WorldWideScience

Sample records for arthropod vector-borne infectious

  1. Surveillance of Arthropod Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases Using Remote Sensing Techniques: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availabi...

  2. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly significant in resource-poor countries in the tropics and semi-tropics. Some measures to meet this threat are outlined.

  3. Disentangling Vector-Borne Transmission Networks: A Universal DNA Barcoding Method to Identify Vertebrate Hosts from Arthropod Bloodmeals

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón C; Muñoz, Joaquín; Figuerola, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. About one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. In this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector-host interactions and disease ecology. However, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international DNA barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of v...

  4. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  5. Spatial Genetic Structure of a Vector-Borne Generalist Pathogen ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D.; Bittleston, Leonora S.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne generalist pathogens colonize several reservoir species and are usually dependent on polyphagous arthropods for dispersal; however, their spatial genetic structure is generally poorly understood. Using fast-evolving genetic markers (20 simple sequence repeat loci, resulting in a total of 119 alleles), we studied the genetic structure of the vector-borne plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in Napa Valley, CA, where it causes Pierce's disease when it is transmitted to gra...

  6. VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Mijovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ecological characteristics, the vectors and infective agents, present the accidence for expansion and increasing importance of these infections in national pathology. According to the fact that it is an international port of nautical, continental and air traffic, Montenegro has responsibility for control and management of diseases belonging to the group of the travel and tropical diseases.

  7. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall pattern are likely to facilitate the spread and establishment of new vector borne diseases in the Baltic See Region. There are a large number of potential vector borne threats to the area. Existing endemic vector borne diseases are likely to increase and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European out...

  8. Emerging Vector-borne Diseases in a Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Nurdan

    2005-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, demographic and societal changes, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, genetic changes in pathogens in the last two decades of the twentieth century. Climate changes also can influence the emergence and reemergence of these diseases which are malaria, dengue, yellow fever, plague, filariasis, louse-borne typhus, lyme disease, trypanoso...

  9. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  10. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne di...

  11. Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections

    OpenAIRE

    Machado João; Costa Álvaro; Rodrigues Filipa T; Yisaschar-Mekuzas Yael; Cardoso Luís; Diz-Lopes Duarte; Baneth Gad

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents ...

  12. Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, S; Baneth, G

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions. PMID:16126213

  13. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasi...

  14. Spatial genetic structure of a vector-borne generalist pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Bittleston, Leonora S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2011-04-01

    Vector-borne generalist pathogens colonize several reservoir species and are usually dependent on polyphagous arthropods for dispersal; however, their spatial genetic structure is generally poorly understood. Using fast-evolving genetic markers (20 simple sequence repeat loci, resulting in a total of 119 alleles), we studied the genetic structure of the vector-borne plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in Napa Valley, CA, where it causes Pierce's disease when it is transmitted to grapevines from reservoir plants in adjacent riparian vegetation. Eighty-three different X. fastidiosa multilocus microsatellite genotypes were found in 93 isolates obtained from five vineyards, resulting in an index of clonal fraction closer to 0 and a Simpson's genotypic diversity index (D) closer to a maximum value of 1. Moderate values of Nei's gene diversity (H(Nei); average H(Nei) = 0.41) were observed for most of the X. fastidiosa populations. The low Wright's index of genetic diversity among populations calculated by the FSTAT software (Wright's F(ST) index) among population pairs (0.0096 to 0.1080) indicated a weak or absent genetic structure among the five populations; a panmictic population was inferred by Bayesian analyses (with the STRUCTURE and BAPS programs). Furthermore, a Mantel test showed no significant genetic isolation by distance when both Nei (r = -0.3459, P = 0.268) and linearized (r = -0.3106, P = 0.269) indices were used. These results suggest that the riparian vegetation from which vectors acquire the pathogen prior to inoculation of grapevines supports a diverse population of X. fastidiosa. PMID:21317251

  15. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall pattern are likely to facilitate the spread and establishment of new vector borne diseases in the Baltic See Region. There are a large number of potential vector borne threats to the area. Existing endemic vector borne diseases are likely to increase and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European outbreaks of important zoonotic mosquito borne infections like Rift Valley Fever in cattle and Japanese Encephalitis in swine. Being able to model the impact of climate and environmental change on the transmission intensity of vector borne diseases is potentially a powerful tool to both monitor and prevent outbreaks in a cost effective way. The recent unexpected outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus in ruminants have been attributed an increase in European temperatures. Mathematical models clearly demonstratethe potential for increased virus transmission at elevated temperatures. however there is little evidence to support the idea that the spread of these tropical viruses in northern Europe is the direct result of climate change. The potential for virus transmission by biting midges was here modeled monthly for the Baltic See Region and the rest of Europe. The results showed that Baltic See Region has a lower transmission potential than most other areas in Europe. And the model identified an increasing trend in transmission potential over the last 25 years. However the model suggested that the climate in the Baltic See Region has always permitted transmission of these diseases. The model therefore suggests that a presently unknown factor until recently prevented introduction and spread in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models to pinpoint the next outbreak of an exotic vector borne disease. A new outbreak will most likely be detected by a veterinarian deciding to submit a sample based on a subjective clinical suspicion. But the question is how far the epidemic will progress before a veterinarian decides to submit this crucial sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones, thus allowing easy access to risk estimates when in the field. Knowing when and where the potential risk for transmission of a specific vector borne disease is high is likely to help veterinarians decide when and when not to submit a sample to a diagnostic laboratory. This may both increase sensitivity of national surveillance and reduce the cost.

  16. The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis. The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

  17. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network. The framework built provides a flexible and robust informatics infrastructure by separating the modules of functionality through an ontological model for vector-borne disease. The VBD?AIR tool is designed as an evidence base for visualizing the risks of vector-borne disease by air travel for a wide range of users, including planners and decisions makers based in state and local government, and in particular, those at international and domestic airports tasked with planning for health risks and allocating limited resources.

  18. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may increase Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10/26

  19. What is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in United States national parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; Shelus, Victoria; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-03-01

    United States national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5-10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks. PMID:23540107

  20. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

  1. Recent study on canine vector-borne zoonoses in southern Slovakia - serologic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?abanová, Viktória; Pantchev, Nikola; Hurníková, Zuzana; Miterpáková, Martina

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade a significant spread of Canine Vector Borne Diseases has been recorded in Central Europe. The aim of the study described here, was to collect current data on the occurrence and distribution of three major canine vector-borne pathogens in the veterinary clinical practice by a newly-developed commercial ELISA test for the detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen as well as specific circulating antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Circulating D. immitis antigen was detected in five of 180 investigated sera samples. Two of D. immitis seropositive dogs revealed also microfilariae of D. repens in the blood and three of them were negative for the presence of microfilariae in the Knott´s test. From the practical point of view, the finding of D. immitis occult infections might influence existing knowledge about distribution of this species among dogs in Central European countries. In 11.7% of the tested dogs the presence of specific antibodies against A. phagocytophilum was confirmed. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 2.8% of tested sera samples. Coinfection with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. was observed in two dogs from Košice district in south-eastern Slovakia. Our data point toward the presence of Canine Vector Borne Diseases in the studied area. Therefore, veterinarians should include these diseases in their differential diagnosis and higher awareness should be focused also on prophylactic measures to prevent the pathogens transmission by arthropod vectors. PMID:26408601

  2. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases – Incidence through Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Savi?, Sara; Vidi?, Branka; Grgi?, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same pla...

  3. Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birgit; Bødker, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of vector species is generally restricted by a range of different climatic and geographical factors, while the development and spread of the vector-borne diseases (veterinary and zoonotic) is often primarily temperature driven. Thus temperature and its derivatives are key factors in the modelling of vector-borne diseases. This puts a high demand on the quality and accuracy of the temperature data to be used as input in such models. In order to best capture the local temporal and...

  4. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare

    2012-01-01

    The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 ...

  5. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor : 3.941, year: 2013

  6. Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    1996-12-31

    Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

  7. A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

  8. Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Meli, Marina L; Dreher, Ute M; Gönczi, Enikö; Deplazes, Peter; Braun, Ueli; Engels, Monika; Schüpbach, Jörg; Jörger, Kaspar; Thoma, Rudolf; Griot, Christian; Stärk, Katharina D C; Willi, Barbara; Schmidt, Joseph; Kocan, Katherine M; Lutz, Hans

    2004-08-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease. This was the first severe disease outbreak associated with concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens in alpine Switzerland; it was presumably curtailed by culling of the entire herd. It remains to be seen whether similar disease outbreaks will have to be anticipated in northern Europe in the future. PMID:15297529

  9. Disrupting the Transmission of a Vector-Borne Plant Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Killiny, Nabil; Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to...

  10. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Otranto Domenico; Dantas-Torres Filipe; Brianti Emanuele; Traversa Donato; Petri? Dusan; Genchi Claudio; Capelli Gioia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic area...

  11. Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado João

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98% had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%. Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%, E. canis in two (4%, and H. canis in one (2% out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%, November (27%, December (20%, February (13% and March (9%. Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50% out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9% included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected with L. infantum, E. canis or H. canis. Furthermore, this is the first molecular identification of H. canis in dogs from northern Portugal.

  12. Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2012-02-01

    Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism. PMID:22101059

  13. Patterns of change in vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, D H

    1997-10-01

    The statuses of vector-borne diseases have changed over recent years. How a few such diseases have changed and the primary causes of change (urbanization, increased conflict, changes in water-resource management, ecological and environmental change, and reduced health service resourcing) are the subjects of the present review. The key impacts which these primary causes have on selected vectors and the infections they transmit are tabulated. The success of vector-control programmes against onchocerciasis and Chagas disease is discussed, and the methods used to evaluate the epidemiological impact of such controls are described. Bednet programmes for control of malaria are recognized as a potential future means of reducing morbidity and mortality in children. In contrast to the success achieved in limiting Simulium and Triatoma populations through vertical programmes, control of tsetse, whilst successful in Uganda, has not been utilized to stem recent epidemics of sleeping sickness in resource-stressed settings in Central Africa. Vector-borne diseases will continue to be a problem because of the adaptability of vectors, the potential problems of managing effective vector controls within decentralized health systems, and the influence of activities outside the health sector itself. Changes beyond the health sector can increase the problem posed by a vector and increase the frequency of transmission. PMID:9625939

  14. The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units. PMID:25074596

  15. Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzag, Naouelle; Petit, Elisabeth; Gandoin, Christelle; Bouillin, Corinne; Ghalmi, Farida; Haddad, Nadia; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2015-02-01

    Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indicates that 17.8% of the 213 analyzed dogs were positive for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma with a prevalence of 4.2% for E. canis, 14.1% for Anaplama platys and 0% for A. phagocytophilum. Seven (7.1%) of the tested dogs were positive for Bartonella spp. with two characterized as Bartonella rochalimae, four as B. henselae and one as B.v. subsp. berkhoffii. PMID:25638478

  16. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otranto Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

  17. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  18. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GræsbØll, Kaare

    2012-01-01

    The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters. In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high predictive power. Furthermore this PhD has provided a new method of estimating the effect of light traps, which can estimate the additive effect of closely placed traps, and determine trap range of individual traps based on emitted light intensity. Moreover there has been devised a method to sample in time which maximizes information about time dependence and is robust to changes.

  19. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braks, M.; Medlock, J. M.; Hubálek, Zden?k; Hjertqvist, M.; Perrin, Y.; Lancelot, R.; Duchyene, E.; Hendrickx, G.; Stroo, A.; Heyman, P.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 280 (2014), s. 280. ISSN 2296-2565 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : disease burden * emerging diseases * one health * surveillance * threat * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  20. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hongoh Valerie; Hoen Anne; Aenishaenslin Cécile; Waaub Jean-Philippe; Bélanger Denise; Michel Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. How...

  1. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This m...

  2. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may ...

  3. Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guégan Jean-François

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious diseases, with SIR models could be seen as an implicit standard in epidemiology. Unfortunately, these models are based on differential equations and, therefore, can become very rapidly unmanageable due to the too many parameters which need to be taken into consideration. For instance, in the case of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in wildlife many different potential host species could be involved in the life-cycle of disease transmission, and SIR models might not be the most suitable tool to truly capture the overall disease circulation within that environment. This limitation underlines the necessity to develop a standard spatial model that can cope with the transmission of disease in realistic ecosystems. Results Computational biology may prove to be flexible enough to take into account the natural complexity observed in both natural and man-made ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a new computational model to study the transmission of infectious diseases in a spatially explicit context. We developed a multi-agent system model for vector-borne disease transmission in a realistic spatial environment. Conclusion Here we describe in detail the general behavior of this model that we hope will become a standard reference for the study of vector-borne disease transmission in wildlife. To conclude, we show how this simple model could be easily adapted and modified to be used as a common framework for further research developments in this field.

  4. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.

  5. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are similar in terms of multiple pathogen infection to the data recorded for dogs from Portugal. Based on these findings the importation of dogs from endemic predominantly Mediterranean regions to Germany as well as travelling with dogs to these regions carries a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Thus we would conclude that pet owners seek advice of the veterinarians prior to importing a dog from an endemic area or travel to such areas. In general, it might be advisable to have a European recording system for translocation of dogs.

  6. Development and Validation of Remote Sensing-Based Surface Inundation Products for Vector-Borne Disease Risk in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K.; McDonald, K. C.; Ceccato, P.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.

    2014-12-01

    The potential impact of climate variability and change on the spread of infectious disease is of increasingly critical concern to public health. Newly-available remote sensing datasets may be combined with predictive modeling to develop new capabilities to mitigate risks of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and rift valley fever. We have developed improved remote sensing-based products for monitoring water bodies and inundation dynamics that have potential utility for improving risk forecasts of vector-borne disease epidemics. These products include daily and seasonal surface inundation based on the global mappings of inundated area fraction derived at the 25-km scale from active and passive microwave instruments ERS, QuikSCAT, ASCAT, and SSM/I data - the Satellite Water Microwave Product Series (SWAMPS). Focusing on the East African region, we present validation of this product using multi-temporal classification of inundated areas in this region derived from high resolution PALSAR (100m) and Landsat (30m) observations. We assess historical occurrence of malaria in the east African country of Eritrea with respect to the time series SWAMPS datasets, and we aim to construct a framework for use of these new datasets to improve prediction of future malaria risk in this region. This work is supported through funding from the NASA Applied Sciences Program, the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program, and the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program. This study is also supported and monitored by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under Grant - CREST Grant # NA11SEC4810004. The statements contained within the manuscript/research article are not the opinions of the funding agency or the U.S. government, but reflect the authors' opinions. This work was conducted in part under the framework of the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative. ALOS PALSAR data were provided by JAXA EORC.

  7. Vector-borne pathogens in arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarelli, Patricia E; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J; Alisauskas, Ray T; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relatively low biodiversity within arctic ecosystems, arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, could serve as sentinels for the study of changes in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of 5 different genera of vector borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp.) using blood collected from 28 live-trapped arctic foxes from the region of Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Bartonella henselae (n?=?3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (n?=?1), Ehrlichia canis (n?=?1), and an Anaplasma sp. (n?=?1) DNA were PCR amplified and subsequently identified by sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidence that vector borne pathogens, not typically associated with the arctic ecosystem, exist at low levels in this arctic fox population, and that vector exposure, pathogen transmission dynamics, and changes in the geographic distribution of pathogens over time should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25596149

  8. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario. The most robust vaccination scenarios were all holdings vaccinated and the mandatory vaccination of hosts on pasture. Regional vaccination and trench vaccination display better results under some conditions, but are very sensitive to the incursion route. With this study we intended to test scenarios that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable. Results in this presentation were obtained building upon the model presented in: Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Kaare Græsbøll et al. Scientific Reports. 2:863 (2012).

  9. Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Leach, Steve A

    2015-06-01

    During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution. From a veterinary perspective, the emergence of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses show that northern Europe is equally susceptible to transmission of vector-borne disease. These changes are in part due to increased globalisation, with intercontinental air travel and global shipping transport creating new opportunities for invasive vectors and pathogens. However, changes in vector distributions are being driven by climatic changes and changes in land use, infrastructure, and the environment. In this Review, we summarise the risks posed by vector-borne diseases in the present and the future from a UK perspective, and assess the likely effects of climate change and, where appropriate, climate-change adaptation strategies on vector-borne disease risk in the UK. Lessons from the outbreaks of West Nile virus in North America and chikungunya in the Caribbean emphasise the need to assess future vector-borne disease risks and prepare contingencies for future outbreaks. Ensuring that adaptation strategies for climate change do not inadvertently exacerbate risks should be a primary focus for decision makers. PMID:25808458

  10. Epidemiological aspects on vector-borne infections in stray and pet dogs from Romania and Hungary with focus on Babesia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Lescai, Daniel; Pfister, Kurt

    2012-04-01

    Canine arthropod-borne infections are of major interest in small animal practice and have been widely investigated in Central and Western Europe. However, only limited epidemiological data are available from South-Eastern European countries, although diseases including babesiosis or dirofilariosis are widely recognised as important canine infections in these countries. A steadily increasing number of dogs imported from South-Eastern Europe into Germany require particular attention by small animal practitioners. In this study, a total of 216 dogs [29 local Romanian pet dogs presented at Salvavet Veterinary Clinic in Bucharest, Romania, and 187 imported stray dogs from Romania (n?=?109) and Hungary (n?=?78) into Germany] were screened by molecular biological, serological and haematological methods for canine arthropod-borne infections. Eleven different parasitic and bacterial vector-borne pathogens-Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Babesia felis-like, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Mycoplasma haemocanis-were detected. Fifty-six percent of the dogs were positive by direct methods. B. canis canis was the most prevalent pathogen in dogs imported to Germany (42.8%) and dogs submitted for clinical consultation in Bucharest (44.8%). Our data strongly suggest the introduction of an adjusted screening panel in dogs from South-East Europe in view of increasing importation of dogs into Germany. PMID:21947342

  11. Feline vector-borne pathogens in the north and centre of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhena Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, several clinical cases and epidemiological studies of feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have been reported worldwide. Nonetheless, information on FVBD agents and their prevalence in Portugal is scarce. Methods: Three-hundred and twenty domestic cats presented to 30 veterinary medical centres in the north and centre regions of Portugal were randomly sampled. Blood was assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genera Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, genus Babes...

  12. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular. PMID:22206355

  13. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Anyamba, Assaf; Jennifer L. Small; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010–2012 period. We utilized 2000–2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in tempe...

  14. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

  15. Relative Susceptibility of Vitis vinifera Cultivars to Vector-Borne Xylella fastidiosa through Time

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P.; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse cond...

  16. An Environmental Data Set for Vector-Borne Disease Modeling and Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on...

  17. Bayesian data assimilation provides rapid decision support for vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Chris; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Whereas host population data is typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen utilising a vector for which data is unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their abilit...

  18. Vector-borne disease problems in rapid urbanization: new approaches to vector control.

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, A.B.; Slooff, R.

    1992-01-01

    Owing to population growth, poor levels of hygiene, and increasing urban poverty, the urban environment in many developing countries is rapidly deteriorating. Densely packed housing in shanty towns or slums and inadequate drinking-water supplies, garbage collection services, and surface-water drainage systems combine to create favourable habitats for the proliferation of vectors and reservoirs of communicable diseases. As a consequence, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filaria...

  19. Global Trends in the Use of Insecticides to Control Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, H.; Zaim, M.; Yadav, R. S.; Soares, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Mnzava, A; Hii, J.; A. P. Dash; Ejov, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on insecticide use for vector control are essential for guiding pesticide management systems on judicious and appropriate use, resistance management, and reduction of risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We studied the global use and trends of insecticide use for control of vector-borne diseases for the period 2000 through 2009. Methods: A survey was distributed to countries with vector control programs to request national data on vector control insecticide u...

  20. Spatial and integrated modelling of the transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic infections

    OpenAIRE

    Linard, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Several vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have emerged or re-emerged in Europe over these last decades. Besides climate change that influences disease risk at a regional scale, landscape changes could be responsible for local heterogeneities in disease risk. Spatial epidemiology tries to understand and predict spatial variations in disease risk by using spatial tools and spatially-explicit modelling methods. This study investigated the impact of fine-grained landscape patterns on the transmi...

  1. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Aerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  2. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  3. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted at eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates of the future risk of outbreaks in the Nordic countries. DTU Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous riskassessment of potential spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. Mathematical models for selected vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data and vector data to quantify the present risk of outbreaks in case an infected vector or host is introduced to the area.

  4. Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

    2013-12-01

    Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. PMID:23480672

  5. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jamie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  6. Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Meli, M. L.; Dreher, U M; Gönczi, E.; Deplazes, P.; Braun, U.; Engels, M; Schüpbach, J; Jörger, K; Thoma, R; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C; Willi, B; Schmidt, J.; Kocan, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease...

  7. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoaoPedra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor (NF-kB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome – a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL-1? and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

  8. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk van den Berg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. APPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. Teaching farmers about these two concepts together is known as "integrated pest and vector management". LOCAL SETTING: An intersectoral project targeting rice irrigation systems in Sri Lanka. RELEVANT CHANGES: Project partners developed a new curriculum for the field school that included a component on vector-borne diseases. Rice farmers in intervention villages who graduated from the field school took vector-control actions as well as improving environmental sanitation and their personal protection measures against disease transmission. They also reduced their use of agricultural pesticides, especially insecticides. LESSONS LEARNED: The intervention motivated and enabled rural people to take part in vector-management activities and to reduce several environmental health risks. There is scope for expanding the curriculum to include information on the harmful effects of pesticides on human health and to address other public health concerns. Benefits of this approach for community-based health programmes have not yet been optimally assessed. Also, the institutional basis of the integrated management approach needs to be broadened so that people from a wider range of organizations take part. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to measure the performance of integrated management initiatives.

  9. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. This model was examined relative to two mosquito vectors, both competent carriers of dengue fever, a viral, vector-borne disease. Models which incorporate public health considerations can enable decision makers to take proactive steps to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the changing environmental conditions. In this paper we provide a snapshot of our climate initiative and some examples relative to our public health practice work in vector-borne diseases to illustrate how integrated decision support could be of assistance to regional and local communities worldwide.

  10. Genetic resistance: tolerance to vector-borne diseases and the prospects and challenges of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbahani, H; Hanotte, O

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases in cattle and small ruminants (e.g. trypanosomosis, Rift Valley fever and East Coast fever) are associated with major economic losses in tropical countries, and particularly on the African continent. A variety of control strategies (e.g. management, vaccination and/or acaricide treatments) are used to minimise their negative impacts. These strategies are often associated with environmental, technical and/or economic drawbacks. However, several indigenous livestock populations have been reported to show a level of genetic tolerance or resistance to such disease challenges (e.g. trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and Djallonké sheep). Use of these populations represents a sustainable alternative approach to minimising the negative impact of such infection/infestation on livestock production. This review summarises the current understanding of the genetic control of these adaptations, identifies knowledge gaps and critically examines the possible impacts of genomics approaches to the genetic improvement of tolerance and/or resistance to vector-borne diseases. PMID:26470457

  11. An environmental data set for vector-borne disease modeling and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

  12. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Ural

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from ?zmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  13. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  14. Bayesian data assimilation provides rapid decision support for vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Chris P; Brown, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Although host population data are typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen using a vector for which data are unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their ability to provide quantitative risk forecasts. The Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) outbreak in New Zealand cattle demonstrates this problem: even though the vector has received extensive laboratory study, a high degree of uncertainty persists over its national demographic distribution. Addressing this, we develop a Bayesian data assimilation approach whereby indirect observations of vector activity inform a seasonal spatio-temporal risk surface within a stochastic epidemic model. We provide quantitative predictions for the future spread of the epidemic, quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters, case infection times and the disease status of undetected infections. Importantly, we demonstrate how our model learns sequentially as the epidemic unfolds and provide evidence for changing epidemic dynamics through time. Our approach therefore provides a significant advance in rapid decision support for novel vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:26136225

  15. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined withgeographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-bornediseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic andenvironmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the informationderived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture,soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of othergeoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classicalstudies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseasescontrol. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation ofthe vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association withgeoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonalvariations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector-borne diseasescan be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  16. Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2015-04-01

    The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, and buffalo, which are reservoirs of Theileria parva. The latter causes Corridor disease when transmitted from buffaloto cattle, butthis appearsto be a self-limiting condition, at least in southern Africa. Wild animals are important reservoirs of tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma spp. infection. The distribution and abundance of some tsetse species, e.g. Glossina morsitans and G. pallidipes, are closely related to the occurrence of their preferred wildlife hosts. PMID:26470454

  17. Climate change and the distribution of vector borne diseases with special reference to African horse sickness virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of climate change, those components of climate that are likely to have major effects upon distribution, seasonal incidence and prevalence of vector borne diseases are described. On the basis of a predicted, mean temperature increase of the order of 1 to 3.5 deg. C., examples are given of the sort of changes that are to be expected by using a range of internationally important human and animal pathogens. Recent dramatic alterations in the epidemiology of the OIE List ''A'' disease, African horse sickness, are drawn upon to put forward the proposition that climate change may already be having a major effect upon some vector borne diseases. (author)

  18. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Ballweber, Lora R; Allen, Kelly; Little, Susan E; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs. PMID:25686301

  19. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorelei L., Clarke; Lora R., Ballweber; Kelly, Allen; Susan E., Little; Michael R., Lappin.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Convention [...] al polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsiaspp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  20. Promoting Spatial Data Synthesis for Vector-Borne Disease Assessment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD ?ANDRU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the continually human interaction with the environment, the present paper reveals the spatial data integration of environmental factors such as topography, vegetation and surface temperature with epidemiological statistical data for assessing vector-borne diseases in Romania, monitored between 2009 and 2011. This study is a small piece of a big puzzle, part of an extended research that evaluates the contribution of geospatial and ground observation data to public health assessment. It is intended to implement a useful and innovative system for Romania’s public health, which provides information on various aspects such as the prevalence of diseases, facilities that are available in order to take decisions on, either for creating infrastructure facilities or for taking immediate actions to handle situations.

  1. Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reusken Chantal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vector borne disease (VBD emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends.

  2. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  3. Arthropod origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconsideration of the position of trilobite-like arthropods leads to an idea of the last shared ancestor of known (euarthropods. The ancestry and morphological evolution is traced back from this form to a hypothetical ciliated and pseudosegmented slug-like ancestor. Evolution logically passed through a lobopodian stage. Extant onychophorans, Cambrian xenusians, and perhaps anomalocaridids with their kin (the Dinocaridida may represent probable offshoots on the way. As such, these groups are highly derived and not ancestral to the arthropods. Results of molecular studies indicate a relationship to moulting worms, which at first could seem to be in conflict with what was just said. However, if this is correct, the arthropod and moulting worm lineages must have diverged when some 'coelomate' features such as specific vascular and neural systems were still present. The moulting worms would therefore have lost such characters, either only once or several times.

  4. Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Sentinel surveillance systems with special focus on vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, V; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C

    2006-01-01

    In the past few decades, vector-borne diseases have been spreading into countries previously free of these agents. It is necessary for a surveillance method to be tailored to the biology of these agents in order to detect their incursion. Using a sentinel herd system, it is possible to target high-risk areas where occurrence is most probably due to vector presence. Since the 1970s, diseases such as Akabane, vesicular stomatitis and Bluetongue disease have successfully been monitored using cattle herds as sentinels in many countries such as Saudi Arabia, Australia, China, Indonesia, Sultanate of Oman and most recently in countries in Western Europe. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of sentinel herd surveillance systems in general. In order to determine their efficacy, the following criteria were found to be essential: the choice of sentinel locations, sentinel animal, seasonality of sampling and diagnostic testing methods. We conclude that due to its ability to focus on a specific disease, sentinel herd systems have been successful in the early detection of the spread of a targeted agent. This review is used as a basis for recommendations for the development of future sentinel herd systems. PMID:17389055

  6. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  7. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  8. Environmental change and water-related, vector borne diseases in eastern Africa: the HEALTHY FUTURES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Kienberger, Stefan; Tompkins, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Pathogens that spend time outside the human body, and any organisms involved in their transmission, have particular ecological requirements; as environment, including climate, conditions change, then the transmission characteristics of associated pathogens - and the diseases caused - are also likely to vary. Relationships between environment and health in many parts of the world remain poorly studied and are often overlooked, however. This is particularly the case in developing countries, because of budgetary and available expertise constraints. Moreover the relationship is often confounded by other factors. These other factors contribute to human vulnerability, and thus to the overall disease risk due to environmental change. This presentation will highlight the importance of environmental, including climate, change information to a better understanding of the risks to health of projected future environmental changes, and to the more efficient and effective use of scarce health resources in the developing world. The paper will focus on eastern Africa, and in particular the health effects of future projected environmental change impacts on water-related, vector borne diseases in the East African Community region. Moreover the paper will highlight how the EU FP7-funded project HEALTHY FUTURES is, through a broadly-based, integrative approach that distinguishes environmental change-induced health hazard from health risk aims to support the health decisions making process, thereby attempting to help mitigate negative health impacts.

  9. Common, emerging, vector-borne and infrequent abortogenic virus infections of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H; Ali, A A; Atta, M S; Cepica, A

    2012-02-01

    This review deals with the aetiology and the diagnosis of bovine viral abortion. While the abortion rates on beef and dairy cattle farms usually do not exceed 10%, significant economic losses because of abortion storms may be encountered. Determining the cause of abortions is usually a challenge, and it generally remains obscure in more than 50% of the necropsy submitted foetuses. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 are the most common viruses causally associated with bovine abortions in farmed cattle globally. Rift Valley fever virus and bluetongue virus are important insect-transmitted abortogenic viruses. The geographic distribution of these two viruses is primarily dependent on the distribution of the insect vector, but direct transmission is possible. Recent global warming and subsequent insect vector expansion, coupled with the increase in international trade of animals and animal products, have been important factors in recent geographic advances of those two viruses. Bovine herpesviruses-4 and 5 in cattle, as well as other less frequent vector-borne viruses including epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, Aino virus, Wesselsbron virus and lumpy skin disease virus, are discussed. PMID:21733134

  10. Relative susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to vector-borne Xylella fastidiosa through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce's disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols. PMID:23424629

  11. Climate, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Change Weighing up the Balance in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parham, Paul [University of Liverpool; Waldock, Johanna [Imperial College, London; Christophides, George [Imperial College, London; Hemming, Deborah [Met Office Hadley Centre, UK; Agusto, Folashade [Austin Peay State University; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Fefferman, Nina [Rutgers University; Gaff, Holly [Old Dominion University; Gumel, Abba [Arizona State University; LaDeau, Shannon [The University of Tennessee; Lenhart, Suzanne [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mickens, Ronald [Clark Atlanta University; Naumova, Elena [Tufts University; Ostfeld, Richard [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, New York; Ready, Paul [Natural History Museum; Thomas, Matthew [Pennsylvania State University; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Edwin, Michael [University of Notre Dame, IN

    2015-01-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is due not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but, perhaps most crucially, the multitude of epidemiological, ecological, and socioeconomic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the last 10-15 years. In this article, and Theme Issue, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions, and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field moving forwards. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. This Theme Issue seeks to cover both, reflected in the breadth and depth of the topics and VBD-systems considered, itself strongly indicative of the challenging, but necessary, multidisciplinary nature of this research field.

