Sample records for array-based nuclear run-on

  1. Time-dependent c-Myc transactomes mapped by Array-based nuclear run-on reveal transcriptional modules in human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshui Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The definition of transcriptional networks through measurements of changes in gene expression profiles and mapping of transcription factor binding sites is limited by the moderate overlap between binding and gene expression changes and the inability to directly measure global nuclear transcription (coined "transactome". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a method to measure nascent nuclear gene transcription with an Array-based Nuclear Run-On (ANRO assay using commercial microarray platforms. This strategy provides the missing component, the transactome, to fully map transcriptional networks. ANRO measurements in an inducible c-Myc expressing human P493-6 B cell model reveals time-dependent waves of transcription, with a transactome early after c-Myc induction that does not persist at a late, steady-state phase, when genes that are regulated by c-Myc and E2F predominate. Gene set matrix analysis further uncovers functionally related groups of genes putatively regulated by waves of transcription factor motifs following Myc induction, starting with AP1 and CREB that are followed by EGR1, NFkB and STAT, and ending with E2F, Myc and ARNT/HIF motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By coupling ANRO with previous global mapping of c-Myc binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP in P493-6 cells, we define a set of transcriptionally regulated direct c-Myc target genes and pave the way for the use of ANRO to comprehensively map any transcriptional network.

  2. Nuclear power plants run on money and expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expertise is an essential ingredient in the successful exploitation of nuclear energy. Expertise is based on experience, training, research and information exchange. The present energy field is very dynamic. Nuclear engineering education system must respond fast to the anticipated aging transient and the professionals must be ready for life-long learning. Despite that heavy regulation and large, long duration investments retard the rate of technological evolution in nuclear energy industry, there are many interesting developments in the horizon - both more competitive reactor types and improved fuel cycles. Nuclear energy field can offer good careers also in the future. (orig.)

  3. Isolation of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don Nuclei and Measurement of Rate of Tryptophan decarboxylase Gene Transcription Using Nuclear Run-On Transcription Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available An accurate assessment of transcription 'rate' is often desired to describe the promoter activity. In plants, isolation of transcriptionally active nuclei and their subsequent use in nuclear run-on assays has been challenging and therefore limit an accurate measurement of gene transcription 'rate'. Catharanthus roseus has emerged as a model medicinal plant as it exhibits an unsurpassed spectrum of chemodiversity, producing over 130 alkaloids through the terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA pathway and therefore serves as a 'molecular hub' to understand gene expression profiles.The protocols presented here streamline, adapt and optimize the existing methods of nuclear run-on assay for use in C. roseus. Here, we fully describe all the steps to isolate transcriptionally active nuclei from C. roseus leaves and utilize them to perform nuclear run-on transcription assay. Nuclei isolated by this method transcribed at a level consistent with their response to external stimuli, as transcription rate of TDC gene was found to be higher in response to external stimuli i.e. when seedlings were subjected to UV-B light or to methyl jasmonate (MeJA. However, the relative transcript abundance measured parallel through qRT-PCR was found to be inconsistent with the synthesis rate indicating that some post transcriptional events might have a role in transcript stability in response to stimuli.Our study provides an optimized, efficient and inexpensive method of isolation of intact nuclei and nuclear 'run-on' transcription assay to carry out in-situ measurement of gene transcription rate in Catharanthus roseus. This would be valuable in investigating the transcriptional and post transcriptional response of other TIA pathway genes in C. roseus. Isolated nuclei may also provide a resource that could be used for performing the chip assay as well as serve as the source of nuclear proteins for in-vitro EMSA studies. Moreover, nascent nuclear run-on transcript could be further

  4. Isolation of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Nuclei and Measurement of Rate of Tryptophan decarboxylase Gene Transcription Using Nuclear Run-On Transcription Assay


    Santosh Kumar; Sabhyata Bhatia


    Background An accurate assessment of transcription ‘rate’ is often desired to describe the promoter activity. In plants, isolation of transcriptionally active nuclei and their subsequent use in nuclear run-on assays has been challenging and therefore limit an accurate measurement of gene transcription ‘rate’. Catharanthus roseus has emerged as a model medicinal plant as it exhibits an unsurpassed spectrum of chemodiversity, producing over 130 alkaloids through the terpenoid indole alkaloid (T...

  5. Concurrent array-based queue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard


    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  6. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie


    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  7. Array-based approaches to bacterial transcriptome analysis


    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre


    Microarray technology has been extensively used to compare or quantify genome-wide mRNA levels, a key factor in the adaptive response of bacteria to the environment. Classical gene expression arrays based on an existing genome annotation with relatively few probes for each gene, are well suited to assess the expression levels of all annotated transcripts under many different conditions. Newer genomic tiling arrays that cover both strands of a genome by overlapping probes and, more recently, R...

  8. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Amperometric Array-Based Biosensors


    Taurino, Irene; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro


    For diagnostic and therapeutic purposes an accurate determination of multiple metabolites is often required. Amperometric devices are attractive tools to quantify biological compounds due to the direct conversion of a biochemical event to a current. This review addresses recent developments in the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to enhance detection ca- pability of amperometric array-based biosensors. More specifically, the principal techniques for multiwalled carbon nanotube incorporatio...

  9. Linear Microbolometric Array Based on VOx Thin Film (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Qu


    In this paper, a linear microbolometric array based on VOx thin film is proposed. The linear microbolometric array is fabricated by using micromachining technology, and its thermo-sensitive VOx thin film has excellent infrared response spectrum and TCR characteristics. Integrated with CMOS circuit, an experimentally prototypical monolithic linear microbolometric array is designed and fabricated. The testing results of the experimental linear array show that the responsivity of linear array can approach 18KV/W and is potential for infrared image systems.

  10. Small Area Array-Based LED Luminaire Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Yuan


    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency LED luminaire designs based on small area array-based gallium nitride diodes. Novel GaN-based LED array designs are described, specifically addressing the thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements for the incorporation of such arrays into viable solid-state LED luminaires. This work resulted in the demonstration of an integrated luminaire prototype of 1000 lumens cool white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 89.4 lm/W at CCT of 6000oK and CRI of 73; and performance of 903 lumens warm white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 63.0 lm/W at CCT of 2800oK and CRI of 82. In addition, up to 1275 lumens cool white light output at 114.2 lm/W and 1156 lumens warm white light output at 76.5 lm/W were achieved if the reflector was not used. The success to integrate small area array-based LED designs and address thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements was clearly achieved in these luminaire prototypes with outstanding performance and high efficiency.

  11. Does Planck mass run on the cosmological horizon scale?


    Robbers, Georg; Afshordi, Niayesh; Doran, Michael


    Einstein's theory of general relativity, which contains a universal value of the Planck mass, has been so far successfully invoked to explain gravitational dynamics from sub-millimeter scales to the scale of the cosmological horizon. However, one may envisage that in alternative theories of gravity, the effective value of the Planck mass (or Newton's constant), which quantifies the coupling of matter to metric perturbations, can run on the cosmological horizon scale. In this letter, we study ...

  12. Planar patterned stretchable electrode arrays based on flexible printed circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For stretchable electronics to achieve broad industrial application, they must be reliable to manufacture and must perform robustly while undergoing large deformations. We present a new strategy for creating planar stretchable electronics and demonstrate one such device, a stretchable microelectrode array based on flex circuit technology. Stretchability is achieved through novel, rationally designed perforations that provide islands of low strain and continuous low-strain pathways for conductive traces. This approach enables the device to maintain constant electrical properties and planarity while undergoing applied strains up to 15%. Materials selection is not limited to polyimide composite devices and can potentially be implemented with either soft or hard substrates and can incorporate standard metals or new nano-engineered conductors. By using standard flex circuit technology, our planar microelectrode device achieved constant resistances for strains up to 20% with less than a 4% resistance offset over 120 000 cycles at 10% strain. (paper)

  13. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

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    Liu Jinping


    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  14. Tier 3- DarkStar engine run on ramp (United States)


    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle undergoing an engine run on the ramp at, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. More than two years passed before the second Darkstar prototype (article #696) took to the air on June 29, 1998. The vehicle made a total of five flights, the last on January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  15. Array-based GNSS Ionospheric Sensing: Estimability and Precision Analyses (United States)

    Teunissen, Peter


    Array-based GNSS Ionospheric Sensing: Estimability and Precision Analyses PJG Teunissen1,2, A Khodabandeh1 and B Zhang1 1GNSS Research Centre, Curtin University, Perth, Australia 2Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Introduction: The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have proved to be an effective means of measuring the Earth's ionosphere. The well-known geometry-free linear combinations of the GNSS data serve as the input of an external ionospheric model to capture both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the ionosphere. Next to the slant ionospheric delays experienced by the GNSS antennas, the geometry-free combinations also contain additional unknown delays that are caused by the presence of the carrier-phase ambiguous cycles and/or the code instrumental delays. That the geometry-free combinations, without an external ionospheric model, cannot unbiasedly determine the slant ionospheric delays reveals the lack of information content in the GNSS data. Motivation and objectives: With the advent of modernized multi-frequency signals, one is confronted with many different combinations of the GNSS data that are capable of sensing the ionosphere. Owing to such diversity and the lack of information content in the GNSS data, various estimable ionospheric delays of different interpretations (and of different precision) can therefore be formed. How such estimable ionospheric delays should be interpreted and the extent to which they contribute to the precision of the unbiased slant ionosphere are the topics of this contribution. Approach and results: In this contribution, we apply S-system theory to study the estimability and precision of the estimable slant ionospheric delays that are measured by the multi-frequency GNSS data. Two different S-systems are presented, leading to two different estimable parameters of different precision: 1) the phase-driven ionospheric delays and 2) the code-driven ionospheric delays

  16. 75 FR 32484 - Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and... (United States)


    ... Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and Interpretation. The purpose of the public meeting is to seek input on challenges related to performance evaluation, determination of clinical significance, result... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on...

  17. Activation Pattern of Lower Leg Muscles in Running on Asphalt, Gravel and Grass. (United States)

    Dolenec, Aleš; Štirn, Igor; Strojnik, Vojko


    Running is performed on different natural surfaces (outdoor) and artificial surfaces (indoor). Different surface characteristics cause modification of the lower leg muscle activation pattern to adopt ankle stiffness to these characteristics. So the purpose of our investigation was to study changes of lower leg muscles activation pattern in running on different natural running surfaces. Six male and two female runners participated. The participants ran at a freely chosen velocity in trials on asphalt while in trials on gravel, and grass surfaces they were attempting to reach similar velocities as in the trials on asphalt. Muscle activation of the peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius medialis of the right leg was recorded. Running on asphalt increased average EMG amplitude of the m. tibialis anterior in the pre-activation phase and the m. gastrocnemius medialis in the entire contact phase compared to running on grass from 0.222 ± 0.113 V to 0.276 ± 0.136 V and from 0.214 ± 0.084 V to 0.238 ± 0.088 V, respectively. The average EMG of m. peroneus brevis in pre-activation phase increased from 0.156 ± 0.026 V to 0.184 ± 0.455 V in running on grass in comparison to running on gravel. Running on different surfaces is connected with different activation patterns of lower leg muscles. Running on asphalt requires stiff ankle joints, running on gravel requires greater stability in ankle joints, while running on grass is the least demanding on lower leg muscles. PMID:26434026



    Y. Dube; R. Maamri; O. Kabanov; F. Abramchuk; L. Toubal; Kodjo, A


    The results of investigation of light-duty gas engine running on natural gas and hydrogen mixture has been given. The mathematical model of combustion process with variable Vibe combus-tion factor for this engine type has been specified.

  19. Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays


    Hedili, M. Kıvanç; Ürey, Hakan; Freeman, Mark O.


    Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays M. Kivanc Hedili,1 Mark O. Freeman,2 and Hakan Urey1,* 1Optical Microsystems Laboratory, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sarıyer, İstanbul 34450, Turkey 2Lost Lake Technology LLC, 21623 W. Lost Lake Rd., Snohomish, Washington 98296, USA *Corresponding author: Received 2 October 2012; revised 28 December 2012; accepted 29 December 2012; posted 18 January 2013 (Doc. ID 17...

  20. Attenuation of foot pressure during running on four different surfaces: asphalt, concrete, rubber, and natural grass. (United States)

    Tessutti, Vitor; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Trombini-Souza, Francis; Sacco, Isabel C N


    The practice of running has consistently increased worldwide, and with it, related lower limb injuries. The type of running surface has been associated with running injury etiology, in addition other factors, such as the relationship between the amount and intensity of training. There is still controversy in the literature regarding the biomechanical effects of different types of running surfaces on foot-floor interaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of running on asphalt, concrete, natural grass, and rubber on in-shoe pressure patterns in adult recreational runners. Forty-seven adult recreational runners ran twice for 40 m on all four different surfaces at 12 ± 5% km · h(-1). Peak pressure, pressure-time integral, and contact time were recorded by Pedar X insoles. Asphalt and concrete were similar for all plantar variables and pressure zones. Running on grass produced peak pressures 9.3% to 16.6% lower (P rubber was greater than on concrete for the rearfoot and midfoot. The behaviour of rubber was similar to that obtained for the rigid surfaces - concrete and asphalt - possibly because of its time of usage (five years). Running on natural grass attenuates in-shoe plantar pressures in recreational runners. If a runner controls the amount and intensity of practice, running on grass may reduce the total stress on the musculoskeletal system compared with the total musculoskeletal stress when running on more rigid surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. PMID:22897427

  1. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenjiro


    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dube


    Full Text Available The results of investigation of light-duty gas engine running on natural gas and hydrogen mixture has been given. The mathematical model of combustion process with variable Vibe combus-tion factor for this engine type has been specified.

  3. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  4. MethLAB: A graphical user interface package for the analysis of array-based DNA methylation data


    Kilaru, Varun; Barfield, Richard T.; Schroeder, James W.; Smith, Alicia K.; Conneely, Karen N.


    Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation changes may underlie numerous complex traits and diseases. The advent of commercial, array-based methods to interrogate DNA methylation has led to a profusion of epigenetic studies in the literature. Array-based methods, such as the popular Illumina GoldenGate and Infinium platforms, estimate the proportion of DNA methylated at single-base resolution for thousands of CpG sites across the genome. These arrays generate enormous amounts of data, but ...

  5. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill


    Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk


    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior–posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to ...

  6. Parallelization and Performance of the NIM Weather Model Running on GPUs (United States)

    Govett, Mark; Middlecoff, Jacques; Henderson, Tom; Rosinski, James


    The Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) is a global weather prediction model being developed to run on the GPU and MIC fine-grain architectures. The model dynamics, written in Fortran, was initially parallelized for GPUs in 2009 using the F2C-ACC compiler and demonstrated good results running on a single GPU. Subsequent efforts have focused on (1) running efficiently on multiple GPUs, (2) parallelization of NIM for Intel-MIC using openMP, (3) assessing commercial Fortran GPU compilers now available from Cray, PGI and CAPS, (4) keeping the model up to date with the latest scientific development while maintaining a single source performance portable code, and (5) parallelization of two physics packages used in the NIM: the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) used operationally, and the widely used Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model physics. The presentation will touch on each of these efforts, but highlight improvements in parallel performance of the NIM running on the Titan GPU cluster at ORNL, the ongong parallelization of model physics, and a recent evaluation of commercial GPU compilers using the F2C-ACC compiler as the baseline.

  7. Determination of pork spoilage by colorimetric gas sensor array based on natural pigments. (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-wei; Zou, Xiao-bo; Shi, Ji-yong; Guo, Yanin; Zhao, Jie-wen; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Limin


    A new colorimetric gas-sensor array based on four natural pigments, that were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L.), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), was developed for pork freshness evaluation. A colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the images of the sensor array before and after exposure to the odour of sample. The total viable count (TVC) per gram of pork was obtained by classical microbiological plating methods, and the biogenic amines were measured by HPLC. Biogenic amine index (BAI) for the determination of meat freshness was developed from the sum of putrescine and cadaverine. The colour change profiles were analysed using principal component analysis and correlated with conventional methods (BAI, TVC). A partial least squares (PLS) prediction model was obtained with r=0.854 and 0.933 for BAI and TVC, respectively. PMID:24128513

  8. Nanoparticle formation in the exhaust of vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel (United States)

    Du, H.; Yu, F.


