Sample records for arrested mammaryacini predicts

  1. Gene expression signature in organized and growth arrested mammaryacini predicts good outcome in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Marcia V.; Martin, Katherine J.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Xhaja, Kris; Bosch, Irene; Yaswen, Paul; Bissell, Mina J.


    To understand how non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) transit from a disorganized proliferating to an organized growth arrested state, and to relate this process to the changes that occur in breast cancer, we studied gene expression changes in non-malignant HMEC grown in three-dimensional cultures, and in a previously published panel of microarray data for 295 breast cancer samples. We hypothesized that the gene expression pattern of organized and growth arrested mammary acini would share similarities with breast tumors with good prognoses. Using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays, we analyzed the expression of 22,283 gene transcripts in two HMEC cell lines, 184 (finite life span) and HMT3522 S1 (immortal non-malignant), on successive days post-seeding in a laminin-rich extracellular matrix assay. Both HMECs underwent growth arrest in G0/G1 and differentiated into polarized acini between days 5 and 7. We identified gene expression changes with the same temporal pattern in both lines. We show that genes that are significantly lower in the organized, growth arrested HMEC than in their proliferating counterparts can be used to classify breast cancer patients into poor and good prognosis groups with high accuracy. This study represents a novel unsupervised approach to identifying breast cancer markers that may be of use clinically.

  2. Predicting crack arrest in reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressurized thermal shock (PTS) issue has provided increased motivation for the search for a reasonably accurate crack arrest prediction methodology. This issue has assumed greater significance recently as a consequence of the imposition of Regulatory Guide 1.99 Revision 2 procedures for determining the effects of radiation embrittlement in the context of the screening criteria in the PTS rule that is used by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess the integrity of reactor pressure vessels. The currently accepted procedure for predicting crack arrest is the so-called KIa procedure, which is based on static linear elastic fracture mechanics principles, with a crack being presumed to arrest when the crack tip stress intensity factor KIST falls below a value KIa. The present paper reviews recent EPRI sponsored research, which shows that the static procedure is overly conservative when it is applied to the first arrest of a deep crack in the thickness of a reactor vessel. This conclusion is clearly important when assessing the consequences of the imposition of the procedures of Regulatory Guide 1.99 Revision 2. A more accurate crack arrest prediction procedure, i.e. the Combustion Engineering constrained static procedure or the reflectionless stress intensity factor procedure which are very similar in concept and their arrest prediction, should be considered to assess the impact of its use in the context of the screening criteria limits in the PTS rule. (orig.)

  3. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest (United States)

    Rossetti, Andrea O.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P.; Cronberg, Tobias


    Objective: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Methods: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists, blinded to outcome, evaluated prospectively recorded EEGs in the Target Temperature Management trial (TTM trial) that randomized patients to 33°C vs 36°C. Routine EEG was performed in patients still comatose after rewarming. EEGs were classified into highly malignant (suppression, suppression with periodic discharges, burst-suppression), malignant (periodic or rhythmic patterns, pathological or nonreactive background), and benign EEG (absence of malignant features). Poor outcome was defined as best Cerebral Performance Category score 3–5 until 180 days. Results: Eight TTM sites randomized 202 patients. EEGs were recorded in 103 patients at a median 77 hours after cardiac arrest; 37% had a highly malignant EEG and all had a poor outcome (specificity 100%, sensitivity 50%). Any malignant EEG feature had a low specificity to predict poor prognosis (48%) but if 2 malignant EEG features were present specificity increased to 96% (p < 0.001). Specificity and sensitivity were not significantly affected by targeted temperature or sedation. A benign EEG was found in 1% of the patients with a poor outcome. Conclusions: Highly malignant EEG after rewarming reliably predicted poor outcome in half of patients without false predictions. An isolated finding of a single malignant feature did not predict poor outcome whereas a benign EEG was highly predictive of a good outcome. PMID:26865516

  4. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rossetti, Andrea O; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P; Cronberg, Tobias


    OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. METHODS: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists......, blinded to outcome, evaluated prospectively recorded EEGs in the Target Temperature Management trial (TTM trial) that randomized patients to 33°C vs 36°C. Routine EEG was performed in patients still comatose after rewarming. EEGs were classified into highly malignant (suppression, suppression with...... periodic discharges, burst-suppression), malignant (periodic or rhythmic patterns, pathological or nonreactive background), and benign EEG (absence of malignant features). Poor outcome was defined as best Cerebral Performance Category score 3-5 until 180 days. RESULTS: Eight TTM sites randomized 202...

  5. The utility of cardiac sonography and capnography in predicting outcome in cardiac arrest


    Nelson, Bret P; Patel, Vaishali R.; Norris, Marlaina M.; Richardson, Barbara K.


    Emergency physicians and intensivists are increasingly utilizing capnography and bedside echocardiography during medical resuscitations. These techniques have shown promise in predicting outcomes in cardiac arrest, and no cases of return of spontaneous circulation in the setting of sonographic cardiac standstill and low end-tidal carbon dioxide have been reported. This case report illustrates an example of such an occurrence. Our aims are to report a case of return of spontaneous circulation ...

  6. Predicting the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients using multiple biomarkers and suspension microarray assays (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Tsai, Min-Shan; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Chang, Wei-Tien; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Chen, Wen-Jone


    Predicting the prognosis for cardiac arrest is still challenging. Combining biomarkers from diverse pathophysiological pathways may provide reliable indicators for the severity of injury and predictors of long-term outcomes. We investigated the feasibility of using a multimarker strategy with key independent biomarkers to improve the prediction of outcomes in cardiac arrest. Adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with sustained return of spontaneous circulation were prospectively enrolled in this study. Blood samples were taken at 2 and 24 hours after cardiac arrest. Suspension microarray assays were used to test 21 different biomarkers. A total of 99 patients were enrolled, 45 of whom survived to hospital discharge. We identified 11 biomarkers that, when combined with clinical variables and factors of APACHE II score and history of arrhythmia, were independent determinants for outcome of in-hospital mortality (concordance = 0.9249, standard error = 0.0779). Three biomarkers combined with APACHE II and age were independent determinants for favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve, 0.938; 95% confidence interval, 0.854 ~ 1.0). In conclusion, a systemic multiple biomarker approach using suspension microarray assays can identify independent predictors and model the outcomes of cardiac arrest patients during the post-cardiac arrest period. PMID:27256246

  7. Development of a viscoplastic dynamic fracture mechanics treatment for crack arrest predictions in a PTS event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research is to develop a fundamentally correct methodology for the prediction of crack arrest at the high upper shelf conditions occurring in a postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event. The effort is aimed at the development of a versatile finite-element method for the solution of time-dependent boundary value problems that admit inertia effects, a prescribed spatial temperature distribution, and viscoplastic constitutive and fracture behavior. Supporting this development are (1) material characterization and fracture experimentation, (2) detailed mathematical analyses of the near-tip region, (3) elastodynamic fracture analysis, and (4) elastic-plastic tearing instability analyses. As a first step, dynamic-viscoplastic analyses are currently being made of the wide plate tests being performed by the National Bureau of Standards in a companion HSST program. Some preliminary conclusions drawn from this work and from the supporting research activities are offered in this paper. The outstanding critical issues that subsequent research must focus on are also described

  8. Evaluation of biomarkers of cell cycle arrest and inflammation in prediction of dialysis or recovery after kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Pianta, Timothy J; Peake, Philip W; Pickering, John W; Kelleher, Michaela; Buckley, Nicholas A; Endre, Zoltan H


    Early prediction of delayed graft function (DGF) after kidney transplantation would facilitate patient management. Cell cycle arrest and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of DGF. We assessed the utility of two novel acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers, urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), and five inflammatory markers to predict DGF following deceased-donor kidney transplantation. Serial urine concentrations of TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 were measured immediately after transplantation in 56 recipients along with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 16 (CXCL16). Delayed graft function (DGF) was defined as requirement for dialysis within 7 days. Integrated discrimination improvement analysis was used to evaluate whether these biomarkers enhanced prediction of DGF independently of a validated clinical risk prediction model. DGF occurred in 22 patients (39%). At 4 h after kidney reperfusion, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for VEGF-A was good (AUC > 0.80); for TIMP-2, IGFBP7 and [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7] fair (AUCs 0.70-0.79); and for MIF, MCP-1, TFF3 and CXCL16 poor (AUC < 0.70). Only TIMP-2 and VEGF significantly enhanced the DGF prediction at 4 and 12 h. The cell cycle arrest marker urinary TIMP-2 and the inflammatory biomarker VEGF-A are potentially useful adjuncts to clinical data for early prediction of DGF. PMID:26174580

  9. The viability of the KIa procedure for predicting the arrest of a deep crack during a hypothetical thermal shock event involving a water cooled nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a hypothetical thermal shock event involving a water-cooled nuclear reactor steel pressure vessel, provided certain conditions are satisfied, it is possible for a crack to propagate deep into a reactor vessel thickness by a series of run-arrest-reinitiation events. Model vessel tests confirm this prediction. This paper examines the viability of the KIa procedure for predicting the arrest of a deep crack. The results from a theoretical analysis of a simulation model suggest that the KIa procedure given conservative predictions of the crack jump length for the deep crack situation

  10. Potential for the G2/M arrest assay to predict patient susceptibility to severe reactions following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Sauer, R.; Distel, L.V.R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Sprung, C.N. [Div. of Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Melbourne Univ., VIC (Australia)


    Background and purpose: cell-cycle regulation and checkpoint activation are crucial factors for radiation-induced DNA damage processing. The G2/M phase arrest was assessed in lymphoblastoid cell lines and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes of different radiosensitivities to study the relationship of G2/M arrest to radiosensitivity. Material and methods: G2/M arrest was analyzed after in vitro irradiation by 2 and 5 Gy of ionizing radiation up to 6 days using 17 lymphoblastoid cell lines from healthy individuals, ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patients, Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) patients and cancer patients with clinically increased radiosensitivity. In a second approach, phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from 15 healthy individuals, twelve cancer patients, and five cancer patients hypersensitive to ionizing radiation were studied. Image cytometry was performed to analyze G2/M arrest. Results: two of the three AT cell lines showed markedly increased G2/M arrest compared to controls. NBS cells were comparable to controls up to day 3, but then demonstrated a slightly increased G2/M arrest. Two of the six radiosensitive lymphoblast cell lines and the five radiosensitive cancer patients' T-lymphocytes assayed showed a reduction in G2/M arrest, while healthy individuals showed no difference from cancer patients. Conclusion: the interrelation between G2/M arrest and radiosensitivity is not readily apparent since a variety of radiosensitive cells from patients with radiosensitive syndromes and patients identified as radiosensitive following radiation treatment showed inconsistent G2/M arrest dynamics. Secondary effects, like loss of clonogenicity, G1/S phase arrest and failure of G2/M arrest may contribute to variation of the G2/M arrest endpoint and obscure assessment of cellular radiosensitivity using this method. (orig.)

  11. An evaluation of analysis methodologies for predicting cleavage arrest of a deep crack in an RPV subjected to PTS loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several calculational procedures are compared for predicting cleavage arrest of a deep crack in the wall of a prototypical reactor pressure vessel (RPV) subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) types of loading conditions. Three procedures examined in this study utilized the following models: (1) a static finite-element model (full bending); (2) a radially constrained static model; and (3) a thermoelastic dynamic finite-element model. A PTS transient loading condition was selected that produced a deep arrest of an axially-oriented initially shallow crack according to calculational results obtained from the static (full-bending) model. Results from the two static models were compared with those generated from the detailed thermoelastic dynamic finite-element analysis. The dynamic analyses modeled cleavage-crack propagation using node-release technique and an application-mode methodology based on dynamic fracture toughness curves generated from measured data. Comparisons presented here indicate that the degree to which dynamic solutions can be approximated by static models is highly dependent on several factors, including the material dynamic fracture curves and the propensity for cleavage reinitiation of the arrested crack under PTS loading conditions. Additional work is required to develop and validate a satisfactory dynamic fracture toughness model applicable to postcleavage arrest conditions in an RPV

  12. Daily Arrests (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset provides the public with arrest information from the Montgomery County Central Processing Unit (CPU) systems. The data presented is derived from every...

  13. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi He

    Full Text Available Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain.A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and prediction accuracy (PA through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients.A total of61 (61.0% patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173 in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, p<0.001 among different combination approaches for subsequent shocks. Sensitivity (76.5% vs. 35.3%, p<0.001, NPV (90.2% vs. 76.9%, p = 0.007 and PA (86.1% vs. 74.0%, p = 0.005were greatly improved compared with AMSA based single feature prediction with a threshold of 90% specificity.In this retrospective study, combining AMSA with previous shock information using neural networks greatly improves prediction performance of defibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks.

  14. Prediction of crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas transmission pipelines with a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). Part 2: Large scale pipe models with gas depressurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 1 of this paper described a specimen for the measurement of high strain rate flow and fracture properties of pipe material and for tuning a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). In part 2 the tuned SRDD model is used for the simulation of axial crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas pipelines. Linear pressure drop model was adopted behind the crack tip, and an exponential gas depressurisation model was used ahead of the crack tip. The model correctly predicted the crack initiation (burst) pressure, the crack speed and the crack arrest length. Strain rates between 1000 s−1 and 3000 s−1 immediately ahead of the crack tip are predicted, giving a strong indication that a strain rate material model is required for the structural integrity assessment of the natural gas pipelines. The models predict the stress triaxiality of about 0.65 for at least 1 m ahead of the crack tip, gradually dropping to 0.5 at distances of about 5–7 m ahead of the crack tip. Finally, the models predicted a linear drop in crack tip opening angle (CTOA) from about 11−12° at the onset of crack propagation down to 7−8° at crack arrest. Only the lower of these values agree with those reported in the literature for quasi-static measurements. This discrepancy might indicate substantial strain rate dependence in CTOA. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations of 3 burst tests of X100 pipes are detailed. • Strain rate dependent damage model, tuned on small scale X100 samples, was used. • The models correctly predict burst pressure, crack speed and crack arrest length. • The model predicts a crack length dependent critical CTOA. • The strain rate dependent damage model is verified as mesh independent

  15. Prediction of solution structures of the Ca2+-bound gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domains of protein S and homolog growth arrest specific protein 6: use of the particle mesh Ewald method.


    Perera, L; Li, L.; Darden, T.; Monroe, D M; Pedersen, L G


    The solution structures of the N-terminal domains of protein S, a plasma vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein, and its homolog growth arrest specific protein 6 (Gas6) were predicted by molecular dynamics computer simulations. The initial structures were based on the x-ray crystallographic structure of the corresponding region of bovine prothrombin fragment 1. The subsequent molecular dynamics trajectories were calculated using the second-generation AMBER force field. The long-range electrostatic ...

  16. Wide plate crack arrest testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To predict the behavior of a nuclear pressure vessel undergoing pressurized thermal shock, certain information on dynamic crack propagation and arrest is required. The purpose of the work described is to provide such data on wide plates fracturing at temperatures up to the upper shelf region. Four tests have been completed on the 26 MN Universal Testing Machine at NBS. The specimens are to be fractured in a thermal gradient that, in the most extreme case, might extend from -1000C to 2000 across the 1 meter specimen width. This is done so that the crack will initiate in a cold, brittle region and arrest in a hot, tough region. An important part of this study is data acquisition from the numerous strain gages, thermocouples, timing wires, crack mouth opening displacement gages, and acoustic emission transducers that are mounted on the specimen. Each test has been different with respect to conditions of testing, specimen configuration, and instrumentation used. The progressive changes in test procedure represent attempts to obtain the desired crack run and arrest behavior and to improve upon the quality of the data collected. In particular, efforts were made to initiate crack propagation at lower stress intensity factors. Also, strain gage combinations and locations were optimized to better deduce the crack position as a function of time. Another result of great interest that can be deduced from these tests is the initiation of fracture toughness and the arrest toughness

  17. Deterrence and arrest ratios. (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R


    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  18. Evaluation and prediction of the HIV-1 central polypurine tract influence on foamy viral vectors to transduce dividing and growth-arrested cells. (United States)

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola; Rethwilm, Axel; Dandekar, Thomas


    Retroviral vectors are potent tools for gene delivery and various biomedical applications. To accomplish a gene transfer task successfully, retroviral vectors must effectively transduce diverse cell cultures at different phases of a cell cycle. However, very promising retroviral vectors based on the foamy viral (FV) backbone lack the capacity to efficiently transduce quiescent cells. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon might be explained as the inability of foamy viruses to form a pre-integration complex (PIC) with nuclear import activity in growth-arrested cells, which is the characteristic for lentiviruses (HIV-1). In this process, the HIV-1 central polypurine tract (cPPT) serves as a primer for plus-strand synthesis to produce a "flap" element and is believed to be crucial for the subsequent double-stranded cDNA formation of all retroviral RNA genomes. In this study, the effects of the lentiviral cPPT element on the FV transduction potential in dividing and growth-arrested (G1/S phase) adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells are investigated by experimental and theoretical methods. The results indicated that the HIV-1 cPPT element in a foamy viral vector background will lead to a significant reduction of the FV transduction and viral titre in growth-arrested cells due to the absence of PICs with nuclear import activity. PMID:25009830

  19. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (United States)

    ... scan, or MUGA, which shows how well your heart is pumping blood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which gives doctors detailed pictures of your heart. How is SCA treated? Sudden cardiac arrest should ...

  20. Cardiac arrest in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tress Erika


    Full Text Available Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners.

  1. Cardiac arrest in children. (United States)

    Tress, Erika E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Saladino, Richard A; Manole, Mioara D


    Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners. PMID:20930971

  2. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (United States)

    ... Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) SCA: Who's At Risk? Prevention of SCA What Causes SCA? SCA Awareness Atrial Flutter Heart Block Heart Failure Sick Sinus Syndrome Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  3. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (United States)

    ... often are found in public places, such as shopping malls, golf courses, businesses, airports, airplanes, casinos, ... arrest In a study published online today in the New England Journal of Medicine , ...

  4. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi


    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  5. Sympathoadrenal activation and endothelial damage are inter correlated and predict increased mortality in patients resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. a post Hoc sub-study of patients from the TTM-trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär I Johansson

    Full Text Available Sympathoadrenal activation and endothelial damage are hallmarks of acute critical illness. This study investigated their association and predictive value in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA.Post-hoc analysis of patients included at a single site in The Targeted Temperature Management at 33 degrees versus 36 degrees after Cardiac Arrest (TTM trial. The main study reported similar outcomes with targeting 33 versus 36 degrees. TTM main study NCT01020916. One hundred sixty three patients resuscitated from OHCA were included at a single site ICU. Blood was sampled a median 135 min (Inter Quartile Range (IQR 103-169 after OHCA. Plasma catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and serum endothelial biomarkers (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, sE-selectin, sVE-cadherin were measured at admission (immediately after randomization. We had access to data on demography, medical history, characteristics of the OHCA, patients and 180-day outcome.Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated positively with syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin i.e., biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (both p<0.05. Overall 180-day mortality was 35%. By Cox analyses, plasma adrenaline, serum sE-selectin, reflecting endothelial cell activation, and thrombomodulin levels predicted mortality. However, thrombomodulin was the only biomarker independently associated with mortality after adjusting for gender, age, rhythm (shockable vs. non-shockable, OHCA to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC time, shock at admission and ST elevation myocardial infarction (30-day Hazards Ratio 1.71 (IQR 1.05-2.77, p=0.031 and 180-day Hazards Ratio 1.65 (IQR 1.03-2.65, p=0.037 for 2-fold higher thrombomodulin levels.Circulating catecholamines and endothelial damage were intercorrelated and predicted increased mortality. Interventions aiming at protecting and/or restoring the endothelium may be beneficial in OHCA patients.

  6. Arrested coalescence of viscoelastic droplets: polydisperse doublets. (United States)

    Dahiya, Prerna; Caggioni, Marco; Spicer, Patrick T


    Arrested droplet coalescence produces stable anisotropic shapes and is a key mechanism for microstructure development in foods, petroleum and pharmaceutical formulations. Past work has examined the dynamic elastic arrest of coalescing monodisperse droplet doublets and developed a simple model of doublet strain as a function of physical variables. Although the work describes experimental data well, it is limited to describing same-size droplets. A new model incorporating a generalized description of doublet shape is developed to describe polydisperse doublet formation in more realistic emulsion systems. Polydisperse doublets are shown to arrest at lower strains than monodisperse doublets as a result of the smaller contribution of surface area in a given pair. Larger droplet size ratios have lower relative degrees of strain because coalescence is arrested at an earlier stage than in more monodisperse cases. Experimental observations of polydisperse doublet formation indicate that the model under-predicts arrest strains at low solid levels and small droplet sizes. The discrepancy is hypothesized to be the result of nonlinear elastic deformation at high strains.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298435

  7. Crack-arrest technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last several years, the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program has conducted several fracture mechanics experiments on large specimens that produced crack-arrest fracture-toughness values above 220 MPa·√m, which is the limit imposed by the ASME Code and the limit included in the Issues on Pressurized Thermal Shock studies. It is therefore appropriate and timely to investigate the influence that these high crack-arrest data have on the integrity assessment of nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPVs). A review of the evolution of the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) issue and current methods of analysis provides insight into the motivation for the HSST Program performing the large-specimen fracture mechanics experiments. During the early 1970s, it was recognized that RPVs could be subjected to severe thermal shock as the result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). Analyses performed at that time indicated that thermal shock alone would not result in failure (through-wall cracking) of the vessel. However, a combination of pressure and a less severe thermal shock, the result of some postulated transients, could result in vessel failure. In March 1978, such a transient occurred at the Rancho Seco nuclear power plant. As a result of these events, parametric PTS studies were undertaken. Because of the apparent need for and the existence of high-temperature crack-arrest capability, the NRC HSST Program and others began to investigate the effect of higher crack-arrest values on the probability of failure and to determine if these values actually exist for prototypical RPV materials. This report describes the results of HSST Program large-specimen crack-arrest testing

  8. Combining multiple ECG features does not improve prediction of defibrillation outcome compared to single features in a large population of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests


    He, Mi; Gong, Yushun; Li, Yongqin; Mauri, Tommaso; Fumagalli, Francesca; Bozzola, Marcella; Cesana, Giancarlo; Latini, Roberto; Pesenti, Antonio; Ristagno, Giuseppe


    Introduction Quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) waveform analysis provides a noninvasive reflection of the metabolic milieu of the myocardium during resuscitation and is a potentially useful tool to optimize the defibrillation strategy. However, whether combining multiple ECG features can improve the capability of defibrillation outcome prediction in comparison to single feature analysis is still uncertain. Methods A total of 3828 defibrillations from 1617 patients who experienced out-of...