  12. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NathanChristopherNieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations, outbrea

  13. Spatial cognition: a geospatial analysis of vector borne disease transmission and the environment, using remote sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of geographical distribution of vector borne diseases has been increasingly public health important and challenging problems in more than 100 tropical countries and it has been affecting more than 50% of the population in the world, especially, it is very big problem in India. The change of vector borne disease epidemic transmission in to the endemic situation in the country has been caused by the land use / land cover changes, regional climate changes, increase of sea change population, urban agglomeration, industrial development and the past development of towns, consequently, the disease epidemics have been steadily increased too, and, besides, it has been found ubiquitous, such diseases known as, malaria, filariasis, JE, dengue and chikungunya, as a result, the increase of both mosquito nuisances and disease transmissions has become public health importance and very big challenging problems in India.

  14. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentz Susanne; Menn Brigitte; Naucke Torsten J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occ...

  15. An enzootic vector-borne virus is amplified at epizootic levels by an invasive avian host

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Valerie A.; Moore, Amy T; Young, Ginger R.; Komar, Nicholas; Reisen, William K.; Brown, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the effect of an invasive species on enzootic pathogen dynamics is critical for understanding both human epidemics and wildlife epizootics. Theoretical models suggest that when a naive species enters an established host–parasite system, the new host may either reduce (‘dilute’) or increase (‘spillback’) pathogen transmission to native hosts. There are few empirical data to evaluate these possibilities, especially for animal pathogens. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is an arthropod-borne...

  16. Molecular epidemiological survey and genetic analysis of vector-borne infections of cattle in Luzon Island, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Mingala, Claro N; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Villanueva, Marvin; R Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-15

    In the Philippines, vector-borne disease is one of the important problems in the livestock industry. To elucidate the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in cattle on Luzon Island, the Philippines, the prevalence of five protozoan agents was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Out of the 339 samples, 324 (95.5%), 154 (45.4%), 209 (61.6%), 140 (41.3%), and 2 (0.6%) were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Theileria spp., and Trypanosoma evansi infections, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 290 (85.5%) samples, of which 115 (33.9%) had two pathogens, 144 (42.5%) had three pathogens, and 31 (9.1%) had four kinds of pathogens. 16S rRNA gene was 100% identical in A. marginale compared with the same lineage across the world. B. bovis RAP-1 and B. bigemina AMA-1 genes were identical with 92.27%-100% and 97.07%-100% sequences, respectively, in the database (Asian isolates). MPSP genes of Theileria spp. were 83.51%-100% identical with the one another. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they belong to the groups of T. sergenti and T. buffeli. Positive rates of the tick-borne pathogens were extremely high in this area. These findings provide vital information that can be used for the planning and execution of effective control measures for vector-borne diseases in the Philippine cattle industry. PMID:26138152

  17. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  18. Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the...

  19. Retrospective evaluation of laboratory data on canine vector-borne infections from the years 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Eva; Hamel, Dietmar; Pfister, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The detection and therapy of canine vector-borne diseases in imported dogs are of major importance in small animal practice. Over the last years, the import of dogs from the Mediterranean region and Southeast Europe has increased, countries often endemic for a variety of vector-borne diseases such as babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis or ehrlichiosis. This retrospective study presents the evaluation of data from our diagnostic laboratory on vector-borne infections in imported dogs from the years 2004-2008. Specific antibodies were detectable in 20.5% of all samples with individual detection rates of 8.9%, 9.6% and 10.8% for Babesia canis ssp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis. A total of 5.5% of all samples tested by direct methods were positive. Up to 1.1% of Giemsa-stained blood/buffy coat smears were positive for B. canis ssp., Rickettsia spp. or Hepatozoon spp. Microfilariae were detectable by the Knott's Test in 6.4% and heartworm antigen was detectable using the DiroChek-ELISA in 3% of the examined samples. EDTA-blood samples were positive for Leishmania spp.-(14.9%), E. canis- (5.3%) and A. phagocytophilum-DNA (5.0%) by PCR. Therewith, imported dogs have a high chance of being carriers of pathogens. As some diseases may also be of a zoonotic concern, in case of the availability of competent vectors, the key focus in the future should be aimed at the prevention of importing infected dogs or at compulsory diagnostic screening and treatment of infected dogs at the time of import. PMID:21950219

  20. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene Technical University of Denmark,

    Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases. But mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread or limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. This is particular true for the relatively cool Nordic countries where periods of suitable temperatures, the ?windows of opportunity for transmission‘, may be very short and only appear in odd years DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance.In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) should an infected vector or host be introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps function as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of ?no possible transmission‘ and target costly active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighbouring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax-malaria in humans. Both the presently very restricted potential spatial and seasonal distribution was predicted to increase in the coming 50 years. While the predicted new areas potentially affected by vector borne diseases are relatively small they closely follow the spatial distribution of human habitation and agriculture. The practical impact of climate change on human health and agriculture may therefore be greater than simple distribution maps suggest. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases, compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia i 2008, and discuss the level of preventive measures needed to prevent large scale epidemics in the future.

  1. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  2. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set. PMID:26417098

  3. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1) the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2) the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alterna...

  4. Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Ahid, Silvia Maria Mendes; Pereira, Josivânia Soares; Vale, André Mendes do; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2014-01-01

    Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs. PMID:25271465

  5. Cambio climático en España y riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias transmitidas por artrópodos y roedores / Climate Change in Spain and Risk of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Transmitted by Arthropods and Rodents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogelio, López-Vélez; Ricardo, Molina Moreno.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Por la proximidad con el continente africano, siendo lugar de tránsito obligado de aves migratorias y personas, y por las condiciones climáticas, cercanas a las de zonas donde hay transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales, España es un país en el que este tipo de enfermedades podrían verse potenciadas [...] por el cambio climático. El posible riesgo vendría por extensión geográfica de vectores ya establecidos o por la importación e instalación de vectores sub-tropicales adaptados a sobrevivir en climas menos cálidos y más secos. Hipotéticamente, las enfermedades vectoriales susceptibles de ser influidas por el cambio climático en España serían aquellas transmitidas por dípteros como dengue, encefalitis del Nilo occidental, fiebre del valle del Rift, malaria y leishmaniosis; las transmitidas por garrapatas como la fiebre de Congo Crimea, encefalitis por garrapata, enfermedad de Lyme, fiebre botonosa y fiebre recurrente endémica; y las transmitidas por roedores. Pero la mayor y más factible amenaza sería la instauración del mosquito Aedes albopictus, que sería capaz de transmitir enfermedades virales como la del Nilo occidental o el dengue. Pero para el establecimiento de auténticas áreas de endemia se necesitaría la conjunción de otros factores, tales como el aflujo masivo y simultáneo de reservorios animales o humanos y el deterioro de las condiciones socio-sanitarias y de los servicios de Salud Pública. Abstract in english Due to Spain's being located near Africa, being a stopping-off point for migrating birds and individuals and due to its climate conditions, nearing those of areas where there are vector-borne diseases, this is a country where this type of diseases could taken on greater importance due to the climate [...] change. The possible risk would result from the geographical spread of already established vectors or due to subtropical vectors adapted to surviving in cooler, dried climates being imported and taking up residence. Hypothetically, the vector-borne diseases subject to be influenced by the climate change in Spain would be those transmitted by dipterans, such as dengue fever, West Nile encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, malaria and leishmaniasis; tick-transmitted diseases, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, spotted fever and endemic relapsing fever; and rodent-transmitted diseases. But the greatest, most viable threat would be the Aedes albopictus mosquito, which would be capable of transmitting viral diseases such as West Nile encephalitis or dengue fever, taking up residence. But, for actual areas of endemia being established, a combination of other factors, such as the massive, simultaneous influx of animal or human reservoirs and the deterioration of the social healthcare conditions and of the Public Health services.

  6. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases. PMID:26375902

  7. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Temperature decreases with latitude, and in the Nordic countries periods of suitable temperatures, the windows of opportunity for transmission, may be very short and only appear in odd years. While average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases, mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread and limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of potential local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) in case an infected vector or host are introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps functions as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of „no possible transmission? and target active serological surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighboring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated from such models is therefore likely to deviate from the true R0. However assuming the models are qualitatively able to rank the estimated R0 correctly, a period resulting in a relatively high estimated R0 will also be a period with a relatively high true R0. This allows the estimated R0 to be used for targeted surveillance by focusing the surveillance on periods and areas with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction factor is obtained that may be used to adjust the model estimates in Denmark, and thus allowing a more quantitative interpretation of the estimated R0. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases and compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia in 2008.

  8. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn KyuSung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

  9. Identification of Babesia species infecting dogs using reverse line blot hybridization for six canine piroplasms, and evaluation of co-infection by other vector-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisaschar-Mekuzas, Yael; Jaffe, Charles L; Pastor, Josep; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad

    2013-01-31

    Canine infection by vector-borne hemoparasites is frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where exposure to hematophageous ectoparasites is intensive. A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was designed to improve the simultaneous detection of all named canine piroplasm species combined with other vector-borne pathogens of dogs including Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum common in the Mediterranean basin. Blood samples of 110 dogs from Spain (n=21), Portugal (n=14) and Israel (n=75) were analyzed. The study evaluated 2 groups of dogs, 49 dogs with piroplasm infection detected by blood smear microscopy from Portugal, Spain and Israel, and 61 dogs surveyed from rural areas in Israel, for which infection status with vector-borne pathogens was unknown. Among the dogs previously diagnosed with piroplasmosis, infection with Babesia canis, Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni and Theileria annae was detected in the Iberian dogs while only B. vogeli was found in Israeli dogs. These differences are attributed to the absence of tick vectors for some piroplasm species such as Dermacentor reticulatus in Israel. Eleven (79%) of the Babesia-positive dogs from Portugal were co-infected with other pathogens including L. infantum, H. canis and E. canis. Eight of 61 (13%) rural Israeli dogs were co-infected with two or more pathogens including B. vogeli, L. infantum, E. canis, and H. canis. Triple infections were demonstrated in 2 dogs. The RLB detection limit for Babesia was 50-fold lower than that of PCR. This study presents a RLB to simultaneously detect and separate the major vector-borne dog pathogens in southern Europe and the Middle East. PMID:23017370

  10. Insecticide-treated clothes for the control of vector-borne diseases: a review on effectiveness and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, S D; Murray, N; Wilder-Smith, A; Logan, J G

    2014-08-01

    Insecticide-treated clothing has been used for many years by the military and in recreational activities as personal protection against bites from a variety of arthropods including ticks, chigger mites, sandflies and mosquitoes. Permethrin is the most commonly used active ingredient, but others, including bifenthrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenz-amide) and KBR3023, have also been trialled. Treatment is usually carried out by home or factory dipping. However, new microencapsulation technologies which may prolong the activity of insecticides on clothing are now available and may help to overcome the inevitable reduction in efficacy over time that occurs as a result of washing, ultraviolet light exposure, and the normal wear and tear of the fabric. The aim of this article is to review the evidence base for the use of insecticide-treated clothing for protection against bites from arthropods and its effect on arthropod-borne pathogen transmission. Although some studies do demonstrate protection against pathogen transmission, there are surprisingly few, and the level of protection provided varies according to the disease and the type of study conducted. For example, insecticide-treated clothing has been reported to give between 0% and 75% protection against malaria and between 0% and 79% protection against leishmaniasis. Studies vary in the type of treatment used, the age group of participants, the geographical location of the study, and the pathogen transmission potential. This makes it difficult to compare and assess intervention trials. Overall, there is substantial evidence that insecticide-treated clothing can provide protection against arthropod bites. Bite protection evidence suggests that insecticide-treated clothing may be useful in the prevention of pathogen transmission, but further investigations are required to accurately demonstrate transmission reduction. PMID:24912919

  11. Host group formation decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a 'hotspot' of West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L; Kitron, Uriel D; Newman, Christina M; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Walker, Edward D; Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2014-12-01

    Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution hypothesis using the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a common host species for the West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne pathogen. By using sentinel hosts (house sparrows, Passer domesticus) caged in naturally occurring communal roosts in the suburbs of Chicago, we assessed sentinel host risk of WNV exposure inside and outside of roosts. We also estimated per capita host exposure to infected vectors inside roosts and outside of roosts. Sentinel birds caged inside roosts seroconverted to WNV more slowly than those outside of roosts, suggesting that social groups decrease per capita exposure to infected mosquitoes. These results therefore support the encounter-dilution hypothesis in a vector-borne disease system. Our results suggest that disease-related selective pressures on sociality may depend on the mode of disease transmission. PMID:25339722

  12. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

  13. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rolla, Davide; Conti, Novella; Ansaldo, Francesca; Panaro, Laura; Lusenti, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of a patient with acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative mesangial nephropathy. Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN)secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in man could be fatal, as it is in canine Lyme borreliosis.

  14. Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

  15. Arthropod (Insect) Bite or Sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Sting Information for adults A A A Insect (arthropod) bites are typically pink or red and ... round in shape. Overview Bites or stings from insects (arthropods) are very common. Most reactions are mild ...

  16. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne) disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4). The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from a...

  17. Regional seroreactivity and vector-borne disease co-exposures in dogs in the United States from 2004-2010: utility of canine surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Caroline B; Hegarty, Barbara C; Qurollo, Barbara A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Weber, David J; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Vector-borne disease (VBD) pathogens remain an emerging health concern for animals and humans throughout the world. Surveillance studies of ticks and humans have made substantial contributions to our knowledge of VBD epidemiology trends, but long-term VBD surveillance data of dogs in the United States is limited. This seroreactivity study assessed US temporal and regional trends and co-exposures to Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia in dogs from 2004-2010. Dog serum samples (N=14,496) were submitted to the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for vector-borne pathogens diagnostic testing using immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. These convenience samples were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The largest proportion of samples originated from the South (47.6%), with the highest percent of seroreactive samples observed in the Midatlantic (43.4%), compared to other US regions. The overall seroreactivity of evaluated VBD antigens were Rickettsia rickettsia (10.4%), B. burgdorferi (5.2%), Ehrlichia spp. (4.3%), Bartonella henselae (3.8%), Anaplasma spp. (1.9%), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (1.5%), Babesia canis (1.1%), and D. immitis (0.8%). Significant regional and annual seroreactivity variation was observed with B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia exposures. Seasonal seroreactivity variation was evident with Rickettsia. Seroreactivity to more than one antigen was present in 16.5% of exposed dogs. Nationally, the most prevalent co-exposure was Rickettsia with Ehrlichia spp. (5.3%), and the highest odds of co-exposure was associated with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi (odds ratio=6.6; 95% confidence interval 5.0, 8.8). Notable annual and regional seroreactivity variation was observed with certain pathogens over 7 years of study, suggesting canine surveillance studies may have value in contributing to future VBD knowledge. PMID:25325316

  18. The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control / Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brett R., Ellis; Bruce A., Wilcox.

    Full Text Available A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A [...] dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações) e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma análise antecipada da eficácia de intervenções, oferecer respostas para resultados inesperados provenientes de ações para controle de vetores e contribuir para o planejamento de medidas eficazes de gerenciamento em um ambiente em constante mudança. O objetivo deste trabalho é explorar a dimensão ecológica de doenças transmitidas por vetores e esclarecer o papel do "pensamento ecológico" no desenvolvimento e implantação de ações de controle vetorial, ou seja, abordagem ecossistêmica para o controle de doenças transmitidas por vetores. Abstract in english Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecologic [...] al dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations), and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases).

  19. Decoding the ubiquitin-mediated pathway of arthropod disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Anthony; Severo, Maiara S; Sun, Ruobai; Girke, Thomas; Gillespie, Joseph J; Pedra, Joao H F

    2013-01-01

    Protein regulation by ubiquitin has been extensively described in model organisms. However, characterization of the ubiquitin machinery in disease vectors remains mostly unknown. This fundamental gap in knowledge presents a concern because new therapeutics are needed to control vector-borne diseases, and targeting the ubiquitin machinery as a means for disease intervention has been already adopted in the clinic. In this study, we employed a bioinformatics approach to uncover the ubiquitin-mediated pathway in the genomes of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ixodes scapularis, Pediculus humanus and Rhodnius prolixus. We observed that (1) disease vectors encode a lower percentage of ubiquitin-related genes when compared to Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (2) overall, there are more proteins categorized as E3 ubiquitin ligases when compared to E2-conjugating or E1-activating enzymes; (3) the ubiquitin machinery within the three mosquito genomes is highly similar; (4) ubiquitin genes are more than doubled in the Chagas disease vector (R. prolixus) when compared to other arthropod vectors; (5) the deer tick I. scapularis and the body louse (P. humanus) genomes carry low numbers of E1-activating enzymes and HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; (6) R. prolixus have low numbers of RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; and (7) C. quinquefasciatus present elevated numbers of predicted F-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, JAB and UCH deubiquitinases. Taken together, these findings provide novel opportunities to study the interaction between a pathogen and an arthropod vector. PMID:24205097

  20. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a non-pyrethroid insecticide will lead to improvement in the efficiency treatments thus reducing both the concentration of active ingredients and side effects for non-target organisms. The discovery of this insect specific site may pave the way for the development of new strategies essential in the management of chemical use against resistant mosquitoes. PMID:25961834

  1. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  2. Virtual globes and geospatial health: the potential of new tools in the management and control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of three-dimensional software modeling of the Earth holds promise for applications in the geospatial health sciences. Easy-to-use, intuitive virtual globe technologies such as Google Earth™ enable scientists around the world to share their data and research results in a visually attractive and readily understandable fashion without the need for highly sophisticated geographical information systems (GIS or much technical assistance. This paper discusses the utility of the rapid and simultaneous visualization of how the agents of parasitic diseases are distributed, as well as that of their vectors and/or intermediate hosts together with other spatially-explicit information. The resulting better understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the multidimensional environment in which they occur, are highlighted. In particular, the value of Google Earth™, and its web-based pendant Google Maps™, are reviewed from a public health view point, combining results from literature searches and experiences gained thus far from a multidisciplinary project aimed at optimizing schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the basic analytical capabilities of virtual globe applications are limited, we conclude that they have considerable potential in the support and promotion of the geospatial health sciences as a userfriendly, straightforward GIS tool for the improvement of data collation, visualization and exploration. The potential of these systems for data sharing and broad dissemination of scientific research and results is emphasized.

  3. Arthropod (Insect) Bite or Sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to condition and treatment information A A A Insect bites or stings may be associated with large ... due to scratching. Overview Bites or stings from insects (arthropods) are very common. Most reactions are mild, ...

  4. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1 the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2 the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  5. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  6. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Guégan Jean-François; Roche Benjamin; Bousquet François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious dis...

  8. Use of radioisotopes to elucidate the role of regurgitation for direct transfer of parasites or disease agents between host organisms through arthropod vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the transmission of parasites and disease agents by bloodfeeding arthropods, the hitherto neglected phenomenon of regurgitation is of the greatest importance. It makes possible the direct transfer of ingested blood, together with these disease agents, within the shortest period of time after intake without the interaction of any circulative or transformative processes in the vector. Owing to such direct transmission from host to host, the epidemiology of vector borne diseases (e.g. arbo-viruses or certain protozoan diseases such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniosis or even malaria) is influenced by additional factors. Regurgitative transmission should be considered in programmes of eradication and procedures of quarantine or isolation. We have examined the occurrence of regurgitation in a systematic way with the use of tracer techniques, in combination with other methods. The main arthropods are ticks (especially Ornithodoros moubata Murray), bloodsucking Hemiptera (e.g. Triatoma phyllosoma Burmeister), bloodsucking Muscidae (mainly Stomoxys calcitrans L.) and also mosquitoes. As can be shown with aphid, in which THO was used as a tracer, immediate transmission occurs in stable flies and soft ticks after labelling with 32P and 14C, and it can even be quantified. Also, the output of saliva secreted into and collected from the crop must be regarded as regurgitation rather than salivation. Since it can mix with previously ingested food (blood plus disease agents), this type of regurgitation can also contribute to the transmission of diseases by arthropods. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.

  10. Volcanism and arthropods: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Elizalde.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulcanismo y artrópodos: una revisión: Las erupciones volcánicas son disturbios naturales que imponen múltiples cambios en los ecosistemas. Los artrópodos se ubican entre los organismos más diversos del planeta y desempeñan un papel clave en el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. Sin embargo, la info [...] rmación existente sobre los efectos de los disturbios volcánicos sobre ellos es dispersa. El objetivo de esta revisión es identifcar generalidades en las respuestas de los artrópodos al vulcanismo. Principalmente, (1) ¿qué efecto tienen las erupciones volcánicas sobre los artrópodos?, (2) ¿qué características hacen que ciertas especies sean más resistentes al vulcanismo?, (3) ¿cómo se ensamblan sus comunidades después de una erupción? Los artrópodos terrestres y acuáticos muestran respuestas similares al vulcanismo, que afecta a sus poblaciones y comunidades, y los ecosistemas a través de las funciones que los artrópodos realizan. La mayoría de los estudios que evaluaron el efecto de la ceniza volcánica encontraron efectos negativos sobre la mortalidad y diferente susceptibilidad entre especies. La mortalidad en una misma especie varía según la cantidad de ceniza y la forma de exposición (contacto con el cuerpo, alimentos contaminados, modificación del hábitat), y la humedad relativa. En las pocas comunidades de artrópodos donde se estudiaron los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas, la riqueza, composición y abundancia de las especies son afectadas de alguna forma. Identifiqué rasgos morfológicos, fisiológicos, comportamentales y de historia de vida que parecen importantes para determinar respuestas de las especies al vulcanismo. Sin embargo, los conocimientos actuales son limitados y acotados a pocas erupciones volcánicas. Los estudios de eventos volcánicos pueden proporcionar una validación a escala del ecosistema de las predicciones sobre cómo el cambio climático y los cambios inducidos por el hombre, como una mayor concentración de partículas en suspensión o de emisión de gases al ambiente, pueden afectar a las comunidades de artrópodos. Abstract in english Volcanic eruptions are natural disturbances that impose multiple changes in ecosystems. Arthropods are among the most diverse organisms on the planet and play key functional roles in all ecosystems. Existing information on the effects of volcanic disturbances on arthropods is scattered. The aim of t [...] his review is to fnd generalities in the responses of arthropods from terrestrial and aquatic environments to volcanism. Mainly (1) what effects do volcanic disturbances have on arthropods?, (2) what characteristics make certain species more or less susceptible to volcanic disturbances?, and (3) how do arthropod communities reassemble after a volcanic disturbance? Terrestrial and aquatic arthropods show similar responses to volcanic disturbances. Volcanism can affect arthropod populations, communities, and ecosystems through the functions that arthropods perform. Most studies evaluated the effect of volcanic ash as the primary volcanic disturbance type and found that most species have higher mortality than controls, but species show different susceptibility to volcanism. However, mortality of a certain species varies by the amount of ash, how the species was exposed to ash (i.e. body contact, contaminated food, modification of the habitat), and relative humidity. In the few arthropod communities studied, richness, composition and abundance of species are affected to some degree by volcanic eruptions. I gathered information on a number of morphological, physiological, behavioral and life-history traits that seem important to determine species responses to volcanic disturbance. However, current knowledge of arthropod responses to volcanism is limited, and limited to few volcanic eruptions. More broadly, studies of volcanic events may provide ecosystem-scale insights on how climate change and human-induced changes, such as higher concentration of particles in suspension or gas emission to the en

  11. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. J., López-Antuñano.

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1) the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the i [...] nfectious agents and (2) the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  12. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate E; Patel, Nikkita G; Levy, Marc A; Storeygard, Adam; Balk, Deborah; Gittleman, John L; Daszak, Peter

    2008-02-21

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID 'events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940 and 2004, and demonstrate non-random global patterns. EID events have risen significantly over time after controlling for reporting bias, with their peak incidence (in the 1980s) concomitant with the HIV pandemic. EID events are dominated by zoonoses (60.3% of EIDs): the majority of these (71.8%) originate in wildlife (for example, severe acute respiratory virus, Ebola virus), and are increasing significantly over time. We find that 54.3% of EID events are caused by bacteria or rickettsia, reflecting a large number of drug-resistant microbes in our database. Our results confirm that EID origins are significantly correlated with socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, and provide a basis for identifying regions where new EIDs are most likely to originate (emerging disease 'hotspots'). They also reveal a substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne EIDs originating at lower latitudes where reporting effort is low. We conclude that global resources to counter disease emergence are poorly allocated, with the majority of the scientific and surveillance effort focused on countries from where the next important EID is least likely to originate. PMID:18288193

  13. Delays in Reducing Waterborne and Water-related Infectious Diseases in China under Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica; Carlton, Elizabeth; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy; Remais, Justin V.

    2014-12-01

    Despite China’s rapid progress improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) infrastructure and access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation, and 401 million people lacked access to household piped water. Infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in climate, particularly temperature, and WSH conditions. To explore possible impacts of climate change on these diseases in China in 2020 and 2030, we coupled estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal disease and three vector-borne diseases, temperature projections from global climate models using four emissions pathways, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios and projected demographic changes. By 2030, the projected impacts would delay China’s historically rapid progress toward reducing the burden of WSH-attributable infectious disease by 8-85 months. This developmental delay provides a key summary measure of the impact of climate change in China, and in other societies undergoing rapid social, economic, and environmental change.

  14. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. McFarlane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010 and historical (1788–1973 review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20 of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

  15. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pcanis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (pcanis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

  16. The haematophagous arthropods (Animalia: Arthropoda) of the Cape Verde Islands: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Elves Heleno

    2015-01-01

    Arthropoda is the most diverse phylum of the animal kingdom. The majority of bloodsucking arthropods of public health concern are found in two classes, Arachnida and Insecta. Mosquitoes, ticks, cattle flies, horseflies and biting midges are the main hematophagous groups occurring in the Cape Verde Islands and whose role in infectious disease transmission has been established. In this literature review, the main morphological and biological characters and their role in the cycle of disease tra...

  17. Quantitative phase imaging of arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Katz, Aron; Soto-Adames, Felipe; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Classification of arthropods is performed by characterization of fine features such as setae and cuticles. An unstained whole arthropod specimen mounted on a slide can be preserved for many decades, but is difficult to study since current methods require sample manipulation or tedious image processing. Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique that is an add-on module to a commercial phase contrast microscope. We use SLIM to image a whole organism springtail Ceratophysella denticulata mounted on a slide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that an entire organism has been imaged using QPI. We also demonstrate the ability of SLIM to image fine structures in addition to providing quantitative data that cannot be obtained by traditional bright field microscopy. PMID:26334858

  18. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  19. Artificial diet development for entomophagous arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial diets promised an economical way to mass produce entomophagous arthropods for augmentative biological control. Many decades later this promise has not been fulfilled and most of the commercial mass production of entomophagous arthropods is being done in-vivo. Although many successful arti...

  20. [INFECTIOUS SYMBIOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V

    2015-01-01

    In the article new line of research--infectious symbiology that studies interaction of microsymbionts with the host in case of infection under the conditions of their biocommunicative interrelations is discussed. The presence of interrelation of intestinal microbiota with human homeostasis disorders postulates thesis that: human organism is superorganism including a lot of prokaryote species where microbiota normoflora representatives are the main complex of extra-corporeal physiological system acting as organism homeostasis regulator. When studying intermicrobial relations under microsymbiocenosis its system-forming factor has been identified that includes basic general functions of microorganisms--reproductive (growth/reproduction) and adaptive (biofilm formation and antilysozyme test). It has been shown that microbial interaction in dominant-associant vector providing microsymbiocenosis functioning is implemented via opposite (amplification/suppression) effect of reproductive and adaptive functions of microsymbionts of dominant-associant pair contributing self-non-self discrimination. Intermicrobial discrimination of self-non-self microsymbionts goes before signaling of adaptive immunity of the host promoting microbe elimination or persistence in the body depending on the result of identification. It has been noted that microbial factor fulfilling the role of organism homeostasis regulator performs synergistic functioning of dominant microflora with the host. When penetrating foreign associants (pathogens) into the organism host defense is implemented by means of induction of its adaptive immunity via cytokine reticulum. Key players of human intestinal microbiota are Bifidobacteria which along with induction of adaptive immunity and balance changes of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of the host directly regulate microsymbiocenosis including system of hormones and neurotransmitters. PMID:26470410

  1. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  2. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Coelho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  3. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland: Part 1: A population study on sled dogs during the racing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of surveillance of reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of TBE. Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring for the presence of D. repens. PMID:24491396

  4. Arthropods (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arthropods@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  5. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  6. Conclusion: arthropods, canopies and interpretable patterns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Novotný, Vojt?ch; Miller, S. E.; Kitching, R. L.

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003 - (Basset, Y.; Novotný, V.; Miller, S.; Kitching, R.), s. 394-405 ISBN 0-521-82000-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Arthropods Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  7. Night and crepuscular mosquitoes and risk of vector-borne diseases in areas of piassaba extraction in the middle Negro River basin, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Cecília, Suárez-Mutis; Nelson Ferreira, Fé; Wilson, Alecrim; José Rodrigues, Coura.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of crepuscular and night-biting mosquitoes was conducted at remote settlements along the Padauiri River, middle Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Collections were performed with human bait and a CDC-light trap on three consecutive days per month from June 2003-May 2004. In total, 1,203 [...] h of collection were performed, of which 384 were outside and 819 were inside houses. At total of 11,612 specimens were captured, and Anophelinae (6.01%) were much less frequent than Culicinae (93.94%). Anopheles darlingi was the most frequent Anophelinae collected. Among the culicines, 2,666 Culex (Ae.) clastrieri Casal & Garcia, 2,394 Culex. (Mel.) vomerifer Komp, and 1,252 Culex (Mel.) eastor Dyar were the most frequent species collected. The diversity of insects found reveals the receptivity of the area towards a variety of diseases facilitated by the presence of vectors involved in the transmission of Plasmodium, arboviruses and other infectious agents.

  8. Night and crepuscular mosquitoes and risk of vector-borne diseases in areas of piassaba extraction in the middle Negro River basin, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecília Suárez-Mutis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of crepuscular and night-biting mosquitoes was conducted at remote settlements along the Padauiri River, middle Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Collections were performed with human bait and a CDC-light trap on three consecutive days per month from June 2003-May 2004. In total, 1,203 h of collection were performed, of which 384 were outside and 819 were inside houses. At total of 11,612 specimens were captured, and Anophelinae (6.01% were much less frequent than Culicinae (93.94%. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequent Anophelinae collected. Among the culicines, 2,666 Culex (Ae. clastrieri Casal & Garcia, 2,394 Culex. (Mel. vomerifer Komp, and 1,252 Culex (Mel. eastor Dyar were the most frequent species collected. The diversity of insects found reveals the receptivity of the area towards a variety of diseases facilitated by the presence of vectors involved in the transmission of Plasmodium, arboviruses and other infectious agents.