    The concern of adverse health impacts from exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles has been escalating over the past few years. In order to meet more stringent EPA emission standards for particle mass emissions, advanced exhaust after-treatment systems such as continuously regenerating diesel particle filters (CRDPFs) have to be employed on vehicles and fuel with ultra-low sulfur is to be used. Although CRDPFs were found to be effective in reducing particle mass emissions, they were revealed to increase the potential of volatile nanoparticle formation. Significant nanoparticle concentrations have also been detected for vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel but without CRDPFs. The main focus of this paper is the formation and evolution of nanoparticles in an exhaust plume under ultra-low sulfur conditions. Such a study is necessary to project future nanoparticle emissions as fuel compositions and after-treatment systems change. We have carried out a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the effects of enhanced sulfur conversion efficiency, sulfur storage/release, and presence of non-volatile cores on nanoparticle formation using a detailed composition resolved aerosol microphysical model with a recently improved H2SO4-H2O homogeneous nucleation (BHN) module. Two well-controlled case studies show good agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle size distribution and temperature dependence of particle formation rate, which leads us to conclude that BHN is the main source of nanoparticles for vehicles equipped with CRDPFs. We found that the employment of CRDPFs may lead to the higher number concentration of nanoparticles (but smaller size) in the exhaust of vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel compared to those emitted from vehicles running on high sulfur fuel. We have also shown that the sulfate storage and release effect can lead to significant enhancement in nanoparticle production under favorable conditions. For vehicles

  9. Interoperability framework for communication between processes running on different mobile operating systems (United States)

    Gal, A.; Filip, I.; Dragan, F.


    As we live in an era where mobile communication is everywhere around us, the necessity to communicate between the variety of the devices we have available becomes even more of an urge. The major impediment to be able to achieve communication between the available devices is the incompatibility between the operating systems running on these devices. In the present paper we propose a framework that will make possible the ability to inter-operate between processes running on different mobile operating systems. The interoperability process will make use of any communication environment which is made available by the mobile devices where the processes are installed. The communication environment is chosen so as the process is optimal in terms of transferring the data between the mobile devices. The paper defines the architecture of the framework, expanding the functionality and interrelation between modules that make up the framework. For the proof of concept, we propose to use three different mobile operating systems installed on three different types of mobile devices. Depending on the various factors related to the structure of the mobile devices and the data type to be transferred, the framework will establish a data transfer protocol that will be used. The framework automates the interoperability process, user intervention being limited to a simple selection from the options that the framework suggests based on the full analysis of structural and functional elements of the mobile devices used in the process.

  10. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances Rs changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power Pm of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower series

  11. High-Throughput Analysis of Subtelomeric Chromosome Rearrangements by Use of Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization


    Veltman, Joris A; Schoenmakers, Eric F.P.M.; Eussen, Bert H; Janssen, Irene; Merkx, Gerard; van Cleef, Brigitte; van Ravenswaaij, Conny M.; Brunner, Han G.; Smeets, Dominique; van Kessel, Ad Geurts


    Telomeric chromosome rearrangements may cause mental retardation, congenital anomalies, and miscarriages. Automated detection of subtle deletions or duplications involving telomeres is essential for high-throughput diagnosis, but impossible when conventional cytogenetic methods are used. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) allows high-resolution screening of copy number abnormalities by hybridizing differentially labeled test and reference genomes to arrays of robotically spot...

  12. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue


    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  13. Sensor Arrays Based on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Chemiresistors versus Quartz-Crystal Microbalance. (United States)

    Bachar, Nadav; Liberman, Lucy; Muallem, Fairouz; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Haick, Hossam


    Arrays of broadly cross-reactive sensors are key elements of smart, self-training sensing systems. Chemically sensitive resistors and quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors are attractive for sensing applications that involve detection and classification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) derivatives as sensing materials can provide good sensitivity and robust selectivity towards different polar and nonpolar VOCs, while being quite tolerant to large humidity variations. Here, we present a comparative study of chemiresistor and QCM arrays based on a set of custom-designed PAH derivatives having either purely nonpolar coronas or alternating nonpolar and strongly polar side chain termination. The arrays were exposed to various concentrations of representative polar and nonpolar VOCs under extremely varying humidity conditions (5-80% RH). The sensor arrays' classification ability of VOC polarity, chemical class and compound separation was explained in terms of the sensing characteristics of the constituent sensors and their interaction with the VOCs. The results presented here contribute to the development of novel versatile and cost-effective real-world VOC sensing platforms. PMID:24147727

  14. Exome sequencing and array-based comparative genomic hybridisation analysis of preferential 6-methylmercaptopurine producers. (United States)

    Chua, E W; Cree, S; Barclay, M L; Doudney, K; Lehnert, K; Aitchison, A; Kennedy, M A


    Preferential conversion of azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine into methylated metabolites is a major cause of thiopurine resistance. To seek potentially Mendelian causes of thiopurine hypermethylation, we recruited 12 individuals who exhibited extreme therapeutic resistance while taking azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and copy-number variant analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). Exome-wide variant filtering highlighted four genes potentially associated with thiopurine metabolism (ENOSF1 and NFS1), transport (SLC17A4) or therapeutic action (RCC2). However, variants of each gene were found only in two or three patients, and it is unclear whether these genes could influence thiopurine hypermethylation. Analysis by aCGH did not identify any unusual or pathogenic copy-number variants. This suggests that if causative mutations for the hypermethylation phenotype exist they may be heterogeneous, occurring in several different genes, or they may lie within regulatory regions not captured by WES. Alternatively, hypermethylation may arise from the involvement of multiple genes with small effects. To test this hypothesis would require recruitment of large patient samples and application of genome-wide association studies. PMID:25752523

  15. Array-based DNA methylation profiling of primary lymphomas of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (PCNSL) and extracerebral diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cannot be distinguished histologically, it is still a matter of debate whether PCNSL differ from systemic DLBCL with respect to their molecular features and pathogenesis. Analysis of the DNA methylation pattern might provide further data distinguishing these entities at a molecular level. Using an array-based technology we have assessed the DNA methylation status of 1,505 individual CpG loci in five PCNSL and compared the results to DNA methylation profiles of 49 DLBCL and ten hematopoietic controls. We identified 194 genes differentially methylated between PCNSL and normal controls. Interestingly, Polycomb target genes and genes with promoters showing a high CpG content were significantly enriched in the group of genes hypermethylated in PCNSL. However, PCNSL and systemic DLBCL did not differ in their methylation pattern. Based on the data presented here, PCNSL and DLBCL do not differ in their DNA methylation pattern. Thus, DNA methylation analysis does not support a separation of PCNSL and DLBCL into individual entities. However, PCNSL and DLBCL differ in their DNA methylation pattern from non- malignant controls

  16. In vivo imaging of inducible tyrosinase gene expression with an ultrasound array-based photoacoustic system (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler; Paproski, Robert J.; Zemp, Roger J.


    Tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the production of melanin, has shown promise as a reporter of genetic activity. While green fluorescent protein has been used extensively in this capacity, it is limited in its ability to provide information deep in tissue at a reasonable resolution. As melanin is a strong absorber of light, it is possible to image gene expression using tyrosinase with photoacoustic imaging technologies, resulting in excellent resolutions at multiple-centimeter depths. While our previous work has focused on creating and imaging MCF-7 cells with doxycycline-controlled tyrosinase expression, we have now established the viability of these cells in a murine model. Using an array-based photoacoustic imaging system with 5 MHz center frequency, we capture interleaved ultrasound and photoacoustic images of tyrosinase-expressing MCF-7 tumors both in a tissue mimicking phantom, and in vivo. Images of both the tyrosinase-expressing tumor and a control tumor are presented as both coregistered ultrasound-photoacoustic B-scan images and 3-dimensional photoacoustic volumes created by mechanically scanning the transducer. We find that the tyrosinase-expressing tumor is visible with a signal level 12dB greater than that of the control tumor in vivo. Phantom studies with excised tumors show that the tyrosinase-expressing tumor is visible at depths in excess of 2cm, and have suggested that our imaging system is sensitive to a transfection rate of less than 1%.

  17. Application of Brown’s Gas for a Diesel Engine Running on Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredas Rimkus


    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of possible applications of Brown’s gas to the diesel engine running on oil. The paper also contains a review of experimental works. The selected fuel combinations are as follows: diesel fuel, diesel fuel and Brown’s gas, oil (rapeseed oil and oil and Brown’s gas. Test results have shown that an additional supply of Brown’s gas to the engine results in a decrease in the amounts of carbon monoxide (CO and smoke level; however it increases the total emission of nitrous oxides (NOx. The supply of Brown’s gas at low engine load increases comparative effective fuel consumption and reduces high efficiency. Nevertheless, these performance indicators tend to improve at average engine load.

  18. Hyper-hemispheric lens distortion model for 3D-imaging SPAD-array-based applications (United States)

    Pernechele, Claudio; Villa, Federica A.


    Panoramic omnidirectional lenses have the typical draw-back effect to obscure the frontal view, producing the classic "donut-shape" image in the focal plane. We realized a panoramic lens in which the frontal field is make available to be imaged in the focal plane together with the panoramic field, producing a FoV of 360° in azimuth and 270° in elevation; it have then the capabilities of a fish eye plus those of a panoramic lens: we call it hyper-hemispheric lens. We built and test an all-spherical hyper-hemispheric lens. The all-spherical configuration suffer for the typical issues of all ultra wide angle lenses: there is a large distortion at high view angles. The fundamental origin of the optical problems resides on the fact that chief rays angles on the object side are not preserved passing through the optics preceding the aperture stop (fore-optics). This effect produce an image distortion on the focal plane, with the focal length changing along the elevation angles. Moreover, the entrance pupil is shifting at large angle, where the paraxial approximation is not more valid, and tracing the rays appropriately require some effort to the optical designer. It has to be noted here as the distortion is not a source-point-aberrations: it is present also in well corrected optical lenses. Image distortion may be partially corrected using aspheric surface. We describe here how we correct it for our original hyper-hemispheric lens by designing an aspheric surface within the optical train and optimized for a Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array-based imaging applications.

  19. Array-based satellite phase bias sensing: theory and GPS/BeiDou/QZSS results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-receiver integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is a measurement concept that makes use of network-derived non-integer satellite phase biases (SPBs), among other corrections, to recover and resolve the integer ambiguities of the carrier-phase data of a single GNSS receiver. If it is realized, the very precise integer ambiguity-resolved carrier-phase data would then contribute to the estimation of the receiver’s position, thus making (near) real-time precise point positioning feasible. Proper definition and determination of the SPBs take a leading part in developing the idea of single-receiver IAR. In this contribution, the concept of array-based between-satellite single-differenced (SD) SPB determination is introduced, which is aimed to reduce the code-dominated precision of the SD-SPB corrections. The underlying model is realized by giving the role of the local reference network to an array of antennas, mounted on rigid platforms, that are separated by short distances so that the same ionospheric delay is assumed to be experienced by all the antennas. To that end, a closed-form expression of the array-aided SD-SPB corrections is presented, thereby proposing a simple strategy to compute the SD-SPBs. After resolving double-differenced ambiguities of the array’s data, the variance of the SD-SPB corrections is shown to be reduced by a factor equal to the number of antennas. This improvement in precision is also affirmed by numerical results of the three GNSSs GPS, BeiDou and QZSS. Experimental results demonstrate that the integer-recovered ambiguities converge to integers faster, upon increasing the number of antennas aiding the SD-SPB corrections. (paper)

  20. Replication fidelity improvement of PMMA microlens array based on weight evaluation and optimization (United States)

    Jiang, Bing-yan; Shen, Long-jiang; Peng, Hua-jiang; Yin, Xiang-lin


    High replication fidelity is a prerequisite of high quality plastic microlens array in injection molding. But, there's not an economical and practical method to evaluate and improve the replication fidelity until now. Based on part weight evaluation and optimization, this paper presents a new method of replication fidelity improvement. Firstly, a simplified analysis model of PMMA micro columns arrays (5×16) with 200μm diameter was set up. And then, Flow (3D) module of Moldflow MPI6.0 based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to calculate the weight of the micro columns arrays in injection molding. The effects of processing parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection time, packing pressure and packing time) on the part weight were investigated in the simulations. The simulation results showed that the mold temperature and the injection time have important effects on the filling of micro columns; the optimal mold temperature and injection time for better replication fidelity could be determined by the curves of mold temperature vs part weight and injection time vs part weight. At last, the effects of processing parameters on part weight of micro columns array were studied experimentally. The experimental results showed that the increase of melt temperature and mold temperature can make the packing pressure transfer to micro cavity more effectively through runner system, and increase the part weight. From the observation results of the image measuring apparatus, it was discovered that the higher the part weight, the better the filling of the microstructures. In conclusion, part weight can be used to evaluate the replication fidelity of micro-feature structured parts primarily; which is an economical and practical method to improve the replication fidelity of microlens arrays based on weight evaluation and optimization.

  1. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  2. Prognostic Impact of Array-based Genomic Profiles in Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a genetically complex tumor type and a major cause of cancer related mortality. Although distinct genetic alterations have been linked to ESCC development and prognosis, the genetic alterations have not gained clinical applicability. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to obtain a whole genome copy number profile relevant for identifying deranged pathways and clinically applicable markers. A 32 k aCGH platform was used for high resolution mapping of copy number changes in 30 stage I-IV ESCC. Potential interdependent alterations and deranged pathways were identified and copy number changes were correlated to stage, differentiation and survival. Copy number alterations affected median 19% of the genome and included recurrent gains of chromosome regions 5p, 7p, 7q, 8q, 10q, 11q, 12p, 14q, 16p, 17p, 19p, 19q, and 20q and losses of 3p, 5q, 8p, 9p and 11q. High-level amplifications were observed in 30 regions and recurrently involved 7p11 (EGFR), 11q13 (MYEOV, CCND1, FGF4, FGF3, PPFIA, FAD, TMEM16A, CTTS and SHANK2) and 11q22 (PDFG). Gain of 7p22.3 predicted nodal metastases and gains of 1p36.32 and 19p13.3 independently predicted poor survival in multivariate analysis. aCGH profiling verified genetic complexity in ESCC and herein identified imbalances of multiple central tumorigenic pathways. Distinct gains correlate with clinicopathological variables and independently predict survival, suggesting clinical applicability of genomic profiling in ESCC

  3. Some Programs Should Not Run on Laptops - Providing Programmatic Access to Applications Via Web Services (United States)

    Gupta, V.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, S.; Field, E.; Maechling, P.


    Modern laptop computers, and personal computers, can provide capabilities that are, in many ways, comparable to workstations or departmental servers. However, this doesn't mean we should run all computations on our local computers. We have identified several situations in which it preferable to implement our seismological application programs in a distributed, server-based, computing model. In this model, application programs on the user's laptop, or local computer, invoke programs that run on an organizational server, and the results are returned to the invoking system. Situations in which a server-based architecture may be preferred include: (a) a program is written in a language, or written for an operating environment, that is unsupported on the local computer, (b) software libraries or utilities required to execute a program are not available on the users computer, (c) a computational program is physically too large, or computationally too expensive, to run on a users computer, (d) a user community wants to enforce a consistent method of performing a computation by standardizing on a single implementation of a program, and (e) the computational program may require current information, that is not available to all client computers. Until recently, distributed, server-based, computational capabilities were implemented using client/server architectures. In these architectures, client programs were often written in the same language, and they executed in the same computing environment, as the servers. Recently, a new distributed computational model, called Web Services, has been developed. Web Services are based on Internet standards such as XML, SOAP, WDSL, and UDDI. Web Services offer the promise of platform, and language, independent distributed computing. To investigate this new computational model, and to provide useful services to the SCEC Community, we have implemented several computational and utility programs using a Web Service architecture. We have

  4. Novel and simple route to fabricate 2D ordered gold nanobowl arrays based on 3D colloidal crystals. (United States)

    Rao, Yanying; Tao, Qin; An, Ming; Rong, Chunhui; Dong, Jian; Dai, Yurong; Qian, Weiping


    In this study, we present a new method to fabricate large-area two-dimensionally (2D) ordered gold nanobowl arrays based on 3D colloidal crystals by wet chemosynthesis, which combines the advantages of a very simple preparation and an applicability to "real" nanomaterials. By combination of in situ growth of gold nanoshell (GNSs) arrays based on three-dimensional (3D) colloidal silica crystals, a monolayer ordered reversed GNS array (2D ordered GNS array) was conveniently manufactured by an acrylic ester modified biaxial oriented polypropylene (BOPP). 2D ordered gold nanobowl array with adjustable periodic holes, good stability, reproducibility, and repeatability could be obtained when the silica core was etched by HF solution. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor (EF) of this 2D ordered gold nanobowl array could reach 1.27 × 10(7), which shows high SERS enhancing activity and can be used as a universal SERS substrate. PMID:21932785

  5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  6. Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawe Gavin S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin. Results Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion. Conclusion The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease.