  9. Sympathoadrenal Activation and Endothelial Damage Are Inter Correlated and Predict Increased Mortality in Patients Resuscitated after Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I. Johansson, Pär; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper;


    at a single site ICU. Blood was sampled a median 135 min (Inter Quartile Range (IQR) 103-169) after OHCA. Plasma catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and serum endothelial biomarkers (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, sE-selectin, sVE-cadherin) were measured at admission (immediately after...... randomization). We had access to data on demography, medical history, characteristics of the OHCA, patients and 180-day outcome. RESULTS: Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated positively with syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin i.e., biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (both p<0.05). Overall 180-day mortality...... was 35%. By Cox analyses, plasma adrenaline, serum sE-selectin, reflecting endothelial cell activation, and thrombomodulin levels predicted mortality. However, thrombomodulin was the only biomarker independently associated with mortality after adjusting for gender, age, rhythm (shockable vs. non...

  10. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani


    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  11. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore


    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  12. Juvenile Arrests, 1998. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data in the United States. In 1998, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.6 million arrests of persons under age 18. Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics indicate that juveniles account for 18% of all arrests, and 17% of all violent crime arrests in…

  13. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detonation arresters, flame... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a) Each detonation arrester required by this part must: (1) Be capable of arresting a detonation from either side...

  14. Dynamic propagation and cleavage crack arrest in bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In complement of the studies of harmfulness of defects, generally realized in term of initiation, the concept of crack arrest could be used as complementary analyses to the studies of safety. The stop occurs when the stress intensity factor becomes lower than crack arrest toughness (KIa) calculated in elasto-statics (KI ≤ KIa). The aim of this thesis is to understand and predict the stop of a crack propagating at high speed in a 18MND5 steel used in the pressure water reactor (PWR). The test chosen to study crack arrest is the disc thermal shock test. The observations under the scanning electron microscope of the fracture surface showed that the crack arrest always occurs in cleavage mode and that the critical microstructural entity with respect to the propagation and crack arrest corresponds to at least the size of the prior austenitic grain. The numerical analyses in elasto-statics confirm the conservatism of the codified curve of the RCC-M with respect to the values of KIa. The dynamic numerical analyses show that the deceleration of the crack measured at the end of the propagation is related to the global dynamic of the structure (vibrations). The transferability to components of crack arrest toughness obtained from tests analysed in static is thus not assured. The disc thermal shock tests were also modelled by considering a criterion of propagation and arrest of the type 'RKR' characterized by a critical stress sc which depends on the temperature. The results obtained account well for the crack jump measured in experiments as well as the shape of the crack arrest front. (author)

  15. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment (United States)

    ... Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  16. Cardiac arrest: resuscitation and reperfusion. (United States)

    Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B


    The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and

  17. Cellular Growth Arrest and Persistence from Enzyme Saturation (United States)

    Ray, J. Christian J.; Wickersheim, Michelle L.; Jalihal, Ameya P.; Adeshina, Yusuf O.; Cooper, Tim F.; Balázsi, Gábor


    Metabolic efficiency depends on the balance between supply and demand of metabolites, which is sensitive to environmental and physiological fluctuations, or noise, causing shortages or surpluses in the metabolic pipeline. How cells can reliably optimize biomass production in the presence of metabolic fluctuations is a fundamental question that has not been fully answered. Here we use mathematical models to predict that enzyme saturation creates distinct regimes of cellular growth, including a phase of growth arrest resulting from toxicity of the metabolic process. Noise can drive entry of single cells into growth arrest while a fast-growing majority sustains the population. We confirmed these predictions by measuring the growth dynamics of Escherichia coli utilizing lactose as a sole carbon source. The predicted heterogeneous growth emerged at high lactose concentrations, and was associated with cell death and production of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. These results suggest how metabolic networks may balance costs and benefits, with important implications for drug tolerance. PMID:27010473

  18. Buoyant currents arrested by convective dissolution (United States)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Juanes, Ruben


    When carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves into water, the density of water increases. This seemingly insubstantial phenomenon has profound implications for geologic carbon sequestration. Here we show, by means of laboratory experiments with analog fluids, that the up-slope migration of a buoyant current of CO2 is arrested by the convective dissolution that ensues from a fingering instability at the moving CO2-groundwater interface. We consider the effectiveness of convective dissolution as a large-scale trapping mechanism in sloping aquifers, and we show that a small amount of slope is beneficial compared to the horizontal case. We study the development and coarsening of the fingering instability along the migrating current and predict the maximum migration distance of the current with a simple sharp-interface model. We show that convective dissolution exerts a powerful control on CO2 plume dynamics and, as a result, on the potential of geologic carbon sequestration.

  19. Cognitive and Functional Consequence of Cardiac Arrest. (United States)

    Perez, Claudia A; Samudra, Niyatee; Aiyagari, Venkatesh


    Cardiac arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Better-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, cardiocerebral resuscitation principles, and intensive post-resuscitation hospital care have improved survival. However, cognitive and functional impairment after cardiac arrest remain areas of concern. Research focus has shifted beyond prognostication in the immediate post-arrest period to identification of mechanisms for long-term brain injury and implementation of promising protocols to reduce neuronal injury. These include therapeutic temperature management (TTM), as well as pharmacologic and psychological interventions which also improve overall neurological function. Comprehensive assessment of cognitive function post-arrest is hampered by heterogeneous measures among studies. However, the domains of attention, long-term memory, spatial memory, and executive function appear to be affected. As more patients survive cardiac arrest for longer periods of time, there needs to be a greater focus on interventions that can enhance cognitive and psychosocial function post-arrest. PMID:27311306

  20. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting. (United States)

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others


    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  1. [Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest]. (United States)

    Virkkunen, Ilkka; Hoppu, Sanna; Kämäräinen, Antti


    Cardiac arrest as the first symptom of coronary artery disease is not uncommon. Some of previously healthy people with sudden cardiac arrest may be saved by effective resuscitation and post-resuscitative therapy. The majority of cardiac arrest patients experience the cardiac arrest outside of the hospital, in which case early recognition of lifelessness, commencement of basic life support and entry to professional care without delay are the prerequisites for recovery. After the heart has started beating again, the clinical picture of post-resuscitation syndrome must be recognized and appropriate treatment utilized. PMID:22204143

  2. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.


    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  3. The course of circulatory and cerebral recovery after circulatory arrest: influence of pre-arrest, arrest and post-arrest factors. (United States)

    Jørgensen, E O; Holm, S


    We evaluated the influence of pre-arrest, arrest and post-arrest factors on circulatory and neurological recovery for up to 1 year following circulatory arrest of cardio-pulmonary aetiology in 231 patients. Initially, all patients were unconscious and 106 had some cortical activity recorded in the immediate post-resuscitation EEG (Group I), while 125 had no such activity initially (Group II). The following variables were explored: age, sex, medical history, cause and location of arrest, initial cardiac dysrhythmia, duration of life support, metabolic acidosis, pulse-pressure product and heart pump function capacity early after resuscitation. Outcome measures were duration and quality of circulatory survival, cause of death, neurological recovery and ultimate outcome. First year survival was 33% in Group I and 16% in Group II. Severe heart failure and brain death occurred mainly in Group II. Circulatory recovery was negatively influenced by out-of-hospital arrest, metabolic acidosis and pulse-pressure products below 150. Neurological recovery was negatively influenced by initial dysrhythmias other than ventricular fibrillation, pulse-pressure products below 150, post-arrest heart failure and/or pulmonary complications. It seems that circulatory and cerebral outcomes are mainly determined by the global ischaemic insults sustained during the circulatory arrest period. PMID:10625157

  4. Use of forces from instrumented Charpy V-notch testing to determine crack-arrest toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this investigation is an estimation of the crack-arrest toughness, particularly of irradiated materials, from voltage versus time output of an instrumented setup during a test on a Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen. This voltage versus time trace (which can be converted to force versus displacement) displays events during fracture of the specimen. Various stages of the fracture process can be identified on the trace, including an arrest point indicating arrest of brittle fracture. The force at arrest, Fa, versus test temperature, T, relationship is examined to explore possible relationships to other experimental measures of crack-arrest toughness such as the drop-weight nil-ductility temperature (NDT), or crack-arrest toughness, Ka. For a wide range of weld and plate materials, the temperature at which Fa = 2.45 kN correlates with NDT with a standard deviation, sigma, of about 11 K. Excluding the so-called low upper-shelf energy (USE) welds from the analysis resulted in Fa = 4.12 kN and σ = 6.6 K. The estimates of the correlation of the temperature for Fa = 7.4 kN with the temperature at 100-MPa√m level for a mean American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) type KIa curve through crack-arrest toughness values show that prediction of conservative values of Ka are possible

  5. Experimental study and local approach of cleavage crack arrest in a bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF wants to complete the assessment of reactor pressure vessels, usually based on crack initiation concept, by crack arrest concept. The work aims at improving the knowledge of cleavage crack arrest in a reactor pressure vessel steel. For that purpose, isothermal crack arrest experiments were performed for temperatures ranging from - 150 C up to - 50 C on compact tensile specimens and on pre-cracked rings submitted to compressive loading. Fractographic observations revealed that the whole crack propagation and arrest occurs by cleavage even if ductile tearing occurs before initiation of the unstable crack propagation. A local cleavage crack arrest criterion is applied in finite element computations carried out in elasto-visco-plasticity and in full dynamics: the crack propagates since the largest principal stress reaches a critical stress. The application of this criterion on the experiments leads to a good prediction of the crack speed and of the crack length and shows that the critical stress increases with the temperature in relation with dissipation features observed on the fracture surfaces. Dependence to the geometry is observed; it can be due to the assumption used for the 2D computations. The study of the structural dynamic shows that the crack arrest phenomenon is very linked to the global dynamics of the structure: crack arrest and crack closure occur approximately at the same time. (author)

  6. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maurer


    Full Text Available Background: Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods: This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results: Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion: Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting.

  7. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)


    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  8. Sonic Hedgehog Opposes Epithelial Cell Cycle Arrest


    Fan, Hongran; Khavari, Paul A


    Stratified epithelium displays an equilibrium between proliferation and cell cycle arrest, a balance that is disrupted in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation appears sufficient to induce BCC, however, the way it does so is unknown. Shh-induced epidermal hyperplasia is accompanied by continued cell proliferation in normally growth arrested suprabasal cells in vivo. Shh-expressing cells fail to exit S and G2/M phases in response to calcium-induced differentiation...

  9. Paclitaxel Arrests Growth of Intracellular Toxoplasma gondii


    Estes, Randee; Vogel, Nicolas; Mack, Douglas; McLeod, Rima


    Addition of paclitaxel (Taxol) at a concentration of 1 μM to Toxoplasma gondii-infected human foreskin fibroblasts arrested parasite multiplication. Division of the T. gondii tachyzoite nucleus was inhibited, leading to syncytium-like parasite structures within the fibroblasts by 24 h after infection and treatment of the cultures. By 4 days after infection and treatment of the cultures with paclitaxel, this inhibition was irreversible, since the arrested intracellular form was incapable of le...

  10. Surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Evans, Nick


    Emergency care nurses have been urged to play their part in Scotland's push to revolutionise care for cardiac arrest patients - by teaching others how to save a life. This article discusses the Scottish out-of-hospital cardiac arrest strategy, with particular focus on the drive to increase bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates, and on how emergency nurses are being enlisted to help promote the training of members of the public. PMID:27165393

  11. Prediction


    Woollard, W.J.


    In this chapter we will look at the ways in which you can use ICT in the classroom to support hypothesis and prediction and how modern technology is enabling: pattern seeking, extrapolation and interpolation to meet the challenges of the information explosion of the 21st century.

  12. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.


    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  13. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier


    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  14. Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)


    The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.

  15. The transcriptional network that controls growth arrest and differentiation in a human myeloid leukemia cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Harukazu; Forrest, Alistair R R; van Nimwegen, Erik;


    Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites...

  16. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles


    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  17. Acute kidney injury after cardiac arrest


    Tujjar, Omar; Mineo, Giulia; Dell’Anna, Antonio; Poyatos-Robles, Belen; Donadello, Katia; Scolletta, Sabino; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Taccone, Fabio Silvio


    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and determinants of AKI in a large cohort of cardiac arrest patients. Methods We reviewed all patients admitted, for at least 48 hours, to our Dept. of Intensive Care after CA between January 2008 and October 2012. AKI was defined as oligo-anuria (daily urine output

  18. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions (United States)

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.


    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  19. Maternal Cardiac Arrest: A Practical and Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. Jeejeebhoy


    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest during pregnancy is a dedicated chapter in the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care; however, a robust maternal cardiac arrest knowledge translation strategy and emergency response plan is not usually the focus of institutional emergency preparedness programs. Although maternal cardiac arrest is rare, the emergency department is a high-risk area for receiving pregnant women in either prearrest or full cardiac arrest. It is imperative that institutions review and update emergency response plans for a maternal arrest. This review highlights the most recent science, guidelines, and recommended implementation strategies related to a maternal arrest. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the important physiological differences of, and management strategies for, a maternal cardiac arrest, as well as provide institutions with the most up-to-date literature on which they can build emergency preparedness programs for a maternal arrest.

  20. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehdi Nafar; Gevork B Gharehpetian; Taher Niknam


    Accurate modelling and exact determination of Metal Oxide (MO) surge arrester parameters are very important for arrester allocation, insulation coordination studies and systems reliability calculations. In this paper, a new technique, which is the combination of Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms and linking the MATLAB and EMTP, is proposed to estimate the parameters of MO surge arrester models. The proposed algorithm is named Modified Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (MAPSO). In the proposed algorithm, to overcome the drawback of the PSO algorithm (convergence to local optima), the inertia weight is tuned by using fuzzy rules and the cognitive and the social parameters are self-adaptively adjusted. Also, to improve the global search capability and prevent the convergence to local minima, ACO algorithm is combined to the proposed APSO algorithm. The transient models of MO surge arrester have been simulated by using ATP-EMTP. The results of simulations have been applied to the program, which is based on MAPSO algorithm and can determine the fitness and parameters of different models. The validity and the accuracy of estimated parameters of surge arrester models are assessed by comparing the predicted residual voltage with experimental results.

  1. Dimensional study of the dynamical arrest in a random Lorentz gas. (United States)

    Jin, Yuliang; Charbonneau, Patrick


    The random Lorentz gas (RLG) is a minimal model for transport in heterogeneous media. Upon increasing the obstacle density, it exhibits a growing subdiffusive transport regime and then a dynamical arrest. Here, we study the dimensional dependence of the dynamical arrest, which can be mapped onto the void percolation transition for Poisson-distributed point obstacles. We numerically determine the arrest in dimensions d=2-6. Comparison of the results with standard mode-coupling theory reveals that the dynamical theory prediction grows increasingly worse with d. In an effort to clarify the origin of this discrepancy, we relate the dynamical arrest in the RLG to the dynamic glass transition of the infinite-range Mari-Kurchan-model glass former. Through a mixed static and dynamical analysis, we then extract an improved dimensional scaling form as well as a geometrical upper bound for the arrest. The results suggest that understanding the asymptotic behavior of the random Lorentz gas may be key to surmounting fundamental difficulties with the mode-coupling theory of glasses. PMID:25974497

  2. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest following spinal anaesthesia


    Pranjali Madhav Kurhekar; VSG Yachendra; Simi P Babu; Raghavelu Govindasamy


    Cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has been well researched. Myocardial stunning after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest is seen in up to 2/3 rd of in-hospital cardiac arrests. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has probably not been reported earlier. Our case, an ASA physical status I lady, posted for tubal reanastomosis surgery developed bradycardia followed by asystole, approximately 5 minutes after givin...

  3. Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Due to Trauma. (United States)

    Kjellemo, Hugo; Hansen, Andreas E; Øines, Dennis A; Nilsen, Thor O; Wik, Lars


    Survival from pediatric cardiac arrest due to trauma has been reported to be 0.0%-8.8%. Some argue that resuscitation efforts in the case of trauma-related cardiac arrests are futile. We describe a successful outcome in the case of a child who suffered cardiac arrest caused by external traumatic airway obstruction. Our case illustrates how to deal with pediatric traumatic cardiac arrests in an out-of-hospital environment. It also illustrates how good clinical treatment in these situations may be supported by correct treatment after hospital admission when it is impossible to ventilate the patient to provide sufficient oxygen delivery to vital organs. This case relates to a lifeless child of 3-5 years, blue, and trapped by an electrically operated garage door. The first ambulance arrived to find several men trying to bend the frame and the door apart in order to extricate the child, who was hanging in the air with head and neck squeezed between the horizontally-moving garage door and the vertical door frame. One paramedic found a car jack and used it to push the door and the frame apart, allowing the lifeless child to be extricated. Basic life support was then initiated. Intubation was performed by the anesthesiologist without drugs. With FiO2 1.0 the first documented SaO2 was <50%. Restoration of Spontaneous Circulation was achieved after thirty minutes, and she was transported to the hospital. After a few hours she was put on venous-arterial ECMO for 5.5 days and discharged home after two months. Outpatient examinations during the rest of 2013 were positive, and the child found not to be suffering from any injuries, either physical or mental. The last follow-up in October 2014 demonstrated she had made a 100% recovery and she started school in August 2014. PMID:26930137

  4. Nuclear reactor melt arrest and coolability device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, Theo G.; Dinh, Nam Truc; Wachowiak, Richard M.


    Example embodiments provide a Basemat-Internal Melt Arrest and Coolability device (BiMAC) that offers improved spatial and mechanical characteristics for use in damage prevention and risk mitigation in accident scenarios. Example embodiments may include a BiMAC having an inclination of less than 10-degrees from the basemat floor and/or coolant channels of less than 4 inches in diameter, while maintaining minimum safety margins required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  5. Hypothermia improves outcome from cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Bernard, S A


    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is common and patients who are initially resuscitated by ambulance officers and transported to hospital are usually admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In the past, the treatment in the ICU consisted of supportive care only, and most patients remained unconscious due to the severe anoxic neurological injury. It was this neurological injury rather than cardiac complications that caused the high rate of morbidity and mortality. However, in the early 1990's, a series of animal experiments demonstrated convincingly that mild hypothermia induced after return of spontaneous circulation and maintained for several hours dramatically reduced the severity of the anoxic neurological injury. In the mid-1990's, preliminary human studies suggested that mild hypothermia could be induced and maintained in post-cardiac arrest patients without an increase in the rate of cardiac or other complications. In the late 1990's, two prospective, randomised, controlled trials were conducted and the results confirmed the animal data that mild hypothermia induced after resuscitation and maintained for 12 - 24 hours dramatically improved neurological and overall outcomes. On the basis of these studies, mild hypothermia was endorsed in 2003 by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation as a recommended treatment for comatose patients with an initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. However, the application of this therapy into routine clinical critical care practice has been slow. The reasons for this are uncertain, but may relate to the relative complexity of the treatment, unfamiliarity with the pathophysiology of hypothermia, lack of clear protocols and/or uncertainty of benefit in particular patients. Therefore, recent research in this area has focused on the development of feasible, inexpensive techniques for the early, rapid induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Currently, the most promising strategy is a rapid

  6. Dynamical arrest, percolation, gelation, and glass formation in model nanoparticle dispersions with thermoreversible adhesive interactions. (United States)

    Eberle, Aaron P R; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón; Kim, Jung M; Wagner, Norman J


    We report an experimental study of the dynamical arrest transition for a model system consisting of octadecyl coated silica suspended in n-tetradecane from dilute to concentrated conditions spanning the state diagram. The dispersion's interparticle potential is tuned by temperature affecting the brush conformation leading to a thermoreversible model system. The critical temperature for dynamical arrest, T*, is determined as a function of dispersion volume fraction by small-amplitude dynamic oscillatory shear rheology. We corroborate this transition temperature by measuring a power-law decay of the autocorrelation function and a loss of ergodicity via fiber-optic quasi-elastic light scattering. The structure at T* is measured using small-angle neutron scattering. The scattering intensity is fit to extract the interparticle pair-potential using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Percus-Yevick closure approximation, assuming a square-well interaction potential with a short-range interaction (1% of particle diameter). (1) The strength of attraction is characterized using the Baxter temperature (2) and mapped onto the adhesive hard sphere state diagram. The experiments show a continuous dynamical arrest transition line that follows the predicted dynamical percolation line until ϕ ≈ 0.41 where it subtends the predictions toward the mode coupling theory attractive-driven glass line. An alternative analysis of the phase transition through the reduced second virial coefficient B(2)* shows a change in the functional dependence of B(2)* on particle concentration around ϕ ≈ 0.36. We propose this signifies the location of a gel-to-glass transition. The results presented herein differ from those observed for depletion flocculated dispersion of micrometer-sized particles in polymer solutions, where dynamical arrest is a consequence of multicomponent phase separation, suggesting dynamical arrest is sensitive to the physical mechanism of attraction. PMID:22148874

  7. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence. (United States)

    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C


    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) suppressed protein synthesis to 3% of control values. These latter two experimental treatments promote developmental arrest of Artemia embryos and, concomitantly, cause acute declines in intracellular pH. When lysates from each treatment were assayed over a range of physiologically relevant pH values (pH 6.4-8.0), amino acid incorporation rates in lysates from quiescent embryos were consistently lower than values for the aerobic controls. Acute reversal of pH to alkaline values during the 6-min assays was not sufficient to return the incorporation rates of quiescent lysates to control values. Thus, a stable alteration in translational capacity of quiescent lysates is indicated. Addition of exogenous mRNA did not rescue the suppressed protein synthesis in quiescent lysates, which suggests that the acute blockage of amino acid incorporation is apparently not due to limitation in message. Thus, the results support a role for intracellular pH as an initial signaling event in translational control during quiescence yet, at the same time, indicate that a direct proton effect on the translational machinery is not the sole proximal agent for biosynthetic arrest in this primitive crustacean. PMID:8078909

  8. Abulia following an episode of cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Naik, Vismay Dinesh


    The word 'abulia' means a lack of will, initiative or drive. The symptoms of abulia include lack of spontaneous action and speech, reduced emotional responsiveness and social interaction, poor attention and easy distractibility. These symptoms are independent of reduced levels of consciousness or cognitive impairment. We describe a case of a socially active 72-year-old female patient who presented with symptoms of abulia which may have occurred due to damage of the frontosubcortical circuits following an episode of cardiac arrest. The patient's symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with bromocriptine. PMID:26135487

  9. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence.