  9. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  10. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4. The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected host and then feeds on a person who is uninfected. There is no vaccine or cure for dengue fever. Dengue fever is a growing cause for concern in The Bahamas. This year the incidence of dengue fever reached epidemic proportions in The Bahamas. This article will explore the etiology and epidemiology of dengue fever, and offer some insight into how future the Bahamas can begin to develop strategies for the eradication of dengue fever.

  11. Delays in reducing waterborne and water-related infectious diseases in China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica H.; Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy J.; Remais, Justin V.

    2014-12-01

    Despite China's rapid progress in improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation and 401 million to household piped water. As certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in 2020 and 2030 by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrhoeal diseases and three vector-borne diseases, temperature projections from global climate models, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios, and projected demographic changes. By 2030, climate change is projected to delay China's rapid progress towards reducing WSH-attributable infectious disease burden by 8-85 months. This development delay summarizes the adverse impact of climate change on WSH-attributable infectious diseases in China, and can be used in other settings where a significant health burden may accompany future changes in climate even as the total burden of disease falls owing to non-climate reasons.

  12. Differential spatial distribution of arthropods under epiphytic lichens on trees

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Jacques Itzhak Martinez; Reut Raz; Nyembezi Mgocheki

    2014-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen thalli on trees may protect arthropods - herbivores or their natural enemies. Although the relationships between lichens on the forest floor to arthropods have been widely studied in boreal regions, those between epiphytic lichens and the arboreal arthropod fauna in temperate and Mediterranean climates are poorly investigated. In particular it is unknown if the animals use lichens differently located on different part of the trees. Our results indicate that numerous arthropod...

  13. Decoding the Ubiquitin-Mediated Pathway of Arthropod Disease Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Anthony; Severo, Maiara S; Sun, Ruobai; Girke, Thomas; Gillespie, Joseph J; Pedra, Joao H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Protein regulation by ubiquitin has been extensively described in model organisms. However, characterization of the ubiquitin machinery in disease vectors remains mostly unknown. This fundamental gap in knowledge presents a concern because new therapeutics are needed to control vector-borne diseases, and targeting the ubiquitin machinery as a means for disease intervention has been already adopted in the clinic. In this study, we employed a bioinformatics approach to uncover the ubiquitin-med...

  14. Feeding habits of arthropod cave dwellers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Ková?, L.

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2011. s. 45. ISBN 978-80-86525-19-8. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /11./. 11.04.2011-14.04.2011, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : feeding habits * arthropod cave dwellers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  16. New insights about ORF1 coding regions support the proposition of a new genus comprising arthropod viruses in the family Totiviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Márcia Danielle A; Cavalcante, Gustavo Henrique O; Oliveira, Raffael A C; Lanza, Daniel C F

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the positions of 2A-like polypeptide cleavage sites in all available genomes of arthropod totiviruses we propose the limits of all ORF1 coding sequences and observed that two proteins previously predicted in infectious myonecrosis virus genome are unique in the arthropod totiviruses group. A putative protein cleavage site upstream the major capsid protein was also identified only in these genomes. In addition, protein models generated using ab initio and threading approaches revealed conserved structures possibly related to formation of viral protrusions and RNA packaging, clarifying the mechanisms involved in the extracellular transmission. These data appoints that the group formed by arthropod totiviruses are sufficient distinctive to be clustered in new genus belonging to the Totiviridae family, in agreement with previous phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26497779

  17. Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil / Estudo da coinfecção por patógenos transmitidos por vetores em cães e carrapatos no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Ricardo, Gonçalves; Kilder Dantas, Filgueira; Silvia Maria Mendes, Ahid; Josivânia Soares, Pereira; André Mendes do, Vale; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado; Marcos Rogério, André.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cães que apresentam diversas doenças transmitidas por vetores podem mostrar nenhum ou alguns sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Dependendo da fase da infecção, a confirmação dos agentes envolvidos é necessária. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Ana [...] plasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. e Leishmania spp. em amostras de sangue e carrapatos, coletados em dois cães do Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos, quando foram usadas técnicas moleculares. DNA de E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum foram detectados em amostras de sangue e carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados dos cães. Entre todas as amostras analisadas, duas mostraram a presença de infecções múltiplas por E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum chagasi. Destaca-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico molecular diferencial em cães com sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Abstract in english Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hep [...] atozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

  18. Infectious abortions in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortions in pigs can be caused by infectious or non-infectious factors About 38% of all diagnosed abortions in pigs were caused by infectious agents. Consequences of infection can be early embryonal deaths or abortions which occur after the 40th day following conception. Causes of abortions include different species of viruses (parvoviruses, enteroviruses pseudorabies viruses, PRRS or bacteria (Brucella, Leptospira, and others. A precise diagnosis is imperative for therapy and prevention of abortions in pigs, and it is necessary to apply measures to prevent reproductive disorders in pigs.

  19. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  20. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ebola, flu, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), cholera, dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, AIDS, pertussis and tuberculosis. What ... MIDAS models have also demonstrated the effectiveness of vaccines in reducing the incidence of infectious diseases like ...

  1. Arthropods: Developmental diversity within a (super) phylum

    OpenAIRE

    Akam, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The expression patterns of developmental genes provide new markers that address the homology of body parts and provide clues as to how body plans have evolved. Such markers support the idea that insect wings evolved from limbs but refute the idea that insect and crustacean jaws are fundamentally different in structure. They also confirm that arthropod tagmosis reflects underlying patterns of Hox gene regulation but they do not yet resolve to what extent Hox expression ...

  2. Prevalence of arthropod antibodies in Korean patients with allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Kyu-Yoon; Park, Joon-Soo; Ahn, Hyun-Cheol; Nam, Hae-Seon

    2001-01-01

    Arthropod antigens are main causative agents which induce allergic reponses in humans. However, little information is known about the prevalence of specific arthropod allergens in Koreans with allergic diseases. The current study was designed to determine the positive rates of arthropod antibodies by the Korean inhalant panel of MAST-CLA. One hundred sixty patients, who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis from an out-patient center at the Soonchunhyang University Chunan Hospital, were studi...

  3. Arthropods as surrogates of diversity at different spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Clara; Gaston, Kevin J; Paulo A. V. Borges

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of taxonomic, colonization and trophic groups of arthropods from native forests of the Azores archipelago as surrogates of the diversity of other arthropod groups and of the remaining arthropods. Consistency in the performance of surrogates was tested across three spatial scales and using two measures of diversity. Pitfall and beating samples from 109 transects, 18 forest fragments and seven islands were analysed. The results showed that Araneae, Hemipte...

  4. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey / Distribución espacial de agentes patógenos transmitidos por vectores en perros en la región del Egeo, Turquía

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kerem, Ural; Mehmet, Gultekin; Abidin, Atasoy; Bulent, Ulutas.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la distribución espacial de la seroprevalencia de la infección de 4 agentes patógenos de transmisión por vectores Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi y Dirofilaria immitis, en los estados costeros de la región del Egeo con especial referencia a los sign [...] os clínicos y las variaciones hematológicas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron por conveniencia muestras de sangre de al menos 10 perros en las ciudades Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla y Manisa. Para la evaluación de las muestras se utilizó un kit de ELISA para la detencción de anticuerpos de las enfermedades del estudio. Resultados. De los 307 perros muestreados, la seroprevalencia más alta fue para E. canis (24.42%), seguido por la coinfección entre E. canis + A. phagocytophilum (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) y D. immitis (2.28%). Sólo 2 casos fueron seropositivos para B. burgdorferi aunque 10 perros fueron coinfectados con más de 2 agentes. En ambos perros infectados con E. canis y coinfectados con E. canis y A. phagocytophilum, se detectó comúnmente anemia, trombocitopenia y leucocitosis, mientras que la trombocitopenia y leucocitosis fueron significativos en perros infectados con A. phagocytophilum o D. immitis , respectivamente. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas para los promedios de RBC, hemoglobina, hematocrito y valores PLT (p Abstract in english Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and [...] haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%), followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%), A. phagocytophilum (7.49%) and D. immitis (2.28%). Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p

  5. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  6. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  7. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war. Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war. Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients. Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  8. Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klink, R; van der Plas, F; van Noordwijk, C G E Toos; WallisDeVries, M F; Olff, H

    2015-05-01

    Both arthropods and large grazing herbivores are important components and drivers of biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, but a synthesis of how arthropod diversity is affected by large herbivores has been largely missing. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature search, which yielded 141 studies on this topic of which 24 simultaneously investigated plant and arthropod diversity. Using the data from these 24 studies, we compared the responses of plant and arthropod diversity to an increase in grazing intensity. This quantitative assessment showed no overall significant effect of increasing grazing intensity on plant diversity, while arthropod diversity was generally negatively affected. To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web. We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions. In general, heterogeneity in vegetation structure and abiotic conditions increases at intermediate grazing intensity, but declines at both low and high grazing intensity. We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate. This is expected to occur only at low herbivore densities or with spatio-temporal variation in herbivore densities. As we demonstrate that arthropod diversity is often more negatively affected by grazing than plant diversity, we strongly recommend considering the specific requirements of arthropods when applying grazing management and to include arthropods in monitoring schemes. Conservation strategies aiming at maximizing heterogeneity, including regulation of herbivore densities (through human interventions or top-down control), maintenance of different types of management in close proximity and rotational grazing regimes, are the most promising options to conserve arthropod diversity. PMID:24837856

  9. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems. (review article)

  10. Infectious Salmon Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  11. How Infectious Was #Deflategate?

    CERN Document Server

    Eager, Eric; Peirce, James

    2015-01-01

    On Monday January 19, 2015 a story broke that the National Football League (NFL) had started an investigation into whether the New England Patriots deliberately deflated the footballs they used during their championship win over the Indianapolis Colts. Like an infectious disease, discussion regarding Deflategate grew rapidly on social media sites in the hours and days after the release of the story. However, after the Super Bowl was over, the scandal slowly began to dissipate and lost much of the attention it had originally had, as interest in the NFL wained at the completion of its season. We construct a simple epidemic model for the infectiousness of the Deflategate news story. We then use data from the social media site Twitter to estimate the parameters of this model using standard techniques from the study of inverse problems. We find that the infectiousness (as measured by the basic reproduction number) of Deflategate rivals that of any infectious disease that we are aware of, and is actually more infec...

  12. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients over 60 years of age. This finding is comparable to other American epidemiologic studies. Ocular toxoplasmosis and ARN were also common causes of infectious uveitis. In all, 50.6% of patients had a VA better than 20/40 at the final follow-up visit, indicating the importance of prompt referral and appropriate treatment. Keywords: uveitis, infectious, chorioretinitis, endophthalmitis, toxoplasma

  13. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Sperança

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

  14. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Aparecida, Sperança; Margareth Lara, Capurro.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, ar [...] e not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

  15. Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

  16. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph no...

  17. Chronic infectious mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brki? Snežana V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chronic infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity recognized 15 years ago with clearly defined serological criteria: high titres of IgG Epstein-Barr virus (EBV virus capsid antigen (VCA, IgG EBV early antigen without IgG Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA antibodies. Material and methods This follow-up study lasted for 2 years and included 100 acute infectious mononucleosis patients who were investigated every 6 months. Apart from physical examination we evaluated history, complete blood count and liver function together with 5 commercial ELISA tests: IgM EBV VCA, IgG EBV VCA, IgG EB NA, IgG EBV EA and IgA EBV EA. Results Although malaise and fatigue with cervical lymphadenopathy were the most frequent symptoms, their statistical significance was not established. All laboratory analyses were completely normal during the follow-up period, but there were four patients with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses. After 6 months of acute illness, two patients without IgG EB NA antibodies who were candidates for chronic disease, presented no other serological findings for chronic disease. It was confirmed that they had delayed serological response due to EBV infection, because one year later they had a completely normal immune status on EBV infection. Conclusion Chronic infectious mononucleosis seems to be an extraordinary event after acute disease. This conclusion corresponds with literature reports of sporadic cases of this disease.

  18. Arthropod-Spiroplasma relationship in the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Luis M; Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2015-02-01

    The genus Spiroplasma comprises wall-less, low-GC bacteria that establish pathogenic, mutualistic and commensal symbiotic associations with arthropods and plants. This review focuses on the symbiotic relationships between Spiroplasma bacteria and arthropod hosts in the context of the available genomic sequences. Spiroplasma genomes are reduced and some contain highly repetitive plectrovirus-related sequences. Spiroplasma's diversity in viral invasion susceptibility, virulence factors, substrate utilization, genome dynamics and symbiotic associations with arthropods make this bacterial genus a biological model that provides insights about the evolutionary traits that shape bacterial symbiotic relationships with eukaryotes. PMID:25764543

  19. An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Neil A C; Loaring, Christopher D; Bennie, Mikaella M G; Trim, Steven A

    2012-12-15

    As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration. PMID:22996446

  20. Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; ?ížek, Lukáš; Cuénoud, P.; Didham, R. K.; Guilhaumon, F.; Missa, O.; Novotný, Vojt?ch; Odegaard, F.; Roslin, T.; Schmidl, J.; Tishechkin, A. K.; Winchester, N. N.; Roubik, D. W.; Aberlenc, H.-P.; Bail, J.; Barrios, H.; Bridle, J. R.; Castano-Meneses, G.; Corbara, B.; Curletti, G.; Duarte da Rocha, W.; De Bakker, D.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Dejean, A.; Fagan, L. L.; Florean, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Medianero, E.; Miller, S. E.; Gama de Oliveira, E.; Orivel, J.; Pollet, M.; Rapp, M.; Riberio, S. P.; Roisin, Y.; Schmidt, J. B.; Sorensen, L.; Leponce, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 338, ?. 6113 (2012), s. 1481-1484. ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/0115; GA ?R GAP504/12/1952 Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0841885; University of Canterbury and Royal Scoiety of New Zealand(NZ) PNX0011-2009; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship(AU) FT100100040; Ciencia e a Tecnologia(PT) PTDC/AAC-AMB/098163/2008; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0516311; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0949790 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : arthropod diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 31.027, year: 2012 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6113/1481.full

  1. VERTEBRATE CHEMICAL DEFENSE: SECRETED AND TOPICALLY ACQUIRED DETERRENTS OF ARTHROPODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropods profoundly affect the fitness of terrestrial vertebrates. Some arachnids, centipedes, and insects opportunistically prey on small tetrapods. Some social hymenopterans launch massive foraging swarms and fiercely defend their colonies via stinging or biting attacks. Pelage- or plumage-degr...

  2. Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heraldo L., Vasconcelos; Emilio M., Bruna.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestatio [...] n and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects), and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Wolbachia of Nematodes and Arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Fenn, Katelyn; Conlon, Claire; Jones, Martin; Quail, Michael A.; Holroyd, Nancy E.; Parkhill, Julian; Blaxter, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequence...

  4. Infectious abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs

  5. Arthropod diversity in peas with normal or reduced waxy bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Chang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop traits can alter economically important interactions between plants, pests, and biological control agents. For example, a reduced waxy bloom on the surface of pea plants alters interactions between pea aphids and their natural enemies. In this study, we assess whether the effect of wax reduction extends beyond the 2 or 3 arthropod species closely associated with the plants and into the structure of the broader arthropod community of over 200 taxa at our site. We sampled arthropods on lines of peas with normal and reduced wax in Latah Co., Idaho using pitfall traps within randomly assigned pairs of 5 × 5 meter plots. During the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons, we collected 12,113 individual arthropods from 221 unambiguously identified morphospecies. The number of individuals collected from each morphospecies responded idiosyncratically to the reduced wax peas. To test whether arthropod community structure differed between the collections from plots having peas with normal or reduced wax, we performed a randomization test. The collection from peas with reduced wax had higher species evenness and thus higher community diversity despite having lower species richness. Our results demonstrate the potential of a single plant trait, epicuticular wax, to affect a community of arthropods. Two pests of peas had opposite responses to peas with reduced wax. The number of pea aphids collected was greater from peas with normal wax peas than those with reduced wax. In contrast, the number of pea leaf weevils collected was greater from peas with reduced wax.

  6. The incidence of bacterial endosymbionts in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Lucy A; Araujo-Jnr, Eli V; Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Welch, John J

    2015-05-22

    Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria are found in many terrestrial arthropods and have a profound influence on host biology. A basic question about these symbionts is why they infect the hosts that they do, but estimating symbiont incidence (the proportion of potential host species that are actually infected) is complicated by dynamic or low prevalence infections. We develop a maximum-likelihood approach to estimating incidence, and testing hypotheses about its variation. We apply our method to a database of screens for bacterial symbionts, containing more than 3600 distinct arthropod species and more than 150 000 individual arthropods. After accounting for sampling bias, we estimate that 52% (CIs: 48-57) of arthropod species are infected with Wolbachia, 24% (CIs: 20-42) with Rickettsia and 13% (CIs: 13-55) with Cardinium. We then show that these differences stem from the significantly reduced incidence of Rickettsia and Cardinium in most hexapod orders, which might be explained by evolutionary differences in the arthropod immune response. Finally, we test the prediction that symbiont incidence should be higher in speciose host clades. But while some groups do show a trend for more infection in species-rich families, the correlations are generally weak and inconsistent. These results argue against a major role for parasitic symbionts in driving arthropod diversification. PMID:25904667

  7. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  8. Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

  9. Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Christensen, Stina

    2013-01-01

    1. Many plants are simultaneously attacked by arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens. These may affect each other directly and indirectly, enhancing or reducing the amount of plant resources they each consume. Ultimately, this may reduce or enhance plant performance relative to what should be expected from the added impacts of herbivore and pathogen when they attack alone. 2. Previous studies have suggested synergistic and antagonistic impacts on plant performance from certain combinations of arthropods and pathogens, for example, synergistic impacts from necrotrophic pathogens together with wounding arthropods because of facilitated infection and antagonistic impacts from induction of pathogen resistance by sucking herbivores. 3. We compiled published studies on the impact of plant–herbivore–pathogen interactions on plant performance and used meta-analysis to search for consistent patterns of impacts among plant, herbivore and pathogen characteristics and experimental conditions, and to test the suggested hypotheses on synergistic or antagonistic impacts. 4. None of the hypotheses based on proximate interactions between arthropods and pathogens were supported by our analysis; in contrast, the patterns we found were related to plant traits and experimental conditions. 5. Our results suggest that immediate loss of resources from interactions between arthropod herbivores and pathogens is generally moderated by compensation to an extent where there are no interactive effects on plant performance. However, as interactive impacts also differed among environments and parasite manipulation methods, this suggests that the ability of plants to compensate such losses may depend on environmental conditions and probably also overall infection load.

  10. The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa; Zappalà, Lucia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. PMID:23109262

  11. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval. PMID:25413711

  12. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâ??s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  13. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Hidalgo.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to oc [...] cur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a) chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b) latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c) fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

  14. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  15. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More data AIDS/HIV Influenza Immunization Measles Pneumonia Sexually Transmitted Diseases Viral hepatitis Whopping cough/Pertussis Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence ...

  16. Global mapping of infectious disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, SI; Battle, KE; Pigott, DM; Smith, DL; Moyes, CL; Bhatt, S; Brownstein, JS; Collier, N; Myers, MF; George, DB; Gething, PW

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for ...

  17. Global mapping of infectious disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for ...

  18. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of defo...

  19. Genetics of infectious disease resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, AV

    1996-01-01

    The identification of large numbers of candidates genes and the introduction of methodologies for whole-genome screening have provided new opportunities for elucidating the molecular basis of variable susceptibility to major infectious diseases. 12 genes have been implicated in variable susceptibility to malaria and susceptibility/resistance genes for several other infectious diseases are beginning to be identified. Recent work suggests that large-scale family linkage and population associati...

  20. Infectious Chikungunya Virus in the Saliva of Mice, Monkeys and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joy; Rudd, Penny A.; Prow, Natalie A.; Belarbi, Essia; Roques, Pierre; Larcher, Thibaut; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Schroder, Wayne A.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed and bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 and 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/-) mice, which are deficient for interferon ?/? responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, and subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal and oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, and analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA and infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA and infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities. PMID:26447467

  1. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  2. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods. PMID:24066553

  3. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management / Responsabilisation des agriculteurs dans le cadre de la lutte intégrée contre les vecteurs pour faire reculer les maladies à transmission vectorielle / Reducir las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores empoderando a los agricultores en la lucha antivectorial integrada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henk, van den Berg; Alexander, von Hildebrand; Vaithilingam, Ragunathan; Pradeep K, Das.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEMA: La agricultura de regadío expone a la población rural a riesgos sanitarios asociados a las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y a los plaguicidas utilizados en la agricultura y para proteger la salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo se da una falta de colaboración entr [...] e los sectores agrícola y sanitario para abordar conjuntamente estos problemas. MÉTODOS: Presentamos una evaluación de un proyecto que utiliza el método de la «escuela de campo para agricultores» para enseñar a los campesinos la manera de controlar las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y mejorar la producción de arroz. El adiestramiento simultáneo de los agricultores en esos dos ámbitos es lo que se conoce como «control integrado de plagas y vectores». CONTEXTO LOCAL: Un proyecto intersectorial centrado en los sistemas de riego de plantaciones de arroz en Sri Lanka. CAMBIOS DESTACABLES: Los asociados del proyecto desarrollaron un nuevo programa de estudios para la escuela de campo que incluía un componente de control de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial. Los cultivadores de arroz de las aldeas de intervención salidos de la escuela de campo tomaron medidas de lucha antivectorial y de mejora tanto del saneamiento ambiental como de su protección personal contra la transmisión de enfermedades. Además redujeron su utilización de plaguicidas agrícolas, especialmente de insecticidas. ENSEÑANZAS EXTRAÍDAS: La intervención motivó a la población rural y le permitió participar en las actividades de control de los vectores y reducir varios riesgos para la salud ambiental. Es posible ampliar el programa de estudios para incluir información sobre los efectos perjudiciales de los plaguicidas en la salud humana y abordar otros aspectos preocupantes para la salud pública. Los beneficios de este enfoque para los programas de salud comunitarios todavía no se han evaluado de manera óptima. Además, es necesario ampliar la base institucional del control integrado para que puedan participar personas de una más amplia variedad de organizaciones, y hay que establecer un sistema de seguimiento y evaluación para medir el desempeño de las iniciativas de control integrado. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. A [...] PPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. Teaching farmers about these two concepts together is known as "integrated pest and vector management". LOCAL SETTING: An intersectoral project targeting rice irrigation systems in Sri Lanka. RELEVANT CHANGES: Project partners developed a new curriculum for the field school that included a component on vector-borne diseases. Rice farmers in intervention villages who graduated from the field school took vector-control actions as well as improving environmental sanitation and their personal protection measures against disease transmission. They also reduced their use of agricultural pesticides, especially insecticides. LESSONS LEARNED: The intervention motivated and enabled rural people to take part in vector-management activities and to reduce several environmental health risks. There is scope for expanding the curriculum to include information on the harmful effects of pesticides on human health and to address other public health concerns. Benefits of this approach for community-based health programmes have not yet been optimally assessed. Also, the institutional basis of the integrated management approach needs to be broadened so that people from a wider range of organizations take part. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to measure the performance of integrated management initiatives.

  4. Molecular survey of arthropod-borne pathogens in ticks obtained from Japanese wildcats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Morihiro; Sunahara, Ayano; Nakanishi, Nozomi; Izawa, Masako; Matsuo, Tomohide; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Iriomote cat (IC), Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis, and the Tsushima leopard cat (TLC), Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, are endangered subspecies of leopard cats in Japan. In addition to habitat destruction and road kills, infectious diseases may threaten their populations, and infection with arthropod-borne pathogens has been reported in both subspecies. Infestations with ectoparasites, especially ticks, have frequently been observed in ICs and TLCs. In the present study, ticks collected from captured ICs and TLCs between November 2011 and January 2012 were morphologically identified and the prevalence of the pathogens Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Anaplasma sp., Hepatozoon sp., and hemoplasmas in the ticks was molecularly evaluated. The ticks Haemaphysalis longicornis, H. hystricis, and Amblyomma testudinarium were obtained from ICs, and H. megaspinosa, Ixodes tanuki, H. campanulata, and A. testudinarium were collected from TLCs. The pathogens Hepatozoon felis, Babesia sp., and Anaplasma bovis were detected in ticks obtained from ICs, while H. felis. Babesia sp., Ehrlichia sp., E. muris, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and Bartonella henselae were found in ticks from TLCs. To protect and conserve these endangered animals, continuous monitoring and additional surveys will be necessary to understand the role of ticks as disease vectors in Japanese wildcats. PMID:25682495

  5. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  6. Non-volant modes of migration in terrestrial arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Don R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal migration is often defined in terms appropriate only to the ‘to-and-fro’ movements of large, charismatic (and often vertebrate species. However, like other important biological processes, the definition should apply over as broad a taxonomic range as possible in order to be intellectually satisfying. Here we illustrate the process of migration in insects and other terrestrial arthropods (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, and non-insect hexapods but provide a different perspective by excluding the ‘typical’ mode of migration in insects, i.e. flapping flight. Instead, we review non-volant migratory movements, including: aerial migration by wingless species, pedestrian and waterborne migration, and phoresy. This reveals some fascinating and sometimes bizarre morphological and behavioural adaptations to facilitate movement. We also outline some innovative modelling approaches exploring the interactions between atmospheric transport processes and biological factors affecting the ‘dispersal kernels’ of wingless arthropods

  7. Impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe. Chapter 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kenis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter reviews the effects of alien terrestrial arthropods on the economy, society and environment in Europe. Many alien insect and mite species cause serious socio-economic hazards as pests of agriculture, horticulture, stored products and forestry. They may also affect human or animal health. Interestingly, there is relatively little information available on the exact yield and financial losses due to alien agricultural and forestry pests in Europe, particularly at continental scale. Several alien species may have a positive impact on the economy, for example parasitoids and predators introduced for the biological control of important pests. Invasive alien arthropods can also cause environmental hazards. They may affect native biodiversity through various mechanisms, including herbivory, predation, parasitism, competition for resource and space, or as vectors of diseases. They can also affect ecosystem services and processes through cascading effects. However, these ecological impacts are poorly studied, particularly in Europe, where only a handful cases have been reported.

  8. Adaptations against heme toxicity in blood-feeding arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça-Souza, Aurélio V; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O; Braz, Glória R C; Paes, Márcia C; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Oliveira, Marcus F; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2006-04-01

    A blood-sucking habit appeared independently several times in the course of arthropod evolution. However, from more than a million species of insects and arachnids presently living on earth, only about 14,000 species developed the capacity to feed on vertebrate blood. This figure suggests the existence of severe physiological constraints for the evolution of hematophagy, implying the selective advantage of special adaptations related to the use of blood as a food source. Digestion of vertebrate hemoglobin in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods results in the production of large amounts of heme, a potentially cytotoxic molecule. Here we will review mechanisms by which heme can exert biological damage, together with a wide spectrum of adaptations developed by blood-feeding insects and ticks to counteract its deleterious effects. In spite of the existence of a great molecular diversity of protective mechanisms, different hematophagous organisms developed convergent solutions that may be physiologically equivalent. PMID:16551546

  9. Arthropod colonisation of a debris-covered glacier

    OpenAIRE

    Isaia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The largest debris-covered glacier in the Alps (Miage Glacier, western Italian Alps) has been studied to explore the effects of debris-cover extent and depth on the spatial distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods. A multitaxa approach has been used to compare taxa richness and distribution to the functional role (dietary habits) of each taxon along the glacier tongue. Spiders and ground beetles have been studied in detail. Taxa richness declines with distance from the wooded sites (in fron...

  10. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: The Camper's Uninvited Guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases are a major problem whenever outdoor activities bring arthropods and people into contact. The arthropods discussed here include arachnids (ticks) and insects. Most arthropod bites and stings are minor, with the notable exception being bee-sting anaphylaxis. Ticks cause the most disease transmission. Key hard tick vectors include black-legged (Ixodes), dog (Dermacentor), and lone star (Amblyomma) ticks, which transmit Lyme and various rickettsial diseases. Insect repellents, permethrin sprays, and proper tick inspection reduce this risk significantly. Lyme disease and the milder southern-tick-associated rash illness (STARI) are characterized by the erythema migrans rash followed, in the case of Lyme disease, by early, disseminated, and late systemic symptoms. Treatment is with doxycycline or ceftriaxone. Indefinite treatment of "chronic Lyme disease" based on subjective symptoms is not beneficial. Rickettsial diseases include ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are characterized by fever, headache, and possible rash and should be empirically treated with doxycycline while awaiting laboratory confirmation. Tularemia is a bacterial disease (Francisella) spread by ticks and rabbits and characterized by fever and adenopathy. Treatment is with gentamicin or streptomycin. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease, mimicking malaria, that causes a self-limited flu-like disease in healthy hosts but can be life threatening with immune compromise. Treatment is with atovaquone and azithromycin. Other tick-related conditions include viral diseases (Powassan, Colorado tick fever, heartland virus), tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia), and tick paralysis (toxin). Mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and mites are notable for their annoying bites but are increasingly significant disease vectors even in the United States. PMID:26350321

  11. Interaction between arthropod filiform hairs in a fluid enviroment

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Bree; Gedeon, Tomáš; Klapper, Isaac; Cortez, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Many arthropods use filiform hairs as mechanoreceptors to detect air motion. In common house crickets (Acheta domestica) the hairs cover two antenna-like appendages called cerci at the rear of the abdomen. The biomechanical stimulus-response properties of individual filiform hairs have been investigated and modeled extensively in several earlier studies. However, only a few previous studies have considered viscosity-mediated coupling between pairs of hairs, and only in particular configuratio...

  12. Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Christensen, Stina; Heimes, Christine; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant

    2013-01-01

    1. Many plants are simultaneously attacked by arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens. These may affect each other directly and indirectly, enhancing or reducing the amount of plant resources they each consume. Ultimately, this may reduce or enhance plant performance relative to what should be expected from the added impacts of herbivore and pathogen when they attack alone. 2. Previous studies have suggested synergistic and antagonistic impacts on plant performance from certain combinations o...

  13. Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Christensen, Stina; Heimes, Christine; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant

    2013-01-01

    1. Many plants are simultaneously attacked by arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens. These may affect each other directly and indirectly, enhancing or reducing the amount of plant resources they each consume. Ultimately, this may reduce or enhance plant performance relative to what should be expected from the added impacts of herbivore and pathogen when they attack alone. 2. Previous studies have suggested synergistic and antagonistic impacts on plant performance from certain combinations of a...