  7. Combustion Analysis of a Diesel Engine Running on Different Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mattarelli


    Full Text Available Rape-seed biodiesel is an interesting option to address the problem of decreasing availability of conventional fossil fuels, as well as to reduce the CO2 emissions of internal combustion engines. The present paper describes an experimental campaign carried out on a current production 4-cylinder, 4-stroke naturally aspirated diesel engine, running on standard diesel fuel and on three different blends of rape-seed biodiesel (20%-50%-100%. Performance, emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were measured at full load. It was found that the influence of rape-seed biodiesel in the fuel blend is not constant at each operating condition. However, as the biodiesel content increases, full load performance tends to drop, in particular brake specific fuel consumption (maximum worsening: +18%, while soot emission goes down. The maximum improvement observed in terms of soot concentration is 37.5%, at 1200 rpm. The combustion analysis revealed that the main differences among the fuels occur in the first phase of combustion: the burn rate is slower for biodiesel blends at low speeds, and faster at high.

  8. Intravascular haemolysis during prolonged running on asphalt and natural grass in long and middle distance runners. (United States)

    Janakiraman, Kamal; Shenoy, Shweta; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh


    Surface features such as uneven playing surfaces, low impact absorption capacity and inappropriate friction/traction characteristics are connected with injury prevalence whereas force impact during foot strike has been suggested to be an important mechanism of intravascular haemolysis during running. We aimed to evaluate intravascular haemolysis during running and compare the effect of running on two different types of surfaces on haemolysis. We selected two surfaces (asphalt and grass) on which these athletes usually run. Participants were randomly assigned to group A (asphalt) or group B (grass) with 10 athletes in each group. Each athlete completed one hour of running at the calculated target heart rate (60-70%). Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after running. We measured unconjugated bilirubin (UBR) (mg · dl(-1)), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (μ · ml(-1)), haemoglobin (g · l(-1)) and serum ferritin (ng · ml(-1)) as indicators of haemolysis. Athletes who ran on grass demonstrated an increase in the haematological parameters (UBR: P running. Furthermore, we conclude that uneven grass surface results in greater haemolysis compared to asphalt road. PMID:21751854

  9. Forces and mechanical energy fluctuations during diagonal stride roller skiing; running on wheels? (United States)

    Kehler, Alyse L; Hajkova, Eliska; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Kram, Rodger


    Mechanical energy can be conserved during terrestrial locomotion in two ways: the inverted pendulum mechanism for walking and the spring-mass mechanism for running. Here, we investigated whether diagonal stride cross-country roller skiing (DIA) utilizes similar mechanisms. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that running and DIA would share similar phase relationships and magnitudes of kinetic energy (KE), and gravitational potential energy (GPE) fluctuations, indicating elastic energy storage and return, as if roller skiing is like 'running on wheels'. Experienced skiers (N=9) walked and ran at 1.25 and 3 m s(-1), respectively, and roller skied with DIA at both speeds on a level dual-belt treadmill that recorded perpendicular and parallel forces. We calculated the KE and GPE of the center of mass from the force recordings. As expected, the KE and GPE fluctuated with an out-of-phase pattern during walking and an in-phase pattern during running. Unlike walking, during DIA, the KE and GPE fluctuations were in phase, as they are in running. However, during the glide phase, KE was dissipated as frictional heat and could not be stored elastically in the tendons, as in running. Elastic energy storage and return epitomize running and thus we reject our hypothesis. Diagonal stride cross-country skiing is a biomechanically unique movement that only superficially resembles walking or running. PMID:25189366

  10. Ceria catalyst for inert-substrate-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells running on methane fuel (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Kim, Bok-Hee; Du, Yanhai; Xu, Qing; Ahn, Byung-Guk


    A ceria catalyst is applied to an inert-substrate supported tubular single cell for direct operation on methane fuel. The tubular single cell comprises a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supporter, a Ni-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 anode, a YSZ/Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 bi-layer electrolyte, and a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathode. The ceria catalyst is incorporated into the porous YSZ supporter layer by a cerium nitrate impregnation. The effects of ceria on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the tubular single cell are investigated with respect to the number of impregnations. The optimum number of impregnations is determined to be four based on the maximum power density and polarization property of the tubular single cell in hydrogen and methane fuels. At 700 °C, the tubular single cell shows similar maximum power densities of ∼260 mW cm-2 in hydrogen and methane fuels, respectively. Moreover, the ceria catalyst significantly improves the performance stability of the cell running on methane fuel. At a current density of 350 mA cm-2, the single cell shows a low degradation rate of 2.5 mV h-1 during the 13 h test in methane fuel. These results suggest the feasibility of applying the ceria catalyst to the inert-substrate supported tubular single cell for direct operation on methane fuel.

  11. The effect of dry needling and treadmill running on inducing pathological changes in rat Achilles tendon. (United States)

    Kim, Bom Soo; Joo, Young Chae; Choi, Byung Hyune; Kim, Kil Hwan; Kang, Joon Soon; Park, So Ra


    Achilles tendinopathy is a common degenerative condition without a definitive treatment. An adequate chronic animal model of Achilles tendinopathy has not yet been developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of dry needling and treadmill running on the Achilles tendon of rats. Percutaneous dry needling, designed to physically replicate microrupture of collagen fibers in overloaded tendons, was performed on the right Achilles tendon of 80 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into two groups: a treadmill group, which included rats that underwent daily uphill treadmill running (n = 40), and a cage group, which included rats that could move freely within their cages (n = 40). At the end of weeks 1 and 4, 20 rats from each group were sacrificed, and bilateral Achilles tendons were collected. The harvested tendons were subjected to mechanical testing and histological analysis. Dry needling induced histological and mechanical changes in the Achilles tendons at week 1, and the changes persisted at week 4. The needled Achilles tendons of the treadmill group tended to show more severe histological and mechanical changes than those of the cage group, although these differences were not statistically significant. Dry needling combined with free cage activity or treadmill running produced tendinopathy-like changes in rat Achilles tendons up to 4 weeks after injury. Dry needling is an easy procedure with a short induction period and a high success rate, suggesting it may have relevance in the design of an Achilles tendinopathy model. PMID:26076317

  12. Effects of treadmill running on brain activation and the corticotropin-releasing hormone system. (United States)

    Timofeeva, Elena; Huang, Qingling; Richard, Denis


    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of treadmill running on the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) in the brain of rats that were killed either at rest, immediately after 60 min of treadmill running, or 180 min following a 60-min session of intensive exercise. The expression of the neuronal activity marker c-FOS was also determined in the three conditions of this study. The levels of c-FOS mRNA immediately following running were high in the cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal and medial thalamus, hypothalamus, pontine nuclei, locus coeruleus and hypoglossal nucleus. In most brain regions investigated, excluding the locus coeruleus and the cingulate cortex, c-FOS mRNA expression returned to control levels after 2 h of recovery. The highest concentration of cells co-expressing the protein Fos and CRH mRNA neurons was found in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus, which also expressed CRH heteronuclear RNA and CRH-R1 mRNA. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), the medial mammillary nucleus and the posterior hypothalamic as well as the somatosensory cortex, the medial geniculate nucleus, the reticulotegmental nucleus, and Barrington's nucleus also co-expressed Fos and CRH mRNA. The expression of CRH-BP gene was induced in the MPOA following running. In summary, the present study demonstrates that treadmill running leads to a strong expression of c-FOS mRNA that is widely distributed throughout the brain. c-FOS mRNA was found in structures of the somatosensory and somatomotor systems, indicating that these regions were activated during exercise. The pattern of distribution of c-FOS mRNA showed similarities with that triggered by neurogenic and systemic stresses. The present results also indicate that treadmill running can strongly activate the hypophysiotropic CRH system, which suggests, in agreement with the pattern of c

  13. Global mass spectrometry and transcriptomics array based drug profiling provides novel insight into glucosamine induced endoplasmic reticulum stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ribeiro, Helena; Voabil, Paula;


    questioned whether the differences in the effects observed in previous studies were associated with the focus on a specific subproteome or with the use of specific cell lines or tissues. To address this question, global mass spectrometry- and transcription array-based glucosamine drug profiling was performed......We investigated the molecular effects of glucosamine supplements, a popular and safe alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for decreasing pain, inflammation, and maintaining healthy joints. Numerous studies have reported an array of molecular effects after glucosamine treatment. We....... Further, we hypothesize that O-HexNAcylation induced by glucosamine treatment enhances protein trafficking....

  14. SOLID2: An Antibody Array-Based Life-Detector Instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE) (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A.; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.


    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  15. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant. (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others


    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  16. A genome-wide analysis of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data to detect intra-species variations and evolutionary relationships. (United States)

    Array-based comparative genomics hybridization (CGH) has gained prevalence as a technique of choice for the detection of structural variations in the genome. In this study, we propose a novel genome-wide method of classification using CGH data, in order to reveal putative phylogenetic relationships ...

  17. Array-based identification of triple-negative breast cancer cells using fluorescent nanodot-graphene oxide complexes. (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Auguste, Debra T


    Early and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer holds great promise to improve treatability and curability. Here, we report the usage of six luminescent nanodot-graphene oxide complexes as novel fluorescent nanoprobes in a sensing array capable of effectively identifying healthy, cancerous, and metastatic human breast cells. The sensory system is based on the utilization of nanoprobe-graphene oxide sensor elements that can be disrupted in the presence of breast cells to give fluorescent readouts. Using this multichannel sensor, we have successfully identified breast cancer cells and distinguished between estrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive, and triple negative phenotypes. This approach also allows cell identification at high sensitivity (200 cells) with high reproducibility. The unknown cell sample analysis indicates that the sensor is able to identify 49 out of 50 breast cell samples correctly, with a detection accuracy of 98%. Taken together, this array-based luminescent nanoprobe-graphene oxide sensing platform presents a useful cell screening tool with potential applications in biomedical diagnostics. PMID:27003608

  18. Controlling system for smart hyper-spectral imaging array based on liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot device (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Chen, Xin; Rong, Xin; Liu, Kan; Zhang, Xinyu; Ji, An; Xie, Changsheng


    A research for developing a kind of smart spectral imaging detection technique based on the electrically tunable liquidcrystal (LC) FP structure is launched. It has some advantages of low cost, highly compact integration, perfuming wavelength selection without moving any micro-mirror of FP device, and the higher reliability and stability. The controlling system for hyper-spectral imaging array based on LC-FP device includes mainly a MSP430F5438 as its core. Considering the characteristics of LC-FP device, the controlling system can provide a driving signal of 1-10 kHz and 0- 30Vrms for the device in a static driving mode. This paper introduces the hardware designing of the control system in detail. It presents an overall hardware solutions including: (1) the MSP430 controlling circuit, and (2) the operational amplifier circuit, and (3) the power supply circuit, and (4) the AD conversion circuit. The techniques for the realization of special high speed digital circuits, which is necessary for the PCB employed, is also discussed.

  19. [Development of online conventional array-based two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for proteins separation in human plasma]. (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Hong, Guangfeng; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin


    Human plasma is one of the proteins-containing samples most difficult to characterize on account of the wide dynamic concentration range of its intact proteins. Herein, we developed a high-throughput conventional array-based two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for proteins separation in human plasma in online mode. In the system, a conventional strong-anion exchange chromatographic column was used as the first separation dimension and eight parallel conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatographic columns were integrated as the second separation dimension. The fractions from the first dimension were sequentially transferred into the corresponding reversed-phase liquid chromatographic precolumns for retention and enrichment using a 10-port electrically actuated multi-position valve. The second dimensional solvent flow was directly and identically split into 8 channels. The fractions were concurrently back-flushed from the precolumns into the 8 conventional RP columns and were separated simultaneously. An 8-channel fraction collector was refitted to collect the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic fractions for further investigation. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) dyein solution was conveniently used for high-abundance protein location. Two separation dimensions were relatively independent parts, as well as each channel of the second dimensional array separation. Therefore, the new system could improve the separation throughput and total peak capacity. The system was successfully applied for the separation of human plasma intact proteins. The results indicated the established system is an effective method for removing high abundance proteins in plasma and in-depth research in plasma proteomics. PMID:25069321

  20. Design of thin-film filters for resolution improvements in filter-array based spectrometers using DSP (United States)

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Kim, Cheolsun; Ju, Gun Wu; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No


    Miniature spectrometers have been widely developed in various academic and industrial applications such as bio-medical, chemical and environmental engineering. As a family of spectrometers, optical filter-array based spectrometers fabricated using CMOS or Nano technology provide miniaturization, superior portability and cost effectiveness. In filterarray based spectrometers, the resolution which represents the ability how closely resolve two neighboring spectra, depends on the number of filters and the characteristics of the transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. In practice, due to the small-size and low-cost fabrication, the number of filters is limited and the shape of the TF of each filter is nonideal. As a development of modern digital signal processing (DSP), the spectrometers are equipped with DSP algorithms not only to alleviate distortions due to unexpected noise or interferences among filters but also reconstruct the original signal spectrum. For a high-resolution spectrum reconstruction by the DSP, the TFs of the filters need to be sufficiently uncorrelated with each other. In this paper, we present a design of optical thin-film filters which have the uncorrelated TFs. Each filter consists of multiple layers of high- and low-refractive index materials deposited on a substrate. The proposed design helps the DSP algorithm to improve resolution with a small number of filters. We demonstrate that a resolution of 5 nm within a range from 500 nm to 1100 nm can be achieved with only 64 filters.

  1. Design of Smart Ion-Selective Electrode Arrays Based on Source Separation through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte L.T.


    Full Text Available The development of chemical sensor arrays based on Blind Source Separation (BSS provides a promising solution to overcome the interference problem associated with Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISE. The main motivation behind this new approach is to ease the time-demanding calibration stage. While the first works on this problem only considered the case in which the ions under analysis have equal valences, the present work aims at developing a BSS technique that works when the ions have different charges. In this situation, the resulting mixing model belongs to a particular class of nonlinear systems that have never been studied in the BSS literature. In order to tackle this sort of mixing process, we adopted a recurrent network as separating system. Moreover, concerning the BSS learning strategy, we develop a mutual information minimization approach based on the notion of the differential of the mutual information. The method works requires a batch operation, and, thus, can be used to perform off-line analysis. The validity of our approach is supported by experiments where the mixing model parameters were extracted from actual data.

  2. Array-based FMR1 sequencing and deletion analysis in patients with a fragile X syndrome-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by loss of function mutations in the FMR1 gene. Trinucleotide CGG-repeat expansions, resulting in FMR1 gene silencing, are the most common mutations observed at this locus. Even though the repeat expansion mutation is a functional null mutation, few conventional mutations have been identified at this locus, largely due to the clinical laboratory focus on the repeat tract. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To more thoroughly evaluate the frequency of conventional mutations in FXS-like patients, we used an array-based method to sequence FMR1 in 51 unrelated males exhibiting several features characteristic of FXS but with normal CGG-repeat tracts of FMR1. One patient was identified with a deletion in FMR1, but none of the patients were found to have other conventional mutations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that missense mutations in FMR1 are not a common cause of the FXS phenotype in patients who have normal-length CGG-repeat tracts. However, screening for small deletions of FMR1 may be of clinically utility.

  3. Cantilever-type electrode array-based high-throughput microparticle sorting platform driven by gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we describe a cantilever-type electrode (CE) array-based high-throughput sorting platform, which is a tool used to separate microparticles using gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) force. This platform consists of meso-size channels and a CE array, which is designed to separate a large number of target particles by differences in their dielectric material properties (DMP) and the weight of the particles. We employ a two-step separation process, with sedimentation as the first step and n-DEP as the second step. In order to differentiate the weight and the DMP of each particle, we employ the sedimentation phenomena in a vertical channel and the CE-based n-DEP in an inclined channel. By using three kinds of polystyrene beads with diameters of 10, 25 and 50 µm, the optimal population (107 beads ml−1) of particles and the appropriate length (25 mm) of the vertical channel for high performance were determined experimentally. Conclusively, by combining sedimentation and n-DEP schemes, we achieve 74.5, 94.7 and 100% separation efficiency for sorting microparticles with a diameter of 10, 25 and 50 µm, respectively.

  4. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper

  5. Methods of estimation of bodily condition of sportsmen of different qualification, specialized in at run on short and middle distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryvoruchenko O.V.


    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bodily condition of sportsmen of different qualification, which are specialized in at run on short and middle distances, is presented. A method takes into account the informing criteria of estimation of physical preparedness and functional state of the cardiovascular system of sportsmen. It contains the complex of pedagogical tests, evaluation tables, model indexes of cardiography, determinations of type of the vegetative adjusting of cardiac rhythm and classification of the functional states of sportsmen. 110 skilled sportsmen took part in an experiment (men, age is 16 - 21 year. Indexes, which possibility operatively to estimate the bodily condition of sportsmen, select leaders from the group of sportsmen with an identical sporting result for the subsequent including in the complement of collapsible command is on, are set. Directions of prognostication of sporting result of concrete sportsman are rotined.