    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C


    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) sup...

  10. Sublingual Microcirculation is Impaired in Post-cardiac Arrest Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Omar, Yasser; Massey, Michael; Wiuff Andersen, Lars; A. Giberson, Tyler; Berg, Katherine; N. Cocchi, Michael; I. Shapiro, Nathan; W. Donnino, Michael


    markers in the post-cardiac arrest state. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the sublingual microcirculation in post-cardiac arrest patients, severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and healthy control patients using Sidestream Darkfield microscopy. Microcirculatory flow was assessed using the...... microcirculation flow index (MFI) at 6 and 24h in the cardiac arrest patients, and within 6h of emergency department admission in the sepsis and control patients. RESULTS: We evaluated 30 post-cardiac arrest patients, 16 severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and 9 healthy control patients. Sublingual...... microcirculatory blood flow was significantly impaired in post-cardiac arrest patients at 6h (MFI 2.6 [IQR: 2-2.9]) and 24h (2.7 [IQR: 2.3-2.9]) compared to controls (3.0 [IQR: 2.9-3.0]; p<0.01 and 0.02, respectively). After adjustment for initial APACHE II score, post-cardiac arrest patients had significantly...

  11. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y


    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  12. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest following spinal anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjali Madhav Kurhekar


    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has been well researched. Myocardial stunning after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest is seen in up to 2/3 rd of in-hospital cardiac arrests. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has probably not been reported earlier. Our case, an ASA physical status I lady, posted for tubal reanastomosis surgery developed bradycardia followed by asystole, approximately 5 minutes after giving subarachnoid block. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was achieved within 2 minutes with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and defibrillation for pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Patient developed delayed pulmonary oedema, which was probably due to myocardial stunning. In the present case, inadequate preloading could have precipitated bradycardia progressing to cardiac arrest which, after resuscitation led to reversible myocardial dysfunction. We conclude that early vasopressor infusion, titrated fluids and echocardiography should be considered in immediate post cardiac arrest phase following spinal anaesthesia.

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Patterns in a Sample of Sexual Offenders. (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; Socia, Kelly M


    Developmental psychopathology theories suggest that childhood adversity can contribute to antisocial conduct and delinquent activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on arrest patterns in a sample of sexual offenders (N = 740). Higher ACE scores were associated with a variety of arrest outcomes, indicating that the accumulation of early trauma increased the likelihood of versatility and persistence of criminal behavior. Rapists of adults had higher ACE scores, lower levels of specialization, and higher levels of persistence than sex offenders with minor victims only. Child sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and domestic violence in the childhood home were significant predictors of a higher number of sex crime arrests. For measures of nonsexual arrests and criminal versatility, it was the household dysfunction factors-substance abuse, unmarried parents, and incarceration of a family member-that were predictive, suggesting that family dysfunction and a chaotic home environment contributed significantly to increased risk of general criminal behavior. Sex offenders inspire little sympathy in our society but may be among those most in need of trauma-informed models of treatment that recognize the influence of early adversity on maladaptive schema and self-regulation deficits related to criminal behavior. PMID:25711615

  14. Factors associated with the clinical outcomes of paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan


    Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Noda, Eiichiro; Hasegawa, Manabu; Hashizume, Makoto; Hagihara, Akihito


    Objectives To better understand and predict clinical outcomes of paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design A population-based, observational study. Setting The National Japan Utstein Registry. Participants 2900 children aged 5–17 years who experienced OHCA and received resuscitation by emergency responders. Signal detection analysis using 17 variables was applied to identify factors associated with OHCA outcomes; the primary endpoint was cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 or...

  15. Postoperative cardiac arrest due to cardiac surgery complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the role of anesthetists in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with cardiac anesthesia. In this retrospective study we studied the potential performances for each of the relevant incidents among 712 patients undergoing cardiac operations at Golestan and Naft Hospitals Ahwaz between November 2006 and July 2008. Out of total 712 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, cardiac arrest occurred in 28 cases (3.9%) due to different postoperative complications. This included massive bleeding (50% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.9% of patients); pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.1% of patients); Heart Failure (7% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.2% of patients); Aorta Arc Rapture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients); Tamponade due to pericardial effusion (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of total patients); Right Atrium Rupture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients) were detected after cardiac surgery. Out of 28 cases 7 deaths occurred (25% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients). The most prevalent reason for cardiac arrest during post operative phase was massive bleeding (50%) followed by pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5%). Six patients had some morbidity and the remaining 15 patients recovered. There are often multiple contributing factors to a cardiac arrest under cardiac anesthesia, as much a complete systematic assessment of the patient, equipment, and drugs should be completed. We also found that the diagnosis and management of cardiac arrest in association with cardiac anesthesia differs considerably from that encountered elsewhere. (author)

  16. Hospital Variation in Survival After In‐hospital Cardiac Arrest


    Merchant, Raina M.; Berg, Robert A.; Yang, Lin; Becker, Lance B.; Groeneveld, Peter W.; Chan, Paul S.; ,


    Background In‐hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is common and often fatal. However, the extent to which hospitals vary in survival outcomes and the degree to which this variation is explained by patient and hospital factors is unknown. Methods and Results Within Get with the Guidelines‐Resuscitation, we identified 135 896 index IHCA events at 468 hospitals. Using hierarchical models, we adjusted for demographics comorbidities and arrest characteristics (eg, initial rhythm, etiology, arrest locat...

  17. Arrest as a General Property of the Supercooled Liquid State. (United States)

    Sluyters, Jan H; Sluyters-Rehbach, Margaretha


    Owing to the universal presence of intermolecular interactions, it has to be expected that at some well-defined lower temperature a liquid loses its dynamic properties like fluidity and self-diffusion. As a sequel to two earlier papers on the discovery of such an arrest temperature T0 for supercooled water at 243 K, where also the coexisting vapor pressure was found to become zero, in this paper a further study is undertaken of the behavior of a selection of other liquids. At first, two simple equations of state (van der Waals and virial) are shown in principle to predict a zero vapor pressure at a finite temperature. The interaction parameters B (second virial coefficient) and μJT (Joule-Thomson coefficient) of the vapor are found to become virtually infinite at a temperature T0,B, with a value equal or close to the T0 derived from the liquid properties. Just as earlier found for water, the latter is obtained by extrapolation of several available dynamic and equilibrium data, which should produce an intersection with the temperature axis at the same T0 value. With the exception of molten salts and liquid pure metals, this condition appears to be fulfilled quite accurately. Thus, the temperature of arrest is a general phenomenon for supercooled liquids. As an illustration, it is shown how the PVT diagram of carbon dioxide can be extended into the supercooled temperature region. It is argued that T0 is the temperature below which the Boltzmann energy, kT, is lower than the minimal energy needed for a molecule to break the interactions with its surrounding molecules. We propose to name this minimal energy, kT0, the multimolecular potential of the liquid object. The relationship of the liquid multimolecular potential with the pair potential, ε, of the molecular species is established for various examples and appears to be a proportionality with ε ≈ 2kT0. PMID:27070201

  18. Psychotic Experiences and Risk of Violence Perpetration and Arrest in the General Population: A Prospective Study (United States)

    Drukker, Marjan; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim


    Background In cross-sectional, general population studies, psychotic experiences have been associated with an increased risk of physical violence perpetration and arrest. However, longitudinal research on this topic is lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether subjects with psychotic experiences are also at risk of displaying psychological violence. The present study aims to investigate these associations. Method The longitudinal association between baseline psychotic experiences and six-year incidence of violence perpetration and three-year incidence of arrest was studied in a prospective cohort of 6646 general population adults. Logistic regression analyses with varying levels of adjustment were performed in the complete sample and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of baseline mental disorders. Results The presence of psychotic experiences at baseline increased the risk of physical violence, psychological violence and arrest at follow-up. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders reduced all associations considerably. After adjustment, both clinically validated (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 1.09–11.81) and self-reported hallucinations (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.05 7.65) remained significantly associated with physical violence perpetration. Self-reported (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.55–6.03) and clinically validated delusions (OR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.47–7.13) were associated with an increased risk of arrest. There was no significant association between psychotic experiences and incident psychological violence in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Specific psychotic experiences may differentially predict physical violence perpetration and arrest, even after adjustment for demographics, dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders. However, more longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27447190

  19. Resuscitation, prolonged cardiac arrest, and an automated chest compression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Martin; Jørgensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Lars S;


    The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest.......The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest....

  20. Cardiac arrest upon induction of anesthesia in children with cardiomyopathy: an analysis of incidence and risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Johanne


    INTRODUCTION: It is thought that patients with cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of cardiac arrest on induction of anesthesia, but there is little available data. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and potential risk factors for cardiac arrest upon induction of anesthesia in children with cardiomyopathy in our institution. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. Eligible patients included patients admitted between 1998 and 2008 with the International Statistical Classification of Disease code for cardiomyopathy (ICD-9 code 425) who underwent airway intervention for sedation or general anesthesia in the operating room, cardiac diagnostic and interventional unit (CDIU) or intensive care unit. Patients undergoing emergency airway intervention following cardiovascular collapse were excluded. For each patient, we recorded patient demographics, disease severity, anesthesia location, and anesthetic technique. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients with cardiomyopathy underwent a total of 236 anesthetic events, and four cardiac arrests were identified. One was related to bradycardia (HR<60), two were attributed to bradycardia in association with severe hypotension (systolic blood pressure<45), and the fourth arrest was related to isolated severe hypotension. Two occurred in the operating suite and two in the CDIU. There was no resulting mortality. One patient progressed to heart transplantation. Multiple combinations of anesthetic drugs were used for induction of anesthesia. CONCLUSION: We performed a review of the last 10 years of anesthesia events in children with cardiomyopathy. We report four cardiac arrests in two patients and 236 anesthetic events (1.7%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest review of these patients to date but is limited by its retrospective nature. The low cardiac arrest incidence prevents the identification of risk factors and the development of a cardiac arrest risk predictive clinical

  1. Growth arrest specific protein (GAS) 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, T N; Rasmussen, Morten; Jaksch, C A M; Gaarn, L W; Petersen, Camilla K; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Aims/hypothesis Maternal low-protein (LP) diet during gestation results in a reduced beta cell mass in the offspring at birth and this may hamper the ability to adapt to high-energy food and sedentary lifestyle later in life. To investigate the biology behind the LP-offspring phenotype, this study...... using RNA microarray and quantitative PCR. The role of a differentially expressed gene, growth arrest specific protein 6 (GAS6), was evaluated in vitro using neonatal rat islets. Results The mRNA level of Gas6, known to be mitogenic in other tissues, was reduced in LP offspring. The mRNA content of Mafa...... was increased in LP offspring suggesting an early maturation of beta cells. When applied in vitro, GAS6 increased proliferation of neonatal pancreatic beta cells, while reducing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without changing the total insulin content of the islets. In addition, GAS6 decreased...

  2. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qin Chen


    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  3. The prognostic value of cardiac ultrasonography in patients with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bolvardi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Echocardiography or cardiac imaging is proposed as a gold standard method for identifying high risk patients for cardiac arrest. In this systematic review, we studied the prognostic value of cardiac sonography in patients with cardiac arrest. Methods: PubMed was searched for the relevant articles. Case reports were not included. Inclusion criteria were all the studies applied transthorasic echocardiography in patients with cardiac arrest arrived at emergency department that studied the efficacy of this modality on patients survived to emergency discharge and returned to spontaneous circulation.Result: Overall, 870 articles were obtained through initial search and only nine articles were included after the evaluation of the title, abstract, and the full text. Echocardiography has high sensitivity and specificity in predicting the return of spontaneous circulation.Conclusion: Cardiac sonography is a fairly effective (not definitive modality in predicting death in patients with lack of cardiac activity during resuscitation. Echocardiography should not be the sole basis for the decision to cease resuscitative efforts.

  4. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  5. Evolution of the dragonfly head-arresting system


    Gorb, S. N.


    The arrester or fixation system of the head in adult Odonata is unique among arthropods. This system involves the organs of two body segments: the head and the neck. It consists of a skeleton–muscle apparatus that sets the arrester parts in motion. The parts comprise formations covered with complicated microstructures: fields of microtrichia on the rear surface of the head and post-cervical sclerites of the neck. The arrester immobilizes the head during feeding or when the dragonfly is in tan...

  6. Soft Semicrystalline Thermoplastic Elastomers by Arrested Crystallization (United States)

    Burns, Adam; Register, Richard


    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) marry the solid-state behavior of vulcanized rubbers with the melt processability of thermoplastics. Archetypal soft TPEs consist of triblock copolymers comprising a rubbery mid-block flanked by two identical glassy end-blocks. Incorporating crystalline blocks into TPEs can confer solvent resistance as well as reduce the processing costs by giving access to single-phase melts. However, simply substituting crystalline for glassy end-blocks dramatically degrades the solid-state mechanical properties, particularly at large strains. We seek to integrate the benefits of crystallinity into TPEs, while maintaining the desired mechanical properties, using the block architecture: crystalline-glassy-rubbery-glassy-crystalline. Methods have been developed to synthesize highly symmetric, narrow-distribution block copolymers with this architecture using anionic polymerization of butadiene, styrene, and isoprene followed by hydrogenation. Judicious choices of block molecular weights indeed yield homogeneous melts above the melting point of the crystalline component. Upon cooling, crystallization--rather than interblock repulsion--establishes the solid-state microstructure which physically crosslinks the rubbery mid-block, ultimately conferring elasticity. Subsequent vitrification of the adjacent glassy blocks arrests the growth of the crystallites, and protects them from yielding under applied load. As a result, our materials show low initial moduli, strain hardening, and high extensibility, typical of commercial TPEs.

  7. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Ryan, Jennie


    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) remains a promising treatment for pediatric patients in cardiac arrest unresponsive to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. With venoarterial extracorporeal support, blood is drained from the right atrium, oxygenated through the extracorporeal circuit, and transfused back to the body, bypassing the heart and lungs. The use of artificial oxygenation and perfusion thus provides the body a period of hemodynamic stability, while allowing resolution of underlying disease processes. Survival rates for ECPR patients are higher than those for traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), although neurological outcomes require further investigation. The impact of duration of CPR and length of treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation vary in published reports. Furthermore, current guidelines for the initiation and use of ECPR are limited and may lead to confusion about appropriate use of this support. Many ethical concerns arise with this advanced form of life support. More often than not, the dilemma is not whether to withhold ECPR, but rather when to withdraw it. Although clinicians must decide if ECPR is appropriate and when further intervention is futile, the ultimate burden of choice is left to the patient's caregivers. Offering support and guidance to the patient's family as well as the patient is essential. PMID:25639578

  8. MRI in the assessment of growth arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, Martina; Kivisaari, Arto; Kivisaari, Leena [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Vehmas, Tapio [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, Pentti; Puntila, Juha [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)


    Objective: To compare MRI with X-ray tomography in the assessment of bone bridges across the growth plate. Materials and methods: The investigation consisted of two parts. (1) Eleven children with 13 epiphyses suspected of physeal growth arrests were examined with conventional X-ray tomography and MRI. The bar was post-traumatic in eight children, postinfectious in two and due to a congenital, operated pes equinovarus in one. Three blinded radiologists separately evaluated the examinations retrospectively. (2) The images of four children with known physeal bars in the ankle were mixed with 36 normal examinations obtained 1-year after trauma and evaluated blindly by three radiologists. Results: In 5 of 13 epiphysis, the bony bridge was considered smaller on MRI than on X-ray tomography, in 7 of 13 it was considered equal, while it was larger only in one. The interobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was 0.8 (very good) for MRI, 0.76 (good) for X-ray tomography and 0.60 (moderate) for radiographs. The four bony bridges were easily detected on MRI. Conclusions: Compared to MRI, the size of bridges was estimated larger by tomography in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  9. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Resuscitation Following Cardiac Arrest. (United States)

    Rittenberger, Jon C; Friess, Stuart; Polderman, Kees H


    Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death in North America. Neurocritical care interventions, including targeted temperature management (TTM), have significantly improved neurological outcomes in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Therefore, resuscitation following cardiac arrest was chosen as an emergency neurological life support protocol. Patients remaining comatose following resuscitation from cardiac arrest should be considered for TTM. This protocol will review induction, maintenance, and re-warming phases of TTM, along with management of TTM side effects. Aggressive shivering suppression is necessary with this treatment to ensure the maintenance of a target temperature. Ancillary testing, including electrocardiography, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, continuous electroencephalography monitoring, and correction of electrolyte, blood gas, and hematocrit changes, are also necessary to optimize outcomes. PMID:26438463

  10. [Effect of phenibut on the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin]. (United States)

    Tarakanov, I A; Tarasova, N N; Belova, E A; Safonov, V A


    The role of the GABAergic system in mechanisms of the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin administration was studied in anaesthetized rats. Under normal conditions, the systemic administration of serotonin (20-60 mg/kg, i.v.) resulted in drastic changes of the respiratory pattern, whereby the initial phase of increased respiratory rate was followed by the respiratory arrest. The preliminary injection of phenibut (400 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished or sharply reduced the duration of the respiratory arrest phase induced by serotonin. Bilateral vagotomy following the phenibut injection potentiated the anti-apnoesic effect of phenibut, which was evidence of the additive action of vagotomy and phenibut administration. The mechanism of apnea caused by serotonin administration is suggested to include a central GABAergic element, which is activated by phenibut so as to counteract the respiratory arrest. PMID:16579056

  11. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) body packer presenting with respiratory arrest. (United States)

    Naseem, Arshad; Abbas, Shahid


    Intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs known as 'body packing' is uncommonly reported. A body packer with swallowed capsules containing Diacetylmorphine (heroin) for smuggling purposes presented with respiratory arrest and recovered after ventilatory support and nalaxone infusion. PMID:19356347

  12. Structural integrity and damage assessment of high performance arresting cable systems using an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOS) system (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan; Prohaska, John; Bentley, Doug; Glasgow, Andy; Campbell, Richard


    Redondo Optics in collaboration with the Cortland Cable Company, TMT Laboratories, and Applied Fiber under a US Navy SBIR project is developing an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOSTM) system for the real-time, structural health monitoring, damage assessment, and lifetime prediction of next generation synthetic material arresting gear cables. The EDIFOSTM system represents a new, highly robust and reliable, technology that can be use for the structural damage assessment of critical cable infrastructures. The Navy is currently investigating the use of new, all-synthetic- material arresting cables. The arresting cable is one of the most stressed components in the entire arresting gear landing system. Synthetic rope materials offer higher performance in terms of the strength-to-weight characteristics, which improves the arresting gear engine's performance resulting in reduced wind-over-deck requirements, higher aircraft bring-back-weight capability, simplified operation, maintenance, supportability, and reduced life cycle costs. While employing synthetic cables offers many advantages for the Navy's future needs, the unknown failure modes of these cables remains a high technical risk. For these reasons, Redondo Optics is investigating the use of embedded fiber optic sensors within the synthetic arresting cables to provide real-time structural assessment of the cable state, and to inform the operator when a particular cable has suffered impact damage, is near failure, or is approaching the limit of its service lifetime. To date, ROI and its collaborators have developed a technique for embedding multiple sensor fibers within the strands of high performance synthetic material cables and use the embedded fiber sensors to monitor the structural integrity of the cable structures during tensile and compressive loads exceeding over 175,000-lbsf without any damage to the cable structure or the embedded fiber sensors.

  13. Early myoclonic status and outcome after cardiorespiratory arrest


    Morris, H; Howard, R; Brown, P.


    It has been suggested that early myoclonic status after cardiorespiratory arrest is an agonal event.1 Here we describe three cases who developed early myoclonic status during a coma after cardiorespiratory arrest due to acute asthma. As consciousness improved, each patient developed Lance-Adams type multifocal myoclonus, but the eventual outcome was satisfactory. Only one patient needed assistance to walk, and all three were self caring. One patient had persistent dyscalc...

  14. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings


    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia


    Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displace...

  15. Al-Qaeda arrest casts shadow over the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Dacey, James


    "Cern remains on course for the imminent switch-on of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) despite the media frenzy following the recent arrest of a physicist who had been working at the facility. The researcher in question is a 32-year-old man of Algerian descent who is expected to face trail in France - the country in which he was arrested" (0.5 page)

  16. The psychosocial outcome of anoxic brain injury following cardiac arrest


    Wilson, Michelle


    Aim of the study The psychosocial outcome of anoxic brain injury following cardiac arrest is a relatively under researched, but clinically important area. The aim of the current study was to add to the limited existing literature exploring the psychosocial outcome for cardiac arrest survivors, but specifically explore if there is a greater impact on psychosocial outcome in individuals experiencing anoxic brain injury as a result. Methods A range of self report measures were used to c...

  17. Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy with schizophrenia: a case report


    Kudo, Takako; Kaga, Akimune; Akagi, Kozo; Iwahashi, Hideki; Makino, Hiromitsu; WATANABE, YOKO; Kawamura, Takae; Sato, Taiju; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Miwa, Shinya; Okazaki, Nobuo; Kure, Shigeo; Nakae, Shingi


    Background Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy has a very high maternal and fetal mortality rate. We report a case of successful maternal and neonatal survival in association with emergency cesarean section of a schizophrenic pregnant patient. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cardiopulmonary arrest in a pregnant woman with schizophrenia. Case presentation The parents were Japanese. The mother was 39 years old and had no history of prior pregnancy. Her admission to our hosp...