  14. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  15. Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Xiao, Jianliang; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-05-01

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes). PMID:23636401

  16. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management. PMID:17607448

  17. Structural Diversity of Self-Assembled Iridescent Arthropod Biophotonic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinod Kumar; Prum, Richard O.

    2015-03-01

    Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, we lack precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and mechanisms controlling their development, when such knowledge can open novel biomimetic routes to facilely self-assemble tunable, multi-functional materials. Here, we use synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to characterize the photonic nanostructure of 140 iridescent integumentary scales and setae from 127 species of terrestrial arthropods in 85 genera from 5 orders. We report a rich nanostructural diversity, including triply-periodic bicontinuous networks, close-packed spheres, inverse columnar, perforated lamellar, and disordered sponge-like morphologies, commonly observed as stable phases of amphiphilic surfactants, block copolymer, and lyotropic lipid-water systems. Diverse arthropod lineages appear to have independently evolved to utilize the self-assembly of infolding bilayer membranes to develop biophotonic nanostructures that span the phase-space of amphiphilic morphologies, but at optical length scales.

  18. Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marinêz Isaac Marques; Joachim Adis; Geane Brizzola dos Santos; Leandro Dênis Battirola

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study represents a contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of arthropods associated to the canopy of Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae). Three trees individuals were sampled during two seasonal periods in this region: a) by spraying one tree canopy during high water (February); b) by fogging two tree canopies during low water (September/October). The 15,744 arthropods (183.2±38.9 individuals/m²) ...

  19. Vertical T-maze Choice Assay for Arthropod Response to Odorants

    OpenAIRE

    Stelinski, Lukasz; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of insects and arachnids as pests of agricultural crops, urban environments or as vectors of plant and human diseases, various technologies are being developed as control tools. A subset of these tools focuses on modifying the behavior of arthropods by attraction or repulsion. Therefore, arthropods are often the focus of behavioral investigations. Various tools have been developed to measure arthropod behavior, including wind tunnels, flight mills, servospheres, ...

  20. RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthropods (ISSN 2224-4255

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  1. Species distribution models do not account for abundance: the case of arthropods in Terceira Island

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Dinis, Francisco; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Paulo A. V. Borges

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether presence/absence models can be used as surrogates of arthropod abundance, and eventually under which circumstances such surrogacy is guaranteed. Presence/absence data for 48 arthropod species from Terceira Island were modelled using artificial neural networks. Probabilities of occurrence were correlated with abundance data from a standardized arthropod survey programme. Although a tendency was found for vagile species to show relationships...

  2. Spatially selective colonization of the arthropod intestine through activation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and the human pathogen responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera. In the environment, arthropods are proposed to be carriers and reservoirs of V. cholerae. However, the molecular basis of the association between V. cholerae and viable arthropods has not been elucidated previously. Here, we show that the V. cholerae Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS)-dependent biofilm is highly activated upon entry into the arthropod intestine and is specifically required...

  3. Effects of weed harrowing frequency on beneficial arthropods, plants and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Kristensen, Kristian; Johnsen, Ib; Jensen, Anne-Mette M.; Sigsgaard, Lene; Esbjerg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    * Weed harrowing is an alternative to herbicides but it may have negative effects on epigaeic arthropods. We assessed the effects of frequent (four) versus two harrowings during the growing season on the density and diversity of generalist arthropods and the weed flora. Collection by flooding was used to estimate arthropod densities, after collection of weeds and crop for biomass estimation. * The predatory guild of spiders Tachyporus spp. carabids was reduced by frequent harrowing. Spiders and ...

  4. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Parkinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.

  5. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  6. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  7. [Microbiological diagnosis of emerging arboviral and rodent borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo Antón, Ana Isabel; de Ory Manchón, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz; Franco Narváez, Leticia; Gegúndez Cámara, M Isabel; Navarro Mari, José M; Tenorio Matanzo, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Vector borne viruses (VBV) include viruses transmitted by arthropods, rodents and other animals. In Spain the three main autochthonous VBVs causing human diseases are: Toscana, West Nile and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis viruses. There are also other imported viruses that are potential threats to our public health, due to the presence of competent transmission vectors (dengue and chikungunya viruses in areas infested with Aedes albopictus), or due to the potential person-to-person transmission (Lassa and other viruses causing haemorrhagic fever). The Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology has responded to the emergence of VBVs by publishing a special issue of Microbiological Proceedings focused on the diagnosis of those emerging vector borne viruses of major concern in our country. PMID:24139129

  8. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes...

  9. Uncommon neurological manifestations of a common tropical vector borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saikat; Das, Somak Kumar; Sharma, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Malaria poses a major public health problem in India, where it is endemic, especially severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infestation. There have been great changes in the clinical manifestation of severe falciparum malaria over the past couple of decades, with a shift from cerebral malaria to fever with jaundice, renal failure, bleeding diathesis, and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. Here, we discuss two cases of severe falciparum malaria which presented with extremely uncommon n...

  10. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GræsbØll, Kaare; EnØe, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable.

  11. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is just one of the many organisms that Wolbachia infects. Credit: James Gathany, CDC. A "Mind-Blowing" ... bacterium that scientists are interested in is called Wolbachia. "It's probably the coolest bacterium in the world," ...

  12. The genetics of African trypanosomes : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tait

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of genetic exchange is not only a fundamental property of an organism but its occurrence provides us with methods of analysis that can be used to dissect the basis of important traits. This paper will review the current evidence for a sexual cycle in Trypanosoma brucei and illustrate how genetic analysis can be used as a tool to identify genes of relevance to the disease, its treatment and transmission. The role of this process in the generation of diversity in the field will be illustrated by considering populations of the three sub-species of T. brucei and how the availability of genome sequence data has been exploited to study whether genetic exchange occurs in the trypanosomes infecting livestock. Finally, the use of population genetics as a methodology to identify genes under selection will be discussed and this will be illustrated as an approach to validating markers for drug resistance with examples from other parasitic protozoa.

  13. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios compri...

  14. cuticleDB: a relational database of Arthropod cuticular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Judith H

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect exoskeleton or cuticle is a bi-partite composite of proteins and chitin that provides protective, skeletal and structural functions. Little information is available about the molecular structure of this important complex that exhibits a helicoidal architecture. Scores of sequences of cuticular proteins have been obtained from direct protein sequencing, from cDNAs, and from genomic analyses. Most of these cuticular protein sequences contain motifs found only in arthropod proteins. Description cuticleDB is a relational database containing all structural proteins of Arthropod cuticle identified to date. Many come from direct sequencing of proteins isolated from cuticle and from sequences from cDNAs that share common features with these authentic cuticular proteins. It also includes proteins from the Drosophila melanogaster and the Anopheles gambiae genomes, that have been predicted to be cuticular proteins, based on a Pfam motif (PF00379 responsible for chitin binding in Arthropod cuticle. The total number of the database entries is 445: 370 derive from insects, 60 from Crustacea and 15 from Chelicerata. The database can be accessed from our web server at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/cuticleDB. Conclusions CuticleDB was primarily designed to contain correct and full annotation of cuticular protein data. The database will be of help to future genome annotators. Users will be able to test hypotheses for the existence of known and also of yet unknown motifs in cuticular proteins. An analysis of motifs may contribute to understanding how proteins contribute to the physical properties of cuticle as well as to the precise nature of their interaction with chitin.

  15. Disturbance In Dry Coastal Dunes Promotes Diversity Of Plants And Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; JØrgensen, Gorm Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    Naturally disturbed coastal dunes have become strongly reduced during the last century due to the cessation of grazing by domestic herbivores, dune stabilization initiatives, and increasing nitrogen deposition, all promoting encroachment by grasses, shrubs and woody plants. We assessed the effects of three disturbance types (burning, trampling and blowouts) on plant and arthropod species richness and composition in dry coastal dunes in Jutland, Denmark. Environmental variables, plant presence–absence and arthropod abundance were measured in 150 1 × 2 m plots along transects in blowouts, burned areas, trampled paths and their paired controls. We used Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) ordination to assess differences in species composition of disturbed areas and controls. Ordination scores were used as response variables in Linear Mixed Effect (LME) models to test for the effects of disturbances on plant and arthropod composition. Indicator species analysis revealed plant and arthropod species indicative for different disturbances. Plant and arthropod species richness and the number of annual plant species generally increased with disturbance, and plant and arthropod richness and composition responded differently to different disturbances. Arthropod communities were more diverse in disturbed plots and hosted species often found in early successional habitats of potential conservation value. Disturbance promoted ?-diversity, but affected plants more than arthropods, likely because of the difference in colonization potential. A combination of disturbances maximized diversity, suggesting that re-installment of a diverse disturbance regime should be considered in dune management.

  16. Disturbance in dry coastal dunes in Denmark promotes diversity of plants and arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; JØrgensen, Gorm Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    Naturally disturbed coastal dunes have become strongly reduced during the last century due to the cessation of grazing by domestic herbivores, dune stabilization initiatives, and increasing nitrogen deposition, all promoting encroachment by grasses, shrubs and woody plants. We assessed the effects of three disturbance types (burning, trampling and blowouts) on plant and arthropod species richness and composition in dry coastal dunes in Jutland, Denmark. Environmental variables, plant presence–absence and arthropod abundance were measured in 150 1 × 2 m plots along transects in blowouts, burned areas, trampled paths and their paired controls. We used Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) ordination to assess differences in species composition of disturbed areas and controls. Ordination scores were used as response variables in Linear Mixed Effect (LME) models to test for the effects of disturbances on plant and arthropod composition. Indicator species analysis revealed plant and arthropod species indicative for different disturbances. Plant and arthropod species richness and the number of annual plant species generally increased with disturbance, and plant and arthropod richness and composition responded differently to different disturbances. Arthropod communities were more diverse in disturbed plots and hosted species often found in early successional habitats of potential conservation value. Disturbance promoted ?-diversity, but affected plants more than arthropods, likely because of the difference in colonization potential. A combination of disturbances maximized diversity, suggesting that re-installment of a diverse disturbance regime should be considered in dune management.

  17. "Bugs on Bugs": An Inquiry-Based, Collaborative Activity to Learn Arthropod & Microbial Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan C.; Morgan, Jeanelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse communities of arthropods and microbes provide humans with essential ecosystem goods and services. Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant macroscopic animals on the planet, and many remain to be discovered. Much less is known about microbial diversity, despite their importance as free-living species and as symbionts. We created…

  18. Ad-Hoc vs. Standardized and Optimized Arthropod Diversity Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standardized and optimized protocols has been recently advocated for different arthropod taxa instead of ad-hoc sampling or sampling with protocols defined on a case-by-case basis. We present a comparison of both sampling approaches applied for spiders in a natural area of Portugal. Tests were made to their efficiency, over-collection of common species, singletons proportions, species abundance distributions, average specimen size, average taxonomic distinctness and behavior of richness estimators. The standardized protocol revealed three main advantages: (1 higher efficiency; (2 more reliable estimations of true richness; and (3 meaningful comparisons between undersampled areas.

  19. Arthropod Distribution in a Tropical Rainforest: Tackling a Four Dimensional Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas; Cuénoud, Philippe; Didham, Raphael K.; Novotny, Vojtech; Ødegaard, Frode; Roslin, Tomas; Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Schmidl, Jürgen; Winchester, Neville N.; Roubik, David W.; Aberlenc, Henri-Pierre; Bail, Johannes; Barrios, Héctor; Bridle, Jonathan R.; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Corbara, Bruno; Curletti, Gianfranco; Duarte da Rocha, Wesley; De Bakker, Domir; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Dejean, Alain; Fagan, Laura L.; Floren, Andreas; Kitching, Roger L.; Medianero, Enrique; Gama de Oliveira, Evandro; Orivel, Jérôme; Pollet, Marc; Rapp, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Sérvio P.; Roisin, Yves; Schmidt, Jesper B.; Sørensen, Line; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Leponce, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14 protocols targeting the soil, litter, understory, lower and upper canopy habitats, replicated across seasons in 2003 and 2004. This dataset is used to explore the relative influence of horizontal, vertical and seasonal drivers of arthropod distribution in this forest. We considered arthropod abundance, observed and estimated species richness, additive decomposition of species richness, multiplicative partitioning of species diversity, variation in species composition, species turnover and guild structure as components of diversity. At the scale of our study (2km of distance, 40m in height and 400 days), the effects related to the vertical and seasonal dimensions were most important. Most adult arthropods were collected from the soil/litter or the upper canopy and species richness was highest in the canopy. We compared the distribution of arthropods and trees within our study system. Effects related to the seasonal dimension were stronger for arthropods than for trees. We conclude that: (1) models of beta diversity developed for tropical trees are unlikely to be applicable to tropical arthropods; (2) it is imperative that estimates of global biodiversity derived from mass collecting of arthropods in tropical rainforests embrace the strong vertical and seasonal partitioning observed here; and (3) given the high species turnover observed between seasons, global climate change may have severe consequences for rainforest arthropods. PMID:26633187

  20. The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host–pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host–pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host–pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host–pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases. - Highlights: ? Infectious diseases are important regulating factors in the way wildlife respond to contaminants. ? An assessment of the effects of radioactive exposure to host–pathogen relationships in animals is given. ? Radioactive exposure has a profound effect on host–pathogen interactions. ? Both hosts and pathogens may be either negatively or positively affected by radioactive contamination.

  1. Arthropods as a source of new RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichaud, L; de Lamballerie, X; Alkan, C; Izri, A; Gould, E A; Charrel, R N

    2014-12-01

    The discovery and development of methods for isolation, characterisation and taxonomy of viruses represents an important milestone in the study, treatment and control of virus diseases during the 20th century. Indeed, by the late-1950s, it was becoming common belief that most human and veterinary pathogenic viruses had been discovered. However, at that time, knowledge of the impact of improved commercial transportation, urbanisation and deforestation, on disease emergence, was in its infancy. From the late 1960s onwards viruses, such as hepatitis virus (A, B and C) hantavirus, HIV, Marburg virus, Ebola virus and many others began to emerge and it became apparent that the world was changing, at least in terms of virus epidemiology, largely due to the influence of anthropological activities. Subsequently, with the improvement of molecular biotechnologies, for amplification of viral RNA, genome sequencing and proteomic analysis the arsenal of available tools for virus discovery and genetic characterization opened up new and exciting possibilities for virological discovery. Many recently identified but "unclassified" viruses are now being allocated to existing genera or families based on whole genome sequencing, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis. New species, genera and families are also being created following the guidelines of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses. Many of these newly discovered viruses are vectored by arthropods (arboviruses) and possess an RNA genome. This brief review will focus largely on the discovery of new arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:25239874

  2. The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented. PMID:19226798

  3. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.

  4. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis). PMID:26350325

  5. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    WM Cardoso; JLC Aguiar Filho; JM Romão; RPR Salles; SR Câmara; AA Siqueira; WF Oliveira; MHNR Sobral; RSC Texeira

    2006-01-01

    This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group) and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal di...

  6. Arthropods and associated arthropod-borne diseases transmitted by migrating birds. The case of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva

    2015-09-30

    Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. PMID:26343302

  7. Grassland Arthropods Are Controlled by Direct and Indirect Interactions with Cattle but Are Largely Unaffected by Plant Provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kelly Anne; Harpole, W Stanley; Stein, Claudia; Suding, Katharine N; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2015-01-01

    Cattle grazing and invasion by non-native plant species are globally-ubiquitous changes occurring to plant communities that are likely to reverberate through whole food webs. We used a manipulative field experiment to quantify how arthropod community structure differed in native and non-native California grassland communities in the presence and absence of grazing. The arthropod community was strongly affected by cattle grazing: the biovolume of herbivorous arthropods was 79% higher in grazed than ungrazed plots, whereas the biovolume of predatory arthropods was 13% higher in ungrazed plots. In plots where non-native grasses were grazed, arthropod biovolume increased, possibly in response to increased plant productivity or increased nutritional quality of rapidly-growing annual plants. Grazing may thus affect plant biomass both through the direct removal of biomass, and through arthropod-mediated impacts. We also expected the arthropod community to differ between native and non-native plant communities; surprisingly, arthropod richness and diversity did not vary consistently between these grass community types, although arthropod abundance was slightly higher in plots with native and ungrazed grasses. These results suggest that whereas cattle grazing affects the arthropod community via direct and indirect pathways, arthropod community changes commonly associated with non-native plant invasions may not be due to the identity or dominance of the invasive species in those systems, but to accompanying changes in plant traits or functional group composition, not seen in this experiment because of the similarity of the plant communities. PMID:26158494

  8. Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy Anbarashan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  9. Response of ground arthropods to effect of urbanization in southern Osaka, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground arthropods are abundant in urban ecosystem, but our understanding of their ecological traits is limited. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of urbanization on ground arthropod communities. Ground arthropods were monitored weekly at six sites (Site 1: Yamato River riverbank; Site 2: Daisen Park; Site 3: Oizumi Ryokuchi Park; Site 4: Osaka Prefecture University campus; Site 5: paddy field; and Site 6: town forest from April 2005 to December 2005. A total of 221,000 individuals of ground arthropods belonging to 19 orders were identified in the dataset. Isopoda, including Porcellionidae and Armadillidiidae, was the first dominant order and 195,161 individuals were collected, representing 88.3% of the total. The mean density of ground arthropods in Sites 1–4, urbanized areas, was much higher than that in paddy field and town forest. The pattern of ground arthropod community in riverbank did not differ from those of urban park, urban forest area, and university campus. Our findings showed that ground arthropods tend to increase biomass in urban areas and some specific groups in areas urbanized and disturbed by human activities.

  10. Evolution of Ecdysis and Metamorphosis in Arthropods: The Rise of Regulation of Juvenile Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sam P S; Huang, Juan; Bendena, William G; Tobe, Stephen S; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-11-01

    Arthropods are the most successful group of animals, and are found in diverse habitats; they account for more than 80% of described animal species. A rigid exoskeleton is a common feature that is shared across the different groups of arthropods. The exoskeleton offers protection and is shed between developmental stages via a unique evolutionarily conserved process known as molting/ecdysis. Molting is triggered by steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids, and the regulation of their biosynthesis has long been proposed as a contributor to the success of arthropods during evolution. Nevertheless, how novelties arose that contributed to the diversifications of arthropods remain unclear. Juvenile hormones (JHs) are sequiterpenoids that were thought to be unique to insects, modulating the timing of metamorphosis in conjunction with the actions of ecdysteroids. Here, we revisit the old question of "the role that the sesquiterpenoids play in arthropod evolution" with a focus on the neglected non-insect arthropods. We hypothesize that the sesquiterpenoid, methyl farnesoate (MF), had already established regulatory functions in the last common ancestor of arthropods, and the difference in the regulation of biosynthesis and degradation of sesquiterpenoids, such as MF and JH, was another major driving force in the successful radiation of insects. PMID:26105594

  11. Aerial arthropod communities of native and invaded forests, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erin N; Bakker, Jonathan D; Gara, Robert I

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species significantly contribute to biological change and threaten biodiversity, with a growing body of evidence that plant invasions affect higher trophic levels. We explored the relative importance of plant invasion and forest structure on aerial arthropod abundance, diversity, and composition on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. We used flight intercept traps to sample aerial arthropods within distinct canopy strata of native and invaded forests over 3-mo periods in 2006 and 2007. Arthropod abundance and diversity were higher in native than invaded forest, and arthropod communities were distinct between forest types. In both forest types, arthropod abundance was highest in the lower canopy, and canopy strata exhibited some differences in arthropod community composition. Several morphospecies were distinctly associated with each forest type. The strong differences in aerial arthropod communities associated with the invasion of native forest by non-native plants may affect other trophic levels, such as insectivorous birds. Steps to stop invasive plant spread and to restore native forest composition and structure are needed to safeguard the integrity of native communities, from plants to higher-level consumers. PMID:22127166

  12. Future rainfall patterns will reduce arthropod abundance in model arable agroecosystems with different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann; Simmer, Laura; Tabi Tataw, James; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change scenarios for eastern Austria predict a seasonal shift in precipitation patterns with fewer but heavier rainfall events and longer drought periods during the growing season and more precipitation during winter. This is expected to alter arthropods living in natural and agricultural ecosystems with consequences for several ecosystem functions and services. In order to better understand the effects of future rainfall patterns on aboveground arthropods inhabiting an agroecosystem, we conducted an experiment where we simulated rainfall patterns in model arable systems with three different soil types. Experiments were conducted in winter wheat cultivated in a lysimeter facility near Vienna, Austria, where three different soil types (calcaric phaeozem, calcic chernozem and gleyic phaeozem) were subjected to long-term current vs. predicted rainfall patterns according to regionalized climate change projections for 2071-2100. Aboveground arthropods were assessed by suction sampling in April, May and June 2012. We found significant differences in mean total arthropod abundances between the sampling dates with 20 ± 2 m-2, 90 ± 20 m-2 and 289 ± 54 m-2 in April, May and June, respectively. Across all three sampling dates, future rainfall patterns significantly reduced the abundance of Araneae (-43%), Auchenorrhyncha (-39%), Coleoptera (-48%), Carabidae (-41%), Chrysomelidae (-64%), Collembola (-58%), Diptera (-75%) and Neuroptera (-73%). Generally, different soil types had no effect on the abundance of arthropods. The diversity of arthropod communities was unaffected by rainfall patterns or soil types. Correlation analyses of arthropod abundances with crop biomass, weed density and abundance suggest that rainfall effects indirectly affected arthropods via changes on crops and weeds. In conclusion, these results show that future rainfall patterns will have detrimental effects on the abundance of a variety of aboveground arthropods in winter wheat with potential consequences for their role as herbivores, biological control agents or food source for predatory fauna within agroecosystems.

  13. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Clemes Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for people, especially for those living in rural areas.

  14. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a general ecological principle, consistency, reliability, and precision are appropriate criteria to evaluate the applicability of a given sampling method for both community-level and taxa-specific arthropod surveys in any ecosystem. PMID:24223273

  15. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Christian T Happi

    2014-01-01

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  16. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  17. Transient behavior of cadmium in a grassland arthropod food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day-1) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day-1). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues

  18. Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

  19. Interaction between arthropod filiform hairs in a fluid enviroment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Bree; Gedeon, Tomáš; Klapper, Isaac; Cortez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Many arthropods use filiform hairs as mechanoreceptors to detect air motion. In common house crickets (Acheta domestica) the hairs cover two antenna-like appendages called cerci at the rear of the abdomen. The biomechanical stimulus-response properties of individual filiform hairs have been investigated and modeled extensively in several earlier studies. However, only a few previous studies have considered viscosity-mediated coupling between pairs of hairs, and only in particular configurations. Here we present a model capable of calculating hair-to-hair coupling in arbitrary configurations. We simulate the coupled motion of a small group of mechanosensory hairs on a cylindrical section of cercus. We have found that the coupling effects are non-negligible, and likely constrain the operational characteristics of the cercal sensory array. PMID:17434184

  20. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WM, Cardoso; JLC, Aguiar Filho; JM, Romão; RPR, Salles; SR, Câmara; AA, Siqueira; WF, Oliveira; MHNR, Sobral; RSC, Texeira.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into [...] eight experimental groups (n=80/group) and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

  1. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

  2. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. PMID:25111609

  3. DIVERSITY OF ARTHROPODS ON COCOA PLANTATION IN THREE STRATA OF SHADE TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Hibban Toana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Research was aimed to identifythe diversity of arthropods in Cocoa plantation inthree strataof shade tree. Research was conducted in Rahmat village, the sub-district of Palolo, District of Sigi, the Province of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia from December 2012 to June 2013.Berlese funnel, Pitfall, Malaise and Light trap were used to collect arthropod samples. There were five indices such as species richness (R, species evenness (E, species diversity (H`and D, and species similarity (Iss to analyze the diversity of arthropods in cocoa plantations. The result showed that species richness (R of arthropods under the two strata of shade tree, species evenness (E and both of species diversity indices, Shannon (H` & Simpson (D was the highest, with value of 18,216, 0.839, 4.383, and 0.833 respectively. In addition, percentage of species similarity (Iss was the highest under two strata of shade tree with value 72.297%.

  4. Travelers' Health: Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Insects and Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxins Chapter 2 - Sun Exposure Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods Roger S. Nasci, Robert A. Wirtz, William ... Box 2-03.?Maximizing protection from mosquitoes and ticks To optimize protection against mosquitoes and ticks and ...

  5. Terrestrial arthropods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Oniscidea) in forest fragment habitats of the Central European landscape.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Tuf, I.H.; Wytwer, J.; Hošek, J.; Hofmeister, J.

    Coimbra : University of Coimbra, 2012. s. 54. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /16./. 06.08.2012-10.08.2012, Coimbra] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : terrestrial arthropods * forest fragment habitats * Central European landscape Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Two simple methods of preparation of arthropod cuticle for scanning electron microscopy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weyda, František

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of entomology CAS, 1998 - (Brunnhofer, V.; Soldán, T.). s. 47 [European congress of entomology /6./. 23.08.1998-29.08.1998, ?eské Bud?jovice] Keywords : arthropod * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  7. Diversity of terrestrial arthropods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Oniscidea) in Central European wetland habitats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel

    Praha : Komitét MAB, 2002. s. 55. [EuroMAB Workshop. 13.10.2002-18.10.2002, Mikulov] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : terrestrial arthropods * wetland habitats Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Introduction to symposium: Arthropods and wildlife conservation: synergy in complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The symposium will discuss the effects of arthropods and other stressors on wildlife conservation programs. Speakers with affiliations in wildlife biology, parasitology and entomology will be included in the program. Research of national and international interest will be presented....

  9. A two-plasmid strategy for engineering a dengue virus type 3 infectious clone from primary Brazilian isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jefferson J S; Cordeiro, Marli T; Bertani, Giovani R; Marques, Ernesto T A; Gil, Laura H V G

    2014-12-01

    Dengue infections represent one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne diseases worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. Engineered infectious clone is an important tool to study Dengue virus (DENV) biology. Functional full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for many positive-strand RNA viruses and have provided valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in viral genome replication, virion assembly, virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. We report herein the successful development of an infectious clone from a primary Brazilian isolate of dengue virus 3 (DENV3) of the genotype III. Using a two-plasmid strategy, DENV3 genome was divided in two parts and cloned separately into a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector. All plasmids were assembled in yeast by homologous recombination technique and a full-length template for transcription was obtained by in vitro ligation of the two parts of the genome. Transcript-derived DENV3 is infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells and in vitro characterization confirmed its identity. Growth kinetics of transcript-derived DENV3 was indistinguishable from wild type DENV3. This system is a powerful tool that will help shed light on molecular features of DENV biology, as the relationship of specific mutations and DENV pathogenesis. PMID:25590713

  10. Positional specification in the segmental growth pattern of an early arthropod

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Giuseppe; Hong, Paul S.; Hughes, Nigel C.

    2014-01-01

    In many arthropods, there is a change in relative segment size during post-embryonic development, but how segment differential growth is produced is little known. A new dataset of the highest quality specimens of the 429 Myr old trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate segment growth dynamics and its control in an early arthropod. Morphometric analysis across nine post-embryonic stages revealed a growth gradient in the trunk of A. koninckii. We cont...

  11. Genetic diversity within a dominant plant outweighs plant species diversity in structuring an arthropod community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kerri M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-05-01

    Plant biodiversity is being lost at a rapid rate. This has spurred much interest in elucidating the consequences of this loss for higher trophic levels. Experimental tests have shown that both plant species diversity and genetic diversity within a plant species can influence arthropod community structure. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted in separate systems, so their relative importance is currently unresolved. Furthermore, potential interactions between the two levels of diversity, which likely occur in natural systems, have not been investigated. To clarify these issues, we conducted three experiments in a freshwater sand dune ecosystem. We (1) independently manipulated plant species diversity, (2) independently manipulated genetic diversity within the dominant plant species, Ammophila breviligulata, and (3) jointly manipulated genetic diversity within the dominant plant and species diversity. We found that genetic diversity within the dominant plant species, Ammophila breviligulata, more strongly influenced arthropod communities than plant species diversity, but this effect was dependent on the presence of other species. In species mixtures, A. breviligulata genetic diversity altered overall arthropod community composition, and arthropod richness and abundance peaked at the highest level of genetic diversity. Positive nonadditive effects of diversity were detected, suggesting that arthropods respond to emergent properties of diverse plant communities. However, in the independent manipulations where A. breviligulata was alone, effects of genetic diversity were weaker, with only arthropod richness responding. In contrast, plant species diversity only influenced arthropods when A. breviligulata was absent, and then only influenced herbivore abundance. In addition to showing that genetic diversity within a dominant plant species can have large effects on arthropod community composition, these results suggest that understanding how species diversity and genetic diversity interact to influence community structure may be critically important for predicting the consequences of biodiversity loss. PMID:23858643

  12. Bison grazing increases arthropod abundance and diversity in a tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew D

    2014-10-01

    How grazing-induced ecosystem changes by ungulates indirectly affect other consumers is a question of great interest. I investigated the effect of grazing by American Bison (Bos bison L.) on an arthropod community in tallgrass prairie. Grazing increased the abundance of arthropods, an increase that was present in both herbivorous and carnivorous assemblages, but not in detritivores. The increase in herbivores and reduction in plant biomass from grazing resulted in an arthropod herbivore load almost three times higher in grazed plots compared with controls. Among herbivores, the sap-feeding insect guild was dramatically more abundant, while chewing herbivores were not affected. Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropod richness was higher in grazed plots, although the response was strongest among herbivores. Arthropod abundance on individual grasses and forbs was significantly higher in grazed areas, while plant type had no effect on abundance, indicating that the change was ecosystem-wide and not simply in response to a reduction in grass biomass from grazing. The response of arthropods to grazing was strongest in the early part of the growing season. Published research shows that ungulate grazing, although decreasing available biomass to other consumers, enhances plant quality by increasing nitrogen level in plants. The arthropod results of this study suggest higher plant quality outweighs the potential negative competitive effects of plant biomass removal, although other activities of bison could not be ruled out as the causative mechanism. Because arthropods are extremely abundant organisms in grasslands and a food source for other consumers, bison may represent valuable management tools for maintaining biodiversity. PMID:25198902

  13. Mixed blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles and foraging succes of carnivorous arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, M.; de Boer, J G; Höfte, M; Rocha-Granados, C.

    2003-01-01

    Food webs are overlaid with infochemical webs that mediate direct and indirect interactions. Behavioural ecologists have extensively documented that carnivorous arthropods exploit herbivore-induced plant volatiles during foraging for herbivorous arthropods. Most studies on the role of infochemicals in multitrophic interactions have been conducted against an odour-free background, although field studies show that carnivores also use herbivore-induced plant volatiles under more complex conditio...

