AFPs in the hemolymph and gut inhibit ice nucleators. Also, hemolymph AFPs and those associated with the layer of epidermal cells under the cuticle inhibit inoculative freezing. Two different insect AFPs have been characterized. One type from the beetles D. canadensis and Tenebrio molitor consists of 12- and 13-mer repeating units with disulfide bridges occurring at least every six residues. The spruce budworm AFP lacks regular repeat units. Both have much higher activities than any known AFPs. PMID:11181959

Duman, J G

2001-01-01

294

Elongation factor-2: a useful gene for arthropod phylogenetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated from 17 arthropod taxa (5 chelicerates, 6 crustaceans, 3 hexapods, 3 myriapods) plus an onychophoran and a tardigrade as outgroups. Likelihood and parsimony analyses of nucleotide and amino acid data sets consistently recovered Myriapoda and major chelicerate groups with high bootstrap support. Crustacea + Hexapoda (= Pancrustacea) was recovered with moderate support, whereas the conflicting group Myriapoda + Hexapoda (= Atelocerata) was never recovered and bootstrap values were always Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda relative to molluscan, annelidan, and mammalian outgroups. New and previously published sequences from RNA polymerase II (1038 nucleotides) and elongation factor-1alpha (1092 nucleotides) were analyzed for the same taxa. A comparison of bootstrap values from the three genes analyzed separately revealed widely varying values for some clades, although there was never strong support for conflicting groups. In combined analyses, there was strong bootstrap support for the generally accepted clades Arachnida, Arthropoda, Euchelicerata, Hexapoda, and Pycnogonida, and for Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Pancrustacea, whose monophyly is more controversial. Recovery of some additional groups was fairly robust to method of analysis but bootstrap values were not high; these included Pancrustacea + Chelicerata, Hexapoda + Cephalocarida + Remipedia, Cephalocarida + Remipedia, and Malaocostraca + Cirripedia. Atelocerata (= Myriapoda + Hexapoda) was never recovered. Elongation factor-2 is now the second protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata. Atelocerata is widely cited in morphology-based analyses, and the discrepancy between results derived from molecular and morphological data deserves greater attention. PMID:11421654

Regier, J C; Shultz, J W

2001-07-01

295

Oak tree canker disease supports arthropod diversity in a natural ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

2014-03-01

296

Abundance of epigaeic arthropods in a Brazilian savanna under different fire frequencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were subjected to three burning frequencies: frequent (HighFi, intermediary (MidFi, and infrequent (LowFi. In general, we found a positive relationship between the abundance of epigaeic arthropods and fire frequency. When arthropods were analyzed by orders, the abundance of Collembola and Orthoptera was lower in the LowFi site, while for Hemiptera, it was higher in the MidFi site. No significant differences were found for Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae. The abundance of detritivores and herbivores decreased from HighFi to LowFi, but did not change significantly for omnivores and predators. These results indicate that some arthropod groups may not only be resilient to fire effects, but actually might benefit from fire effects in the cerrado. Characterizing arthropod responses to burning frequency at high taxonomic or functional levels is important for applied studies. Based on the results of the current study, springtails and ants seem to be particularly appropriate focal groups for further exploratory studies on the effects of fire at the species level.

Marcio Uehara-Prado

2010-10-01

297

Disturbance and recovery of salt marsh arthropod communities following BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil spills represent a major environmental threat to coastal wetlands, which provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to humanity. The U.S. Gulf of Mexico is a hub of oil and gas exploration activities that historically have impacted intertidal habitats such as salt marsh. Following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we sampled the terrestrial arthropod community and marine invertebrates found in stands of Spartina alterniflora, the most abundant plant in coastal salt marshes. Sampling occurred in 2010 as oil was washing ashore and a year later in 2011. In 2010, intertidal crabs and terrestrial arthropods (insects and spiders) were suppressed by oil exposure even in seemingly unaffected stands of plants; however, Littoraria snails were unaffected. One year later, crab and arthropods had largely recovered. Our work is the first attempt that we know of assessing vulnerability of the salt marsh arthropod community to oil exposure, and it suggests that arthropods are both quite vulnerable to oil exposure and quite resilient, able to recover from exposure within a year if host plants remain healthy. PMID:22412916

McCall, Brittany D; Pennings, Steven C

2012-01-01

298

An armoured Cambrian lobopodian from China with arthropod-like appendages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cambrian fossil Lagerstätten preserving soft-bodied organisms have contributed much towards our understanding of metazoan origins. Lobopodians are a particularly interesting group that diversified and flourished in the Cambrian seas. Resembling 'worms with legs', they have long attracted much attention in that they may have given rise to both Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears), as well as to arthropods in general. Here we describe Diania cactiformis gen. et sp. nov. as an 'armoured' lobopodian from the Chengjiang fossil Lagerstätte (Cambrian Stage 3), Yunnan, southwestern China. Although sharing features with other typical lobopodians, it is remarkable for possessing robust and probably sclerotized appendages, with what appear to be articulated elements. In terms of limb morphology it is therefore closer to the arthropod condition, to our knowledge, than any lobopodian recorded until now. Phylogenetic analysis recovers it in a derived position, close to Arthropoda; thus, it seems to belong to a grade of organization close to the point of becoming a true arthropod. Further, D. cactiformis could imply that arthropodization (sclerotization of the limbs) preceded arthrodization (sclerotization of the body). Comparing our fossils with other lobopodian appendage morphologies--see Kerygmachela, Jianshanopodia and Megadictyon--reinforces the hypothesis that the group as a whole is paraphyletic, with different taxa expressing different grades of arthropodization. PMID:21350485

Liu, Jianni; Steiner, Michael; Dunlop, Jason A; Keupp, Helmut; Shu, Degan; Ou, Qiang; Han, Jian; Zhang, Zhifei; Zhang, Xingliang

2011-02-24

299

The origins of the arthropod nervous system: insights from the Onychophora.  