  18. Usage of Lightning Arrester Line to Feed Light Electrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani B. Odeh


    Full Text Available In remote areas, light loads (tens of kilowatts are scattered and situated in the field of high voltage lines (66KV and above. These loads are very far from the main feeders/sub-stations (33KV-0.380KV. Feeding such loads in the traditional ways like provision of Diesel-Powered Stations, installation of new distribution lines from the Feeding Centers, or building new Sub-Stations are not practical ways from the economical point of view, because it requires huge additional expenses and will increase electrical power losses. These expenses are not worthy for such loads and therefore, it is necessary to search for other methods to supply them. One of these methods is to use the lightning arrester line as capacitive divider to supply the light loads. In this research, the induced voltage of the lightning arrester line was calculated when it is isolated from the earth. We found the capacitance between lightning arrester line versus the phases and lightning arrester. It was also found the selective power out of the lightning arrester line and the required length which is to be isolated from the earth keeping the main function of the lightning arrester line. When economically comparing between supplying the light electrical loads by traditional ways and the method of lightning arrester, it was found the advantage of using lightning arresters to supply such loads. Also, by using the traditional methods, it was noted that there is a power loss in the power transmission lines by a percentage of 1.8%.

  19. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli.


    Daniel J Ferullo; Lovett, Susan T.


    The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes...

  20. The Stringent Response and Cell Cycle Arrest in Escherichia coli


    Daniel J Ferullo; Lovett, Susan T.


    The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes...

  1. Situational ambiguity and gendered patterns of arrest for intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Durfee, Alesha


    Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence. PMID:22411299

  2. Nursing students’ knowledge about arrest rhythms and their treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Kyrgianidou


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Knowledge of health professionals for the arrest rhythms, is considered particularly important for the early recognition and proper treatment. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge of nursing students on arrest rhythms and how to treat them. Material and Methods: The sample studied included 151 students from the Department of Nursing A' (n = 60, 40% and B' (n = 91, 60%, TEI of Athens, of whom 83% (n=125 were women and 17% (n=26 were men with a mean age of 23 years. Data collection was performed with specially designed questionnaire, that apart from demographics and students’ education level, it included ten questions about arrest rhythms’ knowledge and also self-assessment questions of their level of knowledge. The data were analyzed with the SPSS package v.19, using the criteria t-Test and χ2. Results: Of all the participants in the research, 95% (n = 144 did not answer correctly more than 6 questions from a total of 10. The students of the Department of Nursing A’ recognized with greater accuracy the arrest rhythms (p = 0.003. Those studying in lower semester acknowledged best the arrest rhythms (p = 0.002. Students who had recently attended course in basic or advanced resuscitation recognized best the arrest rhythms (p = 0.006. Older students knew better right treatment of the arrest rhythms (p = 0.037. Also, students who had attended the course of cardiac nursing in the last year, knew better the right treatment (p <0.001. Finally, the level of self-assessment was in line with the actual level of knowledge of students (p = 0.05. Conclusions: Continuous attendance of courses, education on certified programs and refresh courses help to maintain a good level of knowledge for longer periods.

  3. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Ferullo, Daniel J; Lovett, Susan T


    The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes upon arrest. Nucleoids of these cells are decondensed; in the absence of the ability to synthesize ppGpp, nucleoids become highly condensed, similar to that seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor chloramphenicol. After induction of the stringent response, while regions corresponding to the origins of replication segregate, the termini remain colocalized in wild-type cells. In contrast, cells arrested by rifampicin and cephalexin do not show colocalized termini, suggesting that the stringent response arrests chromosome segregation at a specific point. Release from starvation causes rapid nucleoid reorganization, chromosome segregation, and resumption of replication. Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact. We propose that DNA methylation and SeqA binding to non-origin loci is necessary to enforce a full stringent arrest, affecting both initiation of replication and chromosome segregation. This is the first indication that bacterial chromosome segregation, whose mechanism is not understood, is a step that may be regulated in response to environmental conditions. PMID:19079575

  4. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ferullo


    Full Text Available The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes upon arrest. Nucleoids of these cells are decondensed; in the absence of the ability to synthesize ppGpp, nucleoids become highly condensed, similar to that seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor chloramphenicol. After induction of the stringent response, while regions corresponding to the origins of replication segregate, the termini remain colocalized in wild-type cells. In contrast, cells arrested by rifampicin and cephalexin do not show colocalized termini, suggesting that the stringent response arrests chromosome segregation at a specific point. Release from starvation causes rapid nucleoid reorganization, chromosome segregation, and resumption of replication. Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact. We propose that DNA methylation and SeqA binding to non-origin loci is necessary to enforce a full stringent arrest, affecting both initiation of replication and chromosome segregation. This is the first indication that bacterial chromosome segregation, whose mechanism is not understood, is a step that may be regulated in response to environmental conditions.

  5. Changing the guard: Polymer replaces porcelain for surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, T.; Gleimar, H. E. G.


    Surge arresters are safety devices which quickly and effectively limit the over voltages that can arise in transmission networks following lightning, switching and other transient events. The earliest forms of overvoltage protection, a simple air gap between electrodes, have long since been replaced by a new generation of gapless arresters with series-connected, non-linear zinc oxide varistors contained in a porcelain housing. Now these porcelain type surge arresters are being replaced by a new type, called PEXLIM (Polymeric EXcellent LIMiter), which uses the same block of zinc oxide as the porcelain type, but its housing is made of silicon rubber, a polymer. The new lightweight insulation material shows a number of properties superior to the porcelain, such as enhanced product safety and ease of handling. It is also more durable, resilient, yet solid and compact, water-repellent, lightweight, resistant to aging or light or ultra-violet radiation, as well as fire, has good electrical properties, and is environmentally friendly since it does not contain any substances harmful to the environment. These properties make this new type of surge arrester highly suitable for use in earthquake-prone areas; it can also replace more expensive and maintenance-intensive equipment. Having successfully broken into the lower voltage systems, these new type of surge arresters are now rapidly gaining ground at the higher voltage levels. ABB, the developer of PEXLIM, has already supplied these arresters to North America for use in an 800-kV grid. As further proof of its growing popularity, last year PEXLIM made up over half of the surge arrester production for applications up to and including 245 kV. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  6. Visualizing Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Murakami

    Full Text Available Vpr is an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with multiple functions. The induction of G2 arrest by Vpr plays a particularly important role in efficient viral replication because the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat is most active in G2 phase. The regulation of apoptosis by Vpr is also important for immune suppression and pathogenesis during HIV infection. However, it is not known whether Vpr-induced apoptosis depends on the ability of Vpr to induce G2 arrest, and the dynamics of Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis have not been visualized. We performed time-lapse imaging to examine the temporal relationship between Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis using HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator2 (Fucci2. The dynamics of G2 arrest and subsequent long-term mitotic cell rounding in cells transfected with the Vpr-expression vector were visualized. These cells underwent nuclear mis-segregation after prolonged mitotic processes and then entered G1 phase. Some cells subsequently displayed evidence of apoptosis after prolonged mitotic processes and nuclear mis-segregation. Interestingly, Vpr-induced apoptosis was seldom observed in S or G2 phase. Likewise, visualization of synchronized HeLa/Fucci2 cells infected with an adenoviral vector expressing Vpr clearly showed that Vpr arrests the cell cycle at G2 phase, but does not induce apoptosis at S or G2 phase. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of HeLa/Fucci2 cells expressing SCAT3.1, a caspase-3-sensitive fusion protein, clearly demonstrated that Vpr induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Finally, to examine whether the effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and apoptosis were reversible, we performed live-cell imaging of a destabilizing domain fusion Vpr, which enabled rapid stabilization and destabilization by Shield1. The effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and subsequent apoptosis were reversible. This study is the first to

  7. Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management 33°C versus 36°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragancea, Irina; Horn, Janneke; Kuiper, Michael;


    BACKGROUND: The reliability of some methods of neurological prognostication after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has been questioned since the introduction of induced hypothermia. The aim of this study was to determine whether different treatment temperatures after resuscitation affected the...... prognostic accuracy of clinical neurological findings and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in comatose patients. METHODS: We calculated sensitivity and false positive rate for Glasgow Coma Scale motor score (GCS M), pupillary and corneal reflexes and SSEP to predict poor neurological outcome using...

  8. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou


    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  9. Sculpting Pickering Emulsion Droplets by Arrest and Jamming (United States)

    Burke, Christopher; Wei, Zengyi; Caggioni, Marco; Spicer, Patrick; Atherton, Tim

    Pickering emulsion droplets can be arrested into non-spherical shapes--useful for applications such as active delivery--through a general mechanism of deformation followed by absorption of additional colloidal particles onto the interface, relaxation of the droplet caused by surface tension and arrest at some point due to crowding of the particles. We perform simulations of the arrest process to clarify the relative importance of diffusive rearrangement of particles and collective forcing due to surface evolution. Experiment and theory are compared, giving insight into the stability of the resulting capsules and the robustness of the production process for higher-throughput production in, for example, microfluidic systems. We adapt theoretical tools from the jamming literature to better understand the arrested configurations and long timescale evolution of the system: using linear programming and a penalty function approach, we identify unjamming motions in kinetically arrested states. We propose a paradigm of ``metric jamming'' to describe the limiting behavior of this class of system: a structure is metric-jammed if it is stable with respect to collective motion of the particles as well as evolution of the hypersurface on which the packing is embedded. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  10. Capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest: Possible Kounis syndrome. (United States)

    Kido, Kazuhiko; Adams, Val R; Morehead, Richard S; Flannery, Alexander H


    We report the case of capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest, possibly secondary to type I Kounis syndrome. A 47-year-old man with a history of T3N1 moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon, status-post sigmoid resection, was started on adjuvant capecitabine approximately five months prior to presentation of cardiac arrest secondary to ventricular fibrillation. An electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed ST segment elevation on the lateral leads and the patient was taken emergently to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The catheterization revealed no angiographically significant stenosis and coronary artery disease was ruled out. After ruling out other causes of cardiac arrest, the working diagnosis was capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest. As such, an inflammatory work up was sent to evaluate for the possibility of a capecitabine hypersensitivity, or Kounis syndrome, and is the first documented report in the literature to do so when evaluating Kounis syndrome. Immunoglobulin E (IgE), tryptase, and C-reactive protein were normal but histamine, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were elevated. Histamine elevation supports the suspicion that our patient had type I Kounis syndrome. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicates a probable adverse effect due to capecitabine with seven points. A case of capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest is reported, with a potential for type 1 Kounis syndrome as an underlying pathology supported by immunologic work up. PMID:25870182

  11. Cardiac arrest following ventilator fire: A rare cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nazeer Ahmed


    Full Text Available Operating room fires are rare events, but when occur they result in serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Anaesthesia ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest is a rare incident and has not been reported. We report a near catastrophic ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest in a patient undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy. In the present case sparks due to friction or electrical short circuit within the ventilator might have acted as source of ignition leading to fire and explosion in the oxygen rich environment. The patient was successfully resuscitated and revived with uneventful recovery and no adverse sequelae. The cardiac arrest was possibly due to severe hypoxia resulting from inhalation of smoke containing high concentrations of carbon monoxide and other noxious gases.

  12. Investigating Different ZnO Arresters Models against Transient Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babaee


    Full Text Available Metal oxide surge arresters have dynamic characteristics that are significant for over voltage coordination studies involving fast front surges. Several models with acceptable accuracy have been proposed to simulate this frequency-dependent behavior. In this paper, various electrical models are presented for surge arrester performance simulation against lightning impulse. The desirable model is obtained by using simulation results of the existing models and experimental tests. The IEEE proposed model is a proportional model can give satisfactory results for discharge currents within a range of time to crest for 0.5 to 45 :s but due to no existing residual voltage resulting switching current on the manufacture's datasheets decrease its performance generally. In this study the maximum residual voltage due to current impulse is analyzed too. In additional, the amount of discharged energy by surge arrester is focused.

  13. Drug therapy in cardiac arrest: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Djärv, Therese; Engdahl, Johan; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ravn-Fischer, Annika; Ringh, Mattias; Rysz, Susanne; Svensson, Leif; Herlitz, Johan; Lundgren, Peter


    The aim of this study was to review the literature on human studies of drug therapy in cardiac arrest during the last 25 years. In May 2015, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CRD databases. Prospective interventional and observational studies evaluating a specified drug therapy in human cardiac arrest reporting a clinical endpoint [i.e. return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or survival] and published in English 1990 or later were included, whereas animal studies, case series and reports, studies of drug administration, drug pharmacology, non-specified drug therapies, preventive drug therapy, drug administration after ROSC, studies with primarily physiological endpoints, and studies of traumatic cardiac arrest were excluded. The literature search identified a total of 8936 articles. Eighty-eight articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. We identified no human study in which drug therapy, compared with placebo, improved long-term survival. Regarding adrenaline and amiodarone, the drugs currently recommended in cardiac arrest, two prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials, were identified for adrenaline, and one for amiodarone, but they were all underpowered to detect differences in survival to hospital discharge. Of all reviewed studies, only one recent prospective study demonstrated improved neurological outcome with one therapy over another using a combination of vasopressin, steroids, and adrenaline as the intervention compared with standard adrenaline administration. The evidence base for drug therapy in cardiac arrest is scarce. However, many human studies on drug therapy in cardiac arrest have not been powered to identify differences in important clinical outcomes such as survival to hospital discharge and favourable neurological outcome. Efforts are needed to initiate large multicentre prospective randomized clinical trials to evaluate both currently recommended and

  14. Swedish ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Larsson, Ricard; Engström, Åsa


    Effective pre-hospital treatment of a person suffering cardiac arrest is a challenging task for the ambulance nurses. The aim of this study was to describe ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest. Qualitative personal interviews were conducted during 2011 in Sweden with seven ambulance nurses with experience of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrests. The interview texts were analyzed using qualitative thematic content analysis, which resulted in the formulation of one theme with six categories. Mutual preparation, regular training and education were important factors in the nursing of patients suffering cardiac arrest. Ambulance nurses are placed in ethically demanding situations regarding if and for how long they should continue cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to accord with pre-hospital cardiac guidelines and patients' wishes. When a cardiac arrest patient is nursed their relatives also need the attention of ambulance nurses. Reflection is one way for ambulance nurses to learn from, and talk about, their experiences. This study provides knowledge of ambulance nurses' experiences in the care of people with cardiac arrest. Better feedback about the care given by the ambulance nurses, and about the diagnosis and nursing care the patients received after they were admitted to the hospital are suggested as improvements that would allow ambulance nurses to learn more from their experience. Further development and research concerning the technical equipment might improve the situation for both the ambulance nurses and the patients. Ambulance nurses need regularly training and education to be prepared for saving people's lives and also to be able to make the right decisions. PMID:23577977

  15. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg Jørgensen, Mads

    years ago in Denmark. These findings led to several national initiatives to strengthen bystander resuscitation attempts and advance care. Despite these nationwide efforts, it was unknown prior to this project whether these efforts resulted in changes in resuscitation attempts by bystanders and changes...... in patient survival following out-of hospital cardiac arrest; utilizing the Danish nationwide registries, we sought to answer these questions. Moreover, in order to further improve understanding and target future national strategies for cardiac arrest management, we examined whether there were sex...

  16. A Comparison of Individual-Level and Community-Level Predictors of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among a Sample of Newly Arrested Juvenile Offenders (United States)

    Childs, Kristina; Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James


    Variations in drug use have been found across individual-level factors and community characteristics, and by type of drug used. Relatively little research, however, has examined this variation among juvenile offenders. Based on a sample of 924 newly arrested juvenile offenders, two multilevel logistic regression models predicting marijuana test…

  17. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells

  18. Police Management Training Factors Influencing DWI Arrests. Final Report. (United States)

    Bishop, Edward W.

    The development of training material for police management personnel concerning command and supervisory actions appropriate for more effective driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) enforcement is desired. The training is based on two research studies that identified environmental and attitudinal factors influencing a patrolman's arrest decision. These…

  19. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob


    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  20. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle;


    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres...

  1. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? (United States)

    ... for Heart360 Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  2. Bad Behavior : Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Shannon; Williams, J.; van Ours, Jan


    In this paper we investigate the effects of delinquency and arrest on school leaving using information on males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in order to account for common unobserved confounders and reverse causality.

  3. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.


    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  4. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hazen, M.J. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells.

  5. Ventilation and gas exchange management after cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Sutherasan, Yuda; Raimondo, Pasquale; Pelosi, Paolo


    For several decades, physicians had integrated several interventions aiming to improve the outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients. However, the mortality rate after cardiac arrest is still as high as 50%. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to not only poor neurological outcome and cardiovascular failure but also respiratory dysfunction. To minimize ventilator-associated lung injury, protective mechanical ventilation by using low tidal volume ventilation and driving pressure may decrease pulmonary complications and improve survival. Low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be initiated and titrated with careful cardiac output and respiratory mechanics monitoring. Furthermore, optimizing gas exchange by avoiding hypoxia and hyperoxia as well as maintaining normocarbia may improve neurological and survival outcome. Early multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation intervention is recommended. Minimally invasive monitoring techniques, that is, echocardiography, transpulmonary thermodilution method measuring extravascular lung water, as well as transcranial Doppler ultrasound, might be useful to improve appropriate management of post-cardiac arrest patients. PMID:26670813

  6. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  7. Description of a collaborative community approach to impacting juvenile arrests. (United States)

    Barrett, James G; Janopaul-Naylor, Elizabeth


    Although the burden of mental health disorders among youth involved with the juvenile justice system is high, few communities have effectively integrated mental health resources with law enforcement (Myers & Farrell, 2008). The city of Cambridge, Massachusetts has developed the Safety Net Collaborative, which is a multiagency integrated model of preventive services for at-risk youth involving mental health providers, police officers, schools, and the department of youth and families. There are 6,000 youth in the city's public schools under the local police jurisdiction. Youth are referred to this program by schools, courts, and parents. There are approximately 30 active cases each year. Initial outcome measures were tracked, including number of arrests, diversions, and mental health referrals. Rate of decline in arrests was compared pre and post implementation. Community arrests have decreased by more than 50% since implementing this model. Contracting with mental health services has led to an average 94 outpatient mental health provider referral per year. The results show positive trends in arrest rates after implementation of this collaborative model of preventive services. These findings support greater research and utilization of integrated, preventive service models for at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148947

  8. Mechanisms of immunosuppression by organotins : apoptosis vs. proliferative arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennari, Alessandra


    Mechanisms of immunosuppression by organotins-apoptosis vs. proliferative arrest. The organotin compounds di-n-butyltin dichloride (DBTC) and trin-butyltin chloride (TBTC), used as stabilizers and biocides respectively, induce thymus atrophy inhibiting immature thymocyte proliferation. The aim of

  9. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald;


    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  10. Effects of radiation on crack-initiation and crack-arrest toughness for SA508 Cl. 3 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out to determine the effects of neutron irradiation, conducted in several different test-reactors at approximately 280 C, on the mechanical properties of an SA508 Class 3 carbon steel ring forging produced in Italy as a prototype of a pressurized water reactor vessel. The research had two primary objectives: (1) to investigate the effect of a various levels of neutron irradiation (fluences from 1 to 5.5 1019 n/cm2 [E>1 MeV]) on the strength, initiation and arrest toughness and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, and (2) to determine if Charpy data and empirical prediction equations provide conservative estimates of irradiation effects on the KIc and KIa transition curves. The paper reports results from tension, Charpy V-notch (CVN) fracture toughness, and crack-arrest tests performed on both unirradiated and irradiated material. It was found that both Charpy V-notch transition temperature shifts and two prediction equations provided conservative estimates of shifts in fracture initiation and fracture arrest transition temperatures for the steel investigated. The 54 C shift of the Charpy V-notch transition curves at a fluence level of 5.5 1019 n/cm2 suggests the possibility of extending the component life beyond the common 40 year design life

  11. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates Between Black and White Male Juveniles


    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche’; Pardini, Dustin A.


    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of ea...

  12. Risk Assessment of Mortality Following Intraoperative Cardiac Arrest Using POSSUM and P-POSSUM in Adults Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery


    Kim, Shin Hyung; Kil, Hae Keum; Kim, Hye Jin; Koo, Bon-Nyeo


    Purpose The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and its Portsmouth modification (P-POSSUM) are comprehensive assessment methods for evaluating patient and surgical factors widely used to predict 30-day mortality rates. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the usefulness of POSSUM and P-POSSUM in predicting 30-day mortality after intraoperative cardiac arrests in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods...

  13. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence (United States)

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred


    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  14. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects (United States)

    Tapia, Mike


    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  15. Propagation and arrest of cleavage cracks in a nuclear pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of nuclear structures is crucial while the service time of nuclear power stations is planned to be extended up to 60 years. Initiation stage of cracks is still considered as a key issue, but more and more component integrity analyses investigate the crack arrest possibility. This study deals with physical mechanisms of cleavage crack propagation and numerical computations related to brittle fracture. Experiments using standard measuring techniques and a high-speed framing camera system, as well as Scanning Electron Microscope fracture surface analyses were carried out on thin CT specimens made of 16MND5 PWR vessel steel. The elastic-viscoplastic behavior of the ferritic steel has been studied and taken into account in numerical simulations. The extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is used in CAST3M finite element analysis software to model crack propagation. Numerical computations combine a local non-linear dynamic approach and a fracture criterion based on critical cleavage stress, whereas current standards in the nuclear field use a global static approach to fracture to depict crack initiation and arrest. The links of the criterion with temperature and strain rate are considered thanks to experiments, SEM fractographies and 2D computations in order to get a robust physical model which can be effective for model-based predictions of industrial structures. (authors)

  16. Risk Factor Analyses for the Return of Spontaneous Circulation in the Asphyxiation Cardiac Arrest Porcine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Jun Wu; Zhi-Jun Guo; Chun-Sheng Li; Yi Zhang; Jun Yang


    Background:Animal models of asphyxiation cardiac arrest (ACA) are frequently used in basic research to mirror the clinical course of cardiac arrest (CA).The rates of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in ACA animal models are lower than those from studies that have utilized ventricular fibrillation (VF) animal models.The purpose of this study was to characterize the factors associated with the ROSC in the ACA porcine model.Methods:Forty-eight healthy miniature pigs underwent endotracheal tube clamping to induce CA.Once induced,CA was maintained untreated for a period of 8 min.Two minutes following the initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR),defibrillation was attempted until ROSC was achieved or the animal died.To assess the factors associated with ROSC in this CA model,logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze gender,the time of preparation,the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) from the beginning of CPR and the pH at the beginning ofCPR.A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of AMSA for ROSC.Results:ROSC was only 52.1% successful in this ACA porcine model.The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that ROSC significantly depended on the time of preparation,AMSA at the beginning of CPR and pH at the beginning of CPR.The area under the ROC curve in for AMSA at the beginning of CPR was 0.878 successful in predicting ROSC (95% confidence intervals:0.773~0.983),and the optimum cut-off value was 15.62 (specificity 95.7% and sensitivity 80.0%).Conclusions:The time of preparation,AMSA and the pH at the beginning of CPR were associated with ROSC in this ACA porcine model.AMSA also predicted the likelihood of ROSC in this ACA animal model.