  6. Use Array-basedCGH technology for fetal chromosomal anomalies syndrome diagnosis%运用Array-basedCGH技术进行胎儿染色体异常综合征的诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易广才; 童华


    Objective: To use high - resolution Array - basedCCH (aCCH) technology for chromosomes of the small mutation (missing or amplified) to cause fetal malformation syndrome, and its formation mechanism. Method:use of a Agilent4 × 44K CGH chip to detect the normal samples and specimens from the three malformation of Fetal DNA ( M1:normalfetal; M2:abdominal wall defect fetal; M3: single umbilical artery with congenital heart disease, double outlet right ventricle, Ventricular septal defect and mitral atresia pulmonary artery stenosis; M4: karyorype 47, +21, congenital heart disease, Ventricular septal defect, fetus side lateral ventricle broadening, the fetus is small) by the comparative genomic hybridization. Results: M2/MI; high copy (amplification) 560 of fragments of DNA (genes), low copy or missing 1504 of DNA (genes) of the fragment; M3/M1: high copy 511 fragments of DNA (genes) , low copy or missing 1142 articles DNA (genes) of the fragment; M4/M1: section 3034 high copy DNA (genes) of the fragment, low copy or missing section 3571 DNA (genes) fragment. Conclusion; the small mutation of chromosome fragments is one of the main causes which lead to fetal malformation syndrome, the high - resolution aCCH technology is able to be used for quickly and accurately on its testing and prenatal diagnosis.%目的,运用高分辨率的Array-basedCGH(aCGH)技术研究染色体的微小变异(缺失或扩增)引起的胎儿畸形综合征,及其形成机理.方法 采用Agilent4×44K CGH,芯片对一个正常标本和三个畸形胎儿标本DNA(MI 正常胎儿;M2腹壁缺损;M3单脐动脉合并先天性心脏病,右室双出口,空间隔缺损,肺动脉狭窄,二尖瓣闭锁;M4染色体核型47,+21,先天性心脏病,室间隔缺损,胎儿一侧脑室增宽,胎儿偏小)进行比较基因组杂交捡洲.结果 M2/Ml:高拷贝(扩增)560条DNA(基因)片段,低拷贝或缺失1504条DNA(基因)片断;M3/M1:高拷贝511条DNA(基因)片段,低拷贝或缺失1142

  7. Multi-view Hilbert transformation in full-ring-transducer-array based photoacoustic computed tomography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Guo; Zhu, Liren; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.


    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) exploits optical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles to form images of absorbed optical energy density within tissue. Based on the photoacoustic effect, PAT directly and quantitatively measures specific optical absorption. A full-ring ultrasonic transducer array based photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system was recently developed for small animal whole-body imaging with a full-view detection angle and high in-plane resolution (100 µm). However, due to the band-pass frequency response of the piezoelectric transducer elements, the reconstructed images present bipolar (both positive and negative) pixel values, which is artificial and counterintuitive for physicians and biologists seeking to interpret the image. Moreover, bipolar pixel values hinder quantification of physiological parameters, such as oxygen saturation and blood flow speed. Unipolar images can be obtained by deconvolving the raw channel data with the transducer's electrical impulse response and applying non-negativity during iteration, but this process requires complex transducer modeling and time-consuming computation. Here, we present a multi-view Hilbert transformation method to recover the unipolar initial pressure for full-ring PACT. Multi-view Hilbert transformation along the acoustic wave propagation direction minimizes reconstruction artifacts during envelope extraction and maintains the signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed images. The in-plane isotropic spatial resolution of this method was quantified to 168 μm within a 20 × 20 mm2 field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was first validated by numerical simulations and then demonstrated with ex-vivo mouse brain structural imaging and in-vivo mouse wholebody imaging.

  8. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul


    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  9. A PMT array based diagnostics to measure spatial and temporal behavior of Hα emission from Aditya Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed information on fast changing plasma behavior during the breakdown and start-up phase of a tokamak plasma is very essential for achieving good plasma current flat-top region. A Photo multiplier tube (PMT) array based spectroscopic diagnostics has been designed and developed to measure the spatial profile of Hα, Hβ and C III radiation from Aditya tokamak plasma with very fast time response ∼100 μs and also with a good spatial resolution ∼ 3.5 cm at plasma mid plane. The system has been installed on Aditya tokamak to study the breakdown location by monitoring the Hα emission during the plasma formation stage. Two 8 channels linear multi anode PMT arrays with high gains, wide dynamic range and low noise are used as detector. The module comes with built-in high voltage power supply and built-in amplifier. Collimated light has been collected from the plasma along 16 line-of-sights passing through the entire plasma poloidal cross section from the top port of Aditya tokamak and transferred to the PMT array using 1 mm core diameter optical fibers. The Hα spectra is obtained using 8 miniature interference filters (IF) centered at 656.3 nm placed in front of the PMT array. For the 2nd PMT array, another arrangement for wavelength selection is developed using bigger 2.5” IF, where lights from multiple fibers can be passed through for wavelength selection simultaneously. The spatial and temporal profiles of Hα emissions have been studied during the formation phase of Aditya tokamak plasma by changing the vertical field and delay of its application with respect to loop voltage. It was found that the plasma initiates in the high field side of tokamak most of the times. The details on experimental set-up and the results of the experiments will be discussed in this presentation. (author)

  10. An expandable crosstalk reduction method for inline fiber Fabry–Pérot sensor array based on fiber Bragg gratings (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ma, Lina; Hu, Zhengliang; Hu, Yongming


    The inline time division multiplexing (TDM) fiber Fabry–Pérot (FFP) sensor array based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is attractive for many applications. But the intrinsic multi-reflection (MR) induced crosstalk limits applications especially those needing high resolution. In this paper we proposed an expandable method for MR-induced crosstalk reduction. The method is based on complexing-exponent synthesis using the phase-generated carrier (PGC) scheme and the special common character of the impulse responses. The method could promote demodulation stability simultaneously with the reduction of MR-induced crosstalk. A polarization-maintaining 3-TDM experimental system with an FBG reflectivity of about 5 % was set up to validate the method. The experimental results showed that crosstalk reduction of 13 dB and 15 dB was achieved for sensor 2 and sensor 3 respectively when a signal was applied to the first sensor and crosstalk reduction of 8 dB was achieved for sensor 3 when a signal was applied to sensor 2. The demodulation stability of the applied signal was promoted as well. The standard deviations of the amplitude distributions of the demodulated signals were reduced from 0.0046 to 0.0021 for sensor 2 and from 0.0114 to 0.0044 for sensor 3. Because of the convenience of the linear operation of the complexing-exponent and according to the common character of the impulse response we found, the method can be effectively extended to the array with more TDM channels if the impulse response of the inline FFP sensor array with more TDM channels is derived. It offers potential to develop a low-crosstalk inline FFP sensor array using the PGC interrogation technique with relatively high reflectivity FBGs which can guarantee enough light power received by the photo-detector.

  11. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for genomic-wide screening of DNA copy number alterations in aggressive bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanamori Masahiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic pathways of aggressive changes of bone tumors are still poorly understood. It is very important to analyze DNA copy number alterations (DCNAs, to identify the molecular events in the step of progression to the aggressive change of bone tissue. Methods Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH was used to investigate DCNAs of 14 samples from 13 aggressive bone tumors, such as giant cell tumors (GCTs and osteosarcoma (OS, etc. Results Primary aggressive bone tumors had copy number gains of 17.8±12.7% in the genome, and losses of 17.3±11.4% in 287 target clones (threshold for each DCNA: ≦085, 1.15≦. Genetic unstable cases, which were defined by the total DCNAs aberration ≧30%, were identified in 9 of 13 patients (3 of 7 GCTs and all malignant tumors. High-level amplification of TGFβ2, CCND3, WI-6509, SHGC-5557, TCL1A, CREBBP, HIC1, THRA, AFM217YD10, LAMA3, RUNX1 and D22S543, were commonly observed in aggressive bone tumors. On the other hand, NRAS, D2S447, RAF1, ROBO1, MYB, MOS, FGFR2, HRAS, D13S319, D13S327, D18S552, YES1 and DCC, were commonly low. We compared genetic instability between a primary OS and its metastatic site in Case #13. Metastatic lesion showed increased 9 DCNAs of remarkable change (m/p ratio ≧1.3 folds, compared to a primary lesion. D1S214, D1S1635, EXT1, AFM137XA11, 8 M16/SP6, CCND2, IGH, 282 M15/SP6, HIC1 and LAMA3, were overexpressed. We gave attention to HIC1 (17p13.3, which was common high amplification in this series. Conclusion Our results may provide several entry points for the identification of candidate genes associated with aggressive change of bone tumors. Especially, the locus 17p11-13 including HIC1 close to p53 was common high amplification in this series and review of the literature.

  12. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for the detection of DNA sequence copy number changes in Barrett's adenocarcinoma. (United States)

    Albrecht, Bettina; Hausmann, Michael; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Stein, Hubert; Siewert, Jörg Rüdiger; Hopt, Ulrich; Langer, Rupert; Höfler, Heinz; Werner, Martin; Walch, Axel


    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) allows the identification of DNA sequence copy number changes at high resolution by co-hybridizing differentially labelled test and control DNAs to a micro-array of genomic clones. The present study has analysed a series of 23 formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples of Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BCA, n = 18) and non-neoplastic squamous oesophageal (n = 2) and gastric cardia mucosa (n = 3) by aCGH. The micro-arrays used contained 287 genomic targets covering oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA sequences localized within chromosomal regions previously reported to be altered in BCA. DNA sequence copy number changes for a panel of approximately 50 genes were identified, most of which have not been previously described in BCA. DNA sequence copy number gains (mean 41 +/- 25/BCA) were more frequent than DNA sequence copy number losses (mean 20 +/- 15/BCA). The highest frequencies for DNA sequence copy number gains were detected for SNRPN (61%); GNLY (44%); NME1 (44%); DDX15, ABCB1 (MDR), ATM, LAMA3, MYBL2, ZNF217, and TNFRSF6B (39% each); and MSH2, TERC, SERPINE1, AFM137XA11, IGF1R, and PTPN1 (33% each). DNA sequence copy number losses were identified for PDGFB (44%); D17S125 (39%); AKT3 (28%); and RASSFI, FHIT, CDKN2A (p16), and SAS (CDK4) (28% each). In all non-neoplastic tissue samples of squamous oesophageal and gastric cardia mucosa, the measured mean ratios were 1.00 (squamous oesophageal mucosa) or 1.01 (gastric mucosa), indicating that no DNA sequence copy number chances were present. For validation, the DNA sequence copy number changes of selected clones (SNRPN, CMYC, HER2, ZNF217) detected by aCGH were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These data show the sensitivity of aCGH for the identification of DNA sequence copy number changes at high resolution in BCA. The newly identified genes may include so far unknown biomarkers in BCA and are therefore a starting point for

  13. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson


    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  14. The acute effects of intermittent treadmill running on hunger and plasma acylated ghrelin concentration in individuals with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholipour M


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Body weight is regulated by both food intake and energy expenditure. Ghrelin, a hormone produced by the stomach and pancreas, enhances appetite. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of intermittent treadmill running on acylated ghrelin and appetite in individuals with obesity."n"nMethods : Nine inactive male students, with a mean age of 20.56±0.48 yrs, a body mass index of 32.68±0.84 kg/m2 and a maximum oxygen uptake of 34.21±1.48 ml/kg/min, participated in the study in two trials (control and exercise in a counterbalanced, randomized design. The protocol included intermittent running with a constant intensity at 65% of VO2 max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected before, during, and 2h after cessation of the exercise."n"nResults : Acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger ratings decreased significantly in the second phase and remained lower than baseline (P=0.006 and P=0.002, respectively at the end of the exercise. The total area under the curve values and hunger ratings (all P<0.0005 were significantly lower in the exercise trial compared with the control state. Similarly, growth hormone rose significantly at the second phase and remained higher than baseline (P=0.033 at the

  15. Effect of compression ratio on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine run on raw biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Maximum brake thermal efficiency of 20.04% was obtained in dual fuel mode. • Compression ratio of 18 produced the maximum brake thermal efficiency. • Maximum replacement of diesel was found to be 79.46% at a compression ratio of 18. • CO gets reduced by 26.22% with the increase of compression ratio from 16 to18. • HC gets reduced by 41.97% with the increase of compression ratio from 16 to18. - Abstract: The energy consumption of the world is increasing at a staggering rate due to population explosion. The extensive use of energy has led to fossil fuel depletion and the rise in pollution. Renewable energy holds the key solution to these aforementioned problems. Biogas, one such renewable fuel, can be used in a diesel engine under dual fuel mode for the generation of power. This work attempts to unfold the effect of compression ratio on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine run on raw biogas. For this investigation, a 3.5 kW single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled, variable compression ratio diesel engine is converted into a biogas run dual fuel diesel engine by connecting a venturi gas mixer at the inlet manifold. Experiments have been conducted at various compression ratios (18, 17.5, 17 and 16) and under different loading conditions fixing the standard injection timing at 23° before top dead centre. At 100% load, the brake thermal efficiencies of the dual fuel mode are found to be 20.04%, 18.25%, 17.07% and 16.42% at compression ratios of 18, 17.5, 17 and 16, respectively, whereas at the same load, the diesel mode shows an efficiency of 27.76% at a compression ratio of 17.5. The maximum replacement of the precious fossil fuel is found to be 79.46%, 76.1%, 74% and 72% at compression ratios of 18, 17.5, 17 and 16, respectively at 100% load. For the dual fuel mode, on an average, there is a reduction in carbon monoxide as well as hydrocarbon emission by 26.22% and 41.97% when compression

  16. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer;


    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  17. Tachometric flowmeters for measuring circulation water parameters in steam generators of the NPPs running on pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachometric flowmeters used in steam generators for determining the velocity and direction of the flow have a limited service life owing to the use of corundum for the bearing assembly components. Various materials were investigated for the feasibility of using them as alternatives for replacing the corundum bearing and guide bushing under conditions close to the conditions in steam generators: 7 MPa, 260 degC. Good results were obtained with bearing assemblies fabricated from corrosion-resistant steel. Testing of the transducer design and optimization of the technique was accomplished in the course of testing steam generators of the WWER-1000 reactor at the Balakovskaya nuclear power plant. The velocity and direction of flow in the steam generator were measured within a wide range of unit power ratings up to the values corresponding to full power output. The service life of the transducers proved to be not less than 720 hours. The transducer parameters remained unchanged over the entire operation period. (M.D.)

  18. Basic performance evaluation of a Si-PM array-based LGSO phoswich DOI block detector for a high-resolution small animal PET system. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi


    The silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET. However, it remains unclear whether Si-PM can be used for a depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector based on the decay time differences of the scintillator where pulse shape analysis is used. For clarification, we tested the Hamamatsu 4 × 4 Si-PM array (S11065-025P) combined with scintillators that used different decay times to develop DOI block detectors using the pulse shape analysis. First, Ce-doped Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillators of 0.5 mol% Ce were arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix and were optically coupled to the center of each pixel of the Si-PM array for measurement of the energy resolution as well as its gain variations according to the temperature. Then two types of Ce-doped Lu(1.9)Gd(0.1)Si0(5) (LGSO) scintillators, 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ~31 ns) and 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ~46 ns), were optically coupled in the DOI direction, arranged in a 11 × 7 matrix, and optically coupled to a Si-PM array for testing of the possibility of a high-resolution DOI detector. The energy resolution of the Si-PM array-based GSO block detector was 18 ± 4.4 % FWHM for a Cs-137 gamma source (662 keV). Less than 1 mm crystals were clearly resolved in the position map of the LGSO DOI block detector. The peak-to-valley ratio (P/V) derived from the pulse shape spectra of the LGSO DOI block detector was 2.2. These results confirmed that Si-PM array-based DOI block detectors are promising for high-resolution small animal PET systems. PMID:23271446

  19. On the Relationship between Translation and Creation-Take Yu Guangzhong's use of Run-On Line as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The studies on relation between translation and creation mostly focus on macro-level, lacking evidence at micro-level.This thesis deals with the influence of translation upon creation at a micro-level, and studies one sample literary person, famous andprolific poet writer and translator Yu Guangzhong's use of run-on line in love poems. This thesis finds that Yu's translation hadan influence on his creation, and this influence increased with time. To make clear the subtle differences in the changes of creationby translation, SPSS software is applied as a quantitative tool.