  14. Arthropod diversity in pure oak forests of coppice origin in northern Thrace (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keten A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus spp. forests are among the most important forest types in Turkey. In the past, oak forests were managed through coppice clear-cutting, but in recent decades they have mostly been converted to high forest. This study was aimed at explaining how arthropod diversity is affected during conversion from coppice to high oak forest and during the early stages of coppice succession. We tested the hypothesis that arthropod richness, abundance and diversity in coppice oak sites varied according to stand age and a number of other forest characteristics. Arthropod communities were sampled in 50 plots using four different methods: pitfall traps, sweep nets, sticky cards and cloth shaking. A total of 13 084 individuals were collected and classified into 193 Recognizable Taxonomic Units (RTUs, with the most RTUs and the greatest number of specimens captured by sweep netting. We identified 17 taxa within RTU’s with more than 1% of the captured arthropods, which constituted 75% of the total specimens. The number of RTUs varied significantly according to trap type. Arthropod richness and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H? increased with elevation and precipitation. In young (1-40 yrs-old and middle-aged (41-80 yrs stands, arthropod biodiversity was not significantly affected by stand type, but slightly increased with diameter at breast height and tree height. Forest characteristics, such as the litter layer, understory and crown diameter, weakly influenced arthropod richness and abundance. Cluster analysis revealed that stand types and trap types differed taxonomically. Principal component analysis showed that stand types were clearly separated by the stand parameters measured. Insect families (Formicidae, Thripidae, Lygaeidae, Dolichopodidae, Luaxanidae, Cicadellidae and Ichneumonidae could potentially be used as indicators of coppice oak conditions. As the coppice oak changes to mature forest, further studies are needed to better assess the relation between arthropods, forest types and structural characteristics of stands.

  15. Chemical ecology of host-plant selection by herbivorous arthropods : a multitrophic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, M.

    2000-01-01

    Most herbivorous arthropods are specialists that feed on one or a few related plant species. To understand why this is so, both mechanistic and functional studies have been carried out, predominantly restricted to bitrophic aspects. Host-selection behaviour of herbivorous arthropods has been intensively studied and this has provided ample evidence for the role of secondary plant chemicals as source of information in behavioural decisions of herbivores. Many evolutionary studies have regarded ...

  16. Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy Anbarashan; Poyyamoli Gopalswamy

    2013-01-01

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides...

  17. Transinfection: a method to investigate Wolbachia-host interactions and control arthropod-borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Grant L.; Rasgon, Jason L

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia manipulates arthropod host biology in numerous ways including sex ratio distortion and differential offspring survival. These bacteria infect a vast array of arthropods, some of which pose serious agricultural and human health threats. Wolbachia-mediated phenotypes such as cytoplasmic incompatibility and/or pathogen interference can be utilized for vector and disease control. However, many medically important vectors and important agricultural species are ...

  18. Species richness-environment relationships of european arthropods at two spatial grains: habitats and countries

    OpenAIRE

    Entling, Martin H; Schweiger, Oliver; Bacher, Sven; Espadaler, Xavier; Hickler, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Woodcock, Ben A.; Netwig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We study how species richness of arthropods relates to theories concerning net primary productivity, ambient energy, water-energy dynamics and spatial environmental heterogeneity. We use two datasets of arthropod richness with similar spatial extents (Scandinavia to Mediterranean), but contrasting spatial grain (local habitat and country). Samples of ground-dwelling spiders, beetles, bugs and ants were collected from 32 paired habitats at 16 locations across Europe. Species richness of these ...

  19. Complex responses to invasive grass litter by ground arthropods in a Mediterranean scrub ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth Mary; Bolger, Douglas T.; Holway, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant invasions have tremendous potential to alter food webs by changing basal resources. Recent studies document how plant invasions may contribute to increased arthropod abundances in detritus-based food webs. An obvious mechanism for this phenomenon—a bottom-up effect resulting from elevated levels of detritus from the invasive plant litter—has not been explicitly studied. We examined the effects of an annual grass invasion on ground arthropod assemblages in the coastal sage scrub (CSS) of...

  20. The midgut epithelium of aquatic arthropods: a critical target organ in environmental toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Barry J Beaty; Mackie, Ryan S; Mattingly, Kimberly S; Carlson, Jonathan O; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The midgut epithelium of aquatic arthropods is emerging as an important and toxicologically relevant organ system for monitoring environmental pollution. The peritrophic matrix of aquatic arthropods, which is secreted by the midgut epithelium cells, is perturbed by copper or cadmium. Molecular biological studies have identified and characterized two midgut genes induced by heavy metals in the midgut epithelium. Many other metal-responsive genes (MRGs) await characterization. One of the MRGs c...

  1. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection. PMID:25822555

  2. Rickettsial pathogens and arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary significance on Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durden, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern surveys of ectoparasites and potential vector-borne pathogens in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Wake Island are poorly documented. We report on field surveys of ectoparasites from 2010 with collections from dogs, cats, and rats. Five ectoparasites were identified: the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, a sucking louse Hoplopleura pacifica, the mites Laelaps nuttalli and Radfordia ensifera, and the brown dog tickRhipicephalus sanguineus. Ectoparasites were screened for rickettsial pathogens. DNA from Anaplasma platys, a Coxiella symbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, anda Rickettsia sp. were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing from ticks and fleas on Kwajalein Atoll. An unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in a pool of Laelaps nuttalli and Hoplopleura pacifica from Wake Island. The records of Hoplopleura pacifica, Laelaps nuttalli, and Radfordia ensifera and the pathogens are new for Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island.

  3. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  4. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  5. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Frisch, Morten; Zhang, Jin-Song; Madsen, Mette; Rosdahl, Nils; Konradsen, Helle Bossen; Storm, Hans H; Melbye, Mads

    2003-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear.

  6. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1980-October 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress and current status are reported for research projects concerned with mineral element and nutrient dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer analogs of nutrients. This year, emphasis has been placed on field work in which soil arthropod population size and nutrients inputs were varied experimentally. The presence of microarthropods in field microcosms increased the mineralization of N and P in each case, but rates were not correlated with arthropod densities. Experiments recently started are using both arthropod and microfloral inhibitors, in open systems on the forest floor, with the objective of quantifying arthropod enhancement of microbial immobilization of nutrients

  7. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Ullum, Henrik; Pedersen, Ole; Erikstrup, Christian; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data. METHODS: We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study incidence rates of inpatient hospitalizations for infectious mononucleosis be...

  8. Genetics and genomics of infectious disease susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, AV

    1999-01-01

    Human genetic variation is a major determinant of susceptibility to many common infectious diseases. Malaria was the first disease to be studied extensively and many susceptibility and resistance loci have been identified. However, genes for other diseases such as HIV/AIDS and mycobacterial infections are now being identified using a variety of approaches. A large number of genes appear to influence susceptibility to infectious pathogens and defining these can provide insights into pathogenic...

  9. The immunogenetics of human infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, AV

    1998-01-01

    Twin and adoptee studies have indicated that host genetic factors are major determinants of susceptibility to infectious disease in humans. Twin studies have also found high heritabilities for many humoral and cellular immune responses to pathogen antigens, with most of the genetic component mapping outside of the major histocompatibility complex. Candidate gene studies have implicated several immunogenetic polymorphisms in human infectious diseases. HLA variation has been associated with sus...

  10. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper; Skinhøj, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluati...

  11. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Frisch, Morten; Zhang, Jin-Song; Madsen, Mette; Rosdahl, Nils; Konradsen, Helle Bossen; Storm, Hans H; Melbye, Mads

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population-based Danish cohorts of patients who were tested for infectious mononucleosis: 17,045 with serologic evidence of having had acute EBV infection, and 24,614 with no such evidence. We combined the cohort of p...

  12. The tripartite associations between bacteriophage, Wolbachia, and arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available By manipulating arthropod reproduction worldwide, the heritable endosymbiont Wolbachia has spread to pandemic levels. Little is known about the microbial basis of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI except that bacterial densities and percentages of infected sperm cysts associate with incompatibility strength. The recent discovery of a temperate bacteriophage (WO-B of Wolbachia containing ankyrin-encoding genes and virulence factors has led to intensifying debate that bacteriophage WO-B induces CI. However, current hypotheses have not considered the separate roles that lytic and lysogenic phage might have on bacterial fitness and phenotype. Here we describe a set of quantitative approaches to characterize phage densities and its associations with bacterial densities and CI. We enumerated genome copy number of phage WO-B and Wolbachia and CI penetrance in supergroup A- and B-infected males of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We report several findings: (1 variability in CI strength for A-infected males is positively associated with bacterial densities, as expected under the bacterial density model of CI, (2 phage and bacterial densities have a significant inverse association, as expected for an active lytic infection, and (3 CI strength and phage densities are inversely related in A-infected males; similarly, males expressing incomplete CI have significantly higher phage densities than males expressing complete CI. Ultrastructural analyses indicate that approximately 12% of the A Wolbachia have phage particles, and aggregations of these particles can putatively occur outside the Wolbachia cell. Physical interactions were observed between approximately 16% of the Wolbachia cells and spermatid tails. The results support a low to moderate frequency of lytic development in Wolbachia and an overall negative density relationship between bacteriophage and Wolbachia. The findings motivate a novel phage density model of CI in which lytic phage repress Wolbachia densities and therefore reproductive parasitism. We conclude that phage, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. Clarifying the roles of lytic and lysogenic phage development in Wolbachia biology will effectively structure inquiries into this research topic.

  13. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologue...

  14. Inhibitory motoneurons in arthropod motor control: organisation, function, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Miniaturisation of somatic cells in animals is limited, for reasons ranging from the accommodation of organelles to surface-to-volume ratio. Consequently, muscle and nerve cells vary in diameters by about two orders of magnitude, in animals covering 12 orders of magnitude in body mass. Small animals thus have to control their behaviour with few muscle fibres and neurons. Hexapod leg muscles, for instance, may consist of a single to a few 100 fibres, and they are controlled by one to, rarely, 19 motoneurons. A typical mammal has thousands of fibres per muscle supplied by hundreds of motoneurons for comparable behavioural performances. Arthopods--crustaceans, hexapods, spiders, and their kin--are on average much smaller than vertebrates, and they possess inhibitory motoneurons for a motor control strategy that allows a broad performance spectrum despite necessarily small cell numbers. This arthropod motor control strategy is reviewed from functional and evolutionary perspectives and its components are described with a focus on inhibitory motoneurons. Inhibitory motoneurons are particularly interesting for a number of reasons: evolutionary and phylogenetic comparison of functional specialisations, evolutionary and developmental origin and diversification, and muscle fibre recruitment strategies. PMID:24965579

  15. Arthropod eye-inspired digital camera with unique imaging characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-06-01

    In nature, arthropods have a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a hemispherical geometry, a wideangle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. There are great interests in building systems with similar geometries and properties due to numerous potential applications. However, the established semiconductor sensor technologies and optics are essentially planar, which experience great challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts. With the recent advancement of stretchable optoelectronics, we have successfully developed strategies to build a fully functional artificial apposition compound eye camera by combining optics, materials and mechanics principles. The strategies start with fabricating stretchable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors and elastomeric optical elements in planar geometries, which are then precisely aligned and integrated, and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. This imaging device demonstrates nearly full hemispherical shape (about 160 degrees), with densely packed artificial ommatidia. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. We have illustrated key features of operation of compound eyes through experimental imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations. The general strategies shown in this development could be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  16. Large-scale experimental landscapes reveal distinctive effects of patch shape and connectivity on arthropod communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John, L.; Curler, Gregory, R.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Coyle, David. R.

    2011-09-14

    The size, shape, and isolation of habitat patches can affect organism behavior and population dynamics, but little is known about the relative role of shape and connectivity in affecting ecological communities at large spatial scales. Using six sampling sessions from July 2001 until August 2002, we collected 33,685 arthropods throughout seven 12-ha experimental landscapes consisting of clear-cut patches surrounded by a matrix of mature pine forest. Patches were explicitly designed to manipulate connectivity (via habitat corridors) independently of area and edge effects. We found that patch shape, rather than connectivity, affected ground-dwelling arthropod richness and beta diversity (i.e. turnover of genera among patches). Arthropod communities contained fewer genera and exhibited less turnover in high-edge connected and high-edge unconnected patches relative to low-edge unconnected patches of similar area. Connectivity, rather than patch shape, affected the evenness of ground-dwelling arthropod communities; regardless of patch shape, high-edge connected patches had lower evenness than low- or high-edge unconnected patches. Among the most abundant arthropod orders, increased richness in low-edge unconnected patches was largely due to increased richness of Coleoptera, whereas Hymenoptera played an important role in the lower evenness in connected patches and patterns of turnover. These findings suggest that anthropogenic habitat alteration can have distinct effects on ground-dwelling arthropod communities that arise due to changes in shape and connectivity. Moreover, this work suggests that corridors, which are common conservation tools that change both patch shape and connectivity, can have multiple effects on arthropod communities via different mechanisms, and each effect may alter components of community structure.

  17. Reconstructing the phylogeny of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species based on their motor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmar Martin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor proteins have extensively been studied in the past and consist of large superfamilies. They are involved in diverse processes like cell division, cellular transport, neuronal transport processes, or muscle contraction, to name a few. Vertebrates contain up to 60 myosins and about the same number of kinesins that are spread over more than a dozen distinct classes. Results Here, we present the comparative genomic analysis of the motor protein repertoire of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species using the owl limpet Lottia gigantea as outgroup. Arthropods contain up to 17 myosins grouped into 13 classes. The myosins are in almost all cases clear paralogs, and thus the evolution of the arthropod myosin inventory is mainly determined by gene losses. Arthropod species contain up to 29 kinesins spread over 13 classes. In contrast to the myosins, the evolution of the arthropod kinesin inventory is not only determined by gene losses but also by many subtaxon-specific and species-specific gene duplications. All arthropods contain each of the subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin complex. Except for the dynein light chains and the p150 dynactin subunit they contain single gene copies of the other subunits. Especially the roadblock light chain repertoire is very species-specific. Conclusion All 21 completely sequenced arthropods, including the twelve sequenced Drosophila species, contain a species-specific set of motor proteins. The phylogenetic analysis of all genes as well as the protein repertoire placed Daphnia pulex closest to the root of the Arthropoda. The louse Pediculus humanus corporis is the closest relative to Daphnia followed by the group of the honeybee Apis mellifera and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. After this group the rust-red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the silkworm Bombyx mori diverged very closely from the lineage leading to the Drosophila species.

  18. Habitat and species identity, not diversity, predict the extent of refuse consumption by urban arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Henderson, Ryanna C; Savage, Amy M; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that the magnitude and resilience of this service should increase with biological diversity. We measured food removal by presenting known quantities of cookies, potato chips, and hot dogs in street medians (24 sites) and parks (21 sites) in New York City, USA. At the same sites, we assessed ground-arthropod diversity and abiotic conditions, including history of flooding during Hurricane Sandy 7 months prior to the study. Arthropod diversity was greater in parks (on average 11 hexapod families and 4.7 ant species per site), than in medians (nine hexapod families and 2.7 ant species per site). However, counter to our diversity-based prediction, arthropods in medians removed 2-3 times more food per day than did those in parks. We detected no effect of flooding (at 19 sites) on this service. Instead, greater food removal was associated with the presence of the introduced pavement ant (Tetramorium sp. E) and with hotter, drier conditions that may have increased arthropod metabolism. When vertebrates also had access to food, more was removed, indicating that arthropods and vertebrates compete for littered food. We estimate that arthropods alone could remove 4-6.5 kg of food per year in a single street median, reducing its availability to less desirable fauna such as rats. Our results suggest that species identity and habitat may be more relevant than diversity for predicting urban ecosystem services. Even small green spaces such as street medians provide ecosystem services that may complement those of larger habitat patches across the urban landscape. PMID:25463151

  19. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Velez Rogelio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%, dermatological conditions (12% and respiratory illnesses (8%. There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%, as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%. Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4% accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9% and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk.

  20. NDVI as a predictor of canopy arthropod biomass in the Alaskan arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shannan K; Asmus, Ashley; Rich, Matthew E; Wingfield, John; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-04-01

    The physical and biological responses to rapid arctic warming are proving acute, and as such, there is a need to monitor, understand, and predict ecological responses over large spatial and temporal scales. The use of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) acquired from airborne and satellite sensors addresses this need, as it is widely used as a tool for detecting and quantifying spatial and temporal dynamics of tundra vegetation cover, productivity, and phenology. Such extensive use of the NDVI to quantify vegetation characteristics suggests that it may be similarly applied to characterizing primary and secondary consumer communities. Here, we develop empirical models to predict canopy arthropod biomass with canopy-level measurements of the NDVI both across and within distinct tundra vegetation communities over four growing seasons in the Arctic Foothills region of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. When canopy arthropod biomass is predicted with the NDVI across all four growing seasons, our overall model that includes all four vegetation communities explains 63% of the variance in canopy arthropod biomass, whereas our models specific to each of the four vegetation communities explain 74% (moist tussock tundra), 82% (erect shrub tundra), 84% (riparian shrub tundra), and 87% (dwarf shrub tundra) of the observed variation in canopy arthropod biomass. Our field-based study suggests that measurements of the NDVI made from air- and spaceborne sensors may be able to quantify spatial and temporal variation in canopy arthropod biomass at landscape to regional scales. PMID:26214922

  1. Abundance of epigaeic arthropods in a Brazilian savanna under different fire frequencies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio, Uehara-Prado; Ayr de M., Bello; Juliana de O., Fernandes; Adalberto J., Santos; Igor A., Silva; Marcus V., Cianciaruso.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently [...] and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were subjected to three burning frequencies: frequent (HighFi), intermediary (MidFi), and infrequent (LowFi). In general, we found a positive relationship between the abundance of epigaeic arthropods and fire frequency. When arthropods were analyzed by orders, the abundance of Collembola and Orthoptera was lower in the LowFi site, while for Hemiptera, it was higher in the MidFi site. No significant differences were found for Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae. The abundance of detritivores and herbivores decreased from HighFi to LowFi, but did not change significantly for omnivores and predators. These results indicate that some arthropod groups may not only be resilient to fire effects, but actually might benefit from fire effects in the cerrado. Characterizing arthropod responses to burning frequency at high taxonomic or functional levels is important for applied studies. Based on the results of the current study, springtails and ants seem to be particularly appropriate focal groups for further exploratory studies on the effects of fire at the species level.

  2. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  3. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  4. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  5. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

  6. Arthropods of Burgess Shale type from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chlupá? I

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Rare non-trilobite arthropods, mostly with affinities with the Burgess Shale fauna, are described from the Middle Cambrian Jince Formation of the Barrandian area, Central Bohemia (Czech Republic: Tuzoia sp., another large Tuzoia-like arthropod (probably a new genus, Proboscicaris hospes sp. n., Helmetia? fastigata sp. n., and Forfexicaris? sp. The status of Pilocystites primitius Barrande, 1887, formerly ranged with echinoderms but here recognized as a Tuzoia fragment, is discussed. Most of described arthropods (except Forfexicaris? sp. are thought to be nektobenthic animals of a shallow-water environment, possibly tolerant to some salinity fluctuations. Relationships, particularly to North American faunas, indicate open migration possibilities between Laurentia and peri-Gondwana regions during the Middle Cambrian.

  7. Occupational Infectious Diseases among Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Hasde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important diseases among health care workers resulting from occupational exposure are infectious diseases. All of the communicable diseases could infect health care workers, and may cause diseases leading to death. Although infectious diseases increase among health care workers, measures for control and prevention of these infections are the same for years. These measures may be summarized as handwashing, immunisation and appropriate isolation of infection sources, and using of these basic applications is the primary responsibility of managers and health care workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 495-500

  8. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteo-arthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatric patients as follows: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 4 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases and other different diseases 9 cases

  9. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  10. Effect of host-plant genetic diversity on oak canopy arthropod community structure in central Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Efraín, Tovar-Sánchez; Leticia, Valencia-Cuevas; Patricia, Mussali-Galante; Rolando, Ramírez-Rodríguez; Elgar, Castillo-Mendoza.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently it has been proposed that the genetic diversity of foundation species influences the structure and function of the community by creating locally stable conditions for other species and modulating ecosystem dynamics. Oak species are an ideal system to test this hypothesis because [...] many of them have a wide geographical distribution, and they are dominant elements of the forest canopy. In this study we explored the response of canopy arthropod community structure (diversity and biomass) to the level of genetic diversity of Quercus crassipes and Q. rugosa, two important canopy species. Also, we examined the effect of oak species and locality on some community structure parameters (diversity, biomass, rare species, and richness of arthropod fauna) of canopy arthropods. In total, 160 canopies were fogged in four localities at the Mexican Valley (ten trees per species per locality per season) RESULTS: Q. crassipes registered the highest number of rare species, diversity index, biomass, and richness in comparison with Q. rugosa. We found a positive and significant relationship between genetic diversity parameters and canopy arthropod diversity. However, canopy arthropod biomass registered an inverse pattern. Our results support the hypothesis that the genetic diversity of the host-plant species influences the assemblage of the canopy arthropod community CONCLUSIONS: The pattern found in our study provides a powerful tool when trying to predict the effects of the genetic diversity of the host-plant species on different community structure parameters, which permits assignment of a new conservation status to foundation species based on their genetic diversity.

  11. Use of Google EarthTM to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments / Utilisation de Google EarthTM pour renforcer les capacités de la santé publique et faciliter la prise en charge des maladies à transmission vectorielle dans les environnements pauvres en ressources / Uso de Google EarthTM para fortalecer la capacidad de salud pública y facilitar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en entornos con recursos escasos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saul, Lozano-Fuentes; Darwin, Elizondo-Quiroga; Jose Arturo, Farfan-Ale; Maria Alba, Loroño-Pino; Julian, Garcia-Rejon; Salvador, Gomez-Carro; Victor, Lira-Zumbardo; Rosario, Najera-Vazquez; Ildefonso, Fernandez-Salas; Joaquin, Calderon-Martinez; Marco, Dominguez-Galera; Pedro, Mis-Avila; Natashia, Morris; Michael, Coleman; Chester G, Moore; Barry J, Beaty; Lars, Eisen.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Se necesitan soluciones novedosas y de bajo costo para mejorar la gestión de las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial y de otro tipo en los entornos con recursos escasos. Las nuevas opciones de software gratuito que dan acceso a imágenes por satélite y a instrumentos de edición sencillos [...] (por ejemplo Google EarthTM) complementan el software del sistema de información geográfica (SIG) existente y brindan nuevas oportunidades para: (i) reforzar la capacidad global de salud pública mediante la elaboración de información para infraestructuras urbanas; y (ii) mostrar los datos de salud pública directamente en una imagen del entorno físico. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron imágenes por satélite de libre acceso y una serie de prestaciones de generación de detalles incluidas en el software (que permiten crear polígonos, líneas y puntos) para añadir información sobre las infraestructuras urbanas y representar datos sobre las enfermedades en el marco de un sistema de apoyo decisional para el dengue (DDSS). RESULTADOS: Se utilizaron dos ciudades de México (Chetumal y Mérida) para demostrar que es posible desarrollar rápidamente y con un costo mínimo una representación básica de la infraestructura urbana que revista utilidad como urdimbre espacial en un DDSS. Las capas de información generadas comprendían polígonos etiquetados que representaban cuadras, líneas que reproducían las calles, y puntos que indicaban la localización de las escuelas y los dispensarios. Las cuadras se codificaron mediante colores en función de los casos de dengue. Las capas de información se pudieron importar satisfactoriamente a un software SIG en el formato conocido como shapefiles. CONCLUSIÓN: La combinación de Google EarthTM y software SIG gratuito (por ejemplo, HealthMapper, desarrollado por la OMS, y SIGEpi, desarrollado por la OPS) brinda enormes posibilidades para reforzar la capacidad general de salud pública y facilitar la aplicación de sistemas de apoyo decisional a la prevención y el control de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial en los entornos con recursos escasos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google EarthTM) complement existing geographic information system ( [...] GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. METHODS: We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. FINDINGS: Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. CONCLUSION: The combination of Google EarthTM and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

  12. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3?yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  13. Post-infectious encephalopathy simulating functional psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spihtle, B J; Fliegner, J; Faed, J A; Hannah, J B; James, B

    1977-03-01

    Three cases of post-infectious encephalopathy are presented in which behaviour changes occurred in the absence of neurological abnormality during convalescence from an influenza-like illness. The symptoms included aggresive behaviour, sleep reversal, sexual disinbition and a catatonic schizophrenia-like state. The prognosis was good. PMID:266660

  14. Burden of infectious diseases in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Awasthi, Shally; deSilva, H Janaka

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a major cause of death in South Asia, with children incurring a disproportionate share of the burden. This review discusses the underlying causes of some of the more common diseases and strategies to improve their detection and control

  15. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-08-18

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  16. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  17. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigirci, Ahmet [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  18. Joint spatial analysis of gastrointestinal infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Leonhard; Graziano, Giusi; Frank, Christina; Rue, Håvard

    2006-10-01

    A major obstacle in the spatial analysis of infectious disease surveillance data is the problem of under-reporting. This article investigates the possibility of inferring reporting rates through joint statistical modelling of several infectious diseases with different aetiologies. Once variation in under-reporting can be estimated, geographic risk patterns for infections associated with specific food vehicles may be discerned. We adopt the shared component model, proposed by Knorr-Held and Best for two chronic diseases and further extended by (Held L, Natario I, Fenton S, Rue H, Becker N. Towards joint disease mapping. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2005b; 14: 61-82) for more than two chronic diseases to the infectious disease setting. Our goal is to estimate a shared component, common to all diseases, which may be interpreted as representing the spatial variation in reporting rates. Additional components are introduced to describe the real spatial variation of the different diseases. Of course, this interpretation is only allowed under specific assumptions, in particular, the geographical variation in under-reporting should be similar for the diseases considered. In addition, it is vital that the data do not contain large local outbreaks, so adjustment based on a time series method recently proposed by (Held L, Höhle M, Hofmann M. A statistical framework for the analysis of multivariate infectious disease surveillance data. Statistical Modelling 2005a; 5: 187-99) is made at a preliminary stage. We will illustrate our approach through the analysis of gastrointestinal diseases notification data obtained from the German infectious disease surveillance system, administered by the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. PMID:17089949

  19. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P; Madsen, M; Rosdahl, N; Storm, H H; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Eriksen, L S; Frisch, M; Ekbom, A; Melbye, M

    2000-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparsely studied.

  20. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P; Madsen, Mette; Rosdahl, N; Storm, H H; Hamilton-Dutoit, S; Eriksen, L S; Frisch, M; Ekbom, A; Melbye, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparse...

  1. Tourism and Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in the Americas: What Physicians Must Remember for Patient Diagnosis and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmunis; Corber

    1999-04-01

    Emerging diseases are those which have shown an increased in humans over the last 20 years. Re-emerging diseases are those which have reappeared after a period of significant decrease in incidence. The etiological agents of these diseases in the Western Hemisphere are viruses (HIV, dengue, oroupuche, sabia, guanarito, or hanta), bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Borrellia burgdorferi, Legionella pneumofila, Eseherichia coli 0157:H7, or other bacteria with a new pattern of antibiotic resistance), or parasites (Cryptosporidia, Cyclosporidia or drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum). Due to the widespread geographical distribution of these infectious diseases in the Americas, and an increasing number of travellers (more than 87 million persons within the region in 1997), there are many opportunities to contract an infection when travelling in developed or undeveloped countries. The infection may present with symptoms during the trip, or following the traveler s return to his or her place of origin. However, too often practicing physicians do not inquire about the travel history of their patients and, when they do, they often lack the information about diseases relevant to travelers. From the regional perspective, the emerging or reemerging agents that pose a higher risk to tourists or travelers are: 1) those that cause enteric infections; 2) sexually transmitted diseases; and 3) vector-borne diseases, including those present in ecotourism areas. Emerging and re-emerging diseases that physicians may encounter in their clinical practice while caring for travelers returning from different countries of the Western Hemisphere are briefly described (Lyme disease, legionellosis, dengue, yellow fever, P. falciparum malaria, cyclosporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis). This report attempts to draw attention to the fact that new clinical and etiological entities are present in several geographical areas of the Americas; to place each of these entities into an epidemiological context; and to end the misconception that only travel to poor countries carries a risk of acquiring an infection. By knowing which infectious agents occur in each area and the incubation period of each disease, the treating physician can often treat patients successfully. Health care professionals must be aware of the organisms circulating in the region so that they have them in mind during their clinical practice. PMID:11098191

  2. Imaging of Small-Animal Models of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jelicks, Linda A; Lisanti, Michael P.; Machado, Fabiana S.; Louis M Weiss; Herbert B. Tanowitz; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. Noninvasive small-animal imaging has become an important research tool for preclinical studies of infectious diseases. Imaging studies permit enhanced information through longitudinal studies of the same animal during the infection. Herein, we briefly review recent studies of animal models of infectious disease that have used imaging modalities.

  3. Neurotropic Infectious Agents and Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The links between infectious agents and risk for schizophrenia have been widely debated, but few investigations have focused on “epidiagnostic” effects, eg, whether exposures to infectious agents alter key clinical aspects of the disorder, such as cognitive impairment. The present theme issue evaluates epidiagnostic cognitive effects of two common infectious agents, namely Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 and Toxoplasma gondii.

  4. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-12

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/13/2014.

  5. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  6. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  7. Teaching Students about Biodiversity by Studying the Correlation between Plants & Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

    2008-01-01

    On Earth there is a huge diversity of arthropods, many of which are highly adaptive and able to exploit virtually every terrestrial habitat. Because of their prevalence even in urban environments, they make an excellent model system for any life science class. Since plants also exploit virtually every terrestrial habitat, studying the relationship…

  8. Assessment of Risk of Insect-resistant Transgenic Crops to Nontarget Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate potential risks to non-target arthropods (NTA’s) posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops. It adapts the tiered approach to risk assessment that is accepted internationally within regulatory ...