Science.gov (United States)

A revision of evolutionary relationships of the Arthropoda has provided fresh impetus to tracing the origins of the nervous system of this group of animals: other members of the Ecdysozoa possess a markedly different type of nervous system from both the arthropods and the annelid worms, with which they were previously grouped. Given their status as favoured sister taxon of the arthropods, Onychophora (velvet worms) are a key group for understanding the evolutionary changes that have taken place in the panarthropod (Arthropoda + Onychophora + Tardigrada) lineage. This article reviews our current knowledge of the structure and development of the onychophoran nervous system. The picture that emerges from these studies is that the nervous system of the panarthropod ancestor was substantially different from that of modern arthropods: this animal probably possessed a bipartite, rather than a tripartite brain; its nerve cord displayed only a limited degree of segmentation; and neurons were more numerous but more uniform in morphology than in living arthropods. These observations suggest an evolutionary scenario, by which the arthropod nervous system evolved from a system of orthogonally crossing nerve tracts present in both a presumed protostome ancestor and many extant worm-like invertebrates, including the onychophorans. PMID:21315833

Whitington, Paul M; Mayer, Georg

2011-05-01

300

Mosquito cellular factors and functions in mediating the infectious entry of chikungunya virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus responsible for recent epidemics in the Asia Pacific regions. A customized gene expression microarray of 18,760 transcripts known to target Aedes mosquito genome was used to identify host genes that are differentially regulated during the infectious entry process of CHIKV infection on C6/36 mosquito cells. Several genes such as epsin I (EPN1), epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15 (EPS15) and Huntingtin interacting protein I (HIP1) were identified to be differentially expressed during CHIKV infection and known to be involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Transmission electron microscopy analyses further revealed the presence of CHIKV particles within invaginations of the plasma membrane, resembling clathrin-coated pits. Characterization of vesicles involved in the endocytic trafficking processes of CHIKV revealed the translocation of the virus particles to the early endosomes and subsequently to the late endosomes and lysosomes. Treatment with receptor-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine and clathrin-associated drug inhibitors, chlorpromazine and dynasore inhibited CHIKV entry, whereas no inhibition was observed with caveolin-related drug inhibitors. Inhibition of CHIKV entry upon treatment with low-endosomal pH inhibitors indicated that low pH is essential for viral entry processes. CHIKV entry by clathrin-mediated endocytosis was validated via overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Eps15, in which infectious entry was reduced, while siRNA-based knockdown of genes associated with CME, low endosomal pH and RAB trafficking proteins exhibited significant levels of CHIKV inhibition. This study revealed, for the first time, that the infectious entry of CHIKV into mosquito cells is mediated by the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. PMID:23409203

Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Hussain, Khairunnisa' Mohamed; Chen, Huixin; Low, Swee Ling; Ng, Lee Ching; Lin, Raymond; Ng, Mary Mah-Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population-based Danish cohorts of patients who were tested for infectious mononucleosis: 17,045 with serologic evidence of having had acute EBV infection, and 24,614 with no such evidence. We combined the cohort of patients who had serologically verified infectious mononucleosis with a cohort of 21,510 Swedish patients with infectious mononucleosis (combined total, 38,555). Biopsy specimens of Hodgkin's lymphomas occurring during follow-up in this combined cohort were tested serologically for the presence of EBV. Using this information, we modeled the relative risk of EBV-negative and EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma in different periods after the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and estimated the median incubation time for mononucleosis-related EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma. RESULTS: Only serologically confirmed infectious mononucleosis was associated with a persistently increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Sixteen of 29 tumors (55 percent), obtained from patients with infectious mononucleosis, had evidence of EBV. There was no evidence of an increased risk of EBV-negative Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis. In contrast, the risk of EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly increased (relative risk, 4.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.4 to 4.5). The estimated median incubation time from mononucleosis to EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma was 4.1 years (95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 8.3). CONCLUSIONS: A causal association between infectious mononucleosis-related EBV infection and the EBV-positive subgroup of Hodgkin's lymphomas is likely in young adults. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Oct-2

Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan

2003-01-01

302

Arthropods of Burgess Shale type from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rare non-trilobite arthropods, mostly with affinities with the Burgess Shale fauna, are described from the Middle Cambrian Jince Formation of the Barrandian area, Central Bohemia (Czech Republic: Tuzoia sp., another large Tuzoia-like arthropod (probably a new genus, Proboscicaris hospes sp. n., Helmetia? fastigata sp. n., and Forfexicaris? sp. The status of Pilocystites primitius Barrande, 1887, formerly ranged with echinoderms but here recognized as a Tuzoia fragment, is discussed. Most of described arthropods (except Forfexicaris? sp. are thought to be nektobenthic animals of a shallow-water environment, possibly tolerant to some salinity fluctuations. Relationships, particularly to North American faunas, indicate open migration possibilities between Laurentia and peri-Gondwana regions during the Middle Cambrian.

Chlupá? I

2002-09-01

303

A checklist of arthropods associated with rat carrion in a montane locality of northern Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first report of arthropods associated with carrion in Venezuela, using laboratory bred rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rat carcasses were exposed to colonization by arthropods in neighboring montane savanna and cloud forest habitats in the state of Miranda. The taxonomic composition of the arthropods varied between both ecosystems. Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Micropezidae, Phoridae, Vespidae and one species of ant, were collected only in the cloud forest. Dermestes maculatus, Chrysomya albiceps, Termitidae and most species of ants, were found only in the savanna. Fourteen species were considered to be of primary forensic importance: D. maculatus, Oxelytrum discicolle, Calliphora sp., Cochliomyia macellaria, Compsomyiops sp., C. albiceps, Phaenicia cuprina, P. sericata, P. eximia, Fannia sp., Puliciphora sp., Megaselia scalaris, Ravina sp. and Sarcophaga sp. PMID:17386987

Velásquez, Yelitza

2008-01-15

304

[Post-infectious demyelinating diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-infectious demyelinating disorders are uncommon. In the Hospital Pediatrico de la Misericordia de Santafé de Bogotá there were 14 cases in three years. The commonest age group was the new born, as is found in the literature. The infections involved in these neurological changes are probably viral, since at the time the patient is seen most symptoms have cleared up spontaneously. According to several authors, the viruses are most often found to be those of measles or mumps. Between the infection and the development of neurological symptoms there is an interval of approximately two weeks. The main clinical findings are motor changes such as hemiparesis, involvement of cranial nerves and alterations of consciousness. The aetiology is not completely clear. Firm diagnosis is made on histopathological studies which are seldom available. Usually neuroimaging techniques and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are the basis of the diagnosis. Computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the most useful noninvasive techniques for assessing the involvement of the white matter, the extent and sites of the lesions. It is useful to know the classification of the demyelinating disorders so as to prescribe, the most suitable treatment and give the prognosis in each case. There is still no specific treatment for these disorders. Supportive measures, the control of epileptic crises and the prevention of complications are the main aims. This paper reviews the definition, classification, diagnosis and management of these disorders. PMID:9244627