  20. Dual-mode photosensitive arrays based on integration of liquid crystal microlenses and CMOS sensors for obtaining intensity images and wavefronts (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng


    As we all know, because the index of refraction of the conventional microlens array (MLA) is not variable, the wavefront sensor based on the conventional MLA can only obtain the intensity image with low-resolution when it is used to measure the wavefront information simultaneously. In this paper, we use the dual-mode photosensitive arrays based on the liquid crystal (LC) MLA and CMOS sensors to obtain both intensity images with high-resolution and wavefronts. The dual-mode photosensitive arrays can work between an imaging mode and a wavefront sensor mode by switching the voltage off and on. In the experiment, we compare the composite wavefront of the object exposured in a white light with the wavefronts of the same object in tricolor laser. Because using the monochromatic light to measure the wavefront of an object may loss some information, it is a better method to use the white light for obtaining the wavefront information of the single object in the black background. We also discussed how to mix the wavefronts of the red green and blue laser to make the mixed wavefront which is closer to the composite wavefront.

  1. A Run on the Bank


    French, Percy (Irish painter, draftsman, and illustrator, 1854-1920)


    Percy French was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin. On termination of his employment as Cavan Board of Works Engineer in the mid 1880s, he devoted himself to composing, singing and watercolor painting. He often utilized both wet and dry brush techniques and specialized in mists and moors.

  2. Cyclotron based nuclear science: Progress report, April 1, 1987-March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses experiment run on the K500 cyclotron and 88 in cyclotron at Texas AandM University. The main topics of these experiments are: Heavy ion reactions; Nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; Atomic and material science; Nuclear theory; and Superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  3. From array-based hybridization of Helicobacter pylori isolates to the complete genome sequence of an isolate associated with MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mégraud Francis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background elicobacter pylori infection is associated with several gastro-duodenal inflammatory diseases of various levels of severity. To determine whether certain combinations of genetic markers can be used to predict the clinical source of the infection, we analyzed well documented and geographically homogenous clinical isolates using a comparative genomics approach. Results A set of 254 H. pylori genes was used to perform array-based comparative genomic hybridization among 120 French H. pylori strains associated with chronic gastritis (n = 33, duodenal ulcers (n = 27, intestinal metaplasia (n = 17 or gastric extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma (n = 43. Hierarchical cluster analyses of the DNA hybridization values allowed us to identify a homogeneous subpopulation of strains that clustered exclusively with cagPAI minus MALT lymphoma isolates. The genome sequence of B38, a representative of this MALT lymphoma strain-cluster, was completed, fully annotated, and compared with the six previously released H. pylori genomes (i.e. J99, 26695, HPAG1, P12, G27 and Shi470. B38 has the smallest H. pylori genome described thus far (1,576,758 base pairs containing 1,528 CDSs; it contains the vacAs2m2 allele and lacks the genes encoding the major virulence factors (absence of cagPAI, babB, babC, sabB, and homB. Comparative genomics led to the identification of very few sequences that are unique to the B38 strain (9 intact CDSs and 7 pseudogenes. Pair-wise genomic synteny comparisons between B38 and the 6 H. pylori sequenced genomes revealed an almost complete co-linearity, never seen before between the genomes of strain Shi470 (a Peruvian isolate and B38. Conclusion These isolates are deprived of the main H. pylori virulence factors characterized previously, but are nonetheless associated with gastric neoplasia.

  4. Self-aligned tip deinsulation of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and parylene C coated Utah electrode array based neural interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed alumina and parylene C bilayer encapsulation improved the lifetime of neural interfaces. Tip deinsulation of Utah electrode array based neural interfaces is challenging due to the complex 3D geometries and high aspect ratios of the devices. A three-step self-aligned process was developed for tip deinsulation of bilayer encapsulated arrays. The deinsulation process utilizes laser ablation to remove parylene C, O2 reactive ion etching to remove carbon and parylene residues, and buffered oxide etch to remove alumina deposited by atomic layer deposition, and expose the IrOx tip metallization. The deinsulated iridium oxide area was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the morphology, surface morphology, composition, and electrical properties of the deposited layers and deinsulated tips. The alumina layer was found to prevent the formation of micro cracks on iridium oxide during the laser ablation process, which has been previously reported as a challenge for laser deinsulation of parylene films. The charge injection capacity, charge storage capacity, and impedance of deinsulated iridium oxide were characterized to determine the deinsulation efficacy compared to parylene-only insulation. Deinsulated iridium oxide with bilayer encapsulation had higher charge injection capacity (240 versus 320 nC) and similar electrochemical impedance (2.5 versus 2.5 kΩ) compared to deinsulated iridium oxide with only parylene coating for an area of 2 × 10−4 cm2. Tip impedances were in the range of 20–50 kΩ, with a median of 32 kΩ and a standard deviation of 30 kΩ, showing the effectiveness of the self-aligned deinsulation process for alumina and parylene C bilayer encapsulation. The relatively uniform tip impedance values demonstrated the consistency of tip exposures. (paper)

  5. Reduction in the amount of crosstalk with reduced number of focal spot rows in a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor (United States)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.


    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), named after Johannes Franz Hartmann and Roland Shack, is one of the most well-known and popularly used optical wavefront sensor that finds numerous applications in various optical technologies. SHWS samples the incident wavefront by means of a lenslet array to produce an array of regular 2D array of focal spots on the detector plane of a digital camera, in the case of an unaberrated plane wavefront. If the incident wavefront is aberrated or deviates from a plane wavefront, the respective focal spots get shifted from its reference positions corresponding to the regular grid. If the incident wavefront aberration increases or has a very large curvature, the focal spot of one lenslet may enter the detector sub-aperture of the nearby lenslet. Thus, the SHWS has a limited dynamic range that is restricted to aberrations which do not allow the sub-images to be displaced out from their own detector sub-array. It makes the SHWS sensitive to cross-talk when higher order aberrations are present thereby unavoidably a ecting the wavefront estimation process. The array of tiny lenses of the SHWS can be replaced by an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens, generating an array of focal spots which is similar to that as in the case of a SHWS. In this paper, the spatial frequency of such a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor is configured to produce lesser number of rows of focal spots. The reduction in the number of focal spot rows reduces the amount of cross talk in the vertical direction. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results to demonstrate the above stated reduction in crosstalk.

  6. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)


    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  7. Study of collimator array based on single collimating lens%基于单准直透镜的阵列准直器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志林; 杨睿; 杨柳; 宋丽丹; 孙莉萍; 马雨虹; 王猛; 陈定康; 郭金平; 唐丽红


    提出了一种基于单准直透镜和光纤阵列的阵列准直器,深入研究了此种方案的光路无胶和光路有胶的两种实现方式:并基于高斯光束传输矩阵和q参数相关理论,从理论上详细地计算、推导了各变量之间的关系,并进行了模拟仿真及实验验证,得到了理论和实验一致的结果.对两种实现方式的结构及封装设计也进行了初步的摸索和实验,并制作出了性能良好的阵列准直器.理论和实验表明,该方案具有易加工、低成本、易封装、性能优等特点,也易于扩展成多维阵列准直器,可为可重构光分插复用器系统和光交叉连接系统的发展提供强有力的器件支撑.%A new collimator array based on single collimating lens and fiber array is proposed in the paper. An in-depth study is conducted on the two realizing methods, one is with glue in the optical path and the other is without glue in the optical path. Based on Gauss optics transmission matrix and q parameter theory, the relationship among the variables is deduced and computed theoretically, simulated virtually and confirmed experimentally. Good agreement between theoretical results and simulation, experimental results is obtained. The mechanical and packaging designs of the two realizing methods are first studied, then the proposed collimator arrays, with good performance are made. Both the theoretical and experimental results show that the scheme has the merits of easy-to-make, low cost, easy-to-package, good performance, good scalability, etc., which can strongly support the development of reconfigurable optical add- drop multiplexer system and optical cross-connect system.

  8. Effect of Wheelchair Running on Recovery of Blood Lactate and Physical Performance after High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise – An Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan G


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive sprint sport players perform high intensity exercise only for a small percentage of a total game and such periods are often instrumental in determining the eventual outcome. Recovery is a key factor for performance, and constant lack of recovery or insufficient recovery turns into overtraining which is detrimental in achieving peak performance. The purpose was to find out the effect of wheelchair running on the physical performance recovery after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Method: Ten sportsmen having the age range from 20 to 29, VO2max Ranges from 60.51 to 64.29 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. After filling pre-participation questionnaire and 30-min of supine rest, Blood lactate and the field tests for the measurement of static balance, power, speed and agility were applied. The subjects were made to run in the treadmill and to increase the intensity to reach the Target Heart Rate (THR. After 1-min the subjects were given rest for 15-s and after that they started exercise again and thus the subjects completed several bouts of such exercises until exhaustion followed by either Passive rest or wheelchair running for the duration of 10 minutes. Parameters were measures after completed the exercise bout and after the recovery. Results: After the recovery in experimental group significant improvement found only in blood lactate (p<0.01 and no significant changes found in other parameters while in control group no significant changes found in all parameters. There was no significant difference found in all the parameters including blood lactate between the groups. Conclusion: Both wheelchair running and passive recovery are same in the efficiency of blood lactate removal and restoration of physical performance following intense intermittent exercise.

  9. Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  10. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  11. Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multicylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel-ethanol-biodiesel blends of high ethanol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Diesel-ethanol-biodiesel blends of high ethanol content are tested for a Multicylinder DI diesel engine. → Brake specific fuel consumption is increased but the brake thermal efficiency is improved for high ethanol content blends. → Combustion process of high ethanol content blend is delayed at low loads but approached to the diesel fuel at high loads. → Smoke reduced remarkably at high loads for steady state but no benefit is observed on peak smoke during free acceleration. → NO emission variation depends on operating conditions while CO emissions drastically increased at low loads. -- Abstract: Feasibility of using high percentage of ethanol in diesel-ethanol blends, with biodiesel as a co-solvent and properties enhancer has been investigated. The blends tested are D70/E20/B10 (blend A), D50/E30/B20 (blend B) D50/E40/B10 (blend C), and Diesel (D100). The blends are prepared to get maximum percentage of oxygen content but keeping important properties such as density, viscosity and Cetane index within acceptable limits. Experiments are conducted on a multicylinder, DI diesel engine, whose original injection timing was 13o CA BTDC. The engine did not run on blends B and C at this injection timing and it was required to advance timing to 18o and 21o CA BTDC to enable the use of blends B and C respectively. However advancing injection timing almost doubled the NO emissions and increased peak firing pressure. The P-θ and net heat release diagrams shows that the combustion process of these blends delayed at low loads but approaches to the diesel fuel at high loads. The comparison of blend results with baseline diesel showed that brake specific fuel consumption increased considerably, thermal efficiency improved slightly, smoke opacity reduced remarkably at high loads. NO variation depends on operating conditions while CO emissions drastically increased at low loads. Blend B which replaced 50% diesel and having oxygen content up to 12.21% by

  12. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  14. SPEDAC Pro for DOS. Format conversion of spectral data from nuclear experiments. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPEDAC Pro for DOS is a software package that allows you to convert spectral data from nuclear experiments (e.g. X-ray, gamma ray, and Moessbauer spectroscopy) from one format to another. It runs on IBM compatible PCs under Dos 3.1 or higher. SPEDAC Pro has been developed under the auspices of the IAEA Physics Section

  15. Post-Fukushima Japan: The continuing nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima disaster was a wake-up call for the nuclear industry as well as a shocking revelation of the inner workings of the Japanese power sector. The political fallout from the event was far-reaching, pushing governments into abandoning nuclear expansion, turning instead to fossil fuels and renewable energy alternatives. While the move away from nuclear energy was deemed a move critical to political survival in Europe, we find that political candidates running on anti-nuclear platforms did not win elections, while the pro-nuclear Liberal Democratic Party won government in the 2012 elections. Against this backdrop, we analyse the energy conflict in Japan using a framework of values versus interests and consider the regulatory and cultural conditions that contributed to the disaster. A number of considerations lie in the way of an organised phase-out of nuclear power in Japan. We also consider the possible policy paths Japan may take. - Highlights: • As Europeans urgently phase-out nuclear power, Japan voted out such a government despite high anti-nuclear sentiment. • Regulatory climate within the nuclear industry was dysfunctional as a result of being captured by the ‘nuclear village’. • New ‘independent’ nuclear authority is made up of previously captured agency. • With a pro-nuclear government, and lack of really independent nuclear authority, old problems may yet arise. • Japanese government has to choose between lowering emissions, low popular support for nuclear power, and affordable electricity

  16. Downloading the nuclear structure shell model code oxbash from internet

    CERN Document Server

    Horoi, M; Mihai Horoi; Alex Brown


    This document explains how to download the OXBASH code for nuclear structure calculations from the NSCL anonymous server and get it running on VAX (VMS), ALPHA (OpenVMS) and IBM RS/6000 (aix) computers. The physics behind the code is explained in the OXBASH manual, which is part of the downloading package. Everybody is welcome to download the code and use it under the conditions described below.

  17. Diagnosis and Prognostication of Ductal Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreas Based on Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Array-Based Methylated CpG Island Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Gotoh


    Full Text Available To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning cohort with a specificity of 100%, were identified. Using criteria that combined the 12 BAC clones, T-samples were diagnosed as cancers with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both the learning and validation cohorts. DNA methylation status on 11 of the BAC clones, which was able to discriminate patients showing early relapse from those with no relapse in the learning cohort with 100% specificity, was correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the validation cohort and was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators for patients with PCs.

  18. Nuclear Medicine. (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.


    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  19. Nuclear power


    Waller, David; McDonald, Alan; Greenwald, Judith; Mobbs, Paul


    David Waller and Alan McDonald ask whether a nuclear renaissance can be predicted; Judith M. Greenwald discusses keeping the nuclear power option open; Paul Mobbs considers the availability of uranium and the future of nuclear energy.

  20. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: nuclear power certainties and doubts; nuclear power in the Western World to 2000; the frequency of core meltdown accidents; hidden costs of the accident at Three Mile Island; costs of nuclear accidents - implications for reactor choice; defining the risks of nuclear power; the uncertain economics of a nuclear power program; the economics of enabling decisions (Sizewell B as an enabling decision); trade in nuclear electricity; some pointers to the future. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  3. Nuclear energy between the demand and the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy has many benefits for mankind, most importantly the production of electricity. It is the primary application for nuclear energy to acquire electricity by power reactors. There are many other uses of nuclear energy, for example in archaeology, medicine, industry and agriculture. Nuclear energy presently is considered as one of the most important sources of energy, contributing of about 15% of the energy requirements of the world. It is considered a clean nonpolluting source of energy for the environment despite the waste products it generates in contrast to fossil fuel. It is less expensive compared to the other energy sources, for example solar energy, wind energy as well as fossil fuel. From the economic point of view, the price for the kilowatt per hour produced from a power station running on petrol or coal is 35% more expensive than the kilowatt per hour produced from nuclear power station. (author)

  4. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  5. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)





    The paper has analyzed different manifestations of terrorism with nuclear weapons and ionizing radiation as a special kind of terrorism. Possibilities that terrorist groups come into possession of nuclear weapons and apply them for terrorist purposes have been analysed. The forms and methods of terrorist activities with nuclear means have been given as well. It has been concluded that nuclear terrorism includes various forms of threats, including not only nuclear weapons but also the sources ...

  7. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  8. Nuclear safeguards and nuclear shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issues involved in the California nuclear initiative (Proposition 15) are described. Some of the characteristics of the anti-nuclear lobby are outlined. Some do's and don'ts for the nuclear group are listed. The nuclear shutdown effort was concentrated on the safeguards and high-level waste disposal issues

  9. Minimising the risk in nuclear processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel reprocessing processes at the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield plant are described. A complex computer system has been developed to handle nuclear fuel from the time of entering the fuel handling plant from the reactor to storage and decanning of the uranium rods. This reduces human error in the safety systems. The software package (ASPIC -automated sequencing package for industrial control) is an interpretive language providing fast sequence control to the plant. It is designed to run on a PDP 11 series mini computer. For example, when the spent fuel arrives it is transfered from special transport flasks into containers. This takes place in the inlet cells, which are totally protected by 8 foot thick walls, using three sequence controllers which use computer logic units and termination and signal conditioning assemblies. Each stage of the process is similarly controlled by the computer. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different laws on use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes in Bulgaria and Italy are given here: civil liability, nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste, nuclear facilities, decommissioning, health and environment protection. (N.C.)