  9. Vertical T-maze choice assay for arthropod response to odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, Lukasz; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of insects and arachnids as pests of agricultural crops, urban environments or as vectors of plant and human diseases, various technologies are being developed as control tools. A subset of these tools focuses on modifying the behavior of arthropods by attraction or repulsion. Therefore, arthropods are often the focus of behavioral investigations. Various tools have been developed to measure arthropod behavior, including wind tunnels, flight mills, servospheres, and various types of olfactometers. The purpose of these tools is to measure insect or arachnid response to visual or more often olfactory cues. The vertical T-maze olfactometer described here measures choices performed by insects in response to attractants or repellents. It is a high throughput assay device that takes advantage of the positive phototaxis (attraction to light) and negative geotaxis (tendency to walk or fly upward) exhibited by many arthropods. The olfactometer consists of a 30 cm glass tube that is divided in half with a Teflon strip forming a T-maze. Each half serves as an arm of the olfactometer enabling the test subjects to make a choice between two potential odor fields in assays involving attractants. In assays involving repellents, lack of normal response to known attractants can also be measured as a third variable. PMID:23439130

  10. An overview of arthropod-associated fungi from Argentina and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Lastra, Claudia C López; Humber, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    Arthropod pests in forest and agricultural systems are affected by many pathogenic organisms. Among them, entomopathogenic fungi are the one most common control agents that regulate their populations. This review compiles the information available from Argentina and Brazil about the entomopathogenic fungi occurring in agricultural and natural environments. The scientific names of the fungi are listed according to the latest phylogenetically based classification of fungi. We present an updated list of arthropod-pathogenic fungi occurring in 15 of the 23 provinces of Argentina and 20 of the 27 states of Brazil based on published literature and our personal observations. The list includes a total of 114 fungal species from 53 genera: of Blastocladiomycetes (2 genera), Entomophthorales (8 genera), Harpellales (13 genera), and a diverse assortment of ascomycetes (primarily from Hypocreales) in 22 anamorphic and 5 teleomorphic genera. In the both countries, molecular studies on arthropod-pathogenic fungi are still in their early stages and have focused primarily on intraspecific variability and adequate generic assignment. This listing seeks to encourage more active collection and characterization of these fungi by both traditional and molecular approaches from the obviously rich but underexplored flora of fungi affecting arthropods throughout this large region of South America. PMID:20174997

  11. Arthropod communities in the Bt and non Bt potato and maize fields.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Nedv?d, Old?ich; Sehnal, František

    Ivanka pri Dunaji : Ústav experimentálnej fytopatológie a entomológie SAV, 2002. s. 135-136. ISBN 80-224-0745-3. [Ochrana rastlín v III. miléniu. 01.10.2002-02.10.2002, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA522/02/1507 Keywords : Bt and non Bt plants * arthropods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Weeds as viable habitat for arthropod species in croplands of central Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)

  13. Terrestrial arthropods (Oniscidea, Diplopoda, Chilopoda) of the sandstone and adjacent habitats in Bohemian Switzerland National Park.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel

    Krásná Lípa : Správa NP ?eské Švýcarsko, 2002. s. 33. [Sandstone Landscapes: Diversity, Ecology and Conservation. 14.09.2002-20.09.2002, Doubice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : terrestrial arthropods * Bohemian Switzerland National Park Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. A global meta-analytic contrast of cushion-plant effects on plants and on arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Liczner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nurse plant facilitation is a commonly reported plant–plant interaction and is an important factor influencing community structure in stressful environments. Cushion plants are an example of alpine nurse plants that modify microclimatic conditions within their canopies to create favourable environments for other plants. In this meta-analysis, the facilitative effects of cushion plants was expanded from previous syntheses of the topic and the relative strength of facilitation for other plants and for arthropods were compared globally.The abundance, diversity, and species presence/absence effect size estimates were tested as plant responses to nurse plants and a composite measure was tested for arthropods. The strength of facilitation was on average three times greater for arthropods relative to all plant responses to cushions. Plant species presence, i.e., frequency of occurrence, was not enhanced by nurse-plants. Cushion plants nonetheless acted as nurse plants for both plants and arthropods in most alpine contexts globally, and although responses by other plant species currently dominate the facilitation literature, preliminary synthesis of the evidence suggests that the potential impacts of nurses may be even greater for other trophic levels.

  15. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara P, Pais; Elenice M, Varanda.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored site [...] s of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.

  16. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-05-01

    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops ( p Orthoptera, Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface arthropods were the major contributors of variation in overall abundance in extreme temperature months while microarthropods in low-temperature months. CCA analysis revealed the occurrence of different arthropod groups in correspondence with different abiotic variables. Results are discussed in view of position of these arthropods as useful indicators under changing environmental conditions impacting agroecosystems in the study area.

  17. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Origins and Diversity of Arthropod Immune Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William J; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-08-01

    Insects are an important model for the study of innate immune systems, but remarkably little is known about the immune system of other arthropod groups despite their importance as disease vectors, pests, and components of biological diversity. Using comparative genomics, we have characterized the immune system of all the major groups of arthropods beyond insects for the first time--studying five chelicerates, a myriapod, and a crustacean. We found clear traces of an ancient origin of innate immunity, with some arthropods having Toll-like receptors and C3-complement factors that are more closely related in sequence or structure to vertebrates than other arthropods. Across the arthropods some components of the immune system, such as the Toll signaling pathway, are highly conserved. However, there is also remarkable diversity. The chelicerates apparently lack the Imd signaling pathway and beta-1,3 glucan binding proteins--a key class of pathogen recognition receptors. Many genes have large copy number variation across species, and this may sometimes be accompanied by changes in function. For example, we find that peptidoglycan recognition proteins have frequently lost their catalytic activity and switch between secreted and intracellular forms. We also find that there has been widespread and extensive duplication of the cellular immune receptor Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), which may be an alternative way to generate the high diversity produced by alternative splicing in insects. In the antiviral short interfering RNAi pathway Argonaute 2 evolves rapidly and is frequently duplicated, with a highly variable copy number. Our results provide a detailed analysis of the immune systems of several important groups of animals for the first time and lay the foundations for functional work on these groups. PMID:25908671

  18. Trophic phylogenetics: evolutionary influences on body size, feeding, and species associations in grassland arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eric M; Vincent, John B; Weiblen, George D; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary animal-plant interactions such as herbivory are widely understood to be shaped by evolutionary history. Yet questions remain about the role of plant phylogenetic diversity in generating and maintaining herbivore diversity, and whether evolutionary relatedness of producers might predict the composition of consumer communities. We tested for evidence of evolutionary associations among arthropods and the plants on which they were found, using phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring arthropod assemblages sampled from a plant-diversity manipulation experiment. Considering phylogenetic relationships among more than 900 arthropod consumer taxa and 29 plant species in the experiment, we addressed several interrelated questions. First, our results support the hypothesis that arthropod functional traits such as body size and trophic role are phylogenetically conserved in community ecological samples. Second, herbivores tended to cooccur with closer phylogenetic relatives than would be expected at random, whereas predators and parasitoids did not show phylogenetic association patterns. Consumer specialization, as measured by association through time with monocultures of particular host plant species, showed significant phylogenetic signal, although the. strength of this association varied among plant species. Polycultures of phylogenetically dissimilar plant species supported more phylogenetically dissimilar consumer communities than did phylogenetically similar polycultures. Finally, we separated the effects of plant species richness and relatedness in predicting the phylogenetic distribution of the arthropod assemblages in this experiment. The phylogenetic diversity of plant communities predicted the phylogenetic diversity of herbivore communities even after accounting for plant species richness. The phylogenetic diversity of secondary consumers differed by guild, with predator phylogenetic diversity responding to herbivore relatedness, while parasitoid phylogenetic diversity was driven by plant relatedness. Evolutionary associations between plants and their consumers are apparent in plots only meters apart in a single field, indicating a strong role for host-plant phylogenetic diversity in sustaining landscape consumer biodiversity. PMID:26230020

  19. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so that eventually even communities of low-mobility species become connected. Furthermore, improving the design of green roofs (composition and configuration of vegetation and soil types) could enhance the ecological value, particularly for low-mobility species. PMID:24933819

  20. Employing citizen science to study defoliation impacts on arthropod communities on tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Audrey L.

    The invasive tamarisk tree is widespread across the southwestern landscape of the United States and has been dominant in regulated river reaches, outcompeting native vegetation and impacting trophic webs in riparian ecosystems. The changes in riparian habitat and recreation opportunities along southwestern rivers, like the San Juan River in Utah, led to the implementation of a biocontrol program in the form of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.). It is unknown what the long term effects on riparian ecosystems are as a result of the beetles' defoliation of tamarisk each summer. This study sought to identify the current arthropod community composition and abundance over one growing season on the San Juan River between Bluff and Mexican Hat, UT and second, to involve the public in this research through a citizen science component. I found that non-native insects, including the tamarisk leaf beetle, dominated the arboreal arthropod communities within the tamarisk and there are relatively few native arthropods residing in tamarisk throughout the summer season. Foliation levels (the quantity of leaves in the canopy of tamarisk) were inconclusive predictors of arthropod abundances but varied by species and by feeding guild. This may indicate that the defoliation of the tamarisk is not necessarily negatively impacting trophic interactions in tamarisk. I incorporated youth participants on educational river rafting trips to assist in data collection of arthropods from tamarisk trees as a way to educate and bring attention to the issue of invasive species in the Southwest. After completing my own citizen science project and after doing a literature review of other, similar citizen science projects, I found that striving for both rigorous scientific data and quality educational programming is challenging for a small scale project that does not target broad spatial, geographic, or temporal data. Citizen science project developers should clearly identify their objectives and spend time developing and evaluating both the data quality and the educational quality of citizen science programs to achieve credibility in both realms.

  1. Impact of Location, Cropping History, Tillage, and Chlorpyrifos on Soil Arthropods in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Yasmin J; Drake, Wendy L; Jordan, David L; Schroeder-Moreno, Michelle S; Arellano, Consuelo; Brandenburg, Rick L

    2015-08-01

    Demand for agricultural production systems that are both economically viable and environmentally conscious continues to increase. In recent years, reduced tillage systems, and grass and pasture rotations have been investigated to help maintain or improve soil quality, increase crop yield, and decrease labor requirements for production. However, documentation of the effects of reduced tillage, fescue rotation systems as well as other management practices, including pesticides, on pest damage and soil arthropod activity in peanut production for the Mid-Atlantic US region is still limited. Therefore, this project was implemented to assess impacts of fescue-based rotation systems on pests and other soil organisms when compared with cash crop rotation systems over four locations in eastern North Carolina. In addition, the effects of tillage (strip vs. conventional) and soil chlorpyrifos application on pod damage and soil-dwelling organisms were also evaluated. Soil arthropod populations were assessed by deploying pitfall traps containing 50% ethanol in each of the sampled plots. Results from the present study provide evidence that location significantly impacts pest damage and soil arthropod diversity in peanut fields. Cropping history also influenced arthropod diversity, with higher diversity in fescue compared with cash crop fields. Corn rootworm damage to pods was higher at one of our locations (Rocky Mount) compared with all others. Cropping history (fescue vs. cash crop) did not have an effect on rootworm damage, but increased numbers of hymenopterans, acarina, heteropterans, and collembolans in fescue compared with cash crop fields. Interestingly, there was an overall tendency for higher number of soil arthropods in traps placed in chlorpyrifos-treated plots compared with nontreated controls. PMID:26314040

  2. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1981-January 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported for research projects on nutrient dynamics during terrestrial decomposition, as influenced by soil arthropods. Radioactive tracers are used as analogs of nutrients, to measure material movement along food chains and dynamics of processes during decomposition. Forest floor systems from which arthropods were excluded, or in which microfloral activity was depressed, trapped incoming nutrients from canopy throughfall at different rates. Faunal stimulation of microfloral activities could not be demonstrated, but drought conditions disturbed the experiment. Turnover measurements for radionuclides in collembolans are also reported, and compared with information on mites and other arthropods

  3. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, ?-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

  4. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Emily H; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Sonricker, Amy L.; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C.; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulation...

  5. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuhiro Koyama; Junji Inokoshi; Hiroshi Tomoda

    2012-01-01

    Clinically useful antibiotics, ?-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652) targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were...

  6. Iris nodules associated with infectious uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, T D; Smith, J.R.; Lauer, A K; Rosenbaum, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Iris nodules are an uncommon clinical sign in uveitis. The diseases most commonly associated with iris nodules and uveitis include sarcoidosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis, and metastatic infection. While many of these diseases may be appropriately treated with immunosuppressive medication, the management of infectious uveitis is antimicrobial therapy. Inappropriate immunosuppressive therapy may result in a poor outcome...

  7. Detection of Infectious Tobamoviruses in Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Fillhart, Ronald C.; Bachand, George D.; Castello, John D.

    1998-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate elution and bait plant methods to detect infectious tobamoviruses in forest soils in New York State. Soils were collected from two forest sites: Whiteface Mountain (WF) and Heiberg Forest (HF). The effectiveness of four buffers to elute tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) from organic and mineral fractions of WF soil amended with ToMV was tested, and virus content was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effectiveness of Chenopodium quinoa (W...

  8. Infectious disease as an evolutionary paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Lederberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The basic principles of genetics and evolution apply equally to human hosts and to emerging infections, in which foodborne outbreaks play an important and growing role. However, we are dealing with a very complicated coevolutionary process in which infectious agent outcomes range from mutual annihilation to mutual integration and resynthesis of a new species. In our race against microbial evolution, new molecular biology tools will help us study the past; education and a global public health ...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous myositis, magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical manifestations may help in this respect.=20

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous myositis, magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical manifestations may help in this respect.=20.

  11. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The connection between the severity of clinical manifestations and immune response features in patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM was studied. It was established, that in IM patients with minor disease severity dominated the cellular-mediated response. In IM patients with mild disease severity the humoral-oriented immune response predominated. The described above findings suggest the need of differential approach of immune modulators application in IM therapy, depending on the level of disease severity

  12. Decontaminating infectious laboratory waste by autoclaving.

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, J L; Battles, D R; Vesley, D

    1982-01-01

    The temperature profile of infectious laboratory waste being autoclaved was examined relative to the type of containers used in the process. A standardized waste load (1,750 +/- 4 g) placed in the container was evaluated by using a direct readout thermocouple. The sensor of the thermocouple was placed within an unused and outdated agar plate, centrally located about 5 cm from the bottom of the container. The gravity displacement autoclave tested reached 121 degrees C within 3 min. Waste withi...

  13. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic proble...

  14. Interdisciplinarity "in the making": modelling infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Erika

    2005-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper to current philosophical and sociological studies on modelling is to analyse modelling as an object-oriented interdisciplinary activity and thus to bring new insights into the wide, heterogeneous discourse on tools, forms and organisation of interdisciplinary research. A detailed analysis of interdisciplinarity in the making of models is presented, focusing on long-standing interdisciplinary collaboration between specialists in infectious diseases, mathemat...

  15. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no...

  16. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M E

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, imm...

  17. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah K.; Patel, Emily; Grotegut, Chad A.; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases ...

  18. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  19. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    During one year, 1979-80, all the contacts between the 836 inhabitants of Upernavik town and the local medical officers were recorded. In the 737 native Greenlanders 1006 contacts (41%) were caused by infectious diseases, representing 705 episodes of disease. The number of contacts per episode of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted diseases, and 17% by other infections. Skin infections were most common in males, whereas all other infections were most common in females. The patterns of age specific contact rates were similar in males and females, except regarding "other infections". A peak of respiratory infections in July and of skin infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections and sexually transmitted diseases were notably more frequent in Upernavik.

  20. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

  1. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed

  2. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  3. Arthropods in Natural Communities in Mescal Agave (Agave durangensis Gentry in an Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Gonzalez-Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The arthropods have a very important role in the arid zones due to their interactions with many organism and because they constituted an important element in the structure of the plant community. Nevertheless their importance there are few knowledge about the community of arthropods associated to vegetation in arid zones in the North of Mexico. The present study had the objective of determining the abundance, richness and diversity of arthropods in three localities where there are natural populations of mescal agave in the State of Durango, Mexico. Approach: In order to know the structure community of the arthropods associated to the mescal agave, we perform a sampling schedule during March 2008 to November 2010 by direct collection, using transects in three different localities with the presence of mescal agave. The relative abundance, species richness, Shannon’s diversity index, Pielou’s Index of evenness, Jaccard’s similitude and Simpson’s dominance indexes were determined. Results: A total of 4665 individual arthropods associated to mescal agave corresponding to 39 species were found. El Mezquital had the highest abundance and relative abundance (44.1% with 29 species. The mean species abundance was not significantly different between localities using Turkey’s test. The highest density per unit of area was found in El Mezquital (La Brena had the highest species diversity (1.89, evenness (0.61 and dominance (0.78. At the taxon level, Hymenoptera had the highest number of species represented (14, followed by Coleoptera (9 and hemiptera (5, with the remaining taxons with four, two and one species each. Conclusion: The greatest similitude was observed between La Brena and El Mezquital (46% which shared seven taxons, while the least similitude was observed between El Venado and La Brena (29%. Dominance/diversity curves are presented for each locality. The species Caulotops sp., Acutaspis agavis, Chilorus sp., Scyphophorus acupunctatus and Peltophorus polymitus were the ones with highest relative abundance. Although the diversity values are above the minimum, previously unreported arthropod species associated to mescal agave were recorded. The results can be useful to know the dynamic in the community associated to agave, in order to development best conservation and exploit management of that important plant.

  4. [Assemblage effect of ground arthropod community in desert steppe shrubs with different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Zhu, Fan; Chai, Yong-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Taking the 6-, 15-, 24- and 36-year-old Caragana intermedia shrubs in desert steppe as a subject, an investigation on soil properties and ground arthropod community was carried out under the shrub and in the open to probe into the assemblage effect of ground arthropod community in desert steppe shrubs with different ages. The results were as follows: 1) In the 6-year-old shrubland, significant differences were only found in soil physical properties (soil texture, soil moisture and electrical conductivity) between the microhabitats under shrub and in the open. Beginning from the 15-year-old shrubland, however, soil organic matter and nutrition (N, P) increased significantly. 2) A total of 27 groups were captured in the studied sites which dominated by Carabidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae. From 6- to 15-year-old shrubland, the number of dominant groups decreased while that of common groups increased for the ground arthropod community under the shrub. From 15- to 24- and 36-year-old shrubland, the difference between the microhabitats under the shrub and in the open decreased firstly, and then increased. Some special groups appeared under the shrub in the 36-year-old shrubland, and dung beetles became dominant. 3) In the 6- and 24-year-old shrublands, there were no significant differences in group richness, abundance, and diversity index between the microhabitats under the shrub and in the open. As for the 15- and 36-year-old shrublands, however, significant differences were observed. 4) The shrub age had a stronger effect on the distribution of ground arthropods living under the shrubs compared to that in the open. The changes in soil texture, pH and electrical conductivity could significantly influence on the distribution of ground arthropods under the shrub, also in the open to some degree. It was suggested that the development of shrubland had strong impact on assemblage effect of ground arthropods, which was closely correlated with the stand age and would affect the recovery of sandy grassland ecosystems. PMID:24765865

  5. Molecular detection of hemoprotozoa and Rickettsia species in arthropods collected from wild animals in the Burgos Province, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Sousa, Rita; Gegúndez, Maria Isabep; Casado, Nieves; Criado, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Limited information on the presence of bacterial and hematozoan infections in parasitic arthropods from Spain is available. In an attempt to address this issue, the prevalence of Theileria, Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Rickettsia species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction plus sequencing. In a survey for zoonotic pathogens in ectoparasites, 42 wild animals (which included rodents, carnivores, Sciuridae, and Cervidae) were captured in Burgos (Spain). A total of 256 arthropods (including...

  6. Arthropod but Not Bird Predation in Ethiopian Homegardens Is Higher in Tree-Poor than in Tree-Rich Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding...

  7. Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J.; BALOG, Adalbert

    2014-01-01

    There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt t...

  8. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    David Eduardo Paolinetti Bossi; Arício Xavier Linhares; Helena de Godoy Bergallo

    2002-01-01

    A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of...

  9. Appendage development and early Distal-less regulation in arthropods: A study of the chelicerate Tetranychus urticae (Acarida)

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus-Kent, Chloë

    2007-01-01

    A major goal of evolutionary developmental biology is to explore mechanisms and events underlying evolution of the myriad body plan morphologies expressed both genetically and phenotypically within the animal kingdom. Arthropods exhibit an astounding array of morphological diversity both within and between representative sub-phyla, thus providing an ideal phylum through which to address questions of body plan innovation and diversification. Major arthropod groups are recognised and defined by...

  10. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  11. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests. PMID:25961306

  12. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Scott, James C; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED) at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and statistics--this exercise can be incorporated into a broad array of life sciences courses. PMID:22509129

  13. Cysteine-Free Proteins in the Immunobiology of Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santiago Mejia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One approach to identify epitopes that could be used in the design of vaccines to control several arthropod-borne diseases simultaneously is to look for common structural features in the secretome of the pathogens that cause them. Using a novel bioinformatics technique, cysteine-abundance and distribution analysis, we found that many different proteins secreted by several arthropod-borne pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and eight species of Proteobacteria, are devoid of cysteine residues. The identification of three cysteine-abundance and distribution patterns in several families of proteins secreted by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Proteobacteria, and not found when the amino acid analyzed was tryptophan, provides evidence of forces restricting the content of cysteine residues in microbial proteins during evolution. We discuss these findings in the context of protein structure and function, antigenicity and immunogenicity, and host-parasite relationships.

  14. Infectious complications in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, Sînziana; Trifan, Anca; Gîrleanu, Irina; Stanciu, C; Cojocariu, Camelia

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of any chronic liver disease. Complications occurring in patients with liver cirrhosis may be specific to this pathology and to gastroenterology (upper gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy) or may interfere with other specialties (hepatorenal syndrome, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and other localized infectious complications). Over the past few decades, major efforts have been made to increase survival in patients with cirrhosis, but unfortunately, few therapeutic methods have been proven effective. Bacterial infections are frequent and serious complications of liver cirrhosis, resulting in high morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients, despite significant progress in health care for those with advanced liver disease. PMID:25341269

  15. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sulaiman; J. R. Roberts

    2011-01-01

    A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB) on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water) for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had signific...

  16. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M I; Lledó, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus wer...

  17. Impact of invasive Rosa rugosa on the arthropod fauna of Danish yellow dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pernille, Elleriis; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Toft, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We compared the arthropod fauna of Rosa rugosa patches to the adjacent native yellow dune vegetation by pitfall trapping in the National Park Thy at the Danish North Sea coast. R. rugosa changes the vegetation from a dune grassland (dominated by Ammophila arenaria) poor in flowering plants to a low monospecific shrubbery rich in large flowers. We predicted faunal responses according to the changes in resource availability and environmental conditions promoted by this particular invasive plant: i...

  18. Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Saporito, Ralph A; Garraffo, H Martin; Donnelly, Maureen A.; Edwards, Adam L.; John T Longino; Daly, John W

    2004-01-01

    A remarkable diversity of bioactive lipophilic alkaloids is present in the skin of poison frogs and toads worldwide. Originally discovered in neotropical dendrobatid frogs, these alkaloids are now known from mantellid frogs of Madagascar, certain myobatrachid frogs of Australia, and certain bufonid toads of South America. Presumably serving as a passive chemical defense, these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from a variety of alkaloid-containing arthropods. The pumiliotoxins represent a ma...

  19. Genome of the Rusty Millipede, Trigoniulus corallinus, Illuminates Diplopod, Myriapod, and Arthropod Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Nathan J.; Shen, Xin; Chan, Thomas T.H.; Wong, Nicola W.Y.; Chan, Ting Fung; Chu, Ka Hou; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hui, Jerome H. L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing availability of genomic information from the Arthropoda continues to revolutionize our understanding of the biology of this most diverse animal phylum. However, our sampling of arthropod diversity remains uneven, and key clade such as the Myriapoda are severely underrepresented. Here we present the genome of the cosmopolitanly distributed Rusty Millipede Trigoniulus corallinus, which represents the first diplopod genome to be published, and the second example from the Myriapoda...

  20. Cephalic and appendage morphology of the Cambrian arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans Walcott, 1911

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sidneyia inexpectans Walcott, 1911 from the Cambrian Series 3 Burgess Shale of British Columbia is largely accepted as a representative of the artiopodans, an assemblage of Paleozoic arthropod taxa, including trilobites and their immediate relatives. Its appendage morphology was never fully understood, but the exopod seemed to differ from that of other artiopodans, except for the shared presence of lamellae. The head was considered to comprise only the ocular and antennular segments, these being...

  1. The Upper Ordovician arthropod Zonozoe drabowiensis Barrande (Libe? and Letná formations, Sandbian, Barrandian area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Š

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new find of an isolated prosoma of the possible aglaspidid arthropod Zonozoe drabowiensis from the ?evnice Quartzite of the Libe? Formation is described. All previously described specimens from the Letná Formation were measured and compared to this specimen, which shows the so far unknown external surface of the exoskeleton and represents the first occurrence outside the Letná Formation.

  2. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, Todd H.; CUNNINGHAM, CLIFFORD W.

    2002-01-01

    Eyes often take a central role in discussions of evolution, with debate focused on how often such complex organs might have evolved. One such debate is whether arthropod compound eyes are the product of single or multiple origins. Here we use molecular phylogeny to address this long-standing debate and find results favoring the multiple-origins hypothesis. Our analyses of DNA sequences encoding rRNA unequivocally indicate that myodocopids—the only Ostracoda (Crustacea) with compound eyes—are ...

  3. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2014-01-01

    Background: The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Dros...

  4. Are herbivore-induced plant volatiles reliable indicators of herbivore identity to foraging carnivorous arthropods?

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, M.

    1999-01-01

    Plants that are damaged by herbivorous arthropods provide carnivorous enemies of the herbivores with important information. They emit an induced volatile blend that is highly detectable to the carnivores from a distance. Such detectable signals that indicate herbivore presence are important for the carnivores because herbivores themselves are under strong selection not to expose themselves. In addition, carnivores would benefit from a specificity of the induced plant volatiles. Whether herbiv...

  5. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habi...

  6. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Jonathon N.; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen.; Firn, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these “urban plantings” are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant “ecological values” by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for...

  7. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jonathon N; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen; Firn, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these "urban plantings" are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant "ecological values" by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban center of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region) over 2, 6 week sampling periods characterized by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation), plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity. Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly-likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context. PMID:25400642

  8. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  9. Species richness-environment relationships of European arthropods at two spatial grains: habitats and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entling, Martin H; Schweiger, Oliver; Bacher, Sven; Espadaler, Xavier; Hickler, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Woodcock, Ben A; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We study how species richness of arthropods relates to theories concerning net primary productivity, ambient energy, water-energy dynamics and spatial environmental heterogeneity. We use two datasets of arthropod richness with similar spatial extents (Scandinavia to Mediterranean), but contrasting spatial grain (local habitat and country). Samples of ground-dwelling spiders, beetles, bugs and ants were collected from 32 paired habitats at 16 locations across Europe. Species richness of these taxonomic groups was also determined for 25 European countries based on the Fauna Europaea database. We tested effects of net primary productivity (NPP), annual mean temperature (T), annual rainfall (R) and potential evapotranspiration of the coldest month (PET(min)) on species richness and turnover. Spatial environmental heterogeneity within countries was considered by including the ranges of NPP, T, R and PET(min). At the local habitat grain, relationships between species richness and environmental variables differed strongly between taxa and trophic groups. However, species turnover across locations was strongly correlated with differences in T. At the country grain, species richness was significantly correlated with environmental variables from all four theories. In particular, species richness within countries increased strongly with spatial heterogeneity in T. The importance of spatial heterogeneity in T for both species turnover across locations and for species richness within countries suggests that the temperature niche is an important determinant of arthropod diversity. We suggest that, unless climatic heterogeneity is constant across sampling units, coarse-grained studies should always account for environmental heterogeneity as a predictor of arthropod species richness, just as studies with variable area of sampling units routinely consider area. PMID:23029288

  10. Soil arthropods in a developmental succession on the Nouragues inselberg (French Guiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Kounda-Kiki, Charlotte; Vaçulik, Anne; Ponge, Jean-François; Sarthou, Corinne

    2004-01-01

    Tropical inselbergs are isolated rock outcrops with a special type of vegetation surrounded by rain forest. They are exposed to a harsh climate (alternation of heavy rain and severe drought) and provide few nutrients for plant growth. The aim of our study was to investigate a possible correlation between primary plant succession, size and diversity of soil arthropods. The study site was the Nouragues inselberg, in French Guiana (South America). Nine soil samples (three samples in each vegetat...

  11. Ground Arthropod Attacks on Groundnut Arachis hypogaea L in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, IO.; Troaoré, S.; Traoré, D.; Dao, B.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted in five districts of Burkina Faso, West Africa from November to December, 1996. The objectives aimed at establishing spatial distribution and quantifying the level of damages on peanut pods by soil arthropods, termites and millepedes. Twenty seven samples of 100 pods each were taken from farmers' stocks in each district, which made a total of 135 pod samples examined. Damage was determined in each district by counting scarified pods by termites and perforated pods by mi...

  12. Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005–2011: comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Iyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. Methods: We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005–2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Results: Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. Conclusions: We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others.

  13. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  14. Effect of the application of chlorpyrifos to maize on pests and beneficial arthropods in Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed between 1994 and 1997 to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos insecticide on arthropods in maize agroecosystem. The experiments were carried out in Boaco (Central zone) and Managua (Pacific zone) areas. Experiments were set up according to randomized block design, with large plots (750 m2) and four replications. The treatments were 1L/ha Lorsban 4E (containing 480 g a.i../L) and control. Visual sampling, pitfall traps and yellow traps were used to estimate numbers of pest insects and beneficial arthropods. Chlorpiryfos had a measureable affect on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Dalbulus maidis. The plots sprayed with the insecticide had the lowest population of S. frugiperda and the highest population of D. maidis. Beneficials insects, mainly parasitoids were more affected than pests by the insecticide sprays. The highest parasitism was found in the unsprayed plots. Overall, the lowest population of arthropods was found in the sprayed plots, except that in Managua the highest number of D. maidis were found in the sprayed plots. (author)

  15. Effects of land management strategies on the dispersal pattern of a beneficial arthropod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchi, Chiara; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Several arthropods are known to be highly beneficial to agricultural production. Consequently it is of great relevance to study the importance of land management and land composition for the conservation of beneficial aphid-predator arthropod species in agricultural areas. Therefore our study focusing on the beneficial arthropod Bembidion lampros had two main purposes: I) identifying the physical barriers to the species' dispersal in the agricultural landscape, and II) assessing the effect of different land management strategies (i.e. use of pesticides and intensiveness) on the dispersal patterns. The study was conducted using genetic analysis (microsatellite markers) applied to samples from two agricultural areas (in Denmark) with different agricultural intensity. Land management effects on dispersal patterns were investigated with particular focus on: physical barriers, use of pesticide and intensity of cultivation. The results showed that Bembidion lampros disperse preferably through hedges rather than fields, which act as physical barriers to gene flow. Moreover the results support the hypothesis that organic fields act as reservoirs for the re-colonization of conventional fields, but only when cultivation intensity is low. These results show the importance of non-cultivated areas and of low intensity organic managed areas within the agricultural landscape as corridors for dispersal (also for a species typically found within fields). Hence, the hypothesis that pesticide use cannot be used as the sole predictor of agriculture's effect on wild species is supported as land structure and agricultural intensity can be just as important.