Medina-Malo, C; Castillo, A; Castaño, S

1997-06-01

305

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

2012-09-01

306

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-10-12

307

Epidemiology of infectious diseases / Infeksjonsepidemiologi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deskriptiv infeksjonsepidemiologi:Anne Eskild, InnledningPreben Aavitsland, Description and use of the Norwegian notification system for infectious diseasesEinar Heldal, Underrapportering av tuberkuloseAnne Eskild og Helvi Holm Samdal, T-celle lymfotropt virus type II (HTLV-II infeksjon blant HIV-smittede intravanøse staffmisbrukerePer Bergjø og medarbeidere, Forekomst av HIV i TanzaniaYngvar Tveten og Bjørn-Erik Kristiansen, Typing av staphylococcus aureus for epidemiologiske formålPreben Aavitsland og Øyvind Nilsen, A new anonymous case reporting system for sexually transmitted diseases in NorwayRisikofaktorer for infeksjonssykdommer:Georg Kapperud, Risikofaktorer for campylobacter-infeksjon i NorgePer Nafstad og medarbeidere, Passiv røyking og nedre luftveisinfeksjoner blant små barn. Er det en sammenheng også i Norge?Eystein Skjerve, Endring i mønsteret av næringsmiddelbårne sjukdommerAndrew Jenkins og medarbeidere, Human papillomavirus types and cervical cancer in NorwayMarit Grønning, Mulig assosiasjon mellom infeksjoner i barneårene og utvikling av multippel sklerose?Matematiske modeller for å forstå epidemiers dynamikk:Hein Stigum, Matematisk modellering av seksuelt overførbare sykdommerStudier av infeksjonsforebyggende strategier:Gunnar Bjune og Preben Aavitsland, Hvordan studere effekten av vaksinering?Bjørn-Erik Kristiansen og Yngvar Tveten, Smitteoppsporing og smittesanering ved tilfeller av meningokokksykdomAndre artikler:Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Egenrapportering av hjerneslag. Validitet og konsekvenser for prevalensestimater

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2009-10-01

308

Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes  

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Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

Ayyagari A

2003-01-01

309

Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River  

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Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2008-01-15

310

Isomin: a novel cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein from an arthropod species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of intermediate filaments (IFs is a hallmark feature of metazoan cells. IFs play a central role in cell organization and function, acting mainly as structural stress-absorbing elements. There is growing evidence to suggest that these cytoskeletal elements are also involved in the integration of signalling networks. According to their fundamental functions, IFs show a widespread phylogenetic expression, from simple diblastic animals up to mammals, and their constituent proteins share the same molecular organization in all species so far analysed. Arthropods represent a major exception in this scenario. Only lamins, the nuclear IF proteins, have so far been identified in the model organisms analysed; on this basis, it has been considered that arthropods do not express cytoplasmic IFs. Results Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, we named it isomin, is a component of the intestinal terminal web and shares with IFs typical biochemical properties, molecular features and reassembly capability. Sequence analysis indicates that isomin is mostly related to the Intermediate Filament protein C (IFC subfamily of Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins, which are molecular constituents of the nematode intestinal terminal web. This finding is coherent with, and provides further support to, the most recent phylogenetic views of arthropod ancestry. Interestingly, the coil 1a domain of isomin appears to have been influenced by a substantial molecular drift and only the aminoterminal part of this domain, containing the so-called helix initiation motif, has been conserved. Conclusions Our results set a new basis for the analysis of IF protein evolution during arthropod phylogeny. In the light of this new information, the statement that the arthropod phylum lacks cytoplasmic IFs is no longer tenable. See commentary article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007-9-16.

Lupetti Pietro

2011-02-01

311

Feeding and the rhodopsin family G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs in nematodes and arthropods  

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Full Text Available In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologues of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster, suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologues of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors.

JoaoCarlos dos ReisCardoso

2012-12-01

312

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell...superintendent, to inspect the premises of such traders and otherwise to execute such State laws...

2010-04-01

313

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations. PMID:23022814

Shuman, E K

2011-01-01

314

Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear.

Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan

2003-01-01

315

Infectious diseases and interpersonal trust: international evidence  

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Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between infectious disease and trust, hypothesizing a negative relationship. In- terpersonal trust is defined as the aggregate response that fellow citizens are trustworthy. We explore stigma as a channel in the relationship. We apply cross-country regression analysis on a sample of 54 countries. We test our hypothesis using data on selected infectious diseases from the World Health Statistics (WHS published by the World Health Organization (WHO and data on trust from the World Values Surveys (WVS. We create an index of infectious disease using factor analysis. The OLS regression equation includes control variables of income inequality, per capita income and human capital. The empirical results are considerably robust showing that higher cases of infectious diseases are negatively associated with trust when controlling for macroeconomic and social variables.

Diego Gonzalez-Medina

2011-04-01

316

[Equine infectious anemia--a review].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed. PMID:25080822

Haas, Ludwig

2014-01-01

317

Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

EK Shuman

2010-12-01

318

[Neurologic manifestations of infectious endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty out of 287 patients (10.4%) admitted to hospital for infective endocarditis between December 1970 and January 1990 had neurological complications. Twenty-three patients had native valve infectious endocarditis and 7 had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The clinical features were characterized by the frequency of aortic valve involvement (23 out of 30) and other complications, especially cardiac failure (16 cases) and peripheral vascular manifestations (7 cases). The commonest organism was the staphylococcus (53% of identified organisms) but the number of negative blood cultures was high (50% of cases). The neurological complication was often the presenting symptom of the endocarditis (19 cases) but it occurred after bacteriological cure in 4 cases. The complications observed were cerebral ischemia (16 cases), cerebral haemorrhage (11 cases), coma (2 cases), and one peripheral neuropathy causing a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome. These complications presented with hemiplegia in 17 cases, a meningeal syndrome in 8 cases, a convulsion in 1 case, a Von Wallenberg syndrome in 1 case, and a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome in 1 case. Twelve patients had a transient or permanent neurological coma. Cerebral CT scan showed ischemic lesions in 7 cases and haemorrhagic lesions in 10 cases. Carotid angiography demonstrated mycotic aneurysms in 6 patients. Twelve patients died: the cause of death was neurological coma (7 cases), low cardiac output (4 cases) and haemorrhagic shock (1 case). Four patients underwent neurosurgery: 3 for clipping a mycotic aneurysm and 1 for drainage of an intracerebral haematoma. Poor prognostic factors were: coma, cardiac failure, cardiac valve prosthesis and, above all, the extent and multiplicity of the neurological lesions. The authors propose the following measures to improve the prognosis: early surgery in cases of large and/or mobile vegetations especially when the infecting organism is a staphylococcus and when a systemic embolism has occurred; routine CT scanning and/or digitised cerebral angiography in all patients with infective endocarditis to detect surgically accessible mycotic aneurysms. PMID:2012489

Hannachi, N; Béard, T; Ben Ismail, M

1991-01-01

319

Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases  

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Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and ...

Ek, Shuman

2010-01-01

320

In vitro synthesis of infectious poliovirus RNA.  