  11. Nuclear Scans (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  13. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  14. Brief history of the nuclear weapon - Between proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the hardest times of the Cold War, like in October 1962 with the Cuba crisis, the World lived in the fear of a nuclear confrontation between the USA and the USSR. If this time seems far away now, the risks of a nuclear conflict are probably greater today because no serious progress has bee done during the last ten years and because, from now on, nine, and maybe ten states possess nuclear weapons. In April 2009, US President Barack Obama, gave a talk in Prague (Czech Republic) in which he stressed again on the enormous risks that this situation was running on humanity and urged the world to get rid of nuclear weapons. The aim of this book is to present the main steps of this process, which started in the 1960's, and the arguments which justify its necessity. (J.S.)

  15. Runs on money market mutual funds


    Wermers, Russ


    This paper studies daily investor flows to and from each money market mutual fund during the period prior to and including the money fund crisis of September and October 2008. We focus on the determinants of flows in the prime money fund category to shed light on the covariates of money fund runs, since this category was, by far, the most heavily impacted by the money fund crisis. We find that institutional investors moved their money simultaneously (or with a one-day delay) into or out of pr...

  16. Maximizing Peak Running on Race Day (United States)

    Consolo, Kitty


    Distance runners spend many hours training assiduously for competition, yet on race day they can often make mistakes that sabotage their performance. This article addresses five common race-day mistakes: (1) failure to bring proper equipment to the race; (2) failure to eat an appropriate race-day meal; (3) failure to hydrate properly; (4) failure…

  17. Production runs on the CRAY-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a grant from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, users from several Argonne divisions executed programs on the CRAY-1. The objectives were twofold: to determine the feasibility of implementing large codes on the CRAY-1, and to decide what algorithm changes could be made to improve run time on a vector machine. In addition, it was hoped to evaluate the code produced by the new CRAY FORTRAN compiler. Large reactor codes were implemented with relative ease, requiring, for example, approximately two man-weeks to get a 56,000-card program running correctly. Certain difficulties were encountered, however, in transferring the large binary files required by a biomedical code. It is concluded that it is both feasible and desirable to implement large codes on the CRAY-1. Better instruction scheduling in the CRAY compiler reduced run times by 40 percent. With some rewriting in Assembler language to produce optimal code, the programs tested ran two to four times faster than on the IBM 370/195 or the 3033 at Argonne. Further improvement (up to twofold) was realized in several programs by substituting new algorithms to take advantage of the vector architecture of the CRAY. 8 tables

  18. Computing Runs on a General Alphabet


    Kosolobov, Dmitry


    We describe a RAM algorithm computing all runs (maximal repetitions) of a given string of length $n$ over a general ordered alphabet in $O(n\\log^{\\frac{2}3} n)$ time and linear space. Our algorithm outperforms all known solutions working in $\\Theta(n\\log\\sigma)$ time provided $\\sigma = n^{\\Omega(1)}$, where $\\sigma$ is the alphabet size. We conjecture that there exists a linear time RAM algorithm finding all runs.

  19. Discussion of the run-on of redundant contents in the copy fitting of sci-tech journals%科技期刊统版时溢余文字转面接排的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    科技期刊统版过程中,版面溢余文字处理是一个重要技术环节。依据转面接排的约定俗成,讨论版面接排的步骤与调控措施。溢余文字处理得当可以使版式妥帖并降低刊物的印制成本。%Disposal of redundant contents is important in the copy fitting of sci-tech journals. According to the conventional run-on, procedures and adjustment measures of the printed sheet layout are discussed. Proper disposal of redundant contents can make the format tidy and reduce printing cost effectively.

  20. Camera array based light field microscopy. (United States)

    Lin, Xing; Wu, Jiamin; Zheng, Guoan; Dai, Qionghai


    This paper proposes a novel approach for high-resolution light field microscopy imaging by using a camera array. In this approach, we apply a two-stage relay system for expanding the aperture plane of the microscope into the size of an imaging lens array, and utilize a sensor array for acquiring different sub-apertures images formed by corresponding imaging lenses. By combining the rectified and synchronized images from 5 × 5 viewpoints with our prototype system, we successfully recovered color light field videos for various fast-moving microscopic specimens with a spatial resolution of 0.79 megapixels at 30 frames per second, corresponding to an unprecedented data throughput of 562.5 MB/s for light field microscopy. We also demonstrated the use of the reported platform for different applications, including post-capture refocusing, phase reconstruction, 3D imaging, and optical metrology. PMID:26417490

  1. Spin scan tomographic array-based imager. (United States)

    Hovland, Harald


    This work presents a novel imaging device based on tomographic reconstruction. Similar in certain aspects to the earlier presented tomographic scanning (TOSCA) principle, it provides several important enhancements. The device described generates a stream of one-dimensional projections from a linear array of thin stripe detectors onto which the (circular) image of the scene is rotated. A two-dimensional image is then reproduced from the one-dimensional signals using tomographic processing techniques. A demonstrator is presented. Various aspects of the design and construction are discussed, and resulting images and movies are presented. PMID:25607168

  2. Microfluidic System for Solution Array Based Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, G M; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Rose, K A


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate new enabling technology for multiplex biodetection systems that are flexible, miniaturizable, highly automated, low cost, and high performance. It builds on prior successes at LLNL with particle-based solution arrays, such as those used in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) successfully field deployed to multiple locations nationwide. We report the development of a multiplex solution array immunoassay based upon engineered metallic nanorod particles. Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} particles are fabricated by sequential electrodeposition of dissimilar metals within porous alumina templates, yielding optically encoded striping patterns that can be read using standard laboratory microscope optics and PC-based image processing software. The addition of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings and target-specific antibodies allows each encoded class of nanorod particles to be directed against a different antigen target. A prototype assay panel directed against bacterial, viral, and soluble protein targets demonstrates simultaneous detection at sensitivities comparable to state of the art immunoassays, with minimal cross-reactivity. Studies have been performed to characterize the colloidal properties (zeta potential) of the suspended nanorod particles as a function of pH, the ionic strength of the suspending solution, and surface functionalization state. Additional studies have produced means for the non-contact manipulation of the particles, including the insertion of magnetic nickel stripes within the encoding pattern, and control via externally applied electromagnetic fields. Using the results of these studies, the novel Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} based assay was implemented in a prototype automated system with the sample processing functions and optical readout performed on a microfluidic card. The unique physical properties of the nanorod particles enable the development of integrated microfluidic systems for biodefense, protein expression studies, and other applications.

  3. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview about the evolution of nuclear energy for the next 25 years is presented. Several types of nuclear power reactors are described and the power installed up to year 2000 are discussed. Some processes of nuclear fuel enrichment used in the world are shown. (E.G.)

  4. Nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarewicz, W


    Current developments in nuclear structure are discussed from a theoretical perspective. The studies of the nuclear many-body system provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction, nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales, and the modes of the nucleonic matter.

  5. Nuclear Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China will begin to build the world’s first third-generation nuclear power plant at the Sanmen Nuclear Power Project in Sanmen City, coastal Zhejiang Province, in March 2009, accord-ing to the State Nuclear Power Technology Corp.

  6. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.


    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  7. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report presents among other things the figures of the nuclear insurance line. The Association of Nuclear Insurers in the F.R.G., the DKVG, counts more than 100 member companies in the year 1989, who offer reinsurance protection for West German nuclear power stations up to DM 1.5 billions in the property insurance sector, and up to DM 200 millions in the nuclear liability sector. The inland portfolio of the DKVG' covers 22 nuclear power stations. The expenses to satisfy claims in 1988 amounted to DM 9 millions. (HP)

  8. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  10. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  11. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  12. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  13. Fabrication of high density silicon nanodot array based on soft imprinting theory%低压压印制备硅点阵结构的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉东; 陶伟; 王时飞; 李鑫; 王旭迪


    高密度、图形规则的硅点阵结构由于其独特的光电性能具有广泛的应用前景.本文介绍了一种以低压压印结合反应离子刻蚀制备硅点阵的方法,即利用PDMS模板通过压印复制获得PMMA掩模结构,用反应离子刻蚀在硅片表面制得高度有序的硅纳米点阵结构.实验和有限元模拟结果表明,低压压印因为毛细作用下光刻胶在模板内的充分填充可以获得良好的图形复制精度和较小的残余胶厚度,因此适于大面积高密度光刻胶结构的均匀复制.%High density and regular silicon nanodot array patterns have been widely researched in many front fields,but the fabrication still remain many problems.In this paper,we present a new method to fabricate silicon nanodot array based on soft imprinting theory.Firstly,according to soft imprinting,we got the PMMA mask by PDMS mould,after that,highly ordered silicon array patterns were obtained combining with reactive ion etching.Experimental and finite element analysis results show that,soft imprinting has a better graphic reproduction accuracy and smaller residual photoresist thickness due to the capillary force,which can lead to better filling of polymer,so it is suitable for large area uniform replication of high density photoresist structure.

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been seen as an answer to the energy problems of the Third World and Third World markets have been seen as an answer to the problems of the nuclear power industry. For some years during the 1970s both views seemed tenable. This paper examines the progress and setbacks of nuclear power in developing countries. In concentrates mainly on the four countries with real nuclear power commitments (as opposed to all-but-abandoned ambitions) - South Korea and Taiwan, where the interest has been mainly in obtaining cheaper and reliable electricity supplies, and Argentina and India, where the main interest has been in developing indigenous nuclear technological capabilities. A number of possibilities are examined which could influence future nuclear ordering, including smaller reactors to suit Third World electricity grids and a possible way round the constraint of large external debts. (author)

  15. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  16. Nuclear Speckles


    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.


    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. ...

  17. Nuclear Astrophysics


    Brune, Carl R.


    Nuclear physics has a long and productive history of application to astrophysics which continues today. Advances in the accuracy and breadth of astrophysical data and theory drive the need for better experimental and theoretical understanding of the underlying nuclear physics. This paper will review some of the scenarios where nuclear physics plays an important role, including Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, neutrino production by our sun, nucleosynthesis in novae, the creation of elements heavier ...

  18. Nuclear Reactions


    Bertulani, C. A.


    Nuclear reactions generate energy in nuclear reactors, in stars, and are responsible for the existence of all elements heavier than hydrogen in the universe. Nuclear reactions denote reactions between nuclei, and between nuclei and other fundamental particles, such as electrons and photons. A short description of the conservation laws and the definition of basic physical quantities is presented, followed by a more detailed account of specific cases: (a) formation and decay of compound nuclei;...

  19. Nuclear APC. (United States)

    Neufeld, Kristi L


    Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) is thought to be an initiating step in the progression of the vast majority ofcolorectal cancers. Attempts to understand APC function have revealed more than a dozen binding partners as well as several subcellular localizations including at cell-cell junctions, associated with microtubules at the leading edge of migrating cells, at the apical membrane, in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The present chapter focuses on APC localization and functions in the nucleus. APC contains two classical nuclear localization signals, with a third domain that can enhance nuclear import. Along with two sets of nuclear export signals, the nuclear localization signals enable the large APC protein to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear APC can oppose beta-catenin-mediated transcription. This down-regulation of nuclear beta-catenin activity by APC most likely involves nuclear sequestration of beta-catenin from the transcription complex as well as interaction of APC with transcription corepressor CtBP. Additional nuclear binding partners for APC include transcription factor activator protein AP-2alpha, nuclear export factor Crm1, protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL and perhaps DNA itself. Interaction of APC with polymerase beta and PCNA, suggests a role for APC in DNA repair. The observation that increases in the cytoplasmic distribution of APC correlate with colon cancer progression suggests that disruption of these nuclear functions of APC plays an important role in cancer progression. APC prevalence in the cytoplasm of quiescent cells points to a potential function for nuclear APC in control of cell proliferation. Clear definition of APC's nuclear function(s) will expand the possibilities for early colorectal cancer diagnostics and therapeutics targeted to APC. PMID:19928349

  20. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  1. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA)

  2. Nuclear critics and nuclear economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ongoing nuclear debate is given to attacks on the economics of nuclear power that ignore the actual performance of operating plants. Today, almost every existing nuclear power plant has provided significant savings to the customers it supplies. (The exceptions to this, while important, are not being hidden. Instead, the problem plants, Palisades and Browns Ferry in the main, as well as all our nuclear units, are being studied and carefully monitored with the view to improving performance. The fact remains that nuclear units ordered today are expected to provide more economical energy in almost all parts of the nation than any other available steam-electric alternative.) Despite extensive data to the contrary on file with regulatory commissions, both state and Federal, publications on nuclear power economics by adversary groups appear to have gained far more attention that the actual record. But, during 1977, nuclear generation accounted for about 12 percent of the nation's production of electricity, exceeding the output of hydroelectric power for the first time in history. For Northeast Utilities, where for the first nine months of 1977 63 percent of the electricity was nuclear, every nuclear kWh meant a direct reduction in imported oil. U.S. government figures for the first eight months of 1977 show that nuclear generation totaled 160 billion net kWh, equivalent to about 300 million barrels of oil, almost a million barrels per day. Obviously nuclear capacity that displaces that much oil is advantageous, both for the utility and for the nation. The U.S. could build a lot of generating capacity (nuclear and coal) and do a lot of research (solar, fusion, breeder reactors) with even a fraction of the $40 billion now going to the oil-exporting countries each year

  3. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  4. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  5. Nuclear engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes nuclear engineering introducing nuclear energy and its utilization, nuclear engineering basics, nuclear reactor and nuclear reaction, nuclear steam system, thermal output and reactor physics, transient reactor, radiation management, safety in nuclear power plant and nuclear economy. It explains the technical terms of nuclear engineering in detail.

  6. Nuclear stress test (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  7. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  8. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides the man in the street with a fair presentation of nuclear energy and can help him to build his own opinion about this much debated question. The first chapter defines what is involved in the hazy term of energy. The second chapter explains how a nuclear power plant operates. The chapters 3 to 6 give a good grounding in basic physics to understand radioactivity and the different processes that occur in a nuclear reactor. The chapters 7 and 8 present the different reactor types and the complete fuel cycle from uranium ore extraction to radioactive waste storage. The last chapter is dedicated to the pros and cons of nuclear energy, this chapter includes a presentation of the organization of nuclear safety in France. (A.C.)

  9. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State supervision of economic activities - economic supervision - takes place in the most varied fields. The study initially pursues the question of whether nuclear supervision has a special position, i.e. whether there are significant legal or factual differences to other fields of industrial administrative law. To this end, common features of economic supervision with regard to subject, function and instruments are developed. Subsequently nuclear supervision, in its function as a part of economic supervision, is examined with regard to similarities and peculiarities. The interactions between planning permission and operational supervision under nuclear law are illustrated, and thus the position of Art. 19 of the German Nuclear Energy Act defined within the broader framework of nuclear control. The second part of the work is concerned with individual questions relating to Art. 19 of the above Act. (orig./HSCH)

  11. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  12. Closure for a wall opening in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a closure for the radiation shielding closing of a wall opening between two large adjacent cells in nuclear plants. If one of the two large cells is provided with a cell crane, the adjacent large cell is usually made an intervention area, so as to be able to do maintenance on the cell crane in it. The wall opening between the two large cells must be closed during repair work to the cell crane. The closure is therefore arranged so that it can run on horizontal rails. The external profile of the closure fits tightly into the internal profile of the wall opening, or covers the wall opening completely. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of the Expert Committee was to review the technical development and efficacy of nuclear medicine methods and to recommend the best possible means of establishing nuclear medicine services at various levels of medical care in different countries. After reviewing the contributions which nuclear medicine can make, the various types of medical institutions and hospitals in existence, the requirements, organization and funding of nuclear medicine services, and the cost/effectiveness of nuclear medicine, a number of recommendations were made. IAEA and WHO should make information on existing methods of cost/effectiveness analysis widely available; invite governments to include a description of such analysis methods in training programmes of their health officers; assist in the acquisition of the necessary data; and encourage and eventually support actual applications of such analyses to carefully selected nuclear medicine procedures in varying medicosocial environments. They were further recommended to study possible ways of improving reliability and ease of servicing nuclear medicine equipment, and extent of possible local construction; the possibility of making available supplies of matched characterized reagents for radioimmunoassay and related techniques; and to study the advantages of establishing a network of collaborating centres on an international basis

  14. Nuclear power and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanned by the Chernobyl reactor accident the discussion about the safety and insurability of nuclear power plants has also been affecting the insurance companies. The related analyses of the safety concepts of German nuclear power plants have been confirming the companies' risk philosophy of maintaining the insurability of nuclear power plants either meeting German safety standards or equivalent safety standards. Apart from the technical evaluation of the safety of nuclear power plants the fundamental discussion about the pros and cons of nuclear power has also been stressing the damages and liability problem. The particular relevance of possible considerable transfrontier contaminations clearly reveals the urgency of establishing internationally standardized reactor accident liability regulations. (orig./HP)

  15. Nuclear Hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global spread of nuclear reactors for the production of energy seems inevitable. Nuclear power plants will be supplied--if not by the United States, then by one of several other exporters. But other aspects of this development are less certain. One is the relationship between proliferation of nuclear energy plants and that of nuclear weapons. Another is the actual constraint that such vulnerable potential targets as nuclear power plants would have on would-be aggressors. In the last analysis, this would depend on the rationality of a nation's leadership. What can be said for the concept of nuclear power plants as potential hostages is that by installing a reactor on its territory, a country increases its vulnerability to grave, possibly unacceptable damage in the event of war. As a result, that nation's leaders might be inclined to raise the threshold of their sensitivity to provocation by neighbors and to restrain their own inclinations toward aggression. Admittedly this is a frail substitute for robust international agreements, but in the present order of things it is not a trivial consideration. Many incidents once regarded by the great powers as easi belli have more recently been either resolved by diplomacy or ignored altogether. The idea must not be pressed too far. The export of a nuclear power plant to a Third World country cannot be advocated simply as a means to constrain its own military adventurism. Aside from the promise of a vast increase in energy supply for developing nations, nuclear powered generating stations could actually improve relations among countries. The risk of widespread radioactive contamination by nuclear power plants hit by even conventional bombs could introduce a positive new element into the military calculations of powers outside the NATO-Warsaw Pact arena. As they balance military and diplomatic solutions to local conflicts, moderation rather than bellicosity might become the better part of valor

  16. Nuclear Scales


    Friar, J. L.