  17. Echocardiography integrated ACLS protocol versus conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Chardoli; Farhad Heidari; Helaleh Rabiee; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Hamid Shokoohi; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar


    Objective: To examine the utility of bedside echocardiography in detecting the reversible causes of pulseless electrical activity (PEA) cardiac arrest and predicting the resuscitation outcomes.Methods: In this prospective interventional study,patients presenting with PEA cardiac arrest were randomized into two groups.In Group A,ultrasound trained emergency physicians performed echocardiography evaluating cardiac activity,right ventricle dilation,left ventricle function,pericardial effusion/tamponade and ⅣC size along with the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) protocol.Patients in Group B solely underwent ACLS protocol without applying echocardiography.The presence or absence of mechanical ventricular activity (MVA) and evidences of PEA reversible causes were recorded.The return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and death were evaluated in both groups.Results: One hundred patients with the mean age of (58±6.1) years were enrolled in this study.Fifty patients (Group A) had echocardiography detected in parallel with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).Among them,7 patients (14%) had pericardial effusion,11 (22%) had hypovolemia,and 39 (78%) were revealed the presence of MVA.In the pseudo PEA subgroup (presence of MVA),43% had ROSC (positive predictive value) and in the true PEA subgroup with cardiac standstill (absence of MVA),there was no recorded ROSC (negative predictive value).Among patients in Group B,no reversible etiology was detected.There was no significant difference in resuscitation results between Groups A and B observed (P=0.52).Conclusion: Bedside echocardiography can identify some reversible causes of PEA.However,there are no significant changes in survival outcome between the echo group and those with traditional CPR.

  18. Risk Factor Analyses for the Return of Spontaneous Circulation in the Asphyxiation Cardiac Arrest Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Jun Wu


    Full Text Available Background: Animal models of asphyxiation cardiac arrest (ACA are frequently used in basic research to mirror the clinical course of cardiac arrest (CA. The rates of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC in ACA animal models are lower than those from studies that have utilized ventricular fibrillation (VF animal models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the factors associated with the ROSC in the ACA porcine model. Methods: Forty-eight healthy miniature pigs underwent endotracheal tube clamping to induce CA. Once induced, CA was maintained untreated for a period of 8 min. Two minutes following the initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, defibrillation was attempted until ROSC was achieved or the animal died. To assess the factors associated with ROSC in this CA model, logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze gender, the time of preparation, the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from the beginning of CPR and the pH at the beginning of CPR. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of AMSA for ROSC. Results: ROSC was only 52.1% successful in this ACA porcine model. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that ROSC significantly depended on the time of preparation, AMSA at the beginning of CPR and pH at the beginning of CPR. The area under the ROC curve in for AMSA at the beginning of CPR was 0.878 successful in predicting ROSC (95% confidence intervals: 0.773∼0.983, and the optimum cut-off value was 15.62 (specificity 95.7% and sensitivity 80.0%. Conclusions: The time of preparation, AMSA and the pH at the beginning of CPR were associated with ROSC in this ACA porcine model. AMSA also predicted the likelihood of ROSC in this ACA animal model.

  19. Pediatric defibrillation after cardiac arrest: initial response and outcome (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Domínguez, Pedro; Carrillo, Angel; Bellón, Jose María


    Introduction Shockable rhythms are rare in pediatric cardiac arrest and the results of defibrillation are uncertain. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that included defibrillation in children. Methods Forty-four out of 241 children (18.2%) who were resuscitated from inhospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest had been treated with manual defibrillation. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. Outcome variables were a sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and one-year survival. Characteristics of patients and of resuscitation were evaluated. Results Cardiac disease was the major cause of arrest in this group. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (PVT) was the first documented electrocardiogram rhythm in 19 patients (43.2%). A shockable rhythm developed during resuscitation in 25 patients (56.8%). The first shock (dose, 2 J/kg) terminated VF or PVT in eight patients (18.1%). Seventeen children (38.6%) needed more than three shocks to solve VF or PVT. ROSC was achieved in 28 cases (63.6%) and it was sustained in 19 patients (43.2%). Only three patients (6.8%), however, survived at 1-year follow-up. Children with VF or PVT as the first documented rhythm had better ROSC, better initial survival and better final survival than children with subsequent VF or PVT. Children who survived were older than the finally dead patients. No significant differences in response rate were observed when first and second shocks were compared. The survival rate was higher in patients treated with a second shock dose of 2 J/kg than in those who received higher doses. Outcome was not related to the cause or the location of arrest. The survival rate was inversely related to the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusion Defibrillation is necessary in 18% of children who suffer cardiac arrest. Termination of VF or PVT after the first defibrillation dose is achieved in a low

  20. Arrest of rapid crack propagation in polymer pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueler, P.; Farshad, M. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    The design of rapid crack arresters for polymer pipes was studied. Mechanisms that would inhibit a running crack and strengthen existing pipes against dynamic fracture and to enhance their degree of safety were examined. The crack arresters examined were based on the principle that rapid crack propagation (RCP) could not occur in pipe walls that were less than a `critical thickness`. Sections of pipe whose walls were thinned were reinforced with a reinforcing ring. Another variation was to produce a pipe with partially adhered multilayer walls. A third variation tried was a multi-layer pipe segment with a damping element and reinforcing rings. Experiments were successful in reducing RCP, but these preliminary results were considered exploratory and would require further confirmation. 2 figs., 8 refs.

  1. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser;


    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use....... METHODS: A community-based case-control study was performed, with 1310 cases of SCA of the ARREST study and 5793 age, sex and SCA-date matched non-SCA controls from the PHARMO database. Only incident SCA cases, age older than 40 years, that resulted from unequivocal cardiac causes...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS...

  2. Cell cycle control after DNA damage: arrest, recovery and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA damage triggers surveillance mechanisms, the DNA checkpoints, that control the genome integrity. The DNA checkpoints induce several responses, either cellular or transcriptional, that favor DNA repair. In particular, activation of the DNA checkpoints inhibits cell cycle progression in all phases, depending on the stage when lesions occur. These arrests are generally transient and cells ultimately reenter the cell division cycle whether lesions have been repaired (this process is termed 'recovery') or have proved un-repairable (this option is called 'adaptation'). The mechanisms controlling cell cycle arrests, recovery and adaptation are largely conserved among eukaryotes, and much information is now available for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that is used as a model organism in these studies. (author)

  3. Characteristics of in-hospital cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ivić


    Full Text Available Aim We have studied epidemiology of in-hospital cardiac arrest, characteristics of organizing a reanimationand its,procedures as well as its documenting.Methods We analyzed all resuscitation procedure data where anesthesiology reanimation teams (RT providedcardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR during one-year period. We included resuscitation attemptsthat were initiated outside the Department of Anesthesiology, excluding incidents in operation rooms andIntensive Care Unit (ICU. Data on every cardiac arrest and CPR were entered in a special form.Results During one-year period 87 CPR were performed. Victims of cardiac arrest were principallyelderly patients (age 60 – 80, mostly male (60%. Most frequent victims were neurological patients(42%, surgical patients (21% and neurosurgical patients (10%. The leading cause of cardiac arrestwas primary heart disease, following neurological diseases and respiration disorders of severe etiology.In over 90% cases CPR was initiated by medical personnel in their respective departments, RT arrivedwithin 5 minutes in 73,56% cases. Initially survival was 32%, but full recovery was accomplished in 4patients out of 87 (4,6%.Conclusion Victims of cardiac arrest are patients whose primary disease contributes to occurrence ofcardiorespiratory complications. High mortality and low percentage of full recovery can be explainedby characteristics of patients (old age, nature and seriousness of primary disease which significantly affectthe outcome of CPR. In some cases a question is raised whether to initiate the CPR at all. We wouldlike to point out that continous monitoring of potentially critical patients may prevent cardiorespiratoryincidents whereas the quality and success of CPR may be improved by training of staff and better technicalequipment on the relevant locations in the in the hospital where such incidents usually occur.

  4. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhargava


    Full Text Available Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displacement. The problem is solved using Fourier integral transform method which reduces the problem to the solution of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. This integral equation in turn is solved numerically.Findings: The expressions are derived for different intensity factors and energy release rate. A qualitative analysis of the parameters affecting the arrest of opening of the crack and fatigue crack growth with respect to strip thickness and material constants are presented graphically.Research limitations/implications: The investigations are carried out by considering the material electrical brittle. Consequently, the zones protrude along the straight lines ahead of the crack tips. And further, the small scale electrical yielding conditions are used.Practical implications: Piezoelectric materials are widely getting used nowadays, even in day to day life like piezoelectric cigarette lighter, children toys etc. And, its advance used in technology like transducers, actuators has been already in progress. So, the aspect of cracking of piezoelectric materials are of great practical importance.Originality/value: The piezoelectric material under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings gives the assessment of electrical displacement which is required to arrest the crack. The various useful interpretations are also drawn from the graphs.

  5. Nontrapping arrest of Langmuir wave damping near the threshold amplitude


    Ivanov, A.V.; Cairns, Iver H.


    Evolution of a Langmuir wave is studied numerically for finite amplitudes slightly above the threshold which separates damping from nondamping cases. Arrest of linear damping is found to be a second-order effect due to ballistic evolution of perturbations, resonant power transfer between field and particles, and organization of phase space into a positive slope for the average distribution function $f_{av}$ around the resonant wave phase speed $v_\\phi$. Near the threshold trapping in the wave...

  6. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion


    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald; Jensen, Svend Eggert


    Parenteral thiamine has a very high safety profile. The most common adverse effect is local irritation; however, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions may occur, mostly related to intravenous administration. We describe a 44-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, who was admitted with alcohol intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations....

  7. Electrocardiogram characteristics prior to in-hospital cardiac arrest


    Attin, Mina; Feld, Gregory; Lemus, Hector; Najarian, Kayvan; Shandilya, Sharad; Wang, Lu; Sabouriazad, Pouya; Lin, Chii-Dean


    Survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (I-HCA) remains < 30 %. There is very limited literature exploring the electrocardiogram changes prior to I-HCA. The purpose of the study was to determine demographics and electrocardiographic predictors prior to I-HCA. A retrospective study was conducted among 39 cardiovascular subjects who had cardiopulmonary resuscitation from I-HCA with initial rhythms of pulseless electrical activity (PEA) and asystole. Demographics including medical history, eje...

  8. Luminescence from Tube-Arrest Bubbles in Pure Glycerin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岐岱; 王龙


    Single transient cavitation bubble with luminescence has been generated in pure glycerin by using the ‘tube arrest'method. The analyses of high-speed photograph and light emission data suggest that the light emission would be a single bubble sonoluminescence. The luminescence pulse width is observed to wry from sub-nanosecond to about 30 ns. The width and intensity of luminescence pulses increases with the height of the liquid column height and decreases with the liquid temperature.

  9. Hyperoxia toxicity after cardiac arrest: What is the evidence?


    Llitjos, Jean-François; Mira, Jean-Paul; Duranteau, Jacques; Cariou, Alain


    This review gives an overview of current knowledge on hyperoxia pathophysiology and examines experimental and human evidence of hyperoxia effects after cardiac arrest. Oxygen plays a pivotal role in critical care management as a lifesaving therapy through the compensation of the imbalance between oxygen requirements and supply. However, growing evidence sustains the hypothesis of reactive oxygen species overproduction-mediated toxicity during hyperoxia, thus exacerbating organ failure by vari...

  10. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan


    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  11. Oral Phenytoin Toxicity Causing Sinus Arrest: A Case Report (United States)

    Thimmisetty, Ravi K.; Gorthi, Janardhana Rao


    We present a case of sinus node arrest leading to symptomatic junctional bradycardia from oral phenytoin toxicity, which is a rare presentation. Our patient had no prior cardiac history and was on phenytoin therapy for seizure disorder. Although bradycardia is more commonly associated with intravenous phenytoin and there were few case reports of bradycardia with oral phenytoin reported, the literature is limited. In this case report, we also reviewed the pathophysiology of phenytoin-induced cardiac toxicity. PMID:25343048

  12. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have successful embryo arrest


    Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Wei, Duo; Song, Xiaobing; Xie, Juanke; Zhang, Cuilian


    In this retrospective study, we investigate the relationship between embryo arrest and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In this study, 667 subjects were enrolled, including 330 patients with PCOS and 337 subjects without PCOS. The subjects underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) cycles at the Reproductive Medical Centre of Henan Provincial Hospital from January 2009 to December ...



    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.


    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling fo...

  14. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest. (United States)

    Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen


    Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients’ PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (p<0.001). In distinguishing ROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived. PMID:24639823

  15. Critical experiments, measurements and analyses to establish a crack arrest methodology for nuclear pressure vessel steels. First annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one-dimensional, Timoshenko beam-on-a-generalized elastic foundation treatment has been extended to contoured-DCB specimens and to the conditions attending tensile loading in an ordinary testing machine. Preliminary calculations show that the crack propagation and arrest events in contoured DCB specimens are very similar to those calculated for regular DCB-specimens for comparable initiation conditions. In both cases the calculated K/sub Ia/-values are between 44 and 100 percent of K/sub ID,min/ and show a systematic variation with the initiation K/sub Q/-level. In contrast with stiff wedge loading, which favors a continuous event, the calculations for rectangular and contoured DCB specimens in series with an idealized testing machine load train display one or more halts and restarts before the final arrest. A series of experiments designed to distinguish between the K/sub D/ and K/sub a/ approaches to predicting crack arrest are described. Studies of the effect of side grooves in rectangular DCB specimens confirm that grooves with depths representing up to 60 percent of the cross section have no significant effect on either K/sub ID/ or K/sub Ia/ measurements. (auth)

  16. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.


    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Hyperoxia toxicity after cardiac arrest: What is the evidence? (United States)

    Llitjos, Jean-François; Mira, Jean-Paul; Duranteau, Jacques; Cariou, Alain


    This review gives an overview of current knowledge on hyperoxia pathophysiology and examines experimental and human evidence of hyperoxia effects after cardiac arrest. Oxygen plays a pivotal role in critical care management as a lifesaving therapy through the compensation of the imbalance between oxygen requirements and supply. However, growing evidence sustains the hypothesis of reactive oxygen species overproduction-mediated toxicity during hyperoxia, thus exacerbating organ failure by various oxidative cellular injuries. In the cardiac arrest context, evidence of hyperoxia effects on outcome is fairly conflicting. Although prospective data are lacking, retrospective studies and meta-analysis suggest that hyperoxia could be associated with an increased mortality. However, data originate from retrospective, heterogeneous and inconsistent studies presenting various biases that are detailed in this review. Therefore, after an original and detailed analysis of all experimental and clinical studies, we herein provide new ideas and concepts that could participate to improve knowledge on oxygen toxicity and help in developing further prospective controlled randomized trials on this topic. Up to now, the strategy recommended by international guidelines on cardiac arrest (i.e., targeting an oxyhemoglobin saturation of 94-98 %) should be applied in order to avoid deleterious hypoxia and potent hyperoxia. PMID:27003426

  18. An analysis of mandatory arrest policy on domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Çelik


    Full Text Available Women are more likely to be beaten, raped, or killed because of domestic violence. Men have beaten their wives and partners for centuries with no payback from the criminal justice system. Recent decades domestic violence cases became an important focal point for criminal justice system. Despite increased public awareness, domestic violence remains a serious public policy issue in all around the world. Domestic violence was historically an area of policing where officers were reluctant to interfere because of its sensitive nature vary from one culture to another. Governments started to face with increased liability for police inaction. Therefore law makers passed laws requiring the warrantless arrests of individuals for misdemeanor assault of an intimate partner. This article tries to explain background information over domestic violence from public policy perspective at first. Then tries to explain mandatory arrest policies with its goals and effects. After evaluation and implications of mandatory arrest policies on domestic violence this article concludes by recommending various policy recommendation at the end.

  19. Descriptive Analysis of Medication Administration During Inpatient Cardiopulmonary Arrest Resuscitation (from the Mayo Registry for Telemetry Efficacy in Arrest Study). (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Ray, Jordan; Matcha, Gautam; Roy, Archana; Dumitrascu, Adrian; Harris, Dana; Bosworth, Veronica; Clark, Brooke; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Kusumoto, Fred; Burton, M Caroline


    Advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines exist, yet there are variations in clinical practice. Our study aims to describe the utilization of medications during resuscitation from in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective review of patients who suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest from May 2008 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical and resuscitation data, including timing and dose of medications used, were extracted from the electronic medical record and comparisons made. A total of 94 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into different groups based on the medication combination used during resuscitation: (1) epinephrine; (2) epinephrine and bicarbonate; (3) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and calcium; (4) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and epinephrine drip; and (5) epinephrine, bicarbonate, calcium, and epinephrine drip. No difference in baseline demographics or clinical data was present, apart from history of dementia and the use of calcium channel blockers. The number of medications given was correlated with resuscitation duration (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.50, p <0.001). The proportion of patients who died during the arrest was 12.5% in those who received epinephrine alone, 30.0% in those who received only epinephrine and bicarbonate, and 46.7% to 57.9% in the remaining groups. Patients receiving only epinephrine had shorter resuscitation durations compared to that of the other groups (p <0.001) and improved survival (p = 0.003). In conclusion, providers frequently use nonguideline medications in resuscitation efforts for in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests. Increased duration and mortality rates were found in those resuscitations compared with epinephrine alone, likely due to the longer resuscitation duration in the former groups. PMID:27015887

  20. Joints and Mineral Veins in Limestone-Marl Alternations: Arrest and Fracture Frequencies (United States)

    Philipp, S. L.; Reyer, D.


    materials science. Some fractures may also be arrested by slip at contacts. For fractures to propagate, the stress field along their potential pathways must be favorable and essentially homogeneous so that the probability of fracture arrest is minimized. The field observations show that most joints, and many mineral veins, become arrested, primarily at layer contacts. Fractures that are restricted to single layers are referred to as stratabound, whereas for non- stratabound fractures, layering does not affect fracture growth. Different types of fractures react differently to host-rock layering. Fractures formed at great depths are generally less likely to become stratabound, but different fractures also seem to "feel" the rock layers and contacts differently. For example, mineral veins are much more often non-stratabound than joints. In our study areas there is also a clear inverse correlation between layer thicknesses and joint frequencies, particularly for layering on a decimeter-scale. The calcite veins, however, are not related to layer thickness. The results have important implications for the permeability of fluid reservoirs, such as for petroleum, gas, geothermal or ground water. Whereas correlations with layer thicknesses may be used for joint frequencies in the subsurface and thus reservoir permeabilities, it is more difficult to predict how many reservoir fractures are likely to be stratabound. A reservoir where most fractures are stratabound is less likely to develop interconnected fracture systems than a reservoir with non-stratabound fractures. Thus, a reservoir with mostly stratabound fractures may not reach the percolation threshold needed for significant permeability.

  1. Dynamic analysis of crack growth and arrest in a pressure vessel subjected to thermal and pressure loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions of crack arrest behaviour are performed for a cracked reactor pressure vessel under both thermal and pressure loading. The object is to compare static and dynamic calculations. The dynamic calculations are made using an explicit finite-element technique where crack growth is simulated by gradual nodal release. Three different load cases and the effect of different velocity dependence on the crack-propagation toughness are studied. It is found that for the analysed cases the static analysis is slightly conservative, thus justifying its use for these problems. (author)

  2. Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research. (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E; West, Brooke S; Pouget, Enrique R; Williams, Leslie D; Des Jarlais, Don C; Cooper, Hannah L F


    This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or cocaine predicted HIV prevalence and mortality but did not predict changes in PWID population prevalence. Income inequality and measures of structural racism were associated with hard drug arrests or other properties of policing. These findings, whose limitations and implications for further research are discussed, suggest that efforts to respond to HIV and to drug injection should include supra-individual efforts to reduce both income inequality and racism. At a time when major social movements in many countries are trying to reduce inequality, racism and oppression (including reforming drug laws), these macro-social issues in public health should be both addressable and a priority in both research and action. PMID:27198555

  3. Hospital Variation in Survival After In‐hospital Cardiac Arrest (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M.; Berg, Robert A.; Yang, Lin; Becker, Lance B.; Groeneveld, Peter W.; Chan, Paul S.


    Background In‐hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is common and often fatal. However, the extent to which hospitals vary in survival outcomes and the degree to which this variation is explained by patient and hospital factors is unknown. Methods and Results Within Get with the Guidelines‐Resuscitation, we identified 135 896 index IHCA events at 468 hospitals. Using hierarchical models, we adjusted for demographics comorbidities and arrest characteristics (eg, initial rhythm, etiology, arrest location) to generate risk‐adjusted rates of in‐hospital survival. To quantify the extent of hospital‐level variation in risk‐adjusted rates, we calculated the median odds ratio (OR). Among study hospitals, there was significant variation in unadjusted survival rates. The median unadjusted rate for the bottom decile was 8.3% (range: 0% to 10.7%) and for the top decile was 31.4% (28.6% to 51.7%). After adjusting for 36 predictors of in‐hospital survival, there remained substantial variation in rates of in‐hospital survival across sites: bottom decile (median rate, 12.4% [0% to 15.6%]) versus top decile (median rate, 22.7% [21.0% to 36.2%]). The median OR for risk‐adjusted survival was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.46), which suggests a substantial 42% difference in the odds of survival for patients with similar case‐mix at similar hospitals. Further, significant variation persisted within hospital subgroups (eg, bed size, academic). Conclusion Significant variability in IHCA survival exists across hospitals, and this variation persists despite adjustment for measured patient factors and within hospital subgroups. These findings suggest that other hospital factors may account for the observed site‐level variations in IHCA survival. PMID:24487717

  4. Cardiac arrest caused by multiple recurrent pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannig, Kjartan Eskjaer; Husted, Steen Elkjaer; Grove, Erik Lerkevang


    Pulmonary embolism is a common condition with a high mortality. We describe a previously healthy 68-year-old male who suffered three pulmonary embolisms during a short period of time, including two embolisms while on anticoagulant treatment. This paper illustrates three important points. (1) The...... importance of optimal anticoagulant treatment in the prevention of pulmonary embolism reoccurrence. (2) The benefit of immediate accessibility to echocardiography in the handling of haemodynamically unstable patients with an unknown underlying cause. (3) Thrombolytic treatment should always be considered and...... may be life-saving in patients with cardiac arrest suspected to be caused by pulmonary embolism....