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Replication of the infectious RNA genome of poliovirus is accomplished in cells by the viral RNA polymerase through negative-strand RNA intermediates. Full-length negative-strand poliovirus RNA was synthesized in vitro by transcription of infectious poliovirus cDNA with bacteriophage SP6 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. When provided with this negative-strand RNA as template, the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase synthesized full-length positive-strand molecules. The positive-strand RNAs s...

Kaplan, G.; Lubinski, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Racaniello, V. R.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Infectious Complications in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

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Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant...

AnnaMaria Nosari

2012-01-01

322

Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored site [...] s of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.

Mara P, Pais; Elenice M, Varanda.

2010-04-01

323

Plant Diversity Impacts Decomposition and Herbivory via Changes in Aboveground Arthropods  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. PMID:25226237

Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

2014-01-01

324

Weeds as viable habitat for arthropod species in croplands of central Punjab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)

325

Arthropods, plants, and transmission lines in Arizona: secondary succession in a Sonoran Desert habitat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Overall arthropod densities were low at this site, but the arthropod densities on the disturbed areas appeared to be enhanced after several years. No taxa were found to be statistically different in density between control and disturbed plots. Diversity decreased on the disturbed area after construction. Arthropod community similarity (C) was lower after construction, but C values appear to be related to presence or absence of annual herbs and grasses and not to total cover. Except for globe mallow, there were no pioneer plant species on the experimental plot. Effects of powerline construction on the experimental plant community were a brief reduction in total cover and a slight increase in cover of herbs and annual grasses. The 1976 and 1977 samples exhibit comparable cover values of these plants on both experimental and control plots. The dominant arthropod taxa on the experimental area (especially Thysanoptera, Cicadellidae, Coccinellidae, and Melyridae) appear to be responding numerically to the annual herbs and grasses which are becoming established on the plot.

Johnson, C.D.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Beley, J.R.

1981-09-01

326

THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.  

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Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

2006-08-01

327

Diversity and Community Structure of Aquatic Arthropods in an Irrigated Rice Ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India  

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Full Text Available Inventory, diversity and community structure of aquatic arthropods between weeded and partially weeded rice ecosystems were studied in a field experiment under irrigated condition during Rabi, 2000. The research revealed that a total of 12, 2, 6 and 3 species of Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera aquatic insects were recorded, respectively. Agriocnemis femina femina Brauer of damselfly, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, Crocothemis servilia (Drury and Diplocodes trivialis (Rambur of dragonflies were the dominant species in both the ecosystems, but were significantly more dominant in partially weeded rice ecosystem. Trithemis sp., Rhyothemis variegata (Linnaeus, Anax guttatus (Burmeister of dragonfly and Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletiller + Serville (Giant water bug were absent in weeded rice ecosystem and rest of the species occurred in both the ecosystems. Aquatic beetles, water strider and water scorpion evinced perfect similarity through out the season. But, damselfly, backswimmer and mayfly expressed more than 0.80 similarity and perfect similarity (1.00 during early and maturity stages of crop and showed less stability during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th week. The guild of aquatic arthropods revealed the dominance of predatory groups in partially weeded rice ecosystem through out the season. Same group of aquatic arthropods had not dominated in all the weeks of crop growth, but the group of aquatic arthropods changed during various stages of crop. A total of 18 weed species were recorded in partially weeded plots.

M. Kandibane

2007-01-01

328

Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity  

Science.gov (United States)

Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these “urban plantings” are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant “ecological values” by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban center of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region) over 2, 6 week sampling periods characterized by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation), plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity. Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly—likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

Muller, Jonathon N.; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen; Firn, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

329

NERISK: AN EXPERT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE THE INTEGRATION OF PESTICIDES WITH ARTHROPOD BIOLOGICAL CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

An expert system termed NERISK was developed to evaluate the effects of pesticides on arthropod predators and parasitoids in a variety of agroecosystems. ased on a shell system (RECOG) with minor coding modifications, the system was designed to let even a novice user access the v...

330

ASSESSING PESTICIDE RISK TO ARTHROPOD NATURAL ENEMIES USING EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

A prototype expert system (NERISK) has been developed to help users assess the impact of pesticides on beneficial arthropod predators and parasitoids in agricultural systems. hell program (RECOG) was adapted with minor modifications to allow the encoding of expert opinion on this...

331

Plant Diversity Impacts Decomposition and Herbivory via Changes in Aboveground Arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. PMID:25226237

Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2014-01-01

332

Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored site [...] s of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.

Mara P, Pais; Elenice M, Varanda.

333

Effects of the brown anole invasion and betelnut palm planting on arthropod diversity in southern Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The brown anole ( Anolis sagrei ) occurs naturally in various localities in Central America, and an exotic invasive population was first reported in Sheishan District, Chiayi County, Taiwan, in 2000. Previous studies showed that following the invasion of A. sagrei , the diversity and abundance of local terrestrial arthropods, such as orb spiders and arboreal insects, were severely affected. In this study, we assessed the impact of A. sagrei on arthropod diversity in Taiwan by comparing spider and insect diversities among betelnut palm plantations, in which this lizard species was either present or absent, and a secondary forest. In addition, enclosures were established in which the density of A. sagrei was manipulated to investigate the effect of this predator on spiders. The results of a lizard stomach content analysis showed that spiders comprised 7% and insects 90% of the prey consumed. Among the insects consumed by A. sagrei , more than 50% were ants. The abundances of the major arthropod prey of A. sagrei , such as jumping spiders and hymenopterans, in the lizard-present sites were much lower than in the lizard-removed sites. The enclosure experiments also showed that predation by the lizards significantly reduced the abundance of jumping spiders. All these results indicated that the introduced lizard greatly affected the diversity and abundance of terrestrial arthropods in agricultural areas in southern Taiwan. PMID:19267623

Huang, Shao-Chang; Norval, Gerrut; Wei, Chia-Shian; Tso, I-Min

2008-11-01

334

Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the fossil record.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monophyly of Arthropoda is emphatically supported from both morphological and molecular perspectives. Recent work finds Onychophora rather than Tardigrada to be the closest relatives of arthropods. The status of tardigrades as panarthropods (rather than cycloneuralians) is contentious from the perspective of phylogenomic data. A grade of Cambrian taxa in the arthropod stem group includes gilled lobopodians, dinocaridids (e.g., anomalocaridids), fuxianhuiids and canadaspidids that inform on character acquisition between Onychophora and the arthropod crown group. A sister group relationship between Crustacea (itself likely paraphyletic) and Hexapoda is retrieved by diverse kinds of molecular data and is well supported by neuroanatomy. This clade, Tetraconata, can be dated to the early Cambrian by crown group-type mandibles. The rival Atelocerata hypothesis (Myriapoda+Hexapoda) has no molecular support. The basal node in the arthropod crown group is embroiled in a controversy over whether myriapods unite with chelicerates (Paradoxopoda or Myriochelata) or with crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata). Both groups find some molecular and morphological support, though Mandibulata is presently the stronger morphological hypothesis. Either hypothesis forces an unsampled ghost lineage for Myriapoda from the Cambrian to the mid Silurian. PMID:19854297