    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the $\\pi$-$\\gamma$ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effe...

  17. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP)

  18. Critical wind velocities for several kinds of typical vehicle running on a cable-stayed bridge deck%几种典型车辆在斜拉桥桥面行驶的临界风速研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马麟; 韩万水; 刘健新; 李加武


    The critical wind velocity and running velocity were studied for three kinds of typical vehicle running on a cable-stayed bridge deck under action of strong side wind. The effects of the bridge's side buffeting and the following coordinate features of the vehicle's moving equations on the vehicle side deviation relative to the bridge deck were analyzed, the calculation formulas of its relative side slipping and velocity were obtained. Based on previous studies, a wind-vehicle-bridge coupling vibration system including vehicle side deviation and driver's behavior was studied, and the corresponding simulation code was improved and tested. A cable-stayed bridge was taken as an example, critical wind velocities of three kinds of typical automobile running on the bridge deck were obtained. Results showed that the critical wind velocity is not significantly influenced by controlling objectives of driver behavior; the accident types of different vehicles are possibly different; for box-type truck, its critical wind velocity of side slipping is always lower than that of overturning; but for cars like Santana and Jia-bao, overturning accident plays a controlling role when running velocity is high, while side slipping accident does when running velocity is low.%研究强侧风作用下三种典型汽车在斜拉桥桥面行驶时的临界风速和车速.分析汽车运动方程的随动坐标特性和桥梁的侧向抖振对汽车相对桥面侧偏的影响,得到侧偏位移及速率的计算式,在以往基础上,研究了考虑车辆侧偏和驾驶员行为的风-车-桥空间耦合振动系统,完善了仿真分析程序的功能.以某斜拉桥为实例,分析三种典型车辆在桥面行使的临界风速.分析结果表明:采用控制重心还是前轮侧滑的驾驶员模型不显著影响桥面汽车临界风速的大小;不同类型汽车的事故原因可能不同,对于箱式货车,侧滑事故起控制作用,对于桑塔纳和一汽佳宝,车速高时,侧倾

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  20. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first volume of the Annual Report for 1989/90 gives an overview of the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, its development and a selection of highlights of the year's programme. This volume is complementary, presenting brief specialist reports, submitted by the users, describing the progress and results of each individual proposal. The contents reflect the extremely successful year due in good measure to the performance of the tandem accelerator which provided a record number of hours with ''beam on target''. Reports are grouped in four sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z numbers of the nuclei studied; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; accelerator operations and development plus experimental instrumentation and techniques. The appendix forms a concise summary of the work at the facility for the year. (author)

  1. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 104 member insurance companies, all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991, the inland portfolio of the DKVG covered 21 contracts in the property insurance sector, and 22 contracts in the nuclear liability sector. There will be no new nuclear power plants to be insured in the Federal Republic of Germany within the foreseeable future. The home business in 1991 remained claim-free, as in the year before. The overall loss ratio went down to 2.9 per cent, after it had been 15.4 per cent in 1989. This very low loss ratio of 2.9 per cent should not deviate from the fact that nuclear insurers always have to reckon with a substantial damage. Such an event at present would cost them a maximum gross sum of DM 1.7 million, which would mean DM 730 million on account of DKVG. (orig./HSCH)

  2. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics

  3. Nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.)

  4. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  5. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C


    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  6. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the international electrotechnical commission (IEC) and its aims. More specifically, the technical committee no 45, on nuclear instrumentation is presented. Its organization and aims are recalled together with its current and future activities

  7. Nuclear Astrophysics


    Arnould, M.; K. Takahashi


    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding some of the many facets of the Universe through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic n...

  8. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins-Duffin, C E


    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  9. Nuclear shadowing


    Armesto, N.


    The phenomenon of shadowing of nuclear structure functions at small values of Bjorken-$x$ is analyzed. First, multiple scattering is discussed as the underlying physical mechanism. In this context three different but related approaches are presented: Glauber-like rescatterings, Gribov inelastic shadowing and ideas based on high-density Quantum Chromodynamics. Next, different parametrizations of nuclear partonic distributions based on fit analysis to existing data combined with Dokshitzer-Grib...

  10. Nuclear Lamins


    Dechat, Thomas; Adam, Stephen A; Taimen, Pekka; Shimi, Takeshi; Goldman, Robert D.


    The nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins that are critically important for the structural properties of the nucleus. In addition, they are involved in the regulation of numerous nuclear processes, including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin organization. The developmentally regulated expression of lamins suggests that they are involved in cellular differentiation. Their assembly dynamic properties throughout the cell cycle, particularly in mitosis, are influence...

  11. Nuclear reprogramming


    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J. B.


    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming a...

  12. Nuclear Ataxias


    Orr, Harry T.


    Historically basic neuroscience research has made several important contributions to the cell biology of the nucleus, in particular the elucidation of nuclear structures and compartments. As research progressed towards elucidating the mechanism of neurological disease at the cellular and molecular levels, it is now providing insight into the importance and basis of coordination of nuclear pathways within the nucleus and with other cellular compartments. Ataxias, lethal neurodegenerative disea...

  13. Nuclear Waffles


    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.


    The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with $51200$ and $409600$ nucleons of nuclear pasta. From the output of the MD simulations we ch...

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  15. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  16. Nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All scientists and technologists are agreed that the coal based fuel cycle is somewhere between 50 to 300 times more dangerous than the uranium fuel cycle. Under these circumstances it is not difficult to show that on a more quantitative basis, the nuclear industry, in all countries, has an unblemished safety record when compared with other energy sources. Various hazards and benefits of nuclear power are analyzed in this paper comparing with other energy sources. (Liu)

  17. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  18. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  19. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned. (S.K.K.)

  20. Nuclear hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of hadron dynamics in the nucleus is illustrated to show the importance of nuclear medium effects in hadron interactions. The low lying hadron spectrum is considered to provide the natural collective variables for nuclear systems. Recent studies of nucleon-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions are reviewed, with emphasis on the type of experimental phenomena which signal the importance of the many-body dynamics. 28 references

  1. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  2. Nuclear enthalpies


    Rozynek Jacek


    Even small departures from a nuclear equilibrium density with constant nucleon masses require an increase of a nucleon enthalpy. This process can be described as volume corrections to a nucleon rest energy, which are proportional to pressure and absent in a standard Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) with point-like nucleons. Bag model and RMF calculations show the modifications of nucleon mass, nucleon radius and a Parton Distribution Function (PDF) of Nuclear Matter (NM) above the saturation poi...

  3. Seguro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the constitutive elements of insurance and its features in the field of law, and special legislation about the matter are given. The relationship between the liability of the nuclear power plant operator and the international conventions about civil liability on nuclear damage is discussed. Some considerations on damage reparing in the United States, Germany, France and Spain are presented. (A.L.S.L.)

  4. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three decades of commercial development, nuclear power has failed to fulfil its promise. Why, and what does that failure imply for the future of energy policy? One reason for nuclear power's slow growth is that rich countries have repeatedly found they needed less electricity than they had forecast. Part of the problem is, as it always has been, public unease. Worries about safety affect costs. They make it harder and more time-consuming to find sites for new plants or for storing waste. Complex safety devices mean complex plants, which are more expensive to build (and to relicense when they grow old). The true cost of nuclear power is hard to calculate. However nuclear power now seems to be less economically favourable when compared with its main rival, coal. The only hope for nuclear power is that, apart from hydropower, it is the only commercial alternative to fossil fuels. Concerns over carbon dioxide emissions may tip the balance in nuclear's favour. (Author)

  5. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts. (Kako, I.)

  7. Nuclear watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979 the accident at Three Mile Island brought nuclear power to the forefront of national attention. Over the last five years there have been no new orders for nuclear plants, construction costs and lead times have increased drastically, and numerous plants have been cancelled. In the coming years many new plants will come on line, and the first round of nuclear plant retirements will begin. Thus, the new set of issues faced by utilities are whether to complete plants currently under construction, how to recover the cost of abandoned plants, how to handle the potential rate shock of bringing costly plants into rate base, and how to accomplish decommissioning and retirement of nuclear plants. This paper presents and analyzes these issues. First, the history of the nuclear electric generation industry is reviewed. Next a case study illustrating the cost momentum built into nuclear power plant construction is presented. The issues involved in plant cancellation are discussed. Finally, a case study involving rate phase-in strategies is analyzed. 1 reference, 7 figures

  8. General Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  12. Nuclear energy, radiation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few decades, energy has been the subject of much debate. Energy is the backbone of technology and economic development. Today, most machines run on electricity and they are needed to make anything and everything. Hence, our energy requirements have spiraled in the years following the industrial revolution. This rapid increase in use of energy has created problems of demand and supply in addition to the environmental consciousness which picked momentum in last decades of 20th century. The impending crisis the world over due to overuse of nonrenewable energy sources to reduce this gap shall soon lead to a situation for all concerned to take a prudent decision to tap other sources of energy, including relatively new renewable sources. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. The drive for more energy has had the happy consequences of spawning new technologies and improving earlier ones. Emphasis on renewable sources has resulted in viable harnessing of solar, wind and tidal energies. Even though these sources offer relatively clean energy, their potential to supply reliable energy in large scale in an economically viable way is limited. Nuclear energy offers a major source of commercial energy, which is economic, reliable and environmentally benign

  13. Nuclear suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article draws attention to a number of cases where it seems that scientists and technologists have been penalized in various ways for having views opposed to those of the nuclear industry. Attempts to encourage the general public to understand nuclear issues have also been discouraged, nuclear knowledge being kept as the preserve of the experts and policy makers, especially in the military applications of nuclear power. It may be that publications are suppressed or careers are destroyed. One example highlighted in the article is of Dhirendra Shama, a critic of India's nuclear policy, who was suddenly transferred from the Centre of Studies in Science Policy at his University to the School of Languages. Other examples are given from other countries - Australia, Britain, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, New Zealand, Soviet Union, Sweden and the United States of America. The main 'crime' of those victimised is not in having critical views, but in alerting the general public to those critical view and ideas. (UK)

  14. Nuclear recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The private sector's growing doubts about nuclear power plants, as reflected in the decline in new orders and the number of rescinded orders, will result in an estimated total of under 300 nuclear power plants by the year 2000 rather than the 1200 to 1500 that were projected several years ago. The decline is a result of construction and equipment costs and a lower operating efficiency than anticipated. The growth of electricity demand also declined after 1974 and, although it is increasing again, there are concerns about future growth rates. Besides its noncompetitive position relative to coal, nuclear plant construction suffers from restrictive policies based on the uncertainties of safety, security, waste disposal, and proliferation. Unless these problems can be resolved, many consider nuclear power to be an impractical option as an energy source. The Council on Environmental Quality supports policies that will permit further nuclear or coal development only after a clear demonstration of technical and institutional capacity to handle these problems. A commitment to solar technology is urged

  15. Performance of Ni/ScSZ cermet anode modified by coating with Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} for an SOFC running on methane fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bo; Ye, X.F.; Wang, S.R.; Nie, H.W.; Shi, J.; Hu, Q.; Qian, J.Q.; Sun, X.F.; Wen, T.L. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    A Ni/scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) cermet anode was modified by coating with nano-sized gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC, Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2}) prepared using a simple combustion process within the pores of the anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on methane fuel. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed in the anode characterizations. Then, the short-term stability for the cells with the Ni/ScSZ and 2.0wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anodes in 97%CH{sub 4}/3%H{sub 2}O at 700{sup o}C was checked over a relative long period of operation. Open circuit voltages (OCVs) increased from 1.098 to 1.179V, and power densities increased from 224 to 848mWcm{sup -2}, as the operating temperature of an SOFC with 2.0wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode was increased from 700 to 850{sup o}C in humidified methane. The coating of nano-sized Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} particle within the pores of the porous Ni/ScSZ anode significantly improved the performance of anode supported cells. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) illustrated that the cell with Ni/ScSZ anode exhibited far greater impedances than the cell with 2.0wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode. Introduction of nano-sized GDC particles into the pores of porous Ni/ScSZ anode will result in a substantial increase in the ionic conductivity of the anode and increase the triple phase boundary region expanding the number of sites available for electrochemical activity. No significant degradation in performance has been observed after 84h of cell testing when 2.0wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode was exposed to 97%CH{sub 4}/3%H{sub 2}O at 700{sup o}C. Very little carbon was detected on the anodes, suggesting that carbon deposition was limited during cell operation. Consequently, the GDC coating on the pores of anode made it possible to have good stability for long-term operation due to low carbon deposition. (author)

  16. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.


    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  17. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find in this report two studies, one about the compensation regimes applicable to radiation workers in OECD countries, the second one about Tokai-mura accident (Japan): third party liability and compensation aspects. Then, come the case law and administrative decisions, national legislative and regulation activities, international regulatory activities, bilateral agreements, multilateral agreements. Among these different parts are to notice: judgement in the public civil action concerning the Goiania radiological accident (2000,Brazil), judgement of the Council of State confirming the definitive shut-down of Superphenix (2000, France), decision relative to the DOE 's obligation to accept spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from nuclear power plants (NPPs) (2000, Usa), decision concerning the construction of a permanent repository for spent nuclear fuel (2000, Finland). (N.C.)

  18. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, 39 inspections of nuclear materials were performed, 22 of them performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. The main content of common inspections with IAEA was the inspection of both fresh and spent fuel in Bohunice NPPs and Mochovce NPPs. During 1996 there were 420 spent fuel assemblies transported from the V-1 and V-2 NPPs units to the interim spent fuel storage and 396 spent fuel assemblies were transported to the Dukovany NPP. Current state of stored spent fuel in the interim spent fuel storage is 4656 fuel assemblies, 4050 of them are Bohunice NPPs assemblies and 606 of them are fuel assemblies which belong to Dukovany NPP. There are 128 spent fuel assemblies stored in A-1 NPP, which are placed in cases of the long-term storage. Inspections of fresh fuel storage in the V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs were performed, as well as spent fuel inspections in the A-1 NPP and in the interim spent fuel storage in Bohunice. From the outcomes of inspections resulted, that the limits and conditions, operating procedures and conditions of nuclear safety were not violated in any ease. There was no extraordinary event at above mentioned equipment during the 1996 and the equipment was reliably operated. NRA SR performed during 1996 eight inspections focused on safety protection of nuclear equipment and nuclear materials, and no significant deficiencies, which could resulted in extraordinary events or violation of nuclear safety were found out. Safety of transportation of fresh fuel, spent fuels, and other materials is discussed. NRA SR performed inspection focused on checking transportation readiness each transportation of the spent nuclear fuel. Serious deficiencies were not found out. Suggested system for treatment of radioactive materials caught at illegal trade is described. An attempt to export 3 radioactive sources in consignment of iron scrap to Italy came about in 1996. The NRA SR continued in co-operation with IAEA on updating IAEA database to illegal

  19. SAP Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leading to perfection Project SAP Nuclear is one of the most important projects in Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. (SE). 'SAP Nuclear' is aimed to software support for work management, GO management, reliability of the installations, operation experience, self management and benchmarking. It is inevitable that people understand, that the system can only help them, to simplify and reduce the workload. That is why we strongly require the high quality training programs and afterwards the system testing by the direct users of the system. We are talking to project managers Clay Warren and Antonio Cavaletto. (author)

  20. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.)