  16. Genetics-based interactions among plants, pathogens, and herbivores define arthropod community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Lamit, Louis J; Keith, Arthur R; Newcombe, George; Gehring, Catherine A; Whitham, Thomas G; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-07-01

    Plant resistance to pathogens or insect herbivores is common, but its potential for indirectly influencing plant-associated communities is poorly known. Here, we test whether pathogens' indirect effects on arthropod communities and herbivory depend on plant resistance to pathogens and/or herbivores, and address the overarching interacting foundation species hypothesis that genetics-based interactions among a few highly interactive species can structure a much larger community. In a manipulative field experiment using replicated genotypes of two Populus species and their interspecific hybrids, we found that genetic variation in plant resistance to both pathogens and insect herbivores modulated the strength of pathogens' indirect effects on arthropod communities and insect herbivory. First, due in part to the pathogens' differential impacts on leaf biomass among the two Populus species and the hybrids, the pathogen most strongly impacted arthropod community composition, richness, and abundance on the pathogen-susceptible tree species. Second, we found similar patterns comparing pathogen-susceptible and pathogen-resistant genotypes within species. Third, within a plant species, pathogens caused a fivefold greater reduction in herbivory on insect-herbivore-susceptible plant genotypes than on herbivore-resistant genotypes, demonstrating that the pathogen-herbivore interaction is genotype dependent. We conclude that interactions among plants, pathogens, and herbivores can structure multitrophic communities, supporting the interacting foundation species hypothesis. Because these interactions are genetically based, evolutionary changes in genetic resistance could result in ecological changes in associated communities, which may in turn feed back to affect plant fitness. PMID:26378319

  17. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  18. Invasion patterns of ground-dwelling arthropods in Canarian laurel forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Erik; Perner, Jörg

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of invasive species in four different functional groups of ground-dwelling arthropods (Carnivorous ground dwelling beetles; Chilopoda; Diplopoda; Oniscoidea) were examined in laurel forests of the Canary Islands. The following hypotheses were tested: (A) increasing species richness is connected with decreasing invasibility as predicted by the Diversity-invasibility hypothesis (DIH); (B) disturbed or anthropogenically influenced habitats are more sensitive for invasions than natural and undisturbed habitats; and (C) climatic differences between laurel forest sites do not affect the rate of invasibility. A large proportion of invasives (species and abundances) was observed in most of the studied arthropod groups. However, we did not find any support for the DIH based on the examined arthropod groups. Regarding the impact of the extrinsic factors 'disturbance' and 'climate' on invasion patterns, we found considerable differences between the studied functional groups. Whereas the 'disturbance parameters' played a minor role and only affected the relative abundances of invasive centipedes (positively) and millipedes (negatively), the 'climate parameters' were significantly linked with the pattern of invasive detritivores. Interactions between native and invading species have not been observed thus far, but cannot completely be excluded.

  19. Bioaccumulation of metals in plants, arthropods, and mice at a seasonal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, K C; Johnson, M L

    2001-11-01

    Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and nickel were measured in soils, house mice (Mus musculus), and the main food items of this omnivorous mouse to examine the occurrence of these metals in selected components of a seasonal wetland. Soil concentrations of copper, lead, and (in some areas) nickel were elevated, but extractable soil concentrations indicated low bioavailability of metals. Levels of most metals in mice and composited arthropods were consistent with reference site concentrations from other studies. However, copper was found to be particularly mobile within the local ecosystem and accumulated in house mouse carcasses and composited arthropods at substantial levels. Metal residues in Scirpus robustus (alkali bulrush) roots exceeded those in seeds, consistent with patterns of bioaccumulation commonly observed in plants. Uptake and bioaccumulation factors for S. robustus seeds and roots, arthropods, and mouse carcasses and livers are reported. Concentrations of lead and nickel in S. robustus roots exhibited significant linear relationships with levels in soils. Copper levels in S. robustus seeds varied significantly with those in house mouse livers, suggesting that trophic transfer of copper from this food source to mice occurred. However, other spatial patterns of bioaccumulation in S. robustus and house mice relative to soil/seed concentrations were absent. Metal levels in house mice bore no relation to body weight or estimated age. PMID:11699790

  20. The diversity of reproductive parasites among arthropods: Wolbachia do not walk alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria have come to be recognised as important components of arthropod biology. In addition to mutualistic symbioses, a range of other inherited bacteria are known to act either as reproductive parasites or as secondary symbionts. Whilst the incidence of the ?-proteobacterium Wolbachia is relatively well established, the current knowledge of other inherited bacteria is much weaker. Here, we tested 136 arthropod species for a range of inherited bacteria known to demonstrate reproductive parasitism, sampling each species more intensively than in past surveys. Results The inclusion of inherited bacteria other than Wolbachia increased the number of infections recorded in our sample from 33 to 57, and the proportion of species infected from 22.8% to 32.4%. Thus, whilst Wolbachia remained the dominant inherited bacterium, it alone was responsible for around half of all inherited infections of the bacteria sampled, with members of the Cardinium, Arsenophonus and Spiroplasma ixodetis clades each occurring in 4% to 7% of all species. The observation that infection was sometimes rare within host populations, and that there was variation in presence of symbionts between populations indicates that our survey will itself underscore incidence. Conclusion This extensive survey demonstrates that at least a third of arthropod species are infected by a diverse assemblage of maternally inherited bacteria that are likely to strongly influence their hosts' biology, and indicates an urgent need to establish the nature of the interaction between non-Wolbachia bacteria and their hosts.

  1. Arthropod prey of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mississippi sweetpotato fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Tahir; Chen, Jian; Vogt, James T; McLeod, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    The red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), are generally considered pests. They have also been viewed as beneficial predators feeding on other insect pests of various agroecosystems. This study documents the foraging habits of fire ants in a sweetpotato field in Mississippi. Fire ant foraging trails connecting outside colonies to a sweetpotato field were exposed and foraging ants moving out of the field toward the direction of the colony were collected along with the solid food particles they were carrying. The food material was classified as arthropod or plant in origin. The arthropod particles were identified to orders. Fire ant foragers carried more arthropods than plant material. Coleoptera and Homoptera were the most abundant groups preyed upon. These insect orders contain various economically important pests of sweetpotato. Other major hexapod groups included the orders Hemiptera, Diptera and Collembola. The quantity of foraged material varied over the season. No damage to sweetpotato roots could be attributed to fire ant feeding. Imported fire ant foraging may reduce the number of insect pests in sweetpotato fields. PMID:23955942

  2. Efficient sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods using pitfall traps in arid steppes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán H, Cheli; Juan C, Corley.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitfall trapping is probably the most frequently used method for sampling grounddwelling arthropods. While the capture of specimens in pitfall traps largely depends on the number of individuals in the sampled area, trap design and trapping effort for a given environment, can also affect sampling suc [...] cess. The aim of this study was to determine the best pitfall trapping design for collecting ground-dwelling arthropods in the wind-blown and cold arid steppe areas of Patagonia. We tested four designs of traps, six types of preservative and different times of activation as well as the quantity of traps. Both preservation attributes and sampling efficiency differed between different trap designs and fluids compared. We conclude that in order to obtain reliable data on the structure of a community of ground-dwelling arthropods in Patagonia, at least three pitfall traps per experimental unit are required. In addition, traps should be opened for a minimum of 10 days filled with 300 ml of 30% ethylene glycol. We also suggested the use of a simple trap design (i. e. without funnel or roof). We believe these findings will contribute to more appropriate sampling of the ground dwelling fauna of Patagonia as well as other arid areas, leading to more reliable diversity studies.

  3. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify ...

  4. Health protection: Surveillance and control of infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Although pneumonia and influenza are the only infectious diseases remaining among the 10 leading causes of death in this country, more than 290 million infectious illnesses occur annually--more than one for every person. These diseases have a significant impact on the population when measured in terms of increased social costs, including quality of life, decreased work productivity, and increased health care costs. During the next decade, no dramatic changes are anticipated in infectious dise...

  5. Gene expression profiling in autoimmune non-infectious uveitis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuqing; Liu, Baoying; Arvydas, Maminishkis; Mahesh, Sankaranarayana P; Yeh, Steven; Lew, Julie; Lim, Wee Kiak; Sen, H Nida; Clarke, Grace; Buggage, Ronald; Miller, Sheldon S.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Non-infectious uveitis is a predominantly T cell mediated autoimmune, intraocular inflammatory disease. To characterize the gene expression profile from patients with non-infectious uveitis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 50 patients with clinically characterized non-infectious uveitis syndrome. A pathway-specific cDNA microarray was used for gene expression profiling and real time PCR array for further confirmation. Sixty-seven inflammation and autoimmune assoc...

  6. The genomics and genetics of human infectious disease susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, AV

    2001-01-01

    A genetic basis for interindividual variation in susceptibility to human infectious diseases has been indicated by twin, adoptee, pedigree, and candidate gene studies. This has led to the identification of a small number of strong genetic associations with common variants for malaria, HIV infection, and infectious prion diseases. Numerous other genes have shown less strong associations with these and some other infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and persistent hepatitis viral...

  7. Prevalence of selected infectious agents in cats in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvet, Florence; Lappin, Michael R; Brennan, Sheila; Mooney, Carmel T

    2010-06-01

    Vector-borne bacterial and rickettsial agents and Toxoplasma gondii, are common organisms in cats. Some are potentially zoonotic or may be transmitted via blood transfusion. The current study investigated the prevalence of these agents in cats from Dublin, Ireland, for which no published data exists. Whole blood (n=116) and sera (n=83) samples were obtained from 121 cats. DNA was extracted from blood and assayed using polymerase chain reaction techniques for Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' and Rickettsia species. IgG and T gondii IgG and IgM serum antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DNA consistent with B henselae (3.4%), B clarridgeiae (0.8%), both Bartonella species (0.8%), C M haemominutum (12.9%), or M haemofelis (2.5%) was amplified from 24/116 blood samples (20.6%). Antibodies to T gondii and Bartonella species were detected in 28 (33.7%) and 22 (26.5%) of 83 sera, respectively. PMID:20472484

  8. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S.T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C; Alonso, Claudio R; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C J; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D; Extavour, Cassandra G; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A; Green, Jack E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H L; Hunn, Julia P; Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Jiggins, Francis M; Jones, Tamsin E; Kaiser, Tobias S; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Kraus, F Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Robertson, Helen E; Robertson, Hugh M; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E; Schurko, Andrew M; Siggens, Kenneth W; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues o...

  9. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations cultures of microorganisms were irradiated using a specially constructed illumination chamber made of Spectralon(R) (reflectance: 99 %), which was equipped with high power light emitting diodes (? = 670 nm). Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) from keratitis patients were tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 ?M) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  10. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  11. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T J; de Roode, Jacobus C; Fenton, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  12. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-09-01

    The "Smartphone" is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  13. Septic sacroiliitis revealing an infectious endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Hariz, Anis; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man admitted for right hip ache and fever. Physical examination revealed a fever, an ache at the manipulation of the sacroiliac joint and a limitation of abduction and external rotation of the right hip. There was no murmur in cardiac auscultation. No anomaly was found at the conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joint, while the pelvic MRI confirmed a right sacroiliitis. A sacroiliac puncture with a study of synovial fluid demonstrated the presence of Streptococcus viridans. The blood culture revealed the same germ. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed infectious endocarditis with vegetation in the mitral valve. He received penicillin G and gentamicin relayed by pristinamycin because of an allergy to penicillin G with a total duration of treatment of 40?days. His symptoms and the laboratory and radiological tests abnormalities resolved totally with no recurrence. PMID:25123569

  14. Reflectance confocal microscopy in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F; Perrot, J L

    2015-10-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscope (RCM) is a high-resolution non-invasive imaging technique that was initially focused on the diagnosis of skin cancers. A rising number of other indications have been later described for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and infectious dermatological disorders. RCM can identify cutaneous parasites that are not visible to naked eye such as Sarcoptes scabiei and Demodex folliculorum and it allows to better identify the different body parts of bigger parasites such as ticks. Fungal filaments can also be identified as elongated bright structures in the cutaneous upper layers. RCM cannot observe virus directly. However, the cytopathic effect associated with some virus can be recognized. In addition of being helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. PMID:26129682

  15. Endothelial cells, tissue factor and infectious diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.M., Lopes-Bezerra; S.G., Filler.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor is a transmembrane procoagulant glycoprotein and a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. It activates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, and induces the formation of a fibrin clot. Tissue factor is important for both normal homeostasis and the development of many thrombotic dise [...] ases. A wide variety of cells are able to synthesize and express tissue factor, including monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Tissue factor expression can be induced by cell surface components of pathogenic microorganisms, proinflammatory cytokines and membrane microparticles released from activated host cells. Tissue factor plays an important role in initiating thrombosis associated with inflammation during infection, sepsis, and organ transplant rejection. Recent findings suggest that tissue factor can also function as a receptor and thus may be important in cell signaling. The present minireview will focus on the role of tissue factor in the pathogenesis of septic shock, infectious endocarditis and invasive aspergillosis, as determined by both in vivo and in vitro models.

  16. Integrated Amplification Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell P. Chandler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview describes microarray-based tests that combine solution-phase amplification chemistry and microarray hybridization within a single microfluidic chamber. The integrated biochemical approach improves microarray workflow for diagnostic applications by reducing the number of steps and minimizing the potential for sample or amplicon cross-contamination. Examples described herein illustrate a basic, integrated approach for DNA and RNA genomes, and a simple consumable architecture for incorporating wash steps while retaining an entirely closed system. It is anticipated that integrated microarray biochemistry will provide an opportunity to significantly reduce the complexity and cost of microarray consumables, equipment, and workflow, which in turn will enable a broader spectrum of users to exploit the intrinsic multiplexing power of microarrays for infectious disease diagnostics.

  17. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  18. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance for the correct diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  20. The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations.

  1. Bridging Taxonomic and Disciplinary Divides in Infectious Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Antonovics, Janis; Kinkel, Linda L.; Hudson, Peter J.; Daszak, Peter; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Garrett, Karen A.; Parrish, Colin R; Read, Andrew F.; Rizzo, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens traverse disciplinary and taxonomic boundaries, yet infectious disease research occurs in many separate disciplines including plant pathology, veterinary and human medicine, and ecological and evolutionary sciences. These disciplines have different traditions, goals, and terminology, creating gaps in communication. Bridging these disciplinary and taxonomic gaps promises novel insights and important synergistic advances in control of infectious disease. An approach integrated across ...

  2. A History of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-17

    EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/17/2015.

  3. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  4. The influence of weather conditions on the activity of high-arctic arthropods inferred from long-term observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høye Toke T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is particularly pronounced in the High Arctic and a better understanding of the repercussions on ecological processes like herbivory, predation and pollination is needed. Arthropods play an important role in the high-arctic ecosystem and this role is determined by their density and activity. However, density and activity may be sensitive to separate components of climate. Earlier emergence due to advanced timing of snowmelt following climate change may expose adult arthropods to unchanged temperatures but higher levels of radiation. The capture rate of arthropods in passive open traps like pitfall trap integrates density and activity and, therefore, serves as a proxy of the magnitude of such arthropod-related ecological processes. We used arthropod pitfall trapping data and weather data from 10 seasons in high-arctic Greenland to identify climatic effects on the activity pattern of nine arthropod taxa. Results We were able to statistically separate the variation in capture rates into a non-linear component of capture date (density and a linear component of weather (activity. The non-linear proxy of density always accounted for more of the variation than the linear component of weather. After accounting for the seasonal phenological development, the most important weather variable influencing the capture rate of flying arthropods was temperature, while surface-dwelling species were principally influenced by solar radiation. Conclusion Consistent with previous findings, air temperature best explained variation in the activity level of flying insects. An advancement of the phenology in this group due to earlier snowmelt will make individuals appear earlier in the season, but parallel temperature increases could mean that individuals are exposed to similar temperatures. Hence, the effect of climatic changes on the activity pattern in this group may be unchanged. In contrast, we found that solar radiation is a better proxy of activity levels than air temperature in surface-dwelling arthropods. An advancement of the phenology may expose surface-dwelling arthropods to higher levels of solar radiation, which suggest that their locomotory performance is enhanced and their contribution to ecological processes is increased.

  5. Serum procalcitonin level in infectious and non- infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a three- year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadinejad Z

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of hospital admission and mortality. One marker for differentiation between infectious and non-infectious diseases is serum procalcitonin (PCT level. The goal of this study was evaluation of serum procalcitonin level for differentiation among infectious & non infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS."n"nMethods: In a cross sectional study 263 patients with probable symptoms of sepsis that admitted to emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex in Tehran, Iran, between 2006 and 2008, were evaluated for serum procalcitonin level by semi quantitative method. The clinical findings, demographic and laboratory data were identified by reviewing the medical notes."n"nResults: A total of 263 patients enrolled in the study. Mean age in study patients was 46.9 year (±20.7 and most of the patients were male (65.8%. In 104 patients (39.5% serum procalcitonin level was less than 0.5 (ng/ml, in 49 patients (18.6% was between 0.5 and 2 (ng/ml, in 74 patients (28.1% was between 2 and 10 (ng/ml and in 36 patients (13.8% was more than 10 (ng/ml. Sixty three patients (60.6% with PCT<0.5ng/ml, had non-infectious SIRS, while all patients with PCT?10ng/ml, had infectious SIRS. Procalcitonin level in patients with infectious SIRS was significantly more than patients with non-infectious SIRS (p<0.0001. Sensitivity of test for cut off point of 0.5, 2 and 10 (ng/ml were 89.2%, 67.1% and 22.8% respectively, and its specificity for cut off points of 0.5, two and 10 were 82.9%, 96.2% and 100% respectively."n"nConclusions: Procalcitonin level in combination with an appropriate clinical assessment can help us in beginning of antibiotic therapy timely and improve diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with sepsis. "n 

  6. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-08-18

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities. PMID:26151221

  7. 75 FR 156 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, The Infant Microbiome and Immune Maturation...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  8. 76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ...an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY...payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all...payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G....

  9. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  10. Some topological properties of arthropod food webs in paddy fields of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQin Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the topological properties of paddy arthropod food webs is of significance for understanding natural equilibrium of rice pests. In present study, we used Pajek software to analyze the topological properties of four full arthropod food webs in South China. The results showed that predators were significantly abundant than preys, and the proportion of predators to preys (3.07 was significantly higher than previously reported by Cohen in 1977 (1.33. In the food webs, the number of top species was the largest, accounted for about 50% of the total. The number of intermediate-intermediate links was far greater than the other three links. The average degree of paddy arthropod food webs is 6.0, 6.04, 5.74 and 7.75, respectively. Average degree and link density did not change significantly with the change of the number of species, but the connectance reduced significantly. In the paddy ecosystems, the increase of species diversity does not lead to an increase proportionally to the links among species. The link density and connectance of food webs of early season rice field were less than that from late season rice field. Cycles of all food webs cycles were 0. The maximum chain length of the basal species was 3, and the largest chain length of the top species was typically 2 or 3. Neutral insects were found to play a very important role in the paddy ecosystem. Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera were found to be the dominant species of rice pests. Pardosa pseudoannulata, Tetragnatha maxillosa, Pirata subparaticus, Arctosa stigmosa and Clubiona corrugate were identified as the important predatory species that may effectively control the pest population. The keystone species calculated from keystone index and network analysis are analogous, indicating either keystone index or network analysis can be used in the analysis of keystone species.

  11. Plant genetics affects arthropod community richness and composition: evidence from a synthetic eucalypt hybrid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungey, H S; Potts, B M; Whitham, T G; Li, H F

    2000-12-01

    To examine how genetic variation in a plant population affects arthropod community richness and composition, we quantified the arthropod communities on a synthetic population of Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. risdonii, and their F1 and advanced-generation hybrids. Five major patterns emerged. First, the pure species and hybrid populations supported significantly different communities. Second, species richness was significantly greatest on hybrids (F1 > F2 > E. amygdalina > E. risdonii). These results are similar to those from a wild population of the same species and represent the first case in which both synthetic and wild population studies confirm a genetic component to community structure. Hybrids also acted as centers of biodiversity by accumulating both the common and specialist taxa of both parental species (100% in the wild and 80% in the synthetic population). Third, species richness was significantly greater on F1s than the single F2 family, suggesting that the increased insect abundance on hybrids may not be caused by the breakup of coadapted gene complexes. Fourth, specialist arthropod taxa were most likely to show a dominance response to F1 hybrids, whereas generalist taxa exhibited a susceptible response. Fifth, in an analysis of 31 leaf terpenoids that are thought to play a role in plant defense, hybrids were generally intermediate to the parental chemotypes. Within the single F2 family, we found significant associations between the communities of individual trees and five individual oil components, including oil yield, demonstrating that there is a genetic effect on plant defensive chemistry that, in turn, may affect community structure. These studies argue that hybridization has important community-level consequences and that the genetic variation present in hybrid zones can be used to explore the genetic-based mechanisms that structure communities. PMID:11209771

  12. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in projects dealing with radioisotope measurement of nutrient flow in soil arthropod food chains, the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the terrestrial decomposition process, and field projects investigating the response to perturbation by island ecosystems on granitic outcrops. Radioisotopes in combination with system modeling techniques are being used to estimate nutrient flow rates in food chains of soil arthropods, and help to evaluate their impact on the decomposition process. Field work on granitic outcrop ecosystems has been completed. Evaluations of input-output budgets showed that the ecosystems are essentially in balance. They showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, as far as chemical perturbations and drought are concerned

  13. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one

  14. Closely related Wolbachia strains within the pumpkin arthropod community and the potential for horizontal transmission via the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintupachee, S; Milne, J R; Poonchaisri, S; Baimai, V; Kittayapong, P

    2006-04-01

    Phylogenetic studies have implicated frequent horizontal transmission of Wolbachia among arthropod host lineages. However, the ecological routes for such lateral transfer are poorly known. We surveyed the species of two arthropod communities, one on pumpkin and the other on loofah plants, for Wolbachia, constructed wsp gene phylogenies of those Wolbachia strains found to infect community members, and established ecological links among infected members. Four taxonomically diverse insects in the pumpkin arthropod community contained very closely related Wolbachia wsp sequences (Phyllotreta sp., and the fleahopper Halticus minutus, were all collected from pumpkin leaves. They were ecologically linked through feeding on the same leaf substrate. Unlike other infected leaf insects, the whitefly population appeared to have a permanent breeding relationship with pumpkin plants, and high and stable, but not fixed, monthly Wolbachia infection rates. Our findings suggest potential roles for the plant in Wolbachia transmission and for whiteflies in being an infection source for other pumpkin leaf-feeding insects. PMID:16598632

  15. Diversification of mowing regime increases arthropods diversity in species-poor cultural hay meadows.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ížek, O.; Záme?ník, J.; Tropek, Robert; Ko?árek, P.; Konvi?ka, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2012), s. 215-226. ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ?R GD206/08/H044; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Grant ostatní: Czech Agency for Nature Conservation(CZ) PPK-35a/62/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hay meadows * arthropods conservation * mowing regimes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.muzeumhk.cz/files/jaroslav_zamecnik/2012_cizek_zamecnik.pdf

  16. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with clove, and garlic oil), Bang (Pipereaceae), and Fruit & Vegetable Insect Spray (rosemary, cinnamon, clove oil, and garlic extract) had the highest flower (transvaal daisy, Gerberajamesonii [H. Bolus ex Hook.f]) phytotoxicity ratings (> or = 4.5 of 5) among all the products. None of the plant-derived essential oil products provided sufficient control of sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype or green peach aphid 7, 14, and 21 d after application. Furthermore, the products Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) and Sharpshooter (sodium lauryl sulfate and clove oil) were phytotoxic to the poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch, plants. This study is one of the first to quantitatively demonstrate that commercially available plant-derived essential oil products vary in their effectiveness against certain arthropod pests stated on the label and are phytotoxic. PMID:19736770

  17. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Bruno B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  18. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance. PMID:24472209

  19. Influence of forest type and host plant genetic relatedness on the canopy arthropod community structure of Quercus crassifolia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Efraín, Tovar-Sánchez; Erwin, Martí-Flores; Leticia, Valencia-Cuevas; Patricia, Mussali-Galante.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quercus crassifolia is an oak species with characteristics of foundation species, which is a canopy dominant element of different forest types that supports a wide diversity of associated species. Therefore, it is an excellent system to address important ecological questions. We analyzed [...] the effect of individual genetic relatedness of the host plant, forest type (Abies-Quercus, Quercus-Pinus, and Quercus forest), and season (dry vs. rainy) on the canopy arthropod community structure. Thirty oak canopies were fogged (five individuals/season/forest type). RESULTS: We identified 442 arthropod species belonging to 22 orders. The highest values of density, diversity, and richness were recorded during the rainy season for each forest type. Also, the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed a separation of the host tree species for each forest type. During the rainy season, the highest values of density, diversity, and richness in each forest type were recorded. A separation of host tree was found for each forest type. In general, diversity and richness of canopy arthropods showed the following pattern: Abies-Quercus > Quercus-Pinus > Quercus, while density showed an inverse pattern. An increase of the diversity of canopy arthropods is significantly related to an increase of host plant genetic diversity, independently of the type of forest and of the season. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of conservation, if arthropod species respond to genetic differences among host plants, it becomes important to conserve genetic diversity of foundation species, since it is fundamental to preserve diversity of their associated arthropod communities.

  20. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history. PMID:25423365

  1. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment, systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  2. Structural genomics of infectious disease drug targets: the SSGCID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction and overview of the focus, goals and overall mission of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is given. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium of researchers at Seattle BioMed, Emerald BioStructures, the University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that was established to apply structural genomics approaches to drug targets from infectious disease organisms. The SSGCID is currently funded over a five-year period by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to determine the three-dimensional structures of 400 proteins from a variety of Category A, B and C pathogens. Target selection engages the infectious disease research and drug-therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. The protein-expression systems, purified proteins, ligand screens and three-dimensional structures produced by SSGCID constitute a valuable resource for drug-discovery research, all of which is made freely available to the greater scientific community. This issue of Acta Crystallographica Section F, entirely devoted to the work of the SSGCID, covers the details of the high-throughput pipeline and presents a series of structures from a broad array of pathogenic organisms. Here, a background is provided on the structural genomics of infectious disease, the essential components of the SSGCID pipeline are discussed and a survey of progress to date is presented

  3. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported

  4. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.P., Gilmore; C.P., Da Costa; D.P.F., Duarte.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variat [...] ion. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  5. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  6. Infectious alphavirus production from a simple plasmid transfection+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a new method for producing infectious double subgenomic alphaviruses from plasmids transfected into mammalian cells. A double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE3'2J was transcribed from a cytomegalovirus PolII promoter, which results in the production of infectious virus. Transfection of as little as 125 ng of plasmid is able to produce 1 × 108 plaque forming units/ml (PFU/ml of infectious virus 48 hours post-transfection. This system represents a more efficient method for producing recombinant Sindbis viruses.

  7. Infectious alphavirus production from a simple plasmid transfection+

    OpenAIRE

    Olson Ken E; Lama Siddhi BC; Henderson Brittney R; Steel J Jordan; Geiss Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We have developed a new method for producing infectious double subgenomic alphaviruses from plasmids transfected into mammalian cells. A double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE3'2J) was transcribed from a cytomegalovirus PolII promoter, which results in the production of infectious virus. Transfection of as little as 125 ng of plasmid is able to produce 1 × 108 plaque forming units/ml (PFU/ml) of infectious virus 48 hours post-transfection. This system represents a more efficient method ...

  8. Profiling of a network behind an infectious disease outbreak

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    I describe a method to estimate a social network topology and diffusion parameters from the time sequence data of an infectious disease outbreak. The method is applicable to a stochastic diffusion process in a meta-population and SIR (Susceptible, Infectious, and Recovered) model over a social network. The method is based on the maximal likelihood estimation from the data on the number of the infectious persons. I demonstrate the performance of the method of profiling with the WHO (World Health Organization) report on SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) pandemic in 2003.

  9. Animal health: Global support for diagnosing infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of infectious diseases is one of the major animal health activities within the programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The Animal Production Unit at the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories provides support to this programme through the development and transfer of diagnostic kits. ELISA kits are distributed to laboratories where serology is an integral component of research on infectious diseases. Priority has been given to infectious diseases of cattle, but it is expected that ELISA kits will soon be developed for the diagnosis of certain poultry and pig diseases

  10. SARS - infectious disease of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is an emerging viral infectious disease. According to the World Health Organization, a suspected case of SARS is defined as documented fever (temperature >38°C, lower respiratory tract symptoms, and contact with a person believed to have had SARS or history of travel to an area of documented transmission. A probable case is a suspected case with chest radiographic findings of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, or an unexplained respiratory illness resulting in death, with autopsy findings of ARDS without identifiable cause. In this article some SARS epidemiological data in Indonesia will also presented. There are 7 SARS suspected cases and 2 probable cases were registered in Indonesia on the period of 1 March to 9 July 2003, and no more cases were reported after that time. How will be SARS progression in the future will be a subject of discussion among scientist, and we will have to wait and be prepared for any development might occur. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 59-63Keywords: SARS, Case Definition, Etiology, Indonesia

  11. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  12. Dermatoscopy in inflammatory and infectious skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacarrubba, F; Verzì, A E; Dinotta, F; Scavo, S; Micali, G

    2015-10-01

    Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows a rapid and magnified in vivo observation of the skin surface. By definition, it is performed with handheld devices (dermatoscopes) allowing X10 magnification. More expensive, computer-assisted digital systems (videodermatoscopes) may be equipped with lenses that ensure magnifications up to X1000; in this case the term videodermatoscopy is generally used. Dermatoscopy is mainly utilized for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions, and has increasing applications in dermatology. In this paper the use of dermatoscopy in a variety of inflammatory (psoriasis, lichen planus, pityriasis lichenoides, rosacea, lichen sclerosus, Darier's disease, pigmented purpuric dermatoses) and infectious (human papillomaviruses infections, molluscum contagiosum, tinea capitis, tinea nigra, scabies, head and pubic lice, tungiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and cutaneous larva migrans) cutaneous disorders will be analyzed. In these conditions, dermatoscopy may assist the clinical diagnosis, reducing the need of semi-invasive or invasive procedures such as skin scrapings and/or biopsy. Depending on the disease, the choice to use low or high magnifications may be crucial. Dermatoscopy may also be useful for prognostic evaluation and monitoring of response to treatment, representing an important and relatively simple aid in daily clinical practice. PMID:26333553

  13. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LF, Caron.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 [...] spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA) are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  14. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  15. Surveillance programs for detection and characterization of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: results from the Division of Infectious Diseases, UNIFESP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo L., Colombo; Mario, Janini; Reinaldo, Salomão; Eduardo A. S., Medeiros; Sergio B., Wey; Antonio C. C., Pignatari.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Várias alterações epidemiológicas ocorreram no perfil das doenças infecciosas hospitalares e comunitárias nos últimos 25 anos. Mudanças sociais e demográficas possivelmente relacionadas com esse fenômeno incluem o rápido crescimento populacional, o aumento da migração urbana e deslocamento através d [...] e fronteiras internacionais por turistas e imigrantes, alterações nos habitats de animais e artrópodes que transmitem doença assim como o aumento no número de pacientes com deficiências nas respostas de defesa. Os programas contínuos de vigilância de patógenos emergentes e resistência antimicrobiana são necessários para a detecção em tempo real de novos patógenos assim como para caracterizar mecanismos moleculares de resistência. Para serem mais efetivos, os programasde vigilância dos patógenos emergentes devem ser organizados em uma rede de laboratórios multicêntricos ligados aos principais centros de controle de infecções, públicos e privados. Os dados microbiológicos devem ser integrados a guias terapêuticos adaptando práticas terapêuticas à ecologia local eaos padrões de resistência. O artigo apresenta uma revisão dos dados gerados pela Disciplina de Infectologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, contemplando sua participação nos diferentes programas de vigilância de doenças infecciosas hospitalares e adquiridas na comunidade. Abstract in english Several epidemiological changes have occurred in the pattern of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases during the past 25 years. Social and demographic changes possibly related to this phenomenon include a rapid population growth, the increase in urban migration and movement across in [...] ternational borders by tourists and immigrants, alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease, as well as the raise of patients with impaired host defense abilities. Continuous surveillance programs of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance are warranted for detecting in real time new pathogens, as well as to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance. In order to become more effective, surveillance programs of emergent pathogens should be organized as a multicenter laboratory network connected to the main public and private infection control centers. Microbiological data should be integrated to guide therapy, adapting therapy to local ecology and resistance patterns. This paper presents an overview of data generated by the Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, along with its participation in different surveillance programs of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases.