Edgecombe, Gregory D

2010-01-01

335

Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

2009-05-01

336

The colonization of land by animals: molecular phylogeny and divergence times among arthropods  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The earliest fossil evidence of terrestrial animal activity is from the Ordovician, ~450 million years ago (Ma. However, there are earlier animal fossils, and most molecular clocks suggest a deep origin of animal phyla in the Precambrian, leaving open the possibility that animals colonized land much earlier than the Ordovician. To further investigate the time of colonization of land by animals, we sequenced two nuclear genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and enolase, in representative arthropods and conducted phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses of those and other available DNA and protein sequence data. To assess the robustness of animal molecular clocks, we estimated the deuterostome-arthropod divergence using the arthropod fossil record for calibration and tunicate instead of vertebrate sequences to represent Deuterostomia. Nine nuclear and 15 mitochondrial genes were used in phylogenetic analyses and 61 genes were used in molecular clock analyses. Results Significant support was found for the unconventional pairing of myriapods (millipedes and centipedes with chelicerates (spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, etc. using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Our estimated time for the divergence of millipedes (Diplopoda and centipedes (Chilopoda was 442 ± 50 Ma, and the divergence of insects and crustaceans was estimated as 666 ± 58 Ma. Our results also agree with previous studies suggesting a deep divergence (~1100 – 900 Ma for arthropods and deuterostomes, considerably predating the Cambrian Explosion seen in the animal fossil record. Conclusions The consistent support for a close relationship between myriapods and chelicerates, using mitochondrial and nuclear genes and different methods of analysis, suggests that this unexpected result is not an artefact of analysis. We propose the name Myriochelata for this group of animals, which includes many that immobilize prey with venom. Our molecular clock analyses using arthropod fossil calibrations support earlier studies using vertebrate calibrations in finding that deuterostomes and arthropods diverged hundreds of millions of years before the Cambrian explosion. However, our molecular time estimate for the divergence of millipedes and centipedes is close to the divergence time inferred from fossils. This suggests that arthropods may have adapted to the terrestrial environment relatively late in their evolutionary history.

Lyons-Weiler Maureen

2004-01-01

337

Inherited microbial symbionts increase herbivore abundances and alter arthropod diversity on a native grass.  

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Some microbial symbionts of plants are maternally inherited and thus functionally increase genetic and phenotypic variation within plant populations. This variation, coupled with that of the host plant and environment, may alter abundances, diversity, and trophic structure of associated plant and animal communities. Fungal endophytes in the genus Neotyphodium are vertically transmitted, asexual microbial symbionts of grasses that remain asymptomatic and rely upon their hosts for resources and transmission via seeds, often providing benefits to their hosts, including protection against herbivores. Endophyte infections may influence associated arthropod communities in agronomic grasses, but the long-term effects of endophytes and variation in host genotype and resource availability on arthropod communities in native grass populations are unknown. We conducted a long-term field experiment with four maternal genotypes of an infected (E+) native grass (Festuca arizonica) from whence the endophyte was experimentally removed (E-) and water availability was controlled, to test the effects of infection, plant genotype, and resources on abundances, biomass, diversity (richness and evenness), and trophic structure of the arthropod community. Generally, E+ grasses harbored more arthropods, including more herbivores, predators, and detritivores, suggesting that the effects of endophytes cascaded upward through trophic levels in terms of abundances, at least in early ontogeny of the host. That E+ plants harbored more herbivorous insects than E- plants suggests that infection does not increase but instead decreases resistance to herbivores, contrary to prevailing concepts of endophytes as defensive mutualists. Infection did not alter overall species richness of the arthropod community or richness of herbivores but reduced natural enemy richness, especially that of parasites, and increased richness of detritivores. Reduced richness and shifts in evenness of natural enemies on E+ plants suggest that endophytes may disproportionately affect diversity at higher trophic levels and may partially explain increases in abundances of herbivorous insects on E+ plants. Biomass of predators, detritivores, and omnivores increased on plants with supplemented water, and arthropod and herbivore biomass varied by plant genotype. Symbiont-mediated phenotypic variation interacts with variation from plant genotype and environmental factors to alter arthropod abundances and diversity, and these effects shift with ontogeny of the host. PMID:20503866

Faeth, Stanley H; Shochat, Eyal

2010-05-01

338

A serological study of exposure to arthropod-borne pathogens in dogs from northeastern Spain.  

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There is limited information regarding the prevalence of many vector borne pathogens in Europe and especially in Spanish dogs. We investigated 206 sick and 260 clinically healthy dogs from three different regions in northeastern Spain for antibodies to Rickettsia conorii (Rc), Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Bartonella henselae (Bh), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb), Leishmania infantum (Li) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and for antigen of Dirofilaria immitis (Di). Total prevalences were the following: Rc (56.4%), Li (30%), Ec (16.7%), Bh (16.8%), Ap (11.5%), Bvb (1.07%), Di (0.6%) and Bb (0.6%). Seroprevalences for Rc, Ec, Ap, Bh, and Bvb and Bb and Di antigens were similar among the three different study sites. The Ec seroprevalence, as determined by Snap 3DX, was statistically lower in dogs from Mallorca (0%) than Tarragona (16%) and Barcelona (5%) (P Bvb, or Bb antibodies or Di antigens. Li seroreactivity was associated with illness and living outdoors (P Bvb is uncommon among dogs from the Mediterranean basin. We also provide serological data that suggests the existence of a novel Ehrlichia species on Mallorca island. PMID:16472522

Solano-Gallego, Laia; Llull, Joan; Osso, Montsant; Hegarty, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward

2006-01-01

339

Field evaluations of topical arthropod repellents in North, Central, and South America.  

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Recently, vector-borne diseases have been resurging in endemic areas and expanding their geographic range into nonendemic areas. Such changes have refocused attention to the potential for major public health events, as naive populations are exposed to these pathogens. Personal topical repellents, recommended by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization, remain a first line of protection against infection. The current study evaluated the repellent efficacy of four new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-registered topical repellent products, two with picaridin as the active ingredient and two with IR3535, against a standard DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide)-based product. All products were evaluated against a wide range of vector species under field conditions across the Americas. Human volunteers were used to evaluate product efficacy as compared with a well-known DEET-based formulation and determine suitability for use by the U.S. military. Findings demonstrated the new formulations performed as well as the standard U.S. military repellent and could be recommended for use. PMID:25276927

Lawrence, Kendra L; Achee, Nicole L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Mundal, Kirk D; Benante, John Paul

2014-09-01

340

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%, dermatological conditions (12% and respiratory illnesses (8%. There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%, as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%. Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4% accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9% and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk.