  1. Nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written by an arts graduate journalist this is intended for a non-technical general readership. It chronicles the history of the nuclear power industry in Britain from its beginnings, which were inextricably tied to the development of the atomic bomb, to the Sellafield investigation and Sizewell public inquiry. In particular the government decisions which have influenced the present structure and state of the industry are criticised. With important decisions about to be made the author questions the accountability of the nuclear industry and the government's ability to understand the complex technical aspects of the industry. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extract from the House of Commons Hansard publication for Wednesday 12th July 1995 considers the current debate on the desirability or otherwise of disposing of low level radioactive waste in landfill sites. It covers wastes generated both by the nuclear industry and by medical processes in local hospitals, and the transport of such waste from source to disposal site. The questions raised lead to a debate about plans to sell off commercially desirable aspects of the nuclear electric generation industry while leaving the costs associated with decommissioning of Magnox reactors as a liability on the public purse. (UK)

  3. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ In President Barack Obama's State of the Union address in January 2009,he called for the building of "a new generation of safe,clean nuclear power plants" This was followed by his highprofile speech in Prague in April 2009,in which he noted the need "to harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change."In December 2009 in Copenhagen,he pledged the United States will reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 17 percent from 2005 levels by 2020.

  4. The nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an overview of knowledge and technical aspects regarding nuclear energy. It presents the phenomenon of radioactivity and its measurement and thresholds, describes the fuel cycle, presents the different principles and types of nuclear reactors, and more precisely the pressurized water reactors and their various models (900, 1300, 1400 and 1600 MW). It presents other reactors: boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature reactors, fourth generation reactors. It addresses the issues of wastes and releases, presents the OSPAR convention, the issues of management and safety. It presents the national safety bodies (ASN, IRSN, HCTISM) and international bodies

  5. Nuclear percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear multifragmentation and spallation reactions produced in medium and high energy collisions are viewed as a percolation phenomenon. Percolation criteria are defined in both real and momentum space and a ''compactness'' condition is imposed to the clusters. Under these conditions, nuclear systems behave like a two-dimensional site percolation model, exhibiting a rather well defined percolation threshold at psub(c) approx.= 0.6. The concentration p is correlated with the number of fast particles ejected in the first stage of the collision. The mass yield results from the superposition of cluster size distributions at different values of p. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO reviewed DOE's efforts to restart three nuclear reactors at its Savannah River site in South Carolina. Restarting the reactors, which have not been in operating since 1986, is a top priority at DOE because the reactors are the nation's only production source of tritium, a radioactive gas used in nuclear weapons. This report describes factors that might delay restarting the reactors and what the operating contractor is doing to bring about a better attitude toward safety among its personnel and the Savannah River site. This report also contains information on safety attitude problems at other DOE facilities and with DOE employees

  7. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay


    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part A deals with the experimental and theoretical techniques involved in nuclear spectroscopy.This book discusses the interactions of charged particles with matter, gaseous ionization detectors, and particular mass attenuation coefficients. The magnetic gamma-ray spectrometers for photo or internal-conversion electrons, general characteristics of cross-section variation with energy, and measurement of fast neutron spectra are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the elastic scattering of photons by nuclei and measurement of widths of gamma-radiating levels.This pub

  8. Nuclear power data 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure on nuclear power data 2016 covers the following topics: (I) nuclear power in Germany: nuclear power plants in Germany; shut-down and decommissioned nuclear power plants, gross electricity generation, primary energy consumption; (II) nuclear power worldwide: nuclear electricity production, nuclear power plants.

  9. Pasta Nucleosynthesis: Molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear statistical equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Caplan, M E; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K


    Background: Exotic non-spherical nuclear pasta shapes are expected in nuclear matter at just below saturation density because of competition between short range nuclear attraction and long range Coulomb repulsion. Purpose: We explore the impact of nuclear pasta on nucleosynthesis, during neutron star mergers, as cold dense nuclear matter is ejected and decompressed. Methods: We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations with 51200 and 409600 nucleons, that are run on GPUs. We expand our simulation region to decompress systems from an initial density of 0.080 fm^{-3} down to 0.00125 fm^{-3}. We study proton fractions of Y_P=0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 at T =0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 MeV. We calculate the composition of the resulting systems using a cluster algorithm. Results: We find final compositions that are in good agreement with nuclear statistical equilibrium models for temperatures of 0.75 and 1 MeV. However, for proton fractions greater than Y_P=0.2 at a temperature of T = 0.5 MeV, the MD simulatio...

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  12. Nuclear Medicine


    Belzberg, Allan S.


    Nuclear medicine utilizes radioisotopes to diagnose and in some cases treat disease. Modern instruments can image their accumulation in an organ and provide quantitative data when indicated. The strength of these procedures is in the unique physiologic information they provide, rather than the presentation of precise anatomic detail.

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  14. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains two articles dealing with the radioisotope scintigraphy of myocardium and gullet and forty-one abstracts of papers presented at the seminar ''Twenty-nine Days of Nuclear Medicine'' held in Olomovc, September 29 - October 1, 1992. The contributions, all within the INIS subject scope, are input to INIS. (Z.S.)

  16. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review is to briefly point out some questions of nuclear physics in which progress has still to be made before more quantitative and secure conclusions can be drawn concerning the astrophysical sites and physical conditions in which certain nuclides have been (or are still) produced. (orig./AH)

  17. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The United States needs a comprehensive policy and market-based solutions to address the challenges and demands of energy provision in President Barack Obama’s State of the Union address in January 2009, he called for the building of "a new generation of safe, clean nuclear power plants." This was followed by his high- profile speech in Prague in April 2009,

  18. Nuclear Science. (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  19. Nuclear crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the legal provisions (Criminal Code (StGB), weapons Control Act) applicable in Germany to combat illegal trading of nuclear fuels and other readioactive materials. The authors conclude that part of the provisions are not in live with the rights and duties of the police, and they evolve near-practice proposals for remedy and legal improvement. (hP)

  20. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  1. The Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests by Turkish National Data Center (United States)

    Semin, K.; Meral Ozel, N.; Destici, T. C.; Necmioglu, O.; Kocak, S.


    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) announced the conduct of a third underground nuclear test on 12 February 2013 in the northeastern part of the country as the previous tests that were conducted in 2009 and 2006. The latest nuclear test is the best detected nuclear event by the global seismic networks. The magnitude estimates show that each new test increased in size when compared with the previous one. As Turkish NDC (National Data Center), we have analyzed the 2013 and 2009 nuclear tests using seismic data from International Monitoring System (IMS) stations through the International Data Center (IDC) located in Vienna. Discrimination analysis was performed based on mb:Ms magnitude ratio and spectral analysis. We have also applied array based waveform cross-correlation to show the similarity of the nuclear tests and precise arrival time measurements for relative location estimates and basic infrasound analysis using two IMS infrasound stations for the 2013 event. Seismic analysis were performed using softwares such as Geotool, EP (Event processor from Norsar) and Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) and the infrasound data were analyzed by using PMCC from CEA-France. The IMS network is operating under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The CTBTO verification system is under continuous development, also making use of the state of the art technologies and methodologies.

  2. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope


    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena


    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  3. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99mTc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  4. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste at U.S. nuclear power plants is mounting at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Yet the Department of Energy (DOE) does not expect a geologic repository to be available before 2010. In response to concerns about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, GAO reviewed the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to a monitored retrievable storage facility. This paper assesses the likelihood of a monitored retrievable storage facility operating by 1990, legal implications if DOE is unable to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund from which DOE's waste program costs are paid to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, the ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives

  6. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has taken some actions to implement a 1981 congressional mandate to limit the dissemination of unclassified information related to atomic defense activities. Nevertheless, sensitive countries--communist-controlled nations, countries suspected of developing nuclear weapons, or those viewed as a national security risk--have obtained information dealing with detonators, explosives, and firing sets that could assist or enhance nuclear weapons development. Foreign nationals obtain some information directly from DOE's weapons laboratories; DOE does not require the laboratories to track these requests. DOE recognizes that continuing to disseminate some unclassified information raises questions about its compliance with U.S. nonproliferation policy and in January 1989 issued internal guidance to identify data that should not be distributed to proliferation-risk countries

  7. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.


    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  8. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

  9. Nuclear power - anyone interested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the following headings, with illustrative strip cartoons: uranium mining (uranium exploration in Orkney); radiation (hazards); nuclear power and employment; transport (of radioactive materials); nuclear reactor safety (reference to the accident to Three Mile Island-2 reactor); energy in the future; sources of energy; nuclear weapons; suggestions for action; insulation and heating buildings; nuclear security; working in a nuclear power station; nuclear waste; the anti-nuclear movement; nuclear power and politics. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.F.; Singer, I.; Hackworthy, R.A.; Morris, J.; Kelly, D.T. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown (Australia))


    A portable, computerized nuclear probe designed to measure left ventricular function is described. The ejection fraction was reproducible and correlated well with that obtained by means of a gamma camera. The limitations of the machine are that it measures the global, rather than the segmental, function of the left ventricle and, when discrete large areas of regional dysfunction occur, the global ejection fraction may be overestimated. An advantage is that continuous beat-to-beat measurements are easily performed and displayed.

  11. Nuclear threads


    Ivlev, B.


    The internal structure of deuterons weakly influences a motion of their center of mass (translational motion). The scenario can be different when the translational wave function has a formal singularity along the line (thread) connecting the deuteron and another Coulomb center. The singularity is cut off by fluctuations of nuclear internal degrees of freedom and the wave function becomes smooth with the narrow peak. The peak is associated with the certain potential well which is localized on ...

  12. Nuclear Physics



    Nuclear Physics is the branch of physics that deals with the properties and structure of matter on the hadronic level. In this article we review briefly the history of this field, which has a major role in the development of our understanding of nature. We then proceed to give an outline of a current perspective of the field and of some of the issues that are now on its frontiers.

  13. Nuclear Positioning


    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.


    The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic al...

  14. Nuclear spintronics


    Vagner, Israel D.


    The electron spin transport in condensed matter, Spintronics, is a subject of rapidly growing interest both scientifically and from the point of view of applications to modern and future electronics. In many cases the electron spin transport cannot be described adequately without accounting for the hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins. Here, the progress in physics and applications of these phenomena will be reviewed.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.


    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  16. Nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear facilities with a fuel storage pool in a spent fuel pit building there is a filter to each pool through which the fuel pit water is pumped. According to the invention the filter is provided with an independently movable housing placed beneath the surface of the pool water and fixed to the lateral side of the pool by means of detachable fixtures. (orig./RW)

  17. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  18. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appendix to the Daresbury Annual report contains detailed summaries of experiments carried out, or in progress, for the period 1983/84, using the Nuclear Structure Facility tandem accelerator. The experimental work is carried out by University groups from the UK and abroad, and Daresbury Staff. Developments in instrumentation, and a report on the first year of scheduled operation of the Facility, are also given. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses the GAO's work on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As is known, DOE is seeking legislation permanently withdrawing the WIPP site, located on federal land near Carlsbad, New Mexico, from public use. Because DOE wants to begin storing a limited amount of nuclear waste in WIPP for tests, action on land withdrawal, either through legislation or administrative action by the Secretary of the Interior, is necessary to authorize such storage

  20. Nuclear energy


    Bucaille, Alain; Shihab-Eldin, Adnan; Bauquis, Pierre-René


    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow’s energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more ma...

  1. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14N(p,r)15O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  2. Nuclear Waffles

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Briggs, C M; Caplan, M E; Horowitz, C J


    The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with $51200$ and $409600$ nucleons of nuclear pasta. From the output of the MD simulations we characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function $g(r)$ and the structure factor $S(q)$, for systems with proton fractions $Y_p=0.10, 0.20, 0.30$ and $0.40$ at about one third of nuclear saturation density and temperatures near $1.0$ MeV. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, $Y_p=0.10$ and $0.20$, equilibrate quickly and form liquid-like structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, $Y_p=0.30$ and $0.40$, take a longer time to equilibrate a...

  3. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book fills a gap in current literature by covering the increasing nuclear physics content of various A-level syllabuses. In section 1 we outline the background and early development of the subject, in section 2 we deal with nuclear properties and theories at a level suitable for the pre-university student. The majority of topics have been treated with the limited use of mathematics, this necessitating some simplification which we hope to have accomplished without undue error. A few topics have been developed mathematically, to some extent, e.g. series decay. While it is the purpose of a book at this level to introduce the reader to the facts and theories of nuclear physics, we have to recognise that any teacher of science, at any level, must attempt to instill in the young scientist a sense of responsibility and an understanding of the problems attendant on the technological applications are important. These problems have been touched on in the text but we hope the student will be persuaded to read further; for this purpose we have added a short list of suggested additional reading. A selection of A-level past paper questions has been included. (author)

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy plans to award a contract to Bechtel Systems Management, Inc. to manage and operate the federal government's nuclear waste repository. The proposed management and operating contract is likely to substantially affect program operations and costs. This paper reports on a GAO report. A major concern is the degree to which the selected contractor might replace, or possibly duplicate, the efforts now being carried out by DOE's current contractors. It is questionable whether the contract will result in a more efficient and effective program. DOE officials have had to divert their attention from program operations to develop the contract proposal and participate in legal proceedings related to a bid protest. GAO and the DOE inspector general have reported on problems and issues involving DOE's administration of management and operating contracts, including some companies which participate in the nuclear waste program. Many of the resulting recommendations have yet to be implemented. Implementation of these recommendations could help ensure that the nuclear waste program is operated in a more cost-effective manner

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives

  6. The nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current developments in nuclear structure are discussed from a theoretical perspective. First, the progress in theoretical modeling of nuclei is reviewed. This is followed by the discussion of nuclear time scales, nuclear collective modes, and nuclear deformations. Some perspectives on nuclear structure research far from stability are given. Finally, interdisciplinary aspects of the nuclear many-body problem are outlined. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  8. Applicability of vector processing to large-scale nuclear codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the growing trend of computational requirements in JAERI, introduction of a high-speed computer with vector processing faculty (a vector processor) is desirable in the near future. To make effective use of a vector processor, appropriate optimization of nuclear codes to pipelined-vector architecture is vital, which will pose new problems concerning code development and maintenance. In this report, vector processing efficiency is assessed with respect to large-scale nuclear codes by examining the following items: 1) The present feature of computational load in JAERI is analyzed by compiling the computer utilization statistics. 2) Vector processing efficiency is estimated for the ten heavily-used nuclear codes by analyzing their dynamic behaviors run on a scalar machine. 3) Vector processing efficiency is measured for the other five nuclear codes by using the current vector processors, FACOM 230-75 APU and CRAY-1. 4) Effectiveness of applying a high-speed vector processor to nuclear codes is evaluated by taking account of the characteristics in JAERI jobs. Problems of vector processors are also discussed from the view points of code performance and ease of use. (author)

  9. DOZIM - evaluation dose code for nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a nuclear accident an environmentally significant fission products release can happen. In that case it is not possible to determine precisely the air fission products concentration and, consequently, the estimated doses will be affected by certain errors. The stringent requirement to cope with a nuclear accident, even minor, imposes creation of a computation method for emergency dosimetric evaluations needed to compare the measurement data to certain reference levels, previously established. These comparisons will allow a qualified option regarding the necessary actions to diminish the accident effects. DOZIM code estimates the soil contamination and the irradiation doses produced either by radioactive plume or by soil contamination. Irradiations either on whole body or on certain organs, as well as internal contamination doses produced by isotope inhalation during radioactive plume crossing are taken into account. The calculus does not consider neither the internal contamination produced by contaminated food consumption, or that produced by radioactive deposits resuspension. The code is recommended for dose computation on the wind direction, at distances from 102 to 2 x 104 m. The DOZIM code was utilized for three different cases: - In air TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle destruction with different input data for fission products fractions released into the environment; - Chernobyl-like accident doses estimation; - Intervention areas determination for a hypothetical severe accident at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. For the first case input data and results (for a 60 m emission height without iodine retention on active coal filters) are presented. To summarize, the DOZIM code conception allows the dose estimation for any nuclear accident. Fission products inventory, released fractions, emission conditions, atmospherical and geographical parameters are the input data. Dosimetric factors are included in the program. The program is in FORTRAN IV language and was run on a

  10. Database structure and file layout of Nuclear Power Plant Database. Database for design information on Light Water Reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Plant Database (PPD) has been developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to provide plant design information on domestic Light Water Reactors (LWRs) to be used for nuclear safety research and so forth. This database can run on the main frame computer in the JAERI Tokai Establishment. The PPD contains the information on the plant design concepts, the numbers, capacities, materials, structures and types of equipment and components, etc, based on the safety analysis reports of the domestic LWRs. This report describes the details of the PPD focusing on the database structure and layout of data files so that the users can utilize it efficiently. (author)