  5. Axial crack propagation and arrest in pressurized fuselage (United States)

    Kosai, M.; Shimamoto, A.; Yu, C.-T.; Walker, S. I.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Tan, P.


    The crack arrest capability of a tear strap in a pressurized precracked fuselage was studied through instrumented axial rupture tests of small scale models of an idealized fuselage. Upon pressurization, rapid crack propagation initiated at an axial through crack along the stringer and immediately kinked due to the mixed modes 1 and 2 state caused by the one-sided opening of the crack flap. The diagonally running crack further turned at the tear straps. Dynamic finite element analysis of the rupturing cylinder showed that the crack kinked and also ran straight in the presence of a mixed mode state according to a modified two-parameter crack kinking criterion.

  6. Bleeding following deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest in children. (United States)

    Mossad, Emad B; Machado, Sandra; Apostolakis, John


    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a technique of extracorporeal circulation commonly used in children with complex congenital heart defects undergoing surgical repairs. The use of profound cooling (20 degrees C) and complete cessation of circulation allow adequate exposure and correction of these complex lesions, with enhanced cerebral protection. However, the profound physiologic state of DHCA results in significant derangement of the coagulation system and a high incidence of postoperative bleeding. This review examines the impact of DHCA on bleeding and transfusion requirements in children and the pathophysiology of DHCA-induced platelet dysfunction. It also focuses on possible pharmacologic interventions to decrease bleeding following DHCA in children. PMID:17484172

  7. Cerebral blood flow in humans following resuscitation from cardiac arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 washout in 13 patients 6-46 hours after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Patients regaining consciousness had relatively normal cerebral blood flow before regaining consciousness, but all patients who died without regaining consciousness had increased cerebral blood flow that appeared within 24 hours after resuscitation (except in one patient in whom the first measurement was delayed until 28 hours after resuscitation, by which time cerebral blood flow was increased). The cause of the delayed-onset increase in cerebral blood flow is not known, but the increase may have adverse effects on brain function and may indicate the onset of irreversible brain damage

  8. Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Adults With Cardiac Arrest. (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh K; Schoenfeld, Elinor; Parnia, Sam; Singer, Adam J; Edelman, Norman


    Cardiac arrest (CA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the use of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival with minimal neurologic impairment remain low. Utilization of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for CA in adults is steadily increasing. Propensity-matched cohort studies have reported outcomes associated with ECMO use to be superior to that of conventional CPR alone in in-hospital patients with CA. In this review, we discuss the mechanism, indications, complications, and evidence for ECMO in CA in adults. PMID:25922385

  9. Implications of temperature dependent ferrite arrest toughness to an invariant master curve shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The toughness temperature Kjc(T-T0) curves of ferritic-martensitic steels may have a remarkably invariant master curve (MC) shape, where the reference temperature, T0, depends on material and environmental/test conditions. For unirradiated alloys, with T0 jc(T) is governed almost entirely by the temperature dependence of σy(T). Irradiation hardening, Δσy, increases T0(ΔT0). When T0 is in the athermal σy regime, the assumption of a temperature independent σ* predicts changes (layovers) in the shape of Kjc(T). This apparent contradiction with observation is resolved by assuming a mildly temperature dependent σ*(T) at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence is, in turn, controlled by the micro-arrest toughness of the material controlling the conditions for the propagation of microcracks formed at brittle trigger particles. Here we describe results of an independent study of the temperature dependent initiation (KIc) and arrest toughness (Ka) for (100)[010] and (100)[011] Fe single crystals oriented for cleavage, using specially designed composite specimen test techniques. The Ka(T) is weakly temperature dependent below about -100 deg. C, increasing from a minimum of 3.5 MPa√(m), but rises more rapidly to 9 MPa√(m) at higher temperatures near 0 deg. C. Static and dynamic Kic/d(T) curves were also measured over a wide range of loading rates from about 0.1 to 20,000 MPa √(m)/s. In all cases, the cleavage fracture dynamics were found to be controlled by nucleation of double kinks on screw dislocations, that also control the flow stress dynamics. When plotted on a strain rate compensated temperature, T', the arrest and initiation data overlap to form a Ka(T') master curve. The results were extended complex alloys by proposing that both the thermal and athermal contributions to σy combine to control Ka(T) as a fitted model Ka(T') = C(σy)/σy(T) with a minimum Ka of about 3.5 MPa and where C(σy) is a weak function of

  10. Incidence of treated cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients in the United States (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M.; Yang, Lin; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nichol, Graham; Carr, Brendan G.; Mitra, Nandita; Bradley, Steven M.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Groeneveld, Peter W.


    Objective The incidence and incidence over time of cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients (IHCA) is unknown. We sought to estimate the event rate and temporal trends of adult inhospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) treated with a resuscitation response. Design Three approaches were used to estimate the IHCA event rate. First approach: Calculate the IHCA event rate at hospitals (n=433) in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) registry, years 2003–2007 and multiply this by US annual bed-days. Second approach: Use the GWTG-R, IHCA event rate to develop a regression model (including hospital demographic, geographic, organizational factors) and use the model coefficients to calculate predicted event rates for acute care hospitals (n=5,445) responding to the American Hospital Association survey. Third approach: Classify acute care hospitals into groups based on academic, urban, bed size-and determine the average event rate for GWTG-R hospitals in each group and then use weighted averages to calculate the national IHCA rate. Annual event rates were calculated to estimate temporal trends. Setting GWTG-R registry Patients Adult IHCA with a resuscitation response Measurements and main results The mean adult treated IHCA event rate at GWTG-R hospitals was 0.92/1000 bed-days (IQR 0.58 to 1.2/1000). In hospitals (n=150) contributing data for all years of the study period, the event rate increased from 2003–2007. With 2.09 million annual US bed-days, we estimated 192,000 IHCA throughout the US annually. Based on the regression model, extrapolating GWTG-R hospitals to hospitals participating in the American Hospital Association survey projected 211,000 annual IHCA. Using weighted averages projected 209,000 annual US IHCA. Conclusions There are approximately 200,000 treated cardiac arrests among US hospitalized patients annually and this rate may be increasing. This is important for understanding the burden of IHCA and developing strategies to improve care for

  11. Development of New Type Gap Arrester for Earth Fault Protection in AC Feeding System (United States)

    Ajiki, Kohji; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Hisamizu, Yasuzi; Kinoshita, Nobuo; Takai, Wataru; Sato, Ryogo

    A gap arrester is being used for ground fault protection in AC Feeding System. However there are faults in which a conventional gap arrester burns down in a normal state of circuit. We investigated the cause of the fault in which a gap arrester burns. Then, it was found out that the cause of the fault was the discharge of AC current from the surge voltage. Therefore, we developed a new type gap arrester which does not burn down. The new type gap arrester is composed of a discharge tube and a zinc oxide element which are connected in series. Unnecessary AC current discharge is prevented by this structure. The new type gap arrester is actually used at the railroad track.

  12. Developmentally arrested structures preceding cerebellar tumors in von Hippel–Lindau disease


    Shively, Sharon B; Falke, Eric A; Li, Jie; Tran, Maxine G B; Thompson, Eli R; Maxwell, Patrick H; Roessler, Erich; Oldfield, Edward H; Lonser, Russell R.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O


    There is increasing evidence that suggests that knockout of tumor-suppressor gene function causes developmental arrest and protraction of cellular differentiation. In the peripheral nervous system of patients with the tumor-suppressor gene disorder, von Hippel–Lindau disease, we have demonstrated developmentally arrested structural elements composed of hemangioblast progenitor cells. Some developmentally arrested structural elements progress to a frank tumor, hemangioblastoma. However, in von...

  13. Crack propagation and arrest in CFRP materials with strain softening regions (United States)

    Dilligan, Matthew Anthony

    Understanding the growth and arrest of cracks in composite materials is critical for their effective utilization in fatigue-sensitive and damage susceptible applications such as primary aircraft structures. Local tailoring of the laminate stack to provide crack arrest capacity intermediate to major structural components has been investigated and demonstrated since some of the earliest efforts in composite aerostructural design, but to date no rigorous model of the crack arrest mechanism has been developed to allow effective sizing of these features. To address this shortcoming, the previous work in the field is reviewed, with particular attention to the analysis methodologies proposed for similar arrest features. The damage and arrest processes active in such features are investigated, and various models of these processes are discussed and evaluated. Governing equations are derived based on a proposed mechanistic model of the crack arrest process. The derived governing equations are implemented in a numerical model, and a series of simulations are performed to ascertain the general characteristics of the proposed model and allow qualitative comparison to existing experimental results. The sensitivity of the model and the arrest process to various parameters is investigated, and preliminary conclusions regarding the optimal feature configuration are developed. To address deficiencies in the available material and experimental data, a series of coupon tests are developed and conducted covering a range of arrest zone configurations. Test results are discussed and analyzed, with a particular focus on identification of the proposed failure and arrest mechanisms. Utilizing the experimentally derived material properties, the tests are reproduced with both the developed numerical tool as well as a FEA-based implementation of the arrest model. Correlation between the simulated and experimental results is analyzed, and future avenues of investigation are identified

  14. Brazilian production development of class 2 polymeric surge arresters for transmission line application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellallibera, Adriano A. [Industria Eletromecanica Balestro, Mogi Mirim, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Andrade, Antonio Donizetti de; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Guara; Duarte, Jose Vicente Pereira; Gois, Paulo Marcio Batista; Markiewicz, Rubens Leopoldo [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], Emails:,,,,


    This paper shows the steeps of Brazilian class 2 ZnO lightning surge arrester development and production, aiming to attend the goal of CEMIG transmission lines performance improvement against lightning discharges action. The description of CEMIG transmission lines performance, before and after the ZnO lightning arresters installation, the necessity of use of ZnO lightning surge arrester, the prototypes manufacture, tests, problems and solutions are presented. (author)

  15. Using force in arrests against those who are not resisting can mean more violent prisoners.


    Klahm, Charles; Steiner, Benjamin; Meade, Benjamin


    Recent events have seen a re-evaluation of the relationship between the police and citizens, with increased concern about the use of force during arrests. In new research, Charles Klahm, Benjamin Steiner, and Benjamin Meade find another consequence of police using violent force during arrests: once in prison, inmates who did not resist their arrests were more likely to be involved in rule violations, including acts of violence. They argue that these inmates’ beliefs that their treatment was u...

  16. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Diagnosis of Cor Triatriatum Sinistrum in Pediatric Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kehrl,


    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest in the adolescent population secondary to congenital heart disease (CHD is rare. Focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS in the emergency department (ED can yield important clinical information, aid in resuscitative efforts during cardiac arrest and is commonly integrated into the evaluation of patients with pulseless electrical activity (PEA. We report a case of pediatric cardiac arrest in which FoCUS was used to diagnose a critical CHD known as cor triatriatum sinistrum as the likely cause for PEA cardiac arrest and help direct ED resuscitation.

  17. Altered brain energetics induces mitochondrial fission arrest in Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Trushin, Sergey; Christensen, Trace A; Bachmeier, Benjamin V; Gateno, Benjamin; Schroeder, Andreas; Yao, Jia; Itoh, Kie; Sesaki, Hiromi; Poon, Wayne W; Gylys, Karen H; Patterson, Emily R; Parisi, Joseph E; Diaz Brinton, Roberta; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Trushina, Eugenia


    Altered brain metabolism is associated with progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Mitochondria respond to bioenergetic changes by continuous fission and fusion. To account for three dimensional architecture of the brain tissue and organelles, we applied 3-dimensional electron microscopy (3D EM) reconstruction to visualize mitochondrial structure in the brain tissue from patients and mouse models of AD. We identified a previously unknown mitochondrial fission arrest phenotype that results in elongated interconnected organelles, "mitochondria-on-a-string" (MOAS). Our data suggest that MOAS formation may occur at the final stages of fission process and was not associated with altered translocation of activated dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria but with reduced GTPase activity. Since MOAS formation was also observed in the brain tissue of wild-type mice in response to hypoxia or during chronological aging, fission arrest may represent fundamental compensatory adaptation to bioenergetic stress providing protection against mitophagy that may preserve residual mitochondrial function. The discovery of novel mitochondrial phenotype that occurs in the brain tissue in response to energetic stress accurately detected only using 3D EM reconstruction argues for a major role of mitochondrial dynamics in regulating neuronal survival. PMID:26729583

  18. Student perceptions of sudden cardiac arrest: a qualitative inquiry. (United States)

    McDonough, Annette; Callan, Krista; Egizio, Katelyn; Kenney, Kaye; Gray, Gillian; Mundry, Gillian; Re, Gillian

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the number one cause of death in young athletes in high school and university settings. Survival and outcomes of SCA is dependent on appropriate recognition of symptoms and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), along with a shock from an automatic external defibrillator (AED). The three aims of the authors' study presented in this article were: to describe university students' perceptions and beliefs about sudden cardiac arrest, to describe university students' understanding of an AED and their level of preparedness to recognize and respond to a life threatening emergency event, and to identify university students' experiences of responding to handling life-threatening emergency events. Qualitative methodology was employed using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from data analysis: confusion, uncertainty, and fear/uncomfortableness. These themes characterised participant's perceptions about SCA. The authors concluded that a lack of understanding of what SCA is and participants' inability to respond to an emergency event was evident. PMID:22585265

  19. Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Jones


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate variation in airway management strategies in one suburban emergency medical services system treating patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. Method. Retrospective chart review of all adult OHCA resuscitation during a 13-month period, specifically comparing airway management decisions. Results. Paramedics demonstrated considerable variation in their approaches to airway management. Approximately half of all OHCA patients received more than one airway management attempt (38/77 [49%], and one-quarter underwent three or more attempts (25/77 [25%]. One-third of patients arrived at the emergency department with a different airway device than initially selected (25/77 [32%]. Conclusion. This study confirmed our hypothesis that paramedics’ selection of ventilation strategies in cardiac arrest varies considerably. This observation raises concern because airway management diverts time and energy from interventions known to improve outcomes in OHCA management, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation. More research is needed to identify more focused airway management strategies for prehospital care providers.

  20. Experience with bretylium tosylate by a hospital cardiac arrest team. (United States)

    Holder, D A; Sniderman, A D; Fraser, G; Fallen, E L


    The effect of bretylium tosylate (BT) was determined in 27 consecutive cases of resistant ventricular fibrillation (VF) encountered by a hospital cardiac arrest team. The VF was sustained and completely resistant to multiple injections of lidocaine, sequential DC shocks at 400 watt-sec and one or a combination of intravenous propranolol, diphenylhydantoin or procainamide. Following 30 min of sustained cardiac massage, BT (5 mg/kg i.v.) was administered. In 20 patients, VF was terminated within 9-12 min after DC shock. Eight of these patients failed to recover while 12 (44%) of all patients resuscitated survived to be discharged from hospital. Eleven out of 20 (55%) of all patients who had a cardiac arrest outside the CCU were survivors; only one out of seven in the CCU were successfully resuscitated. While receiving maintanance BT post-resuscitation (5 mg/kg i.m. q 8-12 hrs x 48 hrs), half the patients developed hypotension and three required vasopressors and/or fluid replacement. The data indicate that BT is a useful agent in patients with sustained VF refractory to repeated lidocaine injections, some other antiarrhythmic agents, and multiple DC shocks. PMID:837490

  1. PREFACE: Dynamically slow processes and near-arrest phenomena in soft matter Dynamically slow processes and near-arrest phenomena in soft matter (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin


    The aim of this special issue is to summarize what has been learnt by both the network (the Marie Curie Research and Training Network on Arrested Matter) and the broader international community on dynamically slow processes and near-arrest phenomena. Another aspect of this special issue is to highlight new directions in which dynamical slowing down is, or may be, important. In particular, this issue is dedicated to a member of this network, Professor Francesco Mallamace, who reached the venerable age of 60 in 2008. Professor Francesco Mallamace is one of the group leaders of the complex materials and systems worldwide network. In particular he is a pioneer who has successfully investigated aggregation phenomena and the dynamics of colloids, and the properties of water in the deeply supercooled phase region. The scientific activities of Professor Mallamace are mainly experimental, making use of different scattering and spectroscopic techniques. He is a very active and well-known scientist not only for his research but also for training young scientists by organizing many international networks, congresses and schools. Under his influence, mainly by taking advantage of large international collaborative activities, the University of Messina has become one of the major European centers for complex systems. Among the invited speakers to the final conference of the network, we have collected the following 11 interesting articles. In this special issue, we roughly classify the papers according to three major groups: the first four papers deal with the theory and experiments on the dynamic crossover phenomena in general glass-forming liquids, the next four papers deal explicitly with slow dynamics in supercooled confined water and the last three papers deal with the interpretation of the near-arrest phenomena in colloids. Chong et al used an extended mode coupling theory, which includes the hopping effect, to predict a dynamic crossover at Tc in the α-relaxation time and

  2. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Guidelines for Detonation Flame Arresters (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidelines for Detonation Flame... Appendix A to Part 154—Guidelines for Detonation Flame Arresters This appendix contains the draft ASTM standard for detonation flame arresters. Devices meeting this standard will be accepted by the...

  3. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (United States)


    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...

  4. Program Completion and Re-Arrest in a Batterer Intervention System (United States)

    Bennett, Larry W.; Stoops, Charles; Call, Christine; Flett, Heather


    Objective: The authors examine the effects of batterer intervention program (BIP) completion on domestic violence re-arrest in an urban system of 30 BIPs with a common set of state standards, common program completion criteria, and centralized criminal justice supervision. Method: 899 men arrested for domestic violence were assessed and completed…

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-63 - Spark arrester-TB/ALL. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spark arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-63 Section 30.10-63...-63 Spark arrester—TB/ALL. The term spark arrester means any device, assembly, or method of a... sparks in exhaust pipes from internal combustion engines....

  6. Mutations in the Kv1.5 channel gene KCNA5 in cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nathalie H; Winkel, Bo G; Kanters, Jørgen K; Schmitt, Nicole; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Jensen, Henrik S; Bentzen, Bo H; Sigurd, Bjarne; Larsen, Lars Allan; Andersen, Paal S; Kjeldsen, Keld; Grunnet, Morten; Christiansen, Michael; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Haunsø, Stig


    Mutations in one of the ion channels shaping the cardiac action potential can lead to action potential prolongation. However, only in a minority of cardiac arrest cases mutations in the known arrhythmia-related genes can be identified. In two patients with arrhythmia and cardiac arrest, we identi...

  7. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests. (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J


    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. PMID:25416040

  8. A Summary and Analysis of Warrantless Arrest Statutes for Domestic Violence in the United States (United States)

    Zeoli, April M.; Norris, Alexis; Brenner, Hannah


    In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted statutes that allow police officers to make warrantless arrests for domestic violence given probable cause; however, state laws differ from one another in multiple, important ways. Research on domestic violence warrantless arrest laws rarely describe them as anything…

  9. [Thoracic lavage and open cardiac massage as treatment of hypothermic cardiac arrest--case report]. (United States)

    Koponen, Timo; Vänni, Ville; Kettunen, Minna; Reinikainen, Matti; Hakala, Tapio


    Cardiopulmonary bypass is the treatment of choice for a severely hypothermic patient with cardiac arrest. However, the treatment is not always available. We describe a successful three-and-a-half hour resuscitation of a hypothermic cardiac arrest patient with manual chest compressions followed by open cardiac massage and rewarming with thoracic lavage. PMID:27188092

  10. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and post-cardiac arrest brain injury]. (United States)

    Sakurai, Atsushi


    One of the most important topics in the field of resuscitation at present is the drafting of the 2015 version of the Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendation (CoSTR) by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. The Japan Resuscitation Council is preparing its 2015 Guideline based on this CoSTR and plans to release it in October 2015. A critical change in the upcoming CoSTR is the adoption of the GRADE system. The new Guideline incorporating the GRADE system will surely be more scientific than the previous Guideline issued in 2010. Meanwhile, an important finding appeared in a report from Nielsen et al.: hypothermia at a targeted temperature of 33 degrees C did not confer a benefit versus 36 degrees in unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause. PMID:26915250

  11. A Unique Case of Cardiac Arrest following K2 Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD accounts for up to 450,000 deaths every year in the United States (Zipes et al. (2006. Most cases of sudden cardiac death occur in subjects with no prior history of heart disease (Myerburg et al. (1998. The incidence of sudden death in a general population has been shown to increase contemporaneously with substance abuse (Phillips et al. (1999. The causative association of sudden death with cocaine, methadone, and volatile agents is well established (Adgey et al. (1995 and Isner et al. (1986. We describe a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest temporally related to abuse of the synthetic cannabinoid street drug known as K2. To our knowledge, there are no previously documented cases of sudden cardiac death associated with synthetic cannabinoids although they have been linked to myocardial infarction in teenagers despite normal coronary angiography (Mir et al. (2011.

  12. Dynamical Arrest, Structural Disorder, and Optimization of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Ian; Dmitry, Matyushov


    This project describes fundamental experimental and theoretical work that relates to charge separation and migration in the solid, heterogeneous or aggregated state. Marcus theory assumes a system in equilibrium with all possible solvent (dipolar) configurations, with rapid interconversion among these on the ET timescale. This project has addressed the more general situation where the medium is at least partially frozen on the ET timescale, i.e. under conditions of dynamical arrest. The approach combined theory and experiment and includes: (1) Computer simulations of model systems, (2) Development of analytical procedures consistent with computer experiment and (3) Experimental studies and testing of the formal theories on this data. Electron transfer processes are unique as a consequence of the close connection between kinetics, spectroscopy and theory, which is an essential component of this work.

  13. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion. (United States)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald; Jensen, Svend Eggert


    Parenteral thiamine has a very high safety profile. The most common adverse effect is local irritation; however, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions may occur, mostly related to intravenous administration. We describe a 44-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, who was admitted with alcohol intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance of recognising the symptoms of anaphylaxis and the fact that facilities for treating anaphylaxis and cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be available when thiamine or for that matter, any drug is given in-hospital. PMID:23853017

  14. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media. (United States)

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki


    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  15. Cardiac arrest due to airway obstruction in hereditary angioedema. (United States)

    Fuse, Takashi; Nakada, Taka-aki; Taniguchi, Masashi; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya


    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease caused by a deficiency of functional C1 esterase inhibitor that causes swelling attacks in various body tissues. We hereby report a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to airway obstruction in HAE. Cutaneous swelling and abdominal pain attacks caused by gastrointestinal wall swelling are common symptoms in HAE, whereas laryngeal swelling is rare. Emergency physicians may have few chances to experience cases of life-threatening laryngeal edema resulting in a delay from symptom onset to the diagnosis of HAE. Hereditary angioedema is diagnosed by performing complement blood tests. Because safe and effective treatment options are available for the life-threatening swellings in HAE, the diagnosis potentially reduces the risk of asphyxiation in patients and their blood relatives. PMID:25913082

  16. Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanali R. Kugasia


    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  17. Making Food Protein Gels via an Arrested Spinodal Decomposition. (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Najet; Stradner, Anna


    We report an investigation of the structural and dynamic properties of mixtures of food colloid casein micelles and low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide). A combination of visual observations, confocal laser scanning microscopy, diffusing wave spectroscopy, and oscillatory shear rheometry is used to characterize the state diagram of the mixtures and describe the structural and dynamic properties of the resulting fluid and solid-like structures. We demonstrate the formation of gel-like structures through an arrested spinodal decomposition mechanism. We discuss our observations in view of previous experimental and theoretical studies with synthetic and food colloids, and comment on the potential of such a route toward gels for food processing. PMID:26595592

  18. Electronic registration of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Dahl, Michael; Gade, John;


    patients according to whether they received first aid, the identity of the first aid provider and the initial cardiac rhythm as diagnosed by the patient monitor.   Results: 18,666 patients where in contact with an emergency ambulance in the study period. Of those 296 (89/100,000/year) met the definition of...... cardiac arrest. 83 of those (28 %) received first aid. The first aid was provided by layman (68 %), physicians (11 %), nurses (11 %) and first-aiders (4 %). In 6 % the identity of the first aid provider was unknown. The majority of the patients (n = 177 (58 %)) had asystole upon ambulance arrival. 37 (12...... considerably higher incidence rate for OHCA, than documented by the analogue nationwide registry. Further we discovered a high rate of first aid to OHCA-patients. Finally our data showed a high occurence of asystolia in patients who met the official criteria for OHCA....

  19. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Makiguchi

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  20. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Potential Prognostic Implications After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Substudy of the Target Temperature Management Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Wanscher, Michael;


    -1β, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-9, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, interleukin-13, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were measured. Mortality at 30 days was evaluated by Cox analysis, and the predictive capability...... of inflammatory markers was evaluated by area under the curve. Level of all inflammatory markers changed significantly within 72 hours after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (all p values<0.001), but only procalcitonin levels showed overall differences between nonsurvivors and survivors (p=0.0002). At...... baseline, interleukin-6 was independently associated with mortality, whereas both interleukin-6 levels (hazard ratio=1.23 [1.01-1.49]; p=0.04) and procalcitonin levels (hazard ratio=1.20 [1.03-1.39]; p=0.02) 24 hours after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were associated with 30-day mortality with no...

  1. The effect of ligaments on the reinitiation of fracture at the tip of a crack arrested during a hypothetical thermal shock event in a water-cooled reactor pressure vessel (United States)

    Smith, E.


    During a hypothetical thermal shock event involving a water-cooled nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a crack can propagate deep into the reactor vessel thickness by a series of run-arrest-reinitiation events. Within the transition temperature regime, crack propagation and arrest in pressure vessel steels is associated with a combination of cleavage and dimpled rupture processes, the dimpled rupture regions being contained within ligaments that are normal to the crack plane and parallel to the direction of crack propagation. The present paper models the effect of ligaments on the reinitiation of fracture at the tip of an arrested crack, and the results of a theoretical analysis define the conditions under which ligaments might increase the reinitiation value above k IC, assuming that they fracture by a ductile rupture process. By comparing the predictions with experimental results for model vessels subject to thermal shock, it is shown that the ligaments, which are present at arrest, are unlikely to fail entirely by ductile rupture prior to the reinitiation of fracture at an arrested crack tip. Instead it is suggested that the ligaments fail by cleavage, whereupon they do not markedly affect the reinitiation K value, which thus correlates with K IC.

  2. Ionic and Wigner Glasses, Superionic Conductors, and Spinodal Electrostatic Gels: Dynamically Arrested Phases of the Primitive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the recently proposed self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of dynamic arrest, in this letter we show that the ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of a classical mixture of charged hard spheres (the so-called 'primitive model' of ionic solutions and molten salts) includes arrested phases corresponding to nonconducting ionic glasses, partially arrested states that represent solid electrolytes (or 'superionic' conductors), low-density colloidal Wigner glasses, and low-density electrostatic gels associated with arrested spinodal decomposition.

  3. Variability in case-mix adjusted in-hospital cardiac arrest rates (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M.; Yang, Lin; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nichol, Graham; Carr, Brendan G.; Mitra, Nandita; Bradley, Steven M.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Groeneveld, Peter W.


    Background It is unknown how in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) rates vary across hospitals and predictors of variability. Objectives Measure variability in IHCA across hospitals and determine if hospital-level factors predict differences in case-mix adjusted event rates. Research design Get with the Guidelines Resuscitation (GWTG-R) (n=433 hospitals) was used to identify IHCA events between 2003-2007. The American Hospital Association survey, Medicare, and US Census were used to obtain detailed information about GWTG-R hospitals. Subjects adult patients with IHCA Measures Case-mix adjusted predicted IHCA rates were calculated for each hospital and variability across hospitals was compared. A regression model was used to predict case-mix adjusted event rates using hospital measures of volume, nurse-to-bed ratio, percent ICU beds, palliative care services, urban designation, volume of black patients, income, trauma designation, academic designation, cardiac surgery capability and a patient risk score. Results We evaluated 103,117 adult IHCAs at 433 US hospitals. The case mix adjusted IHCA event rate was highly variable across hospitals, median 1/1000 bed days (interquartile range: 0.7-1.3 events/1000 bed-days). In a multivariable regression model, case-mix adjusted IHCA event rates were highest in urban hospitals (rate ratio [RR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.3, p=0.03) and hospitals with higher proportions of black patients (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, p=0.01) and lower in larger hospitals (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.45-0.66, p<.0001). Conclusion Case-mix adjusted IHCA event rates varied considerably across hospitals. Several hospital factors associated with higher IHCA event rates were consistent with factors often linked with lower hospital quality of care. PMID:22249921

  4. Arrest Decisions as Precludes To? An Evaluation of Policy Related Research. Volume I: Administrative Summary and Training Script. (United States)

    Neithercutt, M. G.; And Others

    The document is the first part of a study conducted to evaluate policy-related research on police arrest discretion as an alternative solution to arrest. It presents the administrative summary of the Arrest Decisions as Preludes To? (ADAPT) project and contains scripts intended for use by police departments as a staff training device. The…

  5. Growth arrest and differentiation-associated phosphoproteins in mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is thought to result from the expression of defects in the control of both cell proliferation and differentiation. In murine mesenchymal stem cells they have established that differentiation and proliferation can be mediated at a variety of distinct states in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In order to evaluate the role of cellular phosphoprotein (PP) expression in these regulatory processes, five different growth and differentiation-dependent states were compared. Cells in the following states were studied: (1) exponential growth; (2) arrest in serum-deficient medium; (3) arrest at the predifferentiation arrest state; (4) arrest at a state of nonterminal differentiation; and (5) arrest at a state of terminal differentiation. Whole cell lysates from each group were phosphorylated in vitro using [γ-32P]ATP and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two most interesting observations were established. First, a distinct PP with a molecular weight of 37 kD was expressed in all growth arrested cells but was not evident in rapidly growing cells. Second, two distinct differentiation-associated PP with molecular weights of 72 kD and 29 kD were expressed exclusively in nonterminally and terminally differentiated cells. Since the identification of the 37 kD cell cycle-dependent growth arrest-associated PP could be of great significance, they plan to further investigate the functional role of this phosphoprotein in the control of cellular proliferation

  6. Complement activation and its prognostic role in post-cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenei, Z M; Zima, E; Csuka, D;


    then allowed to rewarm to normothermia. All patients underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. On admission, at 6 and 24 h, blood samples were taken from the arterial catheter. In these, complement products (C3a, C3, C4d, C4, SC5b9 and Bb) were measured by ELISA in blood samples. Patients were...... followed up for 30 days; 22 patients (47.8%) died by the end of this period. We observed that complement activation (determined as the C3a to C3 ratio) was higher in non-survivors than in survivors at each time point. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, the C3a/C3 ratio determined 24 h after the...... initiation of therapeutic hypothermia predicted 30-day mortality regardless of age, sex and the APACHE II score. Complement activation occurs in post-cardiac arrest patients, and its extent correlates with 30-day survival. The C3a/C3 ratio might prove useful for estimating the prognosis of comatose post...

  7. Performance analysis of surge arrester on high voltage systems using ATP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallagownden, P.; Magumane, A.H. [Univ. Teknologi Petronas, Perak (Malaysia); Kanth, K.S.R. [Tenaga National Berhad (Malaysia)


    Lightning strikes are among the major factors that cause failures in electrical power systems. Phase to ground arresters are commonly installed at power transformer terminals to offer some lightning protection. However, it is important to understand the performance of metal oxide arresters under very fast transient overvoltages in order to determine the protection zone of the arrester and to achieve economical benefits. This study investigated lightning overvoltage protection in a complete three-phase scheme of a 500 KV substation. Overvoltages originated from direct lightning stroke on a phase of a real overhead line (OHL) model. The effect of the separation distance of the arrester from the transformer connected at the open end of the substations was investigated as well as the performance of the arrester for different substation configurations. In the first scenario, the connection of the arrester and transformer was done with a direct connection of an overhead line. In the second scenario, the connection of these devices was done through a cable. Both the overhead line and cable lengths were varied and the maximum overvoltages coming to the transformer were recorded. The results showed that there is a direct proportionality between overvoltages and length of the overhead line or cable. As long the length of the line or cable between the arrester and the transformer was increased, the vulnerability of the transformer to receive high overvoltages also increased. Surge overvoltages were found to be very sensitive to impedance of the line or cable. The direct connections of overhead lines between the arrester and transformer make it necessary to add some protective device. It was suggested that surge arresters should be installed every 200 meters along the overhead lines in order to ensure the safety of equipment. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. Hypothermic cardiac arrest: an 11 year review of ED management and outcome. (United States)

    Brunette, D D; McVaney, K


    The purpose of this study was to examine the emergency department (ED) management of hypothermic cardiac arrest and its outcome. The medical records of all patients with hypothermic cardiac arrest treated in the ED from January 1, 1988 to January 31, 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included initial body temperature, serum potassium, methods of rewarming, return of perfusing rhythm, and morbidity and mortality. Data were analyzed by descriptive methods. Eleven patients were treated in the ED resuscitation room for hypothermic cardiac arrest. Six patients were found in cardiac arrest in the field, one patient arrested during transport, and four patients arrested after ED arrival. The average initial temperature was 79.1 degrees F (range 69.0 degrees F to 86.7 degrees F). Seven patients received an ED thoracotomy with internal cardiac massage and warm mediastinal irrigation. Four patients had airway management in the ED and then direct transport to the operating room for cardiac bypass rewarming. Three of the seven patients who received an ED thoracotomy subsequently went to intraoperative cardiac bypass rewarming. Five of the seven (71.4%) patients who received an ED thoracotomy survived, versus none of the four patients (0%) who went directly to intraoperative cardiac bypass. A direct comparison of immediate ED thoracotomy versus intraoperative cardiac bypass without ED thoracotomy is cautiously made as this was an unmatched and nonrandomized study. Three of the surviving patients underwent intraoperative cardiac bypass rewarming after receiving an ED thoracotomy. In two of these patients a perfusing rhythm had been established after thoracotomy in the ED and before transport to the operating room for cardiac bypass. Only one of seven (14.3%) patients who arrested prehospital survived versus four of four (100%) who arrested in the ED. ED thoracotomy with internal cardiac massage and mediastinal irrigation rewarming is effective in the management

  9. Sudden Cardiac Death and Post Cardiac Arrest Syndrome. An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Endre


    Full Text Available A satisfactory neurologic outcome is the key factor for survival in patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD, however this is highly dependent on the haemodynamic status. Short term cardiopulmonary resuscitation and regained consciousness on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC is indicative of a better prognosis. The evaluation and treatment of SCD triggering factors and of underlying acute and chronic diseases will facilitate prevention and lower the risk of cardiac arrest. Long term CPR and a prolonged unconscious status after ROSC, in the Intensive Care Units or Coronary Care Units, indicates the need for specific treatment and supportive therapy including efforts to prevent hyperthermia. The prognosis of these patients is unpredictable within the first seventy two hours, due to unknown responses to therapeutic management and the lack of specific prognostic factors. Patients in these circumstances require the highest level of intensive care and aetiology driven treatment without any delay, independently of their coma state. Current guidelines sugest the use of multiple procedures in arriving at a diagnosis and prognosis of these critical cases.

  10. Dexmedetomidine Related Bradycardia Leading to Cardiac Arrest in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Chen2, K-S. Chen1,2, K. M. Chang2, W. M. Lee1,2, S. C. Chang1,2 and H. C. Wang1,2


    Full Text Available A 2-year-old, mixed breed female dog (16 kg underwent an exploratory laparotomy following ultrasonographic diagnosis of foreign body and a segment of small intestine intussusceptions. The patient was classified as an ASA II. Ketamine (1mg/kg, IV, and dexmedetomidine (2.5 µg/kg, IV, and morphine (0.6 mg/kg, SC were given as anesthetic premedication. Propofol (0.1 mg/kg, IV titrated to a total amount of 4 ml (2.5 mg/ kg was given for intubation. Asystole was occurred. Cardiac resuscitation was then conducted immediately. Atipamezole (0.1 ml was injected, but showed no response on ECG. Atropine (0.02 mg/kg was then injected, and a second dosage was given. Two-three mins later, the heart rate at 84 beats/min. The NIBP showed 203/132 with MAP 153 mmHg, and the SpO2 showed 95% after the cardiac function was regained. Dexmedetomidine related bradycardia leading to cardiac arrest has been suggested in this case.

  11. A conservative approach to esthetically treat stained arrested caries lesions. (United States)

    Al-Angari, Sarah S; Hara, Anderson T


    Esthetic treatment of stained arrested caries lesions (ACLs) has mostly been done using invasive restorative techniques. The aim of this paper was to propose and report the efficacy of a conservative approach based on dental bleaching to esthetically treat these lesions, both experimentally (extracted teeth) and clinically. In a laboratory experiment, ten extracted human teeth with stained ACLs in either pit and fissure or smooth surface were selected and treated with 15% carbamide peroxide gel, 4 h per day, for a total of 6 days. The second part of the paper reports a clinical case of pit and fissure-stained ACLs in four posterior teeth, which were treated with 40% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching. Digital photographs were taken in both parts to document the efficacy of the treatment. The lesions showed noticeable increase in color lightness indicating the efficacy and suitability of the proposed approach. By using the conservative clinical technique presented, the esthetics of most stained ACLs could be improved, eliminating the need for invasive restorative treatments. PMID:27092359

  12. Nitisinone Arrests but Does Not Reverse Ochronosis in Alkaptonuric Mice. (United States)

    Keenan, Craig M; Preston, Andrew J; Sutherland, Hazel; Wilson, Peter J; Psarelli, Eftychia E; Cox, Trevor F; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Gallagher, James A


    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultrarare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGD), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Loss of HGD function prevents metabolism of homogentisic acid (HGA), leading to increased levels of plasma HGA and urinary excretion. Excess HGA becomes deposited in collagenous tissues and subsequently undergoes polymerisation, principally in the cartilages of loaded joints, in a process known as ochronosis. This results in an early-onset, devastating osteoarthropathy for which there is currently no effective treatment. We recently described the natural history of ochronosis in a murine model of AKU, demonstrating that deposition of ochronotic pigment begins very early in life and accumulates with age. Using this model, we were able to show that lifetime treatment with nitisinone, a potential therapy for AKU, was able to completely prevent deposition of ochronotic pigment. However, although nitisinone has been shown to inhibit ochronotic deposition, whether it can also facilitate removal of existing pigment has not yet been examined. We describe here that midlife administration of nitisinone to AKU mice arrests further deposition of ochronotic pigment in the tibiofemoral joint, but does not result in the clearance of existing pigment. We also demonstrate the dose-dependent response of plasma HGA to nitisinone, highlighting its efficacy for personalised medicine, where dosage can be tailored to the individual AKU patient. PMID:25940034

  13. Efficiency of Super-Eddington Magnetically-Arrested Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    McKinney, Jonathan C; Avara, Mark


    The radiative efficiency of super-Eddington accreting black holes (BHs) is explored for magnetically-arrested disks (MADs), where magnetic flux builds-up to saturation near the BH. Our three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (GRRMHD) simulation of a spinning BH (spin $a/M=0.8$) accreting at $\\sim 50$ times Eddington shows a total efficiency $\\sim 50\\%$ when time-averaged and total efficiency $\\gtrsim 100\\%$ in moments. Magnetic compression by the magnetic flux near the rotating BH leads to a thin disk, whose radiation escapes via advection by a magnetized wind and via transport through a low-density channel created by a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet. The BZ efficiency is sub-optimal due to inertial loading of field lines by optically thick radiation, leading to BZ efficiency $\\sim 40\\%$ on the horizon and BZ efficiency $\\sim 5\\%$ by $r\\sim 400r_g$ (gravitational radii) via absorption by the wind. Importantly, radiation escapes at $r\\sim 400r_g$ with efficiency $\\eta\\approx 15\\%$ (lumi...

  14. Efficiency of Thin Magnetically-Arrested Disks Around Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Avara, Mark J; Reynolds, Chris S


    The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion disks around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disk theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height $H$ to radius $R$ of $H/R\\approx 0.10$) disks around moderately rotating BHs with $a/M=0.5$. First, our simulations, evolved for $108,000r_g/c$ (gravitational radius $r_g$ and speed of light $c$), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disk and builds-up to the magnetically-arrested disk (MAD) state. Second, our simulations of thin MADs show the disk achieves a radiative efficiency of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\approx 15\\%$ (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\sim 8\\%$ for $a/M=0.5$ and gives the same luminosity as a NT disk with $a/M\\approx ...

  15. The perception of children of elementary education about cardiorespiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariélli Terassi


    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA is a serious situation that occurs frequently in public environments, which makes assistance training of the general population of great importance. The objective was to understand the perception of children on CRA. Qualitative research conducted with children 8-10 years old enrolled in a private elementary school with a constructive proposal. Data collection occurred between the months of October and November 2013 in a recorded collective interview. As a criterion for inclusion students should be enrolled in the institution and accept to participate in the research with the consent of a guardian. Thirty children participated in the study. The students were divided into four groups: 5th year, 4th year, 3rd year A and 3rd year B, with an average of 08 students per group. The interviews were analyzed using the Bardin content analysis methodology. From the speeches, two categories emerged: Child's prior knowledge on CRA and how to act on the event of a CRA. Children associate the event of sudden CRA to a condition in which the heart and/or lungs suddenly stop acting. Seeking emergency assistance was reported as one of the main actions to be taken if a person is unconscious. It was observed that the 5th graders had best prior knowledge about the topic CRA when compared to students in the 3rd year. The thematic approach of CRA in schools contributes to the exchange of experiences, awareness of children and building new knowledge-oriented health education.

  16. Intravenous ranitidine: Rapid bolus can lead to cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh J Upadhyay


    Full Text Available This is a rare case report of a 30-year-old male, who was admitted to the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Dental College for a malunited fracture of the mandible and zygomatic bones. He was given oral medications namely, cefixime, metronidazole, ondansetron, and ranitidine for three days prior to the operation with complete normal preoperative workup. He had no significant past medical or family history. On the day of the operation, he was given injectable dexamethasone, cefotaxime, ondansetron, ranitidine, and metronidazole half-an-hour prior to the operation. In less than five minutes of giving a bolus ranitidine injection, the patient developed a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated by the anesthetist team on duty. He was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU on a ventilator, which was soon removed and the patient was off vasopressors, with stable vitals for 24 hours after the event. He was then transferred to the general ward of Medicine Department and observed for a further two days during which the patient remained uneventful and was finally transferred back to the Dental Department.

  17. Intravenous ranitidine: Rapid bolus can lead to cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Upadhyay, Kamlesh J; Parmar, Sarita J; Parikh, Rohan Pravinbhai; Gauswami, Prashant K; Dadhaniya, Nikunj; Surela, Abhilash


    This is a rare case report of a 30-year-old male, who was admitted to the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Dental College for a malunited fracture of the mandible and zygomatic bones. He was given oral medications namely, cefixime, metronidazole, ondansetron, and ranitidine for three days prior to the operation with complete normal preoperative workup. He had no significant past medical or family history. On the day of the operation, he was given injectable dexamethasone, cefotaxime, ondansetron, ranitidine, and metronidazole half-an-hour prior to the operation. In less than five minutes of giving a bolus ranitidine injection, the patient developed a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated by the anesthetist team on duty. He was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on a ventilator, which was soon removed and the patient was off vasopressors, with stable vitals for 24 hours after the event. He was then transferred to the general ward of Medicine Department and observed for a further two days during which the patient remained uneventful and was finally transferred back to the Dental Department. PMID:25969659

  18. A Literature Review Revisiting Phenytoin-Induced Sinus Arrest. (United States)

    Parsai, Shireen; Hariri, Imad; Taleb, Mohammad; Yoon, Youngsook


    Classically, phenytoin (PTN) infusion for the treatment of status epilepticus has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular toxicity, including dysrhythmias, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse. Subsequently, fosphenytoin (FOS) was introduced on the market in 1997 with claims of having less cardiac toxicity. However, since then, many accounts of cardiac events have been reported undermining these claims. FOS gained popularity due to its water solubility, which allows 3 times faster infusion in comparison with PTN with less venous irritation and local toxicity. FOS is the phosphate ester prodrug of PTN and is rapidly converted to PTN independent of the dose and rate of administration. Intravenous FOS and PTN are bioequivalent. Adverse cardiac effects of both intravenous FOS and PTN have been correlated to the rate of infusion, concentration of the agent, known risk factors, or pre-existing hypersensitivity, and most cases have been identified after infusing a loading dose of these medications. This case report is unique, in that, the patient developed sinus arrest while concurrently receiving oral PTN and intravenous FOS. Clinicians should be more cognizant of the association of FOS and PTN with adverse cardiac events. Baseline electrocardiogram should be obtained on all patients prescribed FOS or PTN to identify underlying cardiac problems that may place the patient in a higher risk category. Telemetry should be performed on all patients receiving PTN in an inpatient setting. PMID:25549077

  19. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.


    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  20. Intravenous ranitidine: Rapid bolus can lead to cardiac arrest (United States)

    Upadhyay, Kamlesh J; Parmar, Sarita J; Parikh, Rohan Pravinbhai; Gauswami, Prashant K; Dadhaniya, Nikunj; Surela, Abhilash


    This is a rare case report of a 30-year-old male, who was admitted to the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Dental College for a malunited fracture of the mandible and zygomatic bones. He was given oral medications namely, cefixime, metronidazole, ondansetron, and ranitidine for three days prior to the operation with complete normal preoperative workup. He had no significant past medical or family history. On the day of the operation, he was given injectable dexamethasone, cefotaxime, ondansetron, ranitidine, and metronidazole half-an-hour prior to the operation. In less than five minutes of giving a bolus ranitidine injection, the patient developed a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated by the anesthetist team on duty. He was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on a ventilator, which was soon removed and the patient was off vasopressors, with stable vitals for 24 hours after the event. He was then transferred to the general ward of Medicine Department and observed for a further two days during which the patient remained uneventful and was finally transferred back to the Dental Department. PMID:25969659

  1. Association of National Initiatives to Improve Cardiac Arrest Management With Rates of Bystander Intervention and Patient Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K; Folke, Fredrik;


    IMPORTANCE Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival. OBJECTIVE To examine...... temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which...

  2. Using growth and arrest of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities and Lagrangian simulations to study high-rate material strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments applying a supported shock through mating surfaces (Atwood number = 1) with geometrical perturbations have been proposed for studying strength at strain rates up to 107/s using Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. Buttler et al. recently reported experimental results for RM instability growth in copper but with an unsupported shock applied by high explosives and the geometrical perturbations on the opposite free surface (Atwood number = −1). This novel configuration allowed detailed experimental observation of the instability growth and arrest. We present results and interpretation from numerical simulations of the Buttler RM instability experiments. Highly-resolved, two-dimensional simulations were performed using a Lagrangian hydrocode and the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) strength model. The model predictions show good agreement with the data. The numerical simulations are used to examine various assumptions previously made in an analytical model and to estimate the sensitivity of such experiments to material strength.

  3. Separation of craniopagus Siamese twins using cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest. (United States)

    Cameron, D E; Reitz, B A; Carson, B S; Long, D M; Dufresne, C R; Vander Kolk, C A; Maxwell, L G; Tilghman, D M; Nichols, D G; Wetzel, R C


    Occipitally joined craniopagus Siamese twins were separated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest. The 7-month-old infants shared a large sagittal venous sinus that precluded conventional neurosurgical approach because of risk of exsanguination and air embolism. After craniotomy and preliminary exposure of the sinus, each twin underwent sternotomy and total cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermia. Hypothermic circulatory arrest allowed safe division and subsequent reconstruction of the sinus remnants. Several unusual problems were encountered, including transfusion of a large blood volume from one extracorporeal circuit to the other through the common venous sinus, deleterious warming of the exposed brain during circulatory arrest, and thrombosis of both pump oxygenators. Both infants survived, although recovery was complicated in each by neurologic injury, cranial wound infection, and hydrocephalus. This case demonstrates the valuable supportive role of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest in the management of complex surgical problems of otherwise inoperable patients. PMID:2682024

  4. Therapeutic Hypothermia and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in a Child with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Spurkeland


    Full Text Available Neurologic outcomes following pediatric cardiac arrest are consistently poor. Early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been shown to have positive effects on both survival to hospital discharge, and improved neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest. Additionally, the use of therapeutic hypothermia may improve survival in pediatric cardiac arrest patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We report a child with congenital hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, in whom the early initiation of effective prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and subsequent administration of therapeutic hypothermia contributed to a positive outcome with no gross neurologic sequelae. Continuing efforts should be made to promote and employ high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which likely contributed to the positive outcome of this case. Further research will be necessary to develop and solidify national guidelines for the implementation of therapeutic hypothermia in selected subpopulations of children with OHCA.

  5. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Marguery


    Full Text Available In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period of residence of five years to foreign Europeans citizens in order for them to rely on an optional ground for non-execution of a European arrest warrant (Article 4(6 of the Framework Deci- sion on the European arrest warrant. Home nationals are not obliged to comply with a residence requirement. It is possible for Member States to justify an exception to the principle of non-discrimination of European citizens with a legitimate inter- est. The chances of social reintegration of a person convicted constitute such an interest. The national measure resulting in a difference of treatment must be proportional to that interest.

  6. Biofilm Community Dynamics in Bench-Scale Annular Reactors Simulating Arrestment of Chloraminated Drinking Water Nitrification (United States)

    Annular reactors (ARs) were used to study biofilm community succession and provide an ecological insight during nitrification arrestment through simultaneously increasing monochloramine (NH2Cl) and chlorine to nitrogen mass ratios, resulting in four operational periods (I to IV)....

  7. Arrest of metamorphosis induced by x rays in flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrest of metamorphosis induced by x irradiation at prepupal stage was studied histologically, and age dependency of radiosensitivity with regard to this effect was examined. Prepupae did not cease their development soon after irradiation, but continued to develop and evaginated the head and the thorax. At this point, development came to a stop. In these animals, not only the histogenesis of imaginal tissues but also the histolysis of larval tissues was arrested. Since the arrest of development was not observed after irradiation at the pupal stage, the effect was considered to result from inhibition of initiation of postpupation development. A possible mechanism of the arrest of postpupation development in the irradiated animals was discussed in connection with the neuroendocrine control of insect development

  8. Temporal differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagai, Akshay; McNally, Bryan F.; Al-Khatib, Sana M.;


    Understanding temporal differences in the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has important implications for developing preventative strategies and optimizing systems for OHCA care....

  9. Optimizing Neurologically Intact Survival from Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Goodloe


    Full Text Available The U.S. national out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates, although improving recently, have remained suboptimal despite the collective efforts of individuals, communities, and professional societies. Only until very recently, and still with inconsistency, has focus been placed specifically on survival with pre-arrest neurologic function. The reality of current approaches to sudden cardiac arrest is that they are often lacking an integrative, multi-disciplinary approach, and without deserved funding and outcome analysis. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary group of authors propose practice, process, technology, and policy initiatives to improve cardiac arrest survival with a focus on neurologic function. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  10. Hospital discharge diagnoses of ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest were useful for epidemiologic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, M L; van Hemel, N M; Leufkens, H G M;


    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the validity of hospital discharge diagnosis regarding ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. METHODS: We identified patients whose record in the PHARMO record linkage system database showed a code for ventricular or unspecified cardiac arrhythmias according to codes...

  11. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Beernink, T.M.J.; Bosch, F.H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C.; Putten, van M.J.A.M.


    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care u

  12. Radiological analyses of France Telecom surge arresters. Study performed for the CGT FAPT Cantal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the radiological characterization of various versions of surge arresters used in the past to protect telephone lines against over-voltages. These equipment, which use various radioactive materials, were assessed by gamma radiation flow measurements, alpha-beta-gamma count rate measurements, dose rate measurements, gamma spectrometry analyses, tritium emanation test, radon 222 emanation test, smearing. Recommendations are formulated to manage radioactive surge arresters which are still being operated

  13. Difference of cell cycle arrests induced by lidamycin in human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Liu, Xia; He, Hongwei; Feng, Yun; Zhang, Min; Ren, Kaihuan; Shao, Rongguang


    Lidamycin (LDM) is a member of the enediyne antibiotic family. It is undergoing phase I clinical trials in China as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which LDM induced cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells. The results showed that LDM induced G1 arrest in p53 wild-type MCF-7 cells at low concentrations, and caused both G1 and G2/M arrests at higher concentrations. In contrast, LDM induced only G2/M arrest in p53-mutant MCF-7/DOX cells. Western blotting analysis indicated that LDM-induced G1 and G2/M arrests in MCF-7 cells were associated with an increase of p53 and p21, and a decrease of phosphorylated retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk), Cdc2 and cyclin B1 protein levels. However, LDM-induced G2/M arrest in MCF-7/DOX cells was correlated with the reduction of cyclin B1 expression. Further study indicated that the downregulation of cyclin B1 by LDM in MCF-7 cells was associated with decreasing cyclin B1 mRNA levels and promoting protein degradation, whereas it was only due to inducing cyclin B1 protein degradation in MCF-7/DOX cells. In addition, activation of checkpoint kinases Chk1 or Chk2 maybe contributed to LDM-induced cell cycle arrest. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that LDM induces different cell cycle arrests in human breast cancer cells, which are dependent on drug concentration and p53 status. These findings are helpful in understanding the molecular anti-cancer mechanisms of LDM and support its clinical trials. PMID:16428935

  14. Crack arrest model for a piezoelectric strip subjected to Mode-I loadings


    R.R. Bhargava; Amit Setia


    Purpose: The present paper aims at proposing a crack arrest model for an infinitely long narrow, poledceramic strip weakened by a finite hairline straight crack when the edges of the strip are subjected to combinedmechanical and electrical loads.Design/methodology/approach: (Model) As a consequence of loads the rims of crack open forming a yieldzone ahead of each tip of the crack. To arrest the crack from further opening the rims of the yield zones aresubjected to normal cohesive quadraticall...

  15. TGEV nucleocapsid protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of p53 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Xingang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)


    Highlights: • TGEV N protein reduces cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. • TGEV N protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating p53 signaling. • TGEV N protein plays important roles in TGEV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. - Abstract: Our previous studies showed that TGEV infection could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of p53 signaling in cultured host cells. However, it is unclear which viral gene causes these effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGEV nucleocapsid (N) protein on PK-15 cells. We found that TGEV N protein suppressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis. Characterization of various cellular proteins that are involved in regulating cell cycle progression demonstrated that the expression of N gene resulted in an accumulation of p53 and p21, which suppressed cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdk2 expression. Moreover, the expression of TGEV N gene promoted translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspase-3, resulting in cell apoptosis in the transfected PK-15 cells following cell cycle arrest. Further studies showed that p53 inhibitor attenuated TGEV N protein induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and apoptosis through reversing the expression changes of cdc2, cdk2 and cyclin B1 and the translocation changes of Bax and cytochrome c induced by TGEV N protein. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV N protein might play an important role in TGEV infection-induced p53 activation and cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis occurrence.

  16. Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?


    Steven D. Levitt


    A strong, negative empirical correlation exists between arrest rates and reported crime rates. While this relationship has often been interpreted as support for the deterrence hypothesis, it is equally consistent with incapacitation effects, and/or a spurious correlation that would be induced by measurement error in reported crime rates. This paper attempts to discriminate between deterrence, incapacitation, and measurement error as explanations for the empirical relationship between arrest r...

  17. Effect of four resuscitation methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest


    Ya-hua LIU; Xiu-man LI; Li-xiang WANG


    Objective To observe the effects of four cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest. The four CPR methods included chest compression CPR (C-CPR), compression under the diaphragm CPR (D-CPR), abdominal compression CPR (A-CPR), and abdominal wall lifting and compression CPR (L-CPR). Methods  A total of 28 healthy domestic pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The pig respiratory arrest model was reproduced by intravenous injection of s...

  18. Establishing the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand out-of-hospital cardiac arrest Epistry


    Beck, Ben; Bray, Janet; Smith, Karen; Walker, Tony; Grantham, Hugh; Hein, Cindy; Thorrowgood, Melanie; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Tony; Dicker, Bridget; Swain, Andy; Bailey, Mark; Bosley, Emma; Pemberton, Katherine; Cameron, Peter


    Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a global health problem with low survival. Regional variation in survival has heightened interest in combining cardiac arrest registries to understand and improve OHCA outcomes. While individual OHCA registries exist in Australian and New Zealand ambulance services, until recently these registries have not been combined. The aim of this protocol paper is to describe the rationale and methods of the Australian Resuscitation Outcomes Consort...

  19. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review


    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung


    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  20. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults


    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.


    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, wa...

  1. The Oxygen-Rich Postnatal Environment Induces Cardiomyocyte Cell-Cycle Arrest through DNA Damage Response


    Bao\\xa0N. Puente; Wataru Kimura; Shalini\\xa0A. Muralidhar; Jesung Moon; James\\xa0F. Amatruda; Kate\\xa0L. Phelps; David Grinsfelder; Beverly\\xa0A. Rothermel; Rui Chen; Joseph\\xa0A. Garcia; Celio\\xa0X. Santos; SuWannee Thet; Eiichiro Mori; Michael\\xa0T. Kinter; Paul\\xa0M. Rindler


    The mammalian heart has a remarkable regenerative capacity for a short period of time after birth, after which the majority of cardiomyocytes permanently exit cell cycle. We sought to determine the primary post-natal event that results in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest. We hypothesized that transition to the oxygen rich postnatal environment is the upstream signal that results in cell cycle arrest of cardiomyocytes. Here we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative DNA damage, and D...

  2. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentin caries in preschool children by topical fluorides


    Duangthip, Duangporn


    Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...

  3. Local stresses, dyke arrest and surface deformation in volcanic edificesand rift zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Brenner


    Full Text Available Field studies indicate that nearly all eruptions in volcanic edifices and rift zones are supplied with magma through fractures (dykes that are opened by magmatic overpressure. While (inferred dyke injections are frequent during unrest periods, volcanic eruptions are, in comparison, infrequent, suggesting that most dykes become arrested at certain depths in the crust, in agreement with field studies. The frequency of dyke arrest can be partly explained by the numerical models presented here which indicate that volcanic edifices and rift zones consisting of rocks of contrasting mechanical properties, such as soft pyroclastic layers and stiff lava flows, commonly develop local stress fields that encourage dyke arrest. During unrest, surface deformation studies are routinely used to infer the geometries of arrested dykes, and some models (using homogeneous, isotropic half-spaces infer large grabens to be induced by such dykes. Our results, however, show that the dyke-tip tensile stresses are normally much greater than the induced surface stresses, making it difficult to explain how a dyke can induce surface stresses in excess of the tensile (or shear strength while the same strength is not exceeded at the (arrested dyke tip. Also, arrested dyke tips in eroded or active rift zones are normally not associated with dyke-induced grabens or normal faults, and some dykes arrested within a few metres of the surface do not generate faults or grabens. The numerical models show that abrupt changes in Young's moduli(stiffnesses, layers with relatively high dyke-normal compressive stresses (stress barriers, and weak horizontal contacts may make the dyke-induced surface tensile stresses too small for significant fault or graben formation to occur in rift zones or volcanic edifices. Also, these small surface stresses may have no simple relation to the dyke geometry or the depth to its tip. Thus, for a layered crust with weak contacts, straightforward

  4. Double Bolus Thrombolysis for Suspected Massive Pulmonary Embolism during Cardiac Arrest


    Gerard O’Connor; Gareth Fitzpatrick; Ayman El-Gammal; Peadar Gilligan


    More than 70% of cardiac arrest cases are caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or pulmonary embolism (PE). Although thrombolytic therapy is a recognised therapy for both AMI and PE, its indiscriminate use is not routinely recommended during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We present a case describing the successful use of double dose thrombolysis during cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary embolism. Notwithstanding the relative lack of high-level evidence, this case suggests a scena...


    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise


    RESEARCH SUMMARY: This article examines the growth in marijuana misdemeanor arrests in New York City (NYC) from 1980 to 2003 and its differential impact on blacks and Hispanics. Since 1980, the New York City Police Department (NYPD) expanded its use of arrest and detention for minor offenses under its quality-of-life (QOL) policing initiative. Arrest data indicate that during the 1990s the primary focus of QOL policing became smoking marijuana in public view (MPV). By 2000, MPV had become the most common misdemeanor arrest, accounting for 15% of all NYC adult arrests and rivaling controlled substance arrests as the primary focus of drug abuse control. Of note, most MPV arrestees have been black or Hispanic. Furthermore, black and Hispanic MPV arrestees have been more likely to be detained prior to arraignment, convicted, and sentenced to jail than their white counterparts. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: In light of the disparities, we recommend that the NYPD consider scaling back on MPV enforcement and reducing the harshness of treatment by routinely issuing Desk Appearance Tickets when the person is not wanted on other charges, so that most MPV arrestees would not be detained. Furthermore, we recommend that legislators should consider making smoking marijuana in public a violation and not a misdemeanor. Lastly, we suggest ways that NYC could monitor the effectiveness of these policy modifications to assure that the city continues to meet its goals for order maintenance. PMID:18841246

  6. Protein synthetic requirements for caffeine amelioration of radiation-induced G/sub 2/-arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated cells are arrested in G/sub 2/ (transition point [TP] = 32 min before cell selection in mitosis). Irradiated cells do not recover from G/sub 2/ arrest in the presence of cycloheximide (CHM) indicating dependence of recovery on protein synthesis. Irradiated cells in the presence of caffeine progress to mitosis without arrest. The authors investigate whether irradiated cells in the presence of caffeine require protein synthesis to progress to mitosis. Mitotic cell selection was used to monitor the progression of irradiated CHO cells (150 rad) during exposure to 5 mM caffeine and/or 50 μg/ml CHM. Protein synthesis inhibition was confirmed using /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation. Cells exposed to CHM alone are arrested in G/sub 2/ (TP=49 min), thus cells beyond this point have synthesized all proteins necessary for entry into mitosis. In the presence of caffeine, unirradiated cells exposed to CHM are not arrested at all in G/sub 2/, instead arrest occurs near the S/G/sub 2/ boundary (TP=95 min) indicating that caffeine alleviates the dependence of G/sub 2/ cell progression on protein synthesis. However, irradiated cells exposed to both caffeine and CHM are only able to progress to mitosis if beyond the CHM-TP. Irradiated cells in the presence of caffeine thus behave as untreated cells and require protein synthesis for progression to mitosis when prior to the CHM-TP

  7. Sudden cardiac arrest in a patient with epilepsy induced by chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Liu; Weicheng Hao; Xiaoming Yang; Yimin Wang; Yu Su


    The present study analyzed a patient with epilepsy due to chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface underwent sudden cardiac arrest. Paradoxical brain discharge, which occurred prior to epileptic seizures, induced a sudden cardiac arrest. However, when the focal brain pressure was relieved, cardiac arrest disappeared. A 27-year-old male patient underwent pre-surgical video-electroencephalogram monitoring for 160 hours. During monitoring, secondary tonic-clonic seizures occurred five times. A burst of paradoxical brain discharges occurred at 2-19 seconds (mean 8 seconds) prior to epileptic seizures. After 2-3 seconds, sudden cardiac arrest occurred and lasted for 12-22 seconds (average 16 seconds). The heart rate subsequently returned to a normal rate. Results revealed arachnoid pachymenia and adhesions, as well as mucus on the focal cerebral surface, combined with poor circulation and increased pressure. Intracranial electrodes were placed using surgical methods. Following removal of the arachnoid adhesions and mucus on the local cerebral surface, paradoxical brain discharge and epileptic seizures occurred three times, but sudden cardiac arrest was not recorded during 150-hour monitoring. Post-surgical histological examination indicated meningitis. Experimental findings suggested that paradoxical brain discharge led to cardiac arrest instead of epileptic seizures; the insult was associated with chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface, which subsequently led to hypertension and poor blood circulation in focal cerebral areas.

  8. Role of Surface to Volume Ratio of Zinc Oxide Arrester Blocks on the Energy Absorption Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional life of a zinc oxide arrester block is largely dependent on its energy absorption capability. This capability is an important performance characteristic of a lighting arrester which leads to enhanced reliability of a surge protection system. An arrester block is usually cylindrical in shape with two flat surfaces. Injected energy of transient electrical surge into the arrester body is transformed into heat and dissipated through the surface of the disc body. This study has been conducted to observe whether the higher surface to volume (S/V) ratio of an arrester block enhances the capability of energy absorption or not. The round side or C-surface of the cylindrical disc was ground by diamond wheel to transform into hexagonal shape. By making the modification of the geometrical shape an increase of about 11% in S/V ratio was achieved. ZnO arrester blocks of both shapes were tested for energy. The average energy absorption capability for the hexagonal discs was found to be 483−3 compared to that of 357−3 for the discs having the cylindrical shape. Thus, about 35% increase in energy absorption capability is observed for the hexagonal discs. This knowledge can be useful in designing the geometry of the device for improved functional reliability of electrical system.

  9. Master curve based correlation between static initiation toughness KIC and crack arrest toughness KIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically the ASME reference curve concept assumes a constant relation between static fracture toughness initiation toughness and crack arrest toughness. In reality, this is not the case. Experimental results show that the difference between KIC and KIa is material specific. For some materials there is a big difference while for others they nearly coincide. So far, however, no systematic study regarding a possible correlation between the two parameters has been performed. The recent Master curve method, developed for brittle fracture initiation estimation, has enabled a consistent analysis of fracture initiation toughness data. The Master curve method has been modified to be able to describe also crack arrest toughness. Here, this modified 'crack arrest master curve' is further validated and used to develop a simple, but yet (for safety assessment purpose) adequately accurate correlation between the two fracture toughness parameters. The correlation enables the estimation of crack arrest toughness from small Charpy-sized static fracture toughness tests. The correlation is valid for low Nickel steels ≤ (1.2% Ni). If a more accurate description of the crack arrest toughness is required, it can either be measured experimentally or estimated from instrumented Charpy-V crack arrest load information. (orig.)

  10. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review. (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos


    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247