Lopez-Velez Rogelio

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Immunolocalization of serotonin in Onychophora argues against segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Onychophora (velvet worms represent the most basal arthropod group and play a pivotal role in the current discussion on the evolution of nervous systems and segmentation in arthropods. Although there is a wealth of information on the immunolocalization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT in various euarthropods, as yet no comparable localization data are available for Onychophora. In order to understand how the onychophoran nervous system compares to that of other arthropods, we studied the distribution of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons and histological characteristics of ventral nerve cords in Metaperipatus blainvillei (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae and Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora, Peripatidae. Results We demonstrate that paired leg nerves are the only segmental structures associated with the onychophoran nerve cord. Although the median commissures and peripheral nerves show a repeated pattern, their arrangement is independent from body segments characterized by the position of legs and associated structures. Moreover, the somata of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons do not show any ordered arrangement in both species studied but are instead scattered throughout the entire length of each nerve cord. We observed neither a serially iterated nor a bilaterally symmetric pattern, which is in contrast to the strictly segmental arrangement of serotonergic neurons in other arthropods. Conclusion Our histological findings and immunolocalization experiments highlight the medullary organization of the onychophoran nerve cord and argue against segmental ganglia of the typical euarthropodan type being an ancestral feature of Onychophora. These results contradict a priori assumptions of segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods and, thus, weaken the traditional Articulata hypothesis, which proposes a sistergroup relationship of Annelida and Arthropoda.

Harzsch Steffen

2007-07-01

342

Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.  

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The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so that eventually even communities of low-mobility species become connected. Furthermore, improving the design of green roofs (composition and configuration of vegetation and soil types) could enhance the ecological value, particularly for low-mobility species. PMID:24933819

Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

2014-04-01

343

Abundance of epigaeic arthropods in a Brazilian savanna under different fire frequencies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently [...] and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were subjected to three burning frequencies: frequent (HighFi), intermediary (MidFi), and infrequent (LowFi). In general, we found a positive relationship between the abundance of epigaeic arthropods and fire frequency. When arthropods were analyzed by orders, the abundance of Collembola and Orthoptera was lower in the LowFi site, while for Hemiptera, it was higher in the MidFi site. No significant differences were found for Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae. The abundance of detritivores and herbivores decreased from HighFi to LowFi, but did not change significantly for omnivores and predators. These results indicate that some arthropod groups may not only be resilient to fire effects, but actually might benefit from fire effects in the cerrado. Characterizing arthropod responses to burning frequency at high taxonomic or functional levels is important for applied studies. Based on the results of the current study, springtails and ants seem to be particularly appropriate focal groups for further exploratory studies on the effects of fire at the species level.

Marcio, Uehara-Prado; Ayr de M., Bello; Juliana de O., Fernandes; Adalberto J., Santos; Igor A., Silva; Marcus V., Cianciaruso.

344

Influence of the hypogaeic army ant Dorylus (Dichthadia) laevigatus on tropical arthropod communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of army ant species forage hypogaeically. Due to the difficulties in observing these ants, their potential influence on hypogaeic and epigaeic arthropod communities has not yet been investigated. As the first hypogaeically foraging army ant studied in detail, we attracted Dorylus laevigatus to areas monitored for their arthropod diversity. Here, for the first time, the same sites were sampled before and after an army ant raid. Furthermore, interactions between D. laevigatus and the five most common ground-nesting ant species were noted and their life-history traits compared, allowing first inferences on possible mechanisms of their coexistence. The occurrence of D. laevigatus within a study plot had no evident effect on the number of arthropod taxa or individuals collected with epigaeic and hypogaeic pitfall traps. Likewise, juvenile arthropods, which are less mobile and thus are potentially easier prey for D. laevigatus, showed no differences in their collected numbers before and after the army ant had visited a plot. However, significantly fewer ant species were collected with hypogaeic traps after D. laevigatus had been within the study plots, indicating a possible predation of D. laevigatus especially on two Pseudolasius and one Pheidole species. The five most common ground-foraging ant species demonstrated their ability to avoid, kill, and even prey on the army ant. The reaction of Lophomyrmex bedoti towards D. laevigatus indicated the former to be a potential prey species, while Pachycondyla sp. 2 showed signs of "enemy specification." Odontoponera diversus and O. transversa actively preyed on D. laevigatus, while Pheidologeton affinis fought with D. laevigatus over resources. All ant species could co-occur with D. laevigatus at palm oil baits. Adding to the differences detected in previous studies between D. laevigatus and epigaeically foraging army ant species, the occurrence of this hypogaeic army ant seems to have less devastating effects on arthropod community compositions than those of epigaeically mass raiding species. PMID:12647114

Berghoff, Stefanie M; Maschwitz, Ulrich; Linsenmair, K Eduard

2003-03-01

345

Complex responses to invasive grass litter by ground arthropods in a Mediterranean scrub ecosystem.  

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Plant invasions have tremendous potential to alter food webs by changing basal resources. Recent studies document how plant invasions may contribute to increased arthropod abundances in detritus-based food webs. An obvious mechanism for this phenomenon-a bottom-up effect resulting from elevated levels of detritus from the invasive plant litter-has not been explicitly studied. We examined the effects of an annual grass invasion on ground arthropod assemblages in the coastal sage scrub (CSS) of southern California. Bottom-up food web theory predicts that the addition of detritus would increase generalist-feeding arthropods at all trophic levels; accordingly, we expected increases in fungi, Collembola, and common predators such as mites and spiders. For the common ant taxa, habitat alteration may also be important for predicting responses. Thus we expected that Forelius mccooki and Pheidole vistana, the most common ant species, would decline because of changes in soil temperature (F. mccooki) and habitat structure (P. vistana) associated with litter. We studied trends observationally and conducted a 3-year experiment in which we manipulated litter quantity. In contrast to other published studies, most detritus-based arthropod taxa declined in areas of high grass invasion, and, within trophic levels, responses often varied idiosyncratically. For the two most common taxa, a native ant (F. mccooki), and predatory mites in the Anystidae, we experimentally linked declines in abundance to increased levels of invasive grass litter. Such declines, especially those exhibited by the most common ant taxa, could have cascading effects on the CSS ecosystem, where ants are numerically dominant and thus may have broad influences on food web and ecosystem properties. Our results highlight that accurately predicting arthropod responses to invasive plant litter requires careful consideration of the structural and food resources provided by detritus to each particular food web. PMID:19669165