  16. Bartonella and Rickettsia in arthropods from the Lao PDR and from Borneo, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Wells, Konstans; Lakim, Maklarin B; Inthalad, Saythong; Slesak, Günther; Boudebouch, Najma; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Newton, Paul N; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. We conducted entomological field surveys in the Lao PDR (Laos) and Borneo, Malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic cows and pigs in Laos. Rickettsia felis was detected by real-time PCR with similar overall flea infection rate in Laos (76.6%, 69/90) and Borneo (74.4%, 268/360). Both of the encountered flea vectors Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were infected with R. felis. The degrees of similarity of partial gltA and ompA genes with recognized species indicate the rickettsia detected in two Boophilus spp. ticks collected from a cow in Laos may be a new species. Isolation and further characterization will be necessary to specify it as a new species. Bartonella clarridgeiae was detected in 3/90 (3.3%) and 2/360 (0.6%) of examined fleas from Laos and Borneo, respectively. Two fleas collected in Laos and one flea collected in Borneo were co-infected with both R. felis and B. clarridgeiae. Further investigations are needed in order to isolate these agents and to determine their epidemiology and aetiological role in unknown fever in patients from these areas. PMID:22153360

  17. Arthropod fauna on grassland-heathland associations under different grazing managements with domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa García, Rocío; Ocharan, Francisco José; García, Urcesino; Osoro, Koldo; Celaya, Rafael

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two grazer species (cattle or sheep) and two flock types (single or mixed with goats) on vegetation and arthropod fauna were studied in a factorial design on eight plots which comprised two thirds of mechanically cleared heathland and one third of improved ryegrass-clover grassland. After six grazing seasons, the shrubland areas were dominated by gorse (Ulex gallii) in all treatments. Herbaceous cover was higher under mixed than under single grazing, and under sheep than under cattle grazing. Higher captures of Opiliones, Julida, Lithobiomorpha, Microcoryphia and Carabidae were recorded in shrublands than in grasslands, while the reverse was observed for Linyphiidae, Lycosidae and Hemiptera. Within shrublands, fauna responded to the flock type but not to the grazer species. More arthropod groups favoured the patchier areas with higher herbaceous biomass generated by mixed herds with goats. Within grasslands, species-specific responses to the grazer species were observed. Mixed grazing schemes which include goats within partially improved heathlands could contribute to maintain higher biodiversity levels in these marginal areas. PMID:20338541

  18. Impact of Pesticide Treatment on an Arthropod Community in the Korean Rice Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park, Hong-Hyun

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An arthropod community in a rice ecosystem was surveyed to determine the impact of twoinsecticides frequently used in Korean rice ecosystems: carbofuran 3GR, which targets the rice water weevil,Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in the early season and fenobucarb EC, whichtargets the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in the mid- and lateseasons, respectively. Overall, the application of the insecticides reduced density of total arthropods by 48.4%compared to the untreated field, but their impact on each functional group were different. Carbofuran GRtreatment on 1 June reduced the L. oryzophilus population significantly until mid-season. The population of filterfeedingchironomids was also reduced by 50%, whereas the spider population was less disturbed. FenobucarbEC treatment on 16 August significantly reduced N. lugens and detrivorous entomobryid populationsuntil the late season. Both web-building and wandering spiders were also significantly disturbed by fenobucarbEC although the impact differed according to their behavioral differences. While the population of web-buildingspiders significantly decreased over time, that of wandering spiders recovered from the disturbance a fewweeks later.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Wolbachia strains in arthropod hosts based on groE-homologous gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Caubet, Yves; Bouchon, Didier

    2009-02-01

    Wolbachia is a genus of maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha-Proteobacteria which are widespread among arthropods and cause various reproductive alterations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility and feminization. Wolbachia strains in arthropods have been phylogenetically divided into two supergroups, A and B. Here, we determined the phylogenetic relationships among Wolbachia strains harbored by insects and isopod crustaceans by using groE operon sequences, which encode highly conserved bacterial heat shock proteins. This study includes the first survey for Wolbachia in isopods from a Southeast Asian country, i.e., Thailand. Two isopod species from different parts of Thailand were found to be infected by Wolbachia. Their groE sequences were also included in the phylogenetic analysis. Our results showed clearly that 19 strains from tropical insects, 11 strains from French isopods, and two strains from Thai isopods were in the B supergroup, and 15 strains from tropical insects were in the A supergroup. This is the first report of phylogenetic analysis of a large data set comprising Wolbachia groE sequences from both insects and isopod crustaceans. PMID:19341336

  20. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities

  1. A Survey on Residential Areas Infestation to House Pests (Arthropods in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to importance of arthropods as urban pest, such Health and Nutritional, Textile, Structural, Storage pest and role of them in human being, this study was done to show determine of houses infestation status to urban pest (Arthropods city of Kashan in 2010. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive-analytical study has been done on houses The houses were selected by cluster random and Urban pests of them, by use of hand lens were identified. The results were analyzed using abundance tables and SPSS-11.5 software and statistic tests ?P2P and fisher exact3T. Results: The results of study have shown that prevalence of urban pest, Health pest 99.6%, Nutritional pest 32.6%, textile and structural pest 37.4% were seen3T.3T Out of total houses, 98% mosquitoes, 96.4% ant, 92.6% fly, 78% cockroaches species, 56.8% spider, 37.6% termite, 34.6% storage pests, 12% clothes moth, 8.2% scorpion species, 3.6% bug, 3.2% tick and 2.6% millipede were identified. Conclusion: The prevalence of infestation urban pest is high. Mosquitoes, ant, fly and cockroach were seen more the other. So methods control training, houses protection and solid and water waste management is being suggested.

  2. Application of satellite remote sensing for tracking of arthropod vectors of diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Hanafi bojd

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Arthropod-borne diseases are one of the major causes of human mortality. Since launch of the first meteorological satellites in 1960s, remote sensing has been increasingly implicated in the field of human health research and the data from satellites and their sensors with different spatial and temporal resolutions opened a new field of research in human health for scientists. Material and Methods: Search engines and national/international scientific databanks were used to search keywords of remote sensing, satellite, tick, mosquito and sand fly and obtained articles were analyzed.   Results: Some ecological indices were used more in remote sensing of arthropod-borne diseases, including NDVI, SST, LST and CCD. Conclusion: Data of environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, land use/ land cover help us to detect the habitats of vectors of diseases regard to their ecology. However, the scope of applications, beyond theoretical large potentialities, appears limited both by their technical nature and the related models developed. The main problem for application of remote sensing in health science and epidemiology of diseases, is the costs of satellite images as well as the availability in the studied times to monitor a specific subject like vector or agent of the disease. Although the majority of health studies and diseases monitoring need to application of high spatial resolution images.

  3. ARTHROPODS AND HELMINTHS ASSEMBLAGE IN SIGMODONTINE RODENTS FROM WETLANDS OF THE RIO DE LA PLATA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela T. Navone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The assemblage of arthropods and helminths, present in sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae from a broad wetland area of the Río de la Plata, Argentina, was studied. A total of 250 sigmodontines were captured during a two-year sampling period: Scapteromys aquaticus and Oxymycterus rufus were the most abundant hosts, followed by Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon azarae, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Deltamys kempi. There were 33102 parasites collected, corresponding with Rhopalopsyllidae fleas (Siphonaptera, Hoplopleuridae lice (Phtiraptera, Laelapidae and Macronyssidae mites, Ixodidae ticks, and Trombiculidae chiggers (Acari, the trematodes Echinostomidae, Microphallidae, and Dicrocoelidae, the flatworm Ciclophyllidea, the nematods Trichuridae, Spiruridae, Onchocercidae, Physalopteridae, Aspidoderidae, Oxyuridae, and Nippostrongylinae, and the thorny-headed worm Acanthocephala. A list of arthropods and helminths species associated with each rodent species was given, as well as the prevalence and mean abundance. New host and geographic records were provided. The phenogram of the relationships of the parasite assemblages showed a high value of similarity between both species of Oligoryzomys, and between S. aquaticus and O. rufus. Variation of the values observed in the prevalence and the mean abundance of the host-parasite association suggests that there could be environmental barriers between the rodent populations, or that differential behavior of the host species (i.e. use of microhabitats, tropics behaviors may influence these indexes. This knowledge may be used to determine targets for biological conservation and ecological impact of parasitism in the area.

  4. International Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of Legal, Organizational and Scientific Concept for the Establishment of the International Center for the Study of Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (ICERID) at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR

  5. 49 CFR 173.196 - Category A infectious substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...of adequate strength for its capacity, mass and intended use. The outer packaging...could be subjected if refrigeration were lost. (3) Infectious substances shipped...could be subjected if refrigeration were lost. Refrigerated liquid nitrogen...

  6. Nanocarriers in therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoba, Ufuoma; Peng, Haisheng; Li, Haichun; Miller, Cathy; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing science that has applications in various areas of medicine. The composition of nanocarriers for drug delivery is critical to guarantee high therapeutic performance when targeting specific host sites. Applications of nanotechnology are prevalent in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The major focus is on the design and fabrication of various nanomaterials, characteristics and physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers, and the use of these nanoscale drug delivery systems in treating infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, melanoma, and representative inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials and future perspective of the use of nanocarriers are also discussed in detail. We hope that such a review will be valuable to researchers who are exploring nanoscale drug delivery systems for the treatment of specific infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  7. System for identification of microorganism and detection of infectious disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methods for the identification of microorganisms or infectious disorders are disclosed, comprising obtaining a suitable sample from sources such as persons, animals, plants, food, water or soil. The methods also comprise providing tailored nucleic acid substrate(s) designed to react with a type 1 topoisomerase from one or more microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s), and incubating said substrate with said sample, or extracts or preparations from the sample, so that the substrate is processed by...

  8. Intrascleral dissemination of infectious scleritis following pterygium excision

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, C.; Chen, J.; Huang, S; MA, H; Chen, P.; Tsai, R

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the clinical pictures, possible pathogenesis, management, and therapy of patients with infectious scleritis associated with multifocal scleral abscesses following pterygium excision.?METHODS—The records of patients with infectious scleritis after pterygium excision who developed multifocal scleral abscesses presenting from 1988 to the end of 1995 were reviewed. Early culture of abscesses was performed, and topical, systemic antimicrobials, or both were given to all patients. Fo...

  9. Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Alison Lynn; Rand, David Gertler; Nowak, Martin A.; Christakis, Nicholas Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for...

  10. Aspects of genetic susceptibility to human infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, AV

    2006-01-01

    Host genetic factors play a major role in determining differential susceptibility to major infectious diseases of humans, such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and invasive pneumococcal disease. Progress in identifying the relevant genetic loci has come from a variety of approaches. Most convincing associations have been identified by case-control studies assessing biologically plausible candidate genes. All six of the genes that have a major effect on infectious disease susceptibility in ...

  11. RETROPHARYNGEAL ABSCESS DESCRIBED AS A COMPLICATION OF INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ruíz-Coello A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of retropharyngeal abscess as a complication of infectious mononucleosis.Adolescent patient attended at the emergency department with a progressively growing retropharyngeal and cervical mass that airway obstruction and required surgery under general anesthesia for drainage and control.The diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis was clinical and serological. Computed tomography (CT allowed us to evaluate the airway and the extent of the process.

  12. Seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Birds of Grenada

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Thomas; Sachin M. Kumthekar; Keshaw P. Tiwari; Gopalakrishnan P. Sabarinath; Arathy Sabarinath; Ravindra N. Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry and it causes major economic losses in the poultry industry. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies for Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) in birds of Grenada. Serum samples from 474 birds including free range chickens (210), broilers (172), Muscovy ducks (50), turkeys (10), rock pigeons (31) and guinea fowl (1) were collected and screened for the presence of antibodies by a f...

  13. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; LU, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for maintaining life on Earth but can also serve as a media for many pathogenic organisms, causing a high disease burden globally. However, how the global distribution of water-associated infectious pathogens/diseases looks like and how such distribution is related to possible social and environmental factors remain largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a database on distribution, biology, and epidemiology of water-associated infectious diseases and collected data on ...

  14. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predispos...

  15. Infectious disease management in primary care: perceptions of GPs

    OpenAIRE

    Röing Marta; Erntell Mats; Björkman Ingeborg; Lundborg Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is important to keep the level of antibiotic prescribing low to contain the development of resistant bacteria. This study was conducted to reveal new knowledge about how GPs think in relation to the prescribing of antibiotics - knowledge that could be used in efforts toward rational treatment of infectious diseases in primary care. The aim was to explore and describe the variations in GPs' perceptions of infectious disease management, with special reference to antibioti...

  16. Biosecurity Measures in 48 Isolation Facilities Managing Highly Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M.; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C.; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine bi...

  17. Infectious (Non)tolerance—Frustrated Commensalism Gone Awry?

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Locksley, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in medicine, infectious diseases remain major causes of death and disability worldwide. Acute or chronic infectious agents mediate host tissue damage and cause a spectrum of disease as diverse as overwhelming sepsis and shock within hours to persistent tissue inflammation causing organ failure or even cancer over years. Although pathogen exposure can cause disease via host-derived inflammation, pathogens share recognized elements with harmless human commensals. Mouse models a...

  18. Retroviral Restriction Factors and Infectious Risk in Xenotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Meije, Yolanda; Tönjes, Ralf R.; Fishman, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The clinical application of xenotransplantation poses immunologic, ethical, and microbiologic challenges. Significant progress has been made in the investigation of each of these areas. Among concerns regarding infectious risks for human xenograft recipients is the identification in swine of infectious agents including porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) that are capable of replication in some human cell lines. PERV replication has, however, been difficult to demonstrate in primate-derived...

  19. Infectious Disease Transmission during Organ and Tissue Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwald, Melissa A.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Fishman, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of organs and tissues (bone, tendon, skin, cornea) will always be associated with some risk for transmission of infectious diseases from donor to recipient. Understanding and minimizing this risk is difficult for many reasons: donor screening processes vary, screening for every infectious organism is not possible, and assessment of recipient health after transplantation to determine possibility of disease transmission is often not adequate. In May 2010, the US Food and Drug Ad...

  20. Detection of infectious tobamoviruses in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillhart, R C; Bachand, G D; Castello, J D

    1998-04-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate elution and bait plant methods to detect infectious tobamoviruses in forest soils in New York State. Soils were collected from two forest sites: Whiteface Mountain (WF) and Heiberg Forest (HF). The effectiveness of four buffers to elute tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) from organic and mineral fractions of WF soil amended with ToMV was tested, and virus content was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effectiveness of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) bait plants to detect the virus also was tested. Both methods then were utilized to detect tobamoviruses in 11 WF and 2 HF soil samples. A phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.0) eluted more ToMV from soil than the other buffers tested. Mineral soil bound more virus than organic soil. Virus recoveries from virus-amended organic and mineral soils were 3 and 10%, respectively, and the detection sensitivity was 10 to 20 ng/g of soil. Roots of bait plants grown in all virus-amended soils tested positive by ELISA, and virus concentrations averaged 10 ng/g. Both ToMV and tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) were transmitted to C. quinoa by elution from one of two HF soil samples but not from the WF soil samples. A tobamovirus was detected by bait planting in 12 of 73 (16%) root extracts representing 5 of 13 soil samples (38%). Tobamovirus-like particles were seen by transmission electron microscopy in 6 of 12 infected root extracts. Tobamoviruses occur in forest soils in New York State. Abiotic soil transmission to trees may permit localized spread and persistence of these viruses in forest ecosystems. PMID:16349545

  1. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  2. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Three-year progress report, November 1, 1980-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes our analysis of trophic dynamics in soil fauna including their impact on the decomposition process, investigation of relationships between soil fauna and microflora, development and testing of models describing these processes, and documentation of rates of movement of nutrients along soil arthropod food chains

  3. Impact of Land Management Practices on Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Other Arthropods on the Western High Plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work was done in plots that had been subjected to three successive years of an agronomic experiment that evaluated the effects of a wheat cover crop or no cover crop on weed and water management. After the third growing season, pitfall traps were installed and arthropods were collected and iden...

  4. Experimental infection of selected arthropods with spirurid nematodes Spirocerca lupi Railliet & Henry, 1911 and Gongylonema ingluvicola Molin, 1857.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Pillay, E; Munsammy, K

    2010-12-01

    Gongylonema ingluvicola and Spirocerca lupi are spirurid nematodes that require arthropod intermediate hosts in order to complete their life cycle. Beetles of the family Scarabaeidae are reported to serve as intermediate hosts for both these parasites. In this study selected species of beetles of the family Scarabaeidae as well as other groups of arthropods were screened for susceptibility to infection with S. lupi and G. ingluvicola. Arthropods were exposed to infective eggs of both parasites for a determined period of time and dissected/digested to determine the presence or absence of pre-infective and infective larvae. All the five species of dung beetles exposed to infection with S. lupi, namely, Pachylomerus femoralis, Scarabaeus rugosus, Gymnopleurus humanus, Kheper nigroaeneus and Anachalcos convexus were susceptible and, of the two species exposed to G. ingluvicola, only Gy. humanus was susceptible. Spirocerca lupi eggs developed in millipede species, Daratoagonus cristulatus, and remained as encysted larvae, while in Orthoporoides kyrhocephalus no development was observed. Spirocerca lupi larvae were not detected in the cricket species Gryllus assimilis, or the cockroach species Periplaneta americana, and, similarly, G. ingluvicola larvae were not detected in the millipede species O. kyrhocephalus. The difference in the susceptibility of the arthropods to the two parasite species may depend on their feeding biology. PMID:20132587

  5. Non-intentional inoculation of earthworms during forest reclamation of post mining sites change soil development and arthropod diversity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan

    Durban : International Convention Centre, 2008. [ICE 2008. International Congress of Entomology /23./. 06.07.2008-12.07.2008, Durban] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : non-intentional inoculation of earthworms * forest reclamation * arthropod diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Characterization of spirochetal isolates from arthropods collected in South Moravia, Czech Republic, using fatty acid methyl esters analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?echová, L.; Durnová, E.; Šikutová, Silvie; Halouzka, Ji?í; N?mec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 808, ?. 2 (2004), s. 249-254. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : spirochetes * arthropods * fatty acid methyl esters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2004

  7. Effect of post-harvest residue and methods of residue removal on ground inhabiting arthropod predators in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the blanket of post-harvest crop residue generated during green-cane harvesting on ground inhabiting arthropod predators of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was evaluated in two experiments spanning a four year period. Crop residue was either all...

  8. The i5k Workspace@NAL--enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research. PMID:25332403

  9. Emerging Trends in International Law Concerning Global Infectious Disease Control1

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, David P.

    2003-01-01

    International cooperation has become critical in controlling infectious diseases. In this article, I examine emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control. The role of international law in horizontal and vertical governance responses to infectious disease control is conceptualized; the historical development of international law regarding infectious diseases is described; and important shifts in how states, international institutions, and nonstate organizat...

  10. Infection control in the management of highly pathogenic infectious diseases: consensus of the European Network of Infectious Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouqui, Philippe; Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Bannister, Barbara; Schilling, Stephan; Follin, Per; Gottschalk, René; Hemmer, Robert; Maltezou, Helena C; Ott, Kristi; Peleman, Renaat; Perronne, Christian; Sheehan, Gerard; Siikamäki, Heli; Skinhøj, Peter; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    The European Network for Infectious Diseases (EUNID) is a network of clinicians, public health epidemiologists, microbiologists, infection control, and critical-care doctors from the European member states, who are experienced in the management of patients with highly infectious diseases. We aim to develop a consensus recommendation for infection control during clinical management and invasive procedures in such patients. After an extensive literature review, draft recommendations were amended j...

  11. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn; Korsgaard, Inge

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive genetic variation, and that the resistances are weakly correlated genetically. We tested this reasoning by challenging Atlantic salmon from 920 (approximately) full-sib families with the causative agen...

  12. The impact of supramolecular chemistry in medicine: removing the border between infectious and non-infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarian, Hamid Reza; Derakhshan, Mahnaz; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2008-12-01

    The concept, molecular self-assembly, has a profoundly novel effect on thoughts and efforts related to medicine and pharmacology. This new style of thinking calls for a range of new researches based on new predictions about disease mechanisms (especially autoimmune diseases, endocrinopathies, and neoplasms) and relevant treatment strategies (superstructural pharmaceuticals). Thanks to this new point of view the most fundamental issue in physiology is the quest of how biological systems exert control on the self-assembly of their components and the most fundamental issue in pathology is the quest of how self-assembly of an undesired superstructure triggers a network of events that result in a particular disease state. Therefore, every disease (infectious or non-infectious) must have a superstructural disease agent (SDA). Sophisticated superstructures like bacteria and viruses are stable and long living and thus infectious but simpler SDAs are unstable and short living thus less infectious. Then we can see how diseases like sarcoidosis, currently classified as non-infectious, are indeed infectious. From this point of view, the fact that one viral infection is protective against a second viral infection can be seen as a superstructural drug that protects against a superstructural disease agent. So it becomes understandable how one opportunistic infection in a late-stage HIV-infected individual may cause de-establishment of HIV-infection in a long-term survivor. PMID:18762388

  13. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores) : unmanaged plantations favour endemic beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We study how endemic, native and introduced arthropod species richness, abundance, diversity and community composition vary between four different habitat types (native forest, exotic forest of Cryptomeria japonica, semi-natural pasture and intensive pasture) and how arthropod richness and abundance change with increasing distance from the native forest in adjacent habitat types in Santa Maria Island, the Azores. Arthropods were sampled in four 150 m long transects in each habitat type. Arthropods were identified to species level and classified as Azorean endemic, single-island endemic (SIE), native, or introduced. The native forest had the highest values for species richness of Azorean endemics, SIEs and natives; and also had highest values of Azorean endemic diversity (Fisher’s alpha). In contrast, the intensive pasture had the lowest values for endemic and native species richness and diversity, but the highest values of total arthropod abundance and introduced species richness and diversity. Arthropod community composition was significantly different between the four habitat types. In the semi-natural pasture, the number of SIE species decreased with increasing distance from the native forest, and in the exotic forest the abundance of both Azorean endemics and SIEs decreased with increasing distance from the native forest. There is a gradient of decreasing arthropod richness and abundance from the native forest to the intensive pasture. Although this study demonstrates the important role of the native forest in arthropod conservation in the Azores, it also shows that unmanaged exotic forests have provided alternative habitat suitable for some native species of forest specialist arthropods, particularly saproxylic beetles.

  14. [Celioscopic cholecystectomy. 2 cases of infectious complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, F; Fayeulle, V; Peillon, C; Roullée, N; Koning, E; Bénozio, M; Testart, J; Humbert, G

    1994-06-11

    Despite the low morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, trauma and infection have been reported. Such complications can produce a misleading clinical picture, as in two cases we observed. Case 1. A symptomatic 56-year-old female patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the operation, the gall bladder ruptured and the contents had to be aspirated from the abdominal cavity. The patient complained of hepatalgia 2 weeks after the operation, then was not seen again for more than 1 year when fever and hepatalgia did not respond to symptomatic treatment. An inter-hepato-renal collection (6 cm in diameter) was punctured under echography. Aspirate culture yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adapted antibiotic therapy was unsuccessful and surgery was required to empty the abscess then remove a fibrous conjunctive tissue formation. Case 2. A 55-year-old female patient with a history of complete remission after mammectomy for breast cancer underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1991. Two days after the operation, fever (39 degrees C) was accompanied by abdominal defence. Biliary peritonitis due to imperfect suture of the bile duct was repaired followed by peritoneal lavage-drainage. Per-operative blood samples revealed type 6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite adapted parenteral antibiotics, fever persisted at 39 degrees C and intense jaundice was observed. A second laparoscopy 14 days later showed inflammatory narrowing of the main bile duct which was drained into a small bowel loop. Eight days later computed tomography revealed multiple abscess in the liver. Transparietal cholangiography was performed and showed that the contrast medium entered the abscesses via the biliary canals. The state of sepsis persisted, jaundice worsened and hepatic encephalopathy developed with obnubilation and flapping tremor. After 1 month of general antibiotherapy, no improvement was seen on computed tomography images and needle biopsy of an abscess led to the identification of resistant type 6 P. aeruginosa. Antibiotics were adapted and administered iv with no clinical improvement. Selective catheterism of the hepatic artery via the femoral access was performed to allow intra-hepatic antibiotic delivery. Three weeks later clinical situation remained unchanged when acute respiratory distress highly suggestive of pulmonary embolism led to death. Autopsy was not performed. In both of these rare cases of infectious complications due to P. aeruginosa after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the source of contamination remained unknown. Nosocomial infection was suspected. PMID:7971806

  15. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Torralba-Burrial

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species, especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS, University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records, especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16,604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  16. Connection of toxin-antitoxin modules to inoculation eschar and arthropod vertical transmission in Rickettsiales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Audoly, Gilles; Raoult, Didier

    2013-03-01

    The biological role of toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) in pathogenicity and cell addiction of Rickettsia was recently reported. We realized a comparative genomic analysis onto 33 rickettsial genomes and correlated the presence of TAS encoding genes with vertical transmission (VT) in arthropod hosts, the presence of inoculation eschar in humans and experimental animals, and the mortality in humans. There is a significant statistical link between TAS and the presence of an eschar (p?0.0001). The presence of TAS is also significantly inversely correlated with mortality. The toxic effect of TAS may increase the local reaction, thus inhibiting the spread of rickettsiae associated with fatal outcome of the disease. The TAS were also linked to VT (p?0.0001). Together with our previous findings we speculate that this is the first addiction system evidenced in intracellular bacteria. Thus, the TAS, as selfish genetic elements, might be essential to the evolutionary strategy of intracellular bacteria. PMID:23414774

  17. Is evenness altered by fire in natural assemblages of soil arthropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Bologna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-05-01

    We studied evenness and species richness in two assemblages of soil arthropods at six contiguous study plots in Mediterranean ecosystems of central Italy, three of these plots being burnt and three unburnt. We analysed these aspects of community structure by diversity-dominance diagrams comparisons made through analysis of covariance on respective slopes and ordinate intercepts. We observed consistent patterns in both Collembola and Oniscidea assemblages, either in burnt and unburnt plots. Evenness did not change among study plots and across habitats, either before or after fire, whereas species' composition was significantly altered by fire. Results from our study implied that evenness and species diversity are clearly affected in a different and independent way by fire. Hence, it is not acceptable to focus on only the evenness when looking at the effects of controlled fires for environmental management reasons.

  18. Impact of invasive Rosa rugosa on the arthropod fauna of Danish yellow dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pernille, Elleriis; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2015-01-01

    We compared the arthropod fauna of Rosa rugosa patches to the adjacent native yellow dune vegetation by pitfall trapping in the National Park Thy at the Danish North Sea coast. R. rugosa changes the vegetation from a dune grassland (dominated by Ammophila arenaria) poor in flowering plants to a low monospecific shrubbery rich in large flowers. We predicted faunal responses according to the changes in resource availability and environmental conditions promoted by this particular invasive plant: increased populations of flower-visiting insects and species of the phytophagous and detritivorous guilds, and a decrease in thermophilic predator species. A matched-pairs sampling design allowed us to isolate the effects of the vegetation change from those of potentially confounding landscape gradients. The arthropod communities were significantly affected by the vegetation change (redundancy analysis). Six taxa (Opiliones, Lepidoptera larvae, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Tipulidae, Geotrupidae) increased in abundance, and three (Araneae, Staphylinidae, Auchenorrhyncha) were reduced in the rose patches. The main exception from predictions was the lack of effects on large detritivores (isopods, diplopods). Overall, total catches were increased by 45 % in the rose patches, primarily caused by an increase in the abundance of Diptera. Arachnids and carabid beetles were analyzed at species level: the assemblage structure was significantly affected in arachnids but not in carabids. Arachnids showed reduced species richness and diversity and increased dominance in the rose patches, due to reductions among xerotherm species. The results indicate that considerable faunistic impoverishment of thermophilic dune specialist species can be expected in the future if R. rugosa is allowed to continue its invasion across the dune habitat.

  19. The challenge of developing and utilizing transgenic arthropods in the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date transgenic arthropods are not being utilized within the Caribbean to control agricultural pests. Bio-control in the region is largely focused on the control of the Pink mealybug since infestations of this pest in any region can result in restrictions being placed on the export of fresh produce into non-infected countries. Other pests controlled by use of conventional bio-control agents include citrus blackfly, citrus leafminer, sugarcane stemborer, coffee berry borer and coconut whitefly. Control of these economic pests is of great importance as crops such as sugarcane, coffee and citrus are major foreign exchange earners in some countries. Applications for the importation, movement and release of these organisms are done through the Pesticide Control Board of the Ministry of Agriculture. Generally guidelines of the FAO code of conduct for the import and release of bio-control agents are used. It is almost inevitable that with the need to increase productivity in the agri-food sector, combined with the need to reduce negative impacts of agri-chemical use, regional research and development efforts will be focused on developing cost effective means of controlling pests common to the region. Such research and development efforts must combine conventional control with genetic engineering methods. Several countries in the Caribbean region are currently examining their regulatory mechanisms to address the trans-boundary movement and environmental release of genetically modified organisms specifically for agricultural purposes. Although most attention has been focused on crop and food regulations some attention will be placed on developing regulations for the use of transgenic arthropods used to control common economic pests. (author)

  20. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

    2014-09-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area. PMID:24838257