Wolkovich, Elizabeth Mary; Bolger, Douglas T; Holway, David A

2009-10-01

346

Identifying signature of chemical applications on indigenous and invasive nontarget arthropod communities in vineyards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Communities of arthropods providing ecosystem services (e.g., pest control, pollination, and soil nutrient cycling) to agricultural production systems are influenced by pesticide inputs, yet the impact of pesticide applications on nontarget organisms is normally evaluated through standardized sets of laboratory tests involving individual pesticides applied to a few representative species. By combining season-long pesticide applications of various insecticides and fungicides into a metric based on the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC) toxicity ratings, we evaluate season-long pesticide impacts on communities of indigenous and exotic arthropods across 61 vineyards assessed for an entire growing season. The composition of arthropod communities, identified mostly at the family level, but in some cases at the species level, was altered depending on season-long pesticide use. Numbers of mostly indigenous parasitoids, predatory mites, and coccinellids in the canopy, as well as carabid/tenebrionid beetles and some spider families on the ground, were decreased at higher cumulative pesticide metric scores. In contrast, numbers of one invasive millipede species (Ommatoiulus moreletti Lucas, Julida: Julidae) increased under higher cumulative pesticide metric scores. These changing community patterns were detected despite the absence of broad-spectrum insecticide applications in the vineyards. Pesticide effects were mostly due to indoxacarb and sulphur, applied as a fungicide. The reduction of beneficial arthropods and increase in an invasive herbivorous millipede under high cumulative pesticide metric scores highlights the need to manage nontarget season-long pesticide impacts in vineyards. A cumulative pesticide metric, based on IOBC toxicity ratings, provides a way of assessing overall toxicity effects, giving managers a means to estimate and consider potential negative season-long pesticide impacts on ecosystem services provided through arthropod communities. PMID:20945768

Nash, Michael A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Thomson, Linda J

2010-09-01

347

The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods. PMID:24291285

Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-02-01

348

Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops (p pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface arthropods were the major contributors of variation in overall abundance in extreme temperature months while microarthropods in low-temperature months. CCA analysis revealed the occurrence of different arthropod groups in correspondence with different abiotic variables. Results are discussed in view of position of these arthropods as useful indicators under changing environmental conditions impacting agroecosystems in the study area.

Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail

2014-08-01

349

Revisiting emerging infectious diseases: the unfinished agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases present a formidable threat to the world today. Not only are new infectious diseases emerging, but those presumed to be contained or eradicated are re-emerging. Developing nations, with the least resources to respond, bear the greatest burden of this threat. However, with the potential to spread rapidly and ubiquitously, infectious diseases present a significant risk to the health and development of all nations. No country or population is immune, and geographic and political barriers offer little protection. Many factors facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, including globalization of travel and trade, weakening of national and international public health infrastructure, deterioration of socioeconomic conditions, and heightened political and civil strife in some developing nations. These conditions render populations more vulnerable to infections and provide an environment conducive to the transmission of infectious diseases. Compounding these risk factors is the emergence of another threat: antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness because of their misuse. As a result, the global health community is confronted with the daunting task of combating more offenders with fewer defenses. PMID:11322751

Kombe, G C; Darrow, D M

2001-04-01

350

Targeting arthropod subolesin/akirin for the development of a universal vaccine for control of vector infestations and pathogen transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases caused by arthropod-borne pathogens greatly impact on human and animal health. Recent research has provided evidence that tick protective antigens can be used for development of vaccines with the dual target of controlling arthropod infestations and reducing their vector capacity for pathogens. As reviewed herein, protective antigens such as subolesin/akirin, which are highly conserved across vector species, show promise for use in development of a universal vaccine for the control of arthropod infestations and the reduction of pathogen transmission. However, further research is needed in critical areas towards achieving this goal. PMID:21561715

de la Fuente, José; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Kocan, Katherine M; Galindo, Ruth C; Almazán, Consuelo; Blouin, Edmour F

2011-09-01

351

Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

Miller, Joel C.

2013-06-01

352

Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5  

Science.gov (United States)

When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

353

Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In India, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous. The administrative responsibilities of the health system are shared between the central (federal) and state governments. Control of diseases and outbreaks is the responsibility of the central Ministry of Health, which lacks a formal public health department for this purpose. Tuberculosis, malaria, filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leprosy, HIV infection, and childhood cluster of vaccine-preventable diseases are given priority for control through centrally managed vertical programmes. Control of HIV infection and leprosy, but not of tuberculosis, seems to be on track. Early success of malaria control was not sustained, and visceral leishmaniasis prevalence has increased. Inadequate containment of the vector has resulted in recurrent outbreaks of dengue fever and re-emergence of Chikungunya virus disease and typhus fever. Other infectious diseases caused by faecally transmitted pathogens (enteric fevers, cholera, hepatitis A and E viruses) and zoonoses (rabies, leptospirosis, anthrax) are not in the process of being systematically controlled. Big gaps in the surveillance and response system for infectious diseases need to be addressed. Replication of the model of vertical single-disease control for all infectious diseases will not be efficient or viable. India needs to rethink and revise its health policy to broaden the agenda of disease control. A comprehensive review and redesign of the health system is needed urgently to ensure equity and quality in health care. We recommend the creation of a functional public health infrastructure that is shared between central and state governments, with professional leadership and a formally trained public health cadre of personnel who manage an integrated control mechanism of diseases in districts that includes infectious and non-infectious diseases, and injuries. PMID:21227500

John, T Jacob; Dandona, Lalit; Sharma, Vinod P; Kakkar, Manish

2011-01-15

354

[Present and future of infectious epidemiology].  

Science.gov (United States)

A revision is made on the important biological phenomenon of microbial emergency, based on model infection diseases in which the author can give the own experimental results and experience. The concept of microbial emergency has shocked the traditional infectious epidemiology since 1983 when the HIV virus was discovered and the informatic network reached an optimum efficiency. In despite of the global risk of contagion it is necessary to consider the proximity effect in a space-time model as the main cause of infectious diseases diffusion. PMID:11209556

Suárez Fernández, G

2000-01-01

355

Occupational Infectious Diseases among Healthcare Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important diseases among health care workers resulting from occupational exposure are infectious diseases. All of the communicable diseases could infect health care workers, and may cause diseases leading to death. Although infectious diseases increase among health care workers, measures for control and prevention of these infections are the same for years. These measures may be summarized as handwashing, immunisation and appropriate isolation of infection sources, and using of these basic applications is the primary responsibility of managers and health care workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 495-500

Metin Hasde

2011-08-01

356

Treatment of infectious disease: beyond antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several antibiotics have been discovered following the discovery of penicillin. These antibiotics had been helpful in treatment of infectious diseases considered dread for centuries. The advent of multiple drug resistance in microbes has posed new challenge to researchers. The scientists are now evaluating alternatives for combating infectious diseases. This review focuses on major alternatives to antibiotics on which preliminary work had been carried out. These promising anti-microbial include: phages, bacteriocins, killing factors, antibacterial activities of non-antibiotic drugs and quorum quenching. PMID:24661689

Nigam, Anshul; Gupta, Divya; Sharma, Ashwani

2014-01-01

357

Desiccation stress at sub-zero temperatures in polar terrestrial arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold tolerant polar terrestrial arthropods have evolved a range of survival strategies which enable them to survive the most extreme environmental conditions (cold and drought) they are likely to encounter. Some species are classified as being freeze tolerant but the majority of those found in the Antarctic survive sub-zero temperatures by avoiding freezing by supercooling. For many arthropods, not just polar species, survival of desiccating conditions is equally important to survival of low temperatures. At sub-zero temperatures freeze avoiding arthropods are susceptible to desiccation and may lose water due to a vapour diffusion gradient between their supercooled body fluids and ice in their surroundings. This process ceases once the body fluids are frozen and so is not a problem for freeze tolerant species. This paper compares five polar arthropods, which have evolved different low temperature survival strategies, and the effects of exposure to sub-zero temperatures on their supercooling points (SCP) and water contents. The Antarctic oribatid mite (Alaskozetes antarcticus) reduced its supercooling point temperature from -6 to -30 degrees C, when exposed to decreasing sub-zero temperatures (cooled from 5 to -10 degrees C over 42 days) with little loss of body water during that period. However, Cryptopygus antarcticus, a springtail which occupies similar habitats in the Antarctic, showed a decrease in both water content and supercooling ability when exposed to the same experimental protocol. Both these Antarctic arthropods have evolved a freeze avoiding survival strategy. The Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus), which is also freeze avoiding, dehydrated (from 2.4 to 0.7 g water g(-1) dry weight) at sub-zero temperatures and its SCP was lowered from c. -3 to below -15 degrees C in direct response to temperature (5 to -5.5 degrees C). In contrast, the freeze tolerant larvae of an Arctic fly (Heleomyza borealis) froze at c. -7 degrees C with little change in water content or SCP during further cold exposure and survived frozen to -60 degrees C. The partially freeze tolerant sub-Antarctic beetle Hydromedion sparsutum froze at c. -2 degrees C and is known to survive frozen to -8 degrees C. During the sub-zero temperature treatment, its water content reduced until it froze and then remained constant. The survival strategies of such freeze tolerant and freeze avoiding arthropods are discussed in relation to desiccation at sub-zero temperatures and the evolution of strategies of cold tolerance. PMID:12769994

Worland, M Roger; Block, William

2003-03-01

358

Arthropods in Natural Communities in Mescal Agave (Agave durangensis Gentry in an Arid Zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The arthropods have a very important role in the arid zones due to their interactions with many organism and because they constituted an important element in the structure of the plant community. Nevertheless their importance there are few knowledge about the community of arthropods associated to vegetation in arid zones in the North of Mexico. The present study had the objective of determining the abundance, richness and diversity of arthropods in three localities where there are natural populations of mescal agave in the State of Durango, Mexico. Approach: In order to know the structure community of the arthropods associated to the mescal agave, we perform a sampling schedule during March 2008 to November 2010 by direct collection, using transects in three different localities with the presence of mescal agave. The relative abundance, species richness, Shannon’s diversity index, Pielou’s Index of evenness, Jaccard’s similitude and Simpson’s dominance indexes were determined. Results: A total of 4665 individual arthropods associated to mescal agave corresponding to 39 species were found. El Mezquital had the highest abundance and relative abundance (44.1% with 29 species. The mean species abundance was not significantly different between localities using Turkey’s test. The highest density per unit of area was found in El Mezquital (La Brena had the highest species diversity (1.89, evenness (0.61 and dominance (0.78. At the taxon level, Hymenoptera had the highest number of species represented (14, followed by Coleoptera (9 and hemiptera (5, with the remaining taxons with four, two and one species each. Conclusion: The greatest similitude was observed between La Brena and El Mezquital (46% which shared seven taxons, while the least similitude was observed between El Venado and La Brena (29%. Dominance/diversity curves are presented for each locality. The species Caulotops sp., Acutaspis agavis, Chilorus sp., Scyphophorus acupunctatus and Peltophorus polymitus were the ones with highest relative abundance. Although the diversity values are above the minimum, previously unreported arthropod species associated to mescal agave were recorded. The results can be useful to know the dynamic in the community associated to agave, in order to development best conservation and exploit management of that important plant.

Maria P. Gonzalez-Castillo

2011-01-01

359

Tourism and Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in the Americas: What Physicians Must Remember for Patient Diagnosis and Care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging diseases are those which have shown an increased in humans over the last 20 years. Re-emerging diseases are those which have reappeared after a period of significant decrease in incidence. The etiological agents of these diseases in the Western Hemisphere are viruses (HIV, dengue, oroupuche, sabia, guanarito, or hanta), bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Borrellia burgdorferi, Legionella pneumofila, Eseherichia coli 0157:H7, or other bacteria with a new pattern of antibiotic resistance), or parasites (Cryptosporidia, Cyclosporidia or drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum). Due to the widespread geographical distribution of these infectious diseases in the Americas, and an increasing number of travellers (more than 87 million persons within the region in 1997), there are many opportunities to contract an infection when travelling in developed or undeveloped countries. The infection may present with symptoms during the trip, or following the traveler s return to his or her place of origin. However, too often practicing physicians do not inquire about the travel history of their patients and, when they do, they often lack the information about diseases relevant to travelers. From the regional perspective, the emerging or reemerging agents that pose a higher risk to tourists or travelers are: 1) those that cause enteric infections; 2) sexually transmitted diseases; and 3) vector-borne diseases, including those present in ecotourism areas. Emerging and re-emerging diseases that physicians may encounter in their clinical practice while caring for travelers returning from different countries of the Western Hemisphere are briefly described (Lyme disease, legionellosis, dengue, yellow fever, P. falciparum malaria, cyclosporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis). This report attempts to draw attention to the fact that new clinical and etiological entities are present in several geographical areas of the Americas; to place each of these entities into an epidemiological context; and to end the misconception that only travel to poor countries carries a risk of acquiring an infection. By knowing which infectious agents occur in each area and the incubation period of each disease, the treating physician can often treat patients successfully. Health care professionals must be aware of the organisms circulating in the region so that they have them in mind during their clinical practice. PMID:11098191

Schmunis; Corber

1999-04-01

360

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed.

Crossley, Jr, D A

1980-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed