Argand diagrams, harmonic oscillators, and record-playing tonearms
Piccard, Richard D.
1986-04-01
The complex analysis of the driven, damped, harmonic oscillator is reviewed for the specific case that the driving force is produced by ``wiggling the other end of the spring,'' a case which many find intuitively appealing. The solution is examined using the Cartesian and polar presentations in the complex plane. The record-playing tonearm is particularly suited as a ``practical example'' because it naturally leads to a question that is much easier to answer in terms of the Argand diagram: What will the cartridge output be?
Argand diagram representation of orbiting resonance in proton-transfer collision
Lutrus, C.K. (Department of Physics and Graduate Center for Cloud Physics Research, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (USA)); Suck Salk, S.H. (Department of Physics, Pohang Institute of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-600, (Korea))
1991-05-01
Dynamic resonance in atom-diatomic molecule collisions has been relatively well studied compared to orbiting resonance. We discuss orbiting resonance on reactive scattering involving proton (charge) transfer. Resonance structure is predicted to exist at forward-scattering angles in both the state-to-state angular distribution and the Argand diagram for the proton-transfer collision system of He+H{sub 2}{sup +}{r arrow}HeH{sup +}+H. The present study demonstrates the possibility of orbiting resonance particularly in proton (charge) -transfer reaction involving atom-diatomic molecule systems.
Argand diagram representation of orbiting resonance in proton-transfer collision
Lutrus, C. K.; Suck Salk, S. H.
1991-05-01
Dynamic resonance in atom-diatomic molecule collisions has been relatively well studied compared to orbiting resonance. We discuss orbiting resonance on reactive scattering involving proton (charge) transfer. Resonance structure is predicted to exist at forward-scattering angles in both the state-to-state angular distribution and the Argand diagram for the proton-transfer collision system of He+H+2-->HeH++H. The present study demonstrates the possibility of orbiting resonance particularly in proton (charge) -transfer reaction involving atom-diatomic molecule systems.
Lutrus, C.K.; Suck Salk, S.H.
1989-01-01
Resonances for rearrangement collisions (reactive scattering) involving the two dissociative attachment processes, e+HCl..-->..H+Cl/sup -/ and e+H/sub 2/..-->..H+H/sup -/, are examined. It is shown from the Argand-diagram representation of transition amplitudes that strong resonance is present in the former but not in the latter. That is, the strong resonance is evidenced by the clear exhibition of a phase change by ..pi.. in a counterclockwise direction in the Argand diagram as the collision energy increases. Such a manifest phase change is absent in the dissociative attachment process of e+H/sub 2/..-->..H+H/sup -/. This is attributed to the presence of equally strong, direct, and resonant scattering processes, and to the strong influence of mutually destructive interference.
Lutrus, C. K.; Suck Salk, S. H.
1989-01-01
Resonances for rearrangement collisions (reactive scattering) involving the two dissociative attachment processes, e+HCl-->H+Cl- and e+H2-->H+H-, are examined. It is shown from the Argand-diagram representation of transition amplitudes that strong resonance is present in the former but not in the latter. That is, the strong resonance is evidenced by the clear exhibition of a phase change by π in a counterclockwise direction in the Argand diagram as the collision energy increases. Such a manifest phase change is absent in the dissociative attachment process of e+H2-->H+H-. This is attributed to the presence of equally strong, direct, and resonant scattering processes, and to the strong influence of mutually destructive interference.
Strophoidal Argand diagram and the distribution of relaxation times in K1-xLixTaO3
Doussineau, P.; Farssi, Y.; Frénois, C.; Levelut, A.; McEnaney, K.; Toulouse, J.; Ziolkiewicz, S.
1993-01-01
We have studied the relaxation of off-center Li+ ions in KTaO3 by dielectric measurements on 1% and 1.5% crystals, from 20 Hz to 2 MHz and from 4 to 200 K. The shape of the ɛ'' vs ɛ' Argand diagrams demonstrates the existence of a distribution of relaxation times. In analogy with spin glasses, a new expression is proposed for the analysis of these diagrams, a strophoidal function, which leads to a distribution function D(θ) decreasing for large θ as θ-(1+α) with 0<α<1. The most probable relaxation time θmp of the distribution follows an Arrhenius law with a barrier height close to 950 K.
Buep, A. H.; Casaubon, J. I.
1995-10-01
The local field existing in an ellipsoidal cavity within a dielectric is introduced as an improvement to the classical description of resonance in a dielectric under a harmonic electric field. Considering that the ellipsoids representing polarizable molecules may have any orientation with respect to the applied field, we obtained expressions for the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity as a function of the angular frequency and form factors. A shift in frequency is observed for the maximum of the imaginary permittivity with respect to the natural angular frequencies of resonance that depends on the form factors. In the particular case that all the ellipsoids are lined up with the applied field, the shift of the angular frequency of the resonance depends in a simple way on the form factor of the ellipsoid. The Argand diagrams are shown and compared to those corresponding with different approximations of the local field.
Jablan, Slavik; Kauffman, Louis H.; Lopes, Pedro
2015-01-01
We call a Delta Diagram any diagram of a knot or link whose regions (including the unbounded one) have 3, 4, or 5 sides. We prove that any knot or link admits a delta diagram. We define and estimate combinatorial link invariants stemming from this definition.
Colwell, Morris A
1976-01-01
Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin
The description is presented of binary phase diagrams of titanium alloyed with the following elements: silver, aluminium, arsenic, gold, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, carbon, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, gallium, germanium, hydrogen, hafnium, indium, iridium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrogen, sodium, niobium, nickel, oxygen, osmium, phosphorus, lead, palladium, platinum, plutonium, rhenium, lanthanium, cerium, preseodymium, neodymium, gadolinium, erbium, terbium, thulium, lutetium, rhodium, ruthenium, scandium, silicon, tin, strontium, tantalum, technetium, thorium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium
Duijm, Nijs Jan
2008-01-01
Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....
Herzog, Franz; Ueda, Takahiro; Vermaseren, J A M; Vogt, Andreas
2016-01-01
We discuss a number of FORM features that are essential in the automatic processing of very large numbers of diagrams as used in the Forcer program for 4-loop massless propagator diagrams. Most of these features are new.
Duijm, Nijs Jan
Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information...... from risk analysis with operational safety management....
Duijm, Nijs Jan
2007-01-01
Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information...... from risk analysis with operational safety management....
Gravity wave transmission diagram
Tomikawa, Yoshihiro
2016-07-01
A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.
LI Shichun
2004-01-01
Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.
Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik
2002-01-01
This paper presents a new data structure called boolean expression diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space. Two algorithms are described for transforming...
Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik
1999-01-01
This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y......This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y...
Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.
2014-12-01
Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density
Traffic engineering eye diagram
Kowalik, Karol; Collier, Martin
2005-01-01
It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words - this statement also applies to networking topics. Thus, to effectively monitor network performance we need tools which present the performance metrics in a graphical way which is also clear and informative. We propose a tool for this purpose which we call the traffic engineering eye diagram (TEED). Eye diagrams are used in digital communications to analyse the quality of a digital signal; the TEED can similarly he used in the traffic engin...
Feynman Diagrams for Beginners
Kumericki, Kresimir
2016-01-01
We give a short introduction to Feynman diagrams, with many exercises. Text is targeted at students who had little or no prior exposure to quantum field theory. We present condensed description of single-particle Dirac equation, free quantum fields and construction of Feynman amplitude using Feynman diagrams. As an example, we give a detailed calculation of cross-section for annihilation of electron and positron into a muon pair. We also show how such calculations are done with the aid of computer.
Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik
This paper presents a new data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable...... properties of BDDs. Two algorithms are described for transforming a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One closely mimics the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. The efficacy of the BED representation is demonstrated by verifying that the...
Lindenbergh, R.C.
2002-01-01
The classic Voronoi diagram of a configuration of distinct points in the plane associates to each point that part of the plane that is closer to the point than to any other point in the configuration. In this thesis we no longer require all points to be distinct. After the introduction in Chapter
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Equational binary decision diagrams
Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de
2000-01-01
We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin
Gravity wave transmission diagram
Tomikawa, Y.
2015-01-01
A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributio...
Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.
This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.
Wilson Loop diagrams and Positroids
Agarwala, Susama; Amat, Eloi Marin
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study a new application of the positive Grassmanian to Wilson loop diagrams (or MHV diagrams) for scattering amplitudes in N=4 Super Yang-Mill theory ($N=4$ SYM). There has been much interest in studying this theory via the positive Grassmanians using BCFW recursion. This is the first attempt to study MHV diagrams for planar Wilson loop calculations (or planar amplitudes) in terms of positive Grassmannians. We codify Wilson loop diagrams completely in terms of matroids. This...
The Massive Thermal Basketball Diagram
Andersen, J O; Strickland, Michael T; Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
2000-01-01
The "basketball diagram" is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar fieldtheory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculatethis diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it toexpressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluatednumerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massivescalar field with a phi^4 interaction to three-loop order.
Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations
A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general
Wilson Loop Diagrams and Positroids
Agarwala, Susama; Marin-Amat, Eloi
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study a new application of the positive Grassmannian to Wilson loop diagrams (or MHV diagrams) for scattering amplitudes in N= 4 Super Yang-Mill theory (N = 4 SYM). There has been much interest in studying this theory via the positive Grassmannians using BCFW recursion. This is the first attempt to study MHV diagrams for planar Wilson loop calculations (or planar amplitudes) in terms of positive Grassmannians. We codify Wilson loop diagrams completely in terms of matroids. This allows us to apply the combinatorial tools in matroid theory used to identify positroids (non-negative Grassmannians) to Wilson loop diagrams. In doing so, we find that certain non-planar Wilson loop diagrams define positive Grassmannians. While non-planar diagrams do not have physical meaning, this finding suggests that they may have value as an algebraic tool, and deserve further investigation.
Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams
Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.
2006-01-01
A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.
Engineering Holographic Superconductor Phase Diagrams
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China)
2016-01-01
We study how to engineer holographic models with features of a high temperature superconductor phase diagram. We introduce a field in the bulk which provides a tunable "doping" parameter in the boundary theory. By designing how this field changes the effective masses of other order parameter fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered. We give examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries similar to a superconducting dome and an anti-ferromagnetic phase by including two ord...
Feynman Diagrams and Rooted Maps
Prunotto, A; Czerski, P
2013-01-01
The {\\em Rooted Maps Theory}, a branch of the Theory of Homology, is shown to be a powerful tool for investigating the topological properties of Feynman diagrams, related to the single particle propagator in the quantum many-body systems. The numerical correspondence between the number of this class of Feynman diagrams as a function of perturbative order and the number of rooted maps as a function of the number of edges is studied. A graphical procedure to associate Feynman diagrams and rooted maps is then stated. Finally, starting from rooted maps principles, an original definition of the {\\em genus of a Feynman diagram}, which totally differs from the usual one, is given.
Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis
Carter, Jessica M H Grund
2010-01-01
The article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning based on a case study in analysis. In the presented example certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures are replaced by reasoning about permutation groups. This...
Perturbations to the Hubble diagram
Schucker, Thomas; Zouzou, Ilhem
2005-01-01
We compute the linear responses of the Hubble diagram to small scalar perturbations in the Robertson-Walker metric and to small peculiar velocities of emitter and receiver. We discuss the monotonicity constraint of the Hubble diagram in the light of these responses.
Para-equilibrium phase diagrams
Highlights: • A rapidly cooled system may attain a state of para-equilibrium. • In this state rapidly diffusing elements reach equilibrium but others are immobile. • Application of the Phase Rule to para-equilibrium phase diagrams is discussed. • A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is described. - Abstract: If an initially homogeneous system at high temperature is rapidly cooled, a temporary para-equilibrium state may result in which rapidly diffusing elements have reached equilibrium but more slowly diffusing elements have remained essentially immobile. The best known example occurs when homogeneous austenite is quenched. A para-equilibrium phase assemblage may be calculated thermodynamically by Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraint that the ratios of the slowly diffusing elements are the same in all phases. Several examples of calculated para-equilibrium phase diagram sections are presented and the application of the Phase Rule is discussed. Although the rules governing the geometry of these diagrams may appear at first to be somewhat different from those for full equilibrium phase diagrams, it is shown that in fact they obey exactly the same rules with the following provision. Since the molar ratios of non-diffusing elements are the same in all phases at para-equilibrium, these ratios act, as far as the geometry of the diagram is concerned, like “potential” variables (such as T, pressure or chemical potentials) rather than like “normal” composition variables which need not be the same in all phases. A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. In the limit, if a para-equilibrium calculation is performed under the constraint that no elements diffuse, then the resultant phase diagram shows the single phase with the minimum Gibbs free energy at any point on the diagram; such calculations are of interest in physical vapor deposition when deposition is so rapid that phase
The Genesis of Feynman Diagrams
Wuthrich, Adrian
2011-01-01
In a detailed reconstruction of the genesis of Feynman diagrams the author reveals that their development was constantly driven by the attempt to resolve fundamental problems concerning the uninterpretable infinities that arose in quantum as well as classical theories of electrodynamic phenomena. Accordingly, as a comparison with the graphical representations that were in use before Feynman diagrams shows, the resulting theory of quantum electrodynamics, featuring Feynman diagrams, differed significantly from earlier versions of the theory in the way in which the relevant phenomena were concep
Engineering Holographic Superconductor Phase Diagrams
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long
2016-01-01
We study how to engineer holographic models with features of a high temperature superconductor phase diagram. We introduce a field in the bulk which provides a tunable "doping" parameter in the boundary theory. By designing how this field changes the effective masses of other order parameter fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered. We give examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries similar to a superconducting dome and an anti-ferromagnetic phase by including two order parameter fields. We also explore whether the pseudo gap phase can be described without adding another order parameter field and discuss the potential scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the superconducting dome in this phase diagram.
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams
Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø
Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...
Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modelling with UML Class Diagrams
Mathilde Alonso; Ludovic Auxepaules; Dominique Py
2010-01-01
This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling with UML class diagrams. Diagram reifies an interaction model that supports the learner’s metacognitive activity. This model relies on a task organization, on specific modelling graphic tools and on contextual helps. Diagram includes a diagnostic module which compares the student diagram with a reference diagram, and produces the list of the differences between these diagrams. The diagnostic algorithm is inspire...
The Delunification Process and Minimal Diagrams
Jablan, Slavik; Kauffman, Louis; Lopes, Pedro
2014-01-01
A link diagram is said to be lune-free if, when viewed as a 4-regular plane graph it does not have multiple edges between any pair of nodes. We prove that any colored link diagram is equivalent to a colored lune-free diagram with the same number of colors. Thus any colored link diagram with a minimum number of colors (known as a minimal diagram) is equivalent to a colored lune-free diagram with that same number of colors. We call the passage from a link diagram to an equivalent lune-free diag...
Multi-currency Influence Diagrams
Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.
2007-01-01
When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption that the...
Grid diagrams and Khovanov homology
Droz, Jean-Marie; Wagner, Emmanuel
2009-01-01
We explain how to compute the Jones polynomial of a link from one of its grid diagrams and we observe a connection between Bigelow’s homological definition of the Jones polynomial and Kauffman’s definition of the Jones polynomial. Consequently, we prove that the Maslov grading on the Seidel...
The diagram for phyllotactic series
Joanna Szymanowska-Pułka
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Many authors studying phyllotaxis in various plant species have reported the occurrence of many different numbers of contact parastichy pairs that are members of different Fibonacci-like series. On the basis of these reports a diagram was constructed in which any theoretically possible series was represented by the two first members of a given series.
Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques
An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams
Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...
Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain
Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.
2011-01-01
The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…
Enumeration of linear chord diagrams
Andersen, J E; Reidys, C M; Waterman, M S
2010-01-01
A linear chord diagram canonically determines a fatgraph and hence has an associated genus $g$. We compute the natural generating function ${\\bf C}_g(z)=\\sum_{n\\geq 0} {\\bf c}_g(n)z^n$ for the number ${\\bf c}_g(n)$ of linear chord diagrams of fixed genus $g\\geq 1$ with a given number $n\\geq 0$ of chords and find the remarkably simple formula ${\\bf C}_g(z)=z^{2g}R_g(z) (1-4z)^{{1\\over 2}-3g}$, where $R_g(z)$ is a polynomial of degree at most $g-1$ with integral coefficients satisfying $R_g({1\\over 4})\
The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure
A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (knots) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique chains, separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.
Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion
Kirshner, Robert P.
2003-01-01
Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...
Looking inside the butterfly diagram
Ternullo, M.
2007-12-01
The suitability of Maunder's butterfly diagram to give a realistic picture of the photospheric magnetic flux large scale distribution is discussed. The evolution of the sunspot zone in cycle 20 through 23 is described. To reduce the noise which covers any structure in the diagram, a smoothing algorithm has been applied to the sunspot data. This operation has eliminated any short period fluctuation, and given visibility to long duration phenomena. One of these phenomena is the fact that the equatorward drift of the spot zone center of mass results from the alternation of several prograde (namely, equatorward) segments with other stationary or poleward segments. The long duration of the stationary/retrograde phases as well as the similarities among the spot zone alternating paths in the cycles under examination prevent us from considering these features as meaningless fluctuations, randomly superimposed on the continuous equatorward migration. On the contrary, these features should be considered physically meaningful phenomena, requiring adequate explanations. Moreover, even the smoothed spotted area markedly oscillates. The compared examination of area and spot zone evolution allows us to infer details about the spotted area distribution inside the butterfly diagram. Links between the changing structure of the spot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations are proposed.
Twistor Diagrams and Quantum Field Theory.
O'Donald, Lewis
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis uses twistor diagram theory, as developed by Penrose (1975) and Hodges (1990c), to try to approach some of the difficulties inherent in the standard quantum field theoretic description of particle interactions. The resolution of these issues is the eventual goal of the twistor diagram program. First twistor diagram theory is introduced from a physical view-point, with the aim of studying larger diagrams than have been typically explored. Methods are evolved to tackle the double box and triple box diagrams. These lead to three methods of constructing an amplitude for the double box, and two ways for the triple box. Next this theory is applied to translate the channels of a Yukawa Feynman diagram, which has more than four external states, into various twistor diagrams. This provides a test of the skeleton hypothesis (of Hodges, 1990c) in these cases, and also shows that conformal breaking must enter into twistor diagrams before the translation of loop level Feynman diagrams. The issue of divergent Feynman diagrams is then considered. By using a twistor equivalent of the sum-over -states idea of quantum field theory, twistor translations of loop diagrams are conjectured. The various massless propagator corrections and vacuum diagrams calculated give results consistent with Feynman theory. Two diagrams are also found that give agreement with the finite parts of the Feynman "fish" diagrams of phi^4 -theory. However it is found that a more rigorous translation for the time-like fish requires new boundaries to be added to the twistor sum-over-states. The twistor diagram obtained is found to give the finite part of the relevant Feynman diagram.
Structural complexity metrics for UML class diagrams
KONG Qing-yan; LUN Li-jun; WANG Yi-he; DING Xue-mei
2008-01-01
In order to evaluate the structural complexity of class diagrams systematically and deeply, a new guiding framework of structural complexity is presented. An index system of structural complexity for class dia-grams is given. This article discusses the formal description of class diagrams, and presents the method of for-mally structural complexity metrics for class diagrams from associations, dependencies, aggregations, generali-zations and so on. An applicable example proves the feasibility of the presented method.
In this study we obtain a T-P phase diagram of ice using the mean field theory. We fit our calculated phase line equations to the experimental T-P phase diagram. By choosing appropriately the coefficients in the free-energy expansions, our calculated phase diagram agrees well with the experimentally observed phase diagram of ice. Some thermodynamic functions are calculated using the free energy for the transitions studied here.
Operational analysis of sequence diagram specifications
2007-01-01
This thesis is concerned with operational analysis of UML 2.x sequence diagram specifications. By operational analysis we mean analysis based on a characterization of the executions of sequence diagrams, or in other words an operational semantics for sequence diagrams. We define two methods for analysis of sequence diagram specifications – refinement verification and refinement testing – and both are implemented in an analysis tool we have named ‘Escalator’. Further, we make the first steps i...
Differential Effectiveness of Two Science Diagram Types.
Holliday, William G.
Reported is an Aptitude Treatment Instruction (ATI) Study designed to evaluate the aptitude of verbal comprehension in terms of two unitary complex science diagram types: a single complex block word diagram and a single complex picture word diagram.. ATI theory and research indicate that different effective instructional treatments tend to help…
Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD
Bindslev, H.
2004-01-01
A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates...
Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams
Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde
2013-01-01
This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…
Improving modeling with layered UML diagrams
Störrle, Harald
Layered diagrams are diagrams whose elements are organized into sets of layers. Layered diagrams are routinely used in many branches of engineering, except Software Engineering. In this paper, we propose to add layered diagrams to UML modeling tools, and elaborate the concept by exploring usage...... scenarios. We validate the concept by implementation, lab assessments, and field testing. We conclude that layers enhance and complement conventional diagrams and model structuring techniques, are easy to add to existing modeling infrastructure, and are easy to apply by modelers....
Cell flipping in permutation diagrams
Golumbic, Martin Charles; Kaplang, Haim
Permutation diagrams have been used in circuit design to model a set of single point nets crossing a channel, where the minimum number of layers needed to realize the diagram equals the clique number ω(G) of its permutation graph, the value of which can be calculated in O(n log n) time. We consider a generalization of this model motivated by "standard cell" technology in which the numbers on each side of the channel are partitioned into consecutive subsequences, or cells, each of which can be left unchanged or flipped (i.e., reversed). We ask, for what choice of fiippings will the resulting clique number be minimum or maximum. We show that when one side of the channel is fixed (no flipping), an optimal flipping for the other side can be found in O(n log n) time for the maximum clique number. We prove that the general problem is NP-complete for the minimum clique number and O(n 2) for the maximum clique number. Moreover, since the complement of a permutation graph is also a permutation graph, the same complexity results hold for the independence number.
Herrmann, Enrico
2016-01-01
We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only $\\dlog$-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for $\\N=8$ supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum, poles at infinity are present and loop amplitudes show special behavior on certain collinear cuts. We demonstrate on 1-loop and 2-loop examples that the behavior on collinear cuts is a highly non-trivial property which requires cancellations between all terms contributing to the amplitude.
Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate
Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.
Counting planar diagrams with various restrictions
1998-01-01
Explicit expressions are considered for the generating functions concerning the number of planar diagrams with given numbers of 3- and 4-point vertices. It is observed that planar renormalization theory requires diagrams with restrictions, in the sense that one wishes to omit `tadpole' inserions and `seagull' insertions; at a later stage also self-energy insertions are to be removed, and finally also the dressed 3-point inserions and the dressed 4-point insertions. Diagrams with such restrict...
Counting Planar Diagrams with Various Restrictions
Hooft, G. 't
1999-01-01
Explicit expressions are considered for the generating functions concerning the number of planar diagrams with given numbers of 3- and 4-point vertices. It is observed that planar renormalization theory requires diagrams with restrictions, in the sense that one wishes to omit `tadpole' inserions and `seagull' insertions; at a later stage also self-energy insertions are to be removed, and finally also the dressed 3-point inserions and the dressed 4-point insertions. Diagrams with such restrict...
Feynman diagrams and their algebraic lattices
Borinsky, Michael
2015-01-01
We present the lattice structure of Feynman diagram renormalization in physical QFTs from the viewpoint of Dyson-Schwinger-Equations and the core Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams. The lattice structure encapsules the nestedness of diagrams. This structure can be used to give explicit expressions for the counterterms in zero-dimensional QFTs using the lattice-Moebius function. Different applications for the tadpole-free quotient, in which all appearing elements correspond to semimodular lattices, are discussed.
Selected topics on the nonrelativistic diagram technique
The construction of the diagrams describing various processes in the four-particle systems is considered. It is shown that these diagrams, in particular the diagrams corresponding to the simple mechanisms often used in nuclear and atomic reaction theory, are readily obtained from the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations. The covariant four-dimensional formalism of nonrelativistic Feynman graphs and its connection to the three-dimensional graph technique are briefly discussed
Mapping Images with the Coherence Length Diagrams
Sparavigna, A
2008-01-01
Statistical pattern recognition methods based on the Coherence Length Diagram (CLD) have been proposed for medical image analyses, such as quantitative characterisation of human skin textures, and for polarized light microscopy of liquid crystal textures. Further investigations are made on image maps originated from such diagram and some examples related to irregularity of microstructures are shown.
Phase Diagram of Integer Quantum Hall Effect
Sheng, D. N.; Weng, Z. Y.
1999-01-01
The phase diagram of integer quantum Hall effect is numerically determined in the tight-binding model, which can account for overall features of recently obtained experimental phase diagram. In particular, the quantum Hall plateaus are terminated by two distinct insulating phases, characterized by the Hall resistance with classic and quantized values, respectively, which is also in good agreement with experiments.
Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Panagopoulos, H
1998-01-01
We show how to perform a resummation, to all orders in perturbation theory, of a certain class of gauge invariant diagrams in Lattice QCD. These diagrams are often largely responsible for lattice artifacts. Our resummation leads to an improved perturbative expansion. Applied to a number of cases of interest, this expansion yields results remarkably close to corresponding nonperturbative estimates.
XML Schema Modeling through UML Class Diagram
LUJing-ping; HEYu-lin; LIShang-ping
2004-01-01
A three-step XML Schema modeling method is presented, namely first establishing a diagram of conceptual modeling, then transforming it to UML class diagram and finally mapping it to XML Schema. A case study of handling furniture design data is given to illustrate the detail of conversion process.
Automatic Test case Generation from UML Activity Diagrams
V.Mary Sumalatha*1; Dr G.S.V.P.Raju2
2014-01-01
Test Case Generation is an important phase in software development. Nowadays much of the research is done on UML diagrams for generating test cases. Activity diagrams are different from flow diagrams in the fact that activity diagrams express parallel behavior which flow diagrams cannot express. This paper concentrates on UML 2.0 Activity Diagram for generating test cases. Fork and join pair in activity diagram are used to represent concurrent activities. A novel method is pro...
Faceting diagram for sticky steps
Noriko Akutsu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL, which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111 surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the 〈101〉 direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.
Faceting diagram for sticky steps
Akutsu, Noriko
2016-03-01
Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.
Franco, Sebastian; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao
2015-01-01
We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in N=4 SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the dlog form of the on-shell form explicit. We present a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams in terms of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and its generalization for non-planar diagrams, and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of matroid polytopes. We present a comprehensive discussion of equivalence and reductions for non-planar diagrams and explain how they are captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Pl\\"ucker coordinat...
Modeling Workflow Using UML Activity Diagram
Wei Yinxing(韦银星); Zhang Shensheng
2004-01-01
An enterprise can improve its adaptability in the changing market by means of workflow technologies. In the build time, the main function of Workflow Management System (WFMS) is to model business process. Workflow model is an abstract representation of the real-world business process. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagram is an important visual process modeling language proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The novelty of this paper is representing workflow model by means of UML activity diagram. A translation from UML activity diagram to π-calculus is established. Using π-calculus, the deadlock property of workflow is analyzed.
Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.
Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.
2012-12-01
We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.
Compatible growth models and stand density diagrams
This paper discusses a stand average growth model based on the self-thinning rule developed and used to generate stand density diagrams. Procedures involved in testing are described and results are included
Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes
Niedermayer, Ferenc
2016-01-01
In this paper we present methods to compute massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of dimensional regularization and lattice regularization. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations.
Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter
Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E4 diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, Sxyz(r12, r13, r23), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E4 diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid 3He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid 3He and Bethe's homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v14 interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density
Novel Quality Metrics for Power System Diagrams
Cuffe, Paul; Keane, Andrew
2016-01-01
Power network diagrams are typically neither enlightening nor attractive to look at. Encouragingly, though, the visualization of generic complex networks has been an active area of research for the past two decades, and there now exist a number of widely-deployed algorithms that show a network's structure in a revealing and aesthetic way. Additionally, recent work by the present authors has proposed techniques for diagramming power systems that explicitly use meaningful electrical distance me...
A universal structured-design diagramer
1981-01-01
Program (FLOWCHARTER) generates standardized flowcharts and concordances for development and debugging of programs in any language. User describes programming-language grammar, providing syntax rules in Backus-Naur form (BNF), list of semantic rules, and set of concordance rules. Once grammar is described, user supplies only source code of program to be diagrammed. FLOWCHARTER automatically produces flow diagram and concordance. Source code for program is written for PASCAL Release 2 compiler, as distributed by University of Minnesota.
Temperature-concentration diagram of polymer solutions
A (T,C) diagram - were T is the temperature, C the monomer concentration - is described for polymer solutions, from a tricritical approach to the polymer theta point. Four different regions are defined in this diagram. For each of these regions the T, N, C, dependence of the mean square end to end distance of a chain, the screening length, the osmotic pressure, and the second virial coefficient are calculated. A scaling form is also given for the equation of state
Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box
Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël
We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....
Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams
Bashkin, Stanley
1975-01-01
Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.
Pourbaix diagrams for uranium, molybdenum and technetium
Pourbaix diagrams represent in redox potential - pH space the isothermal phase equilibrium of a particular element in contact with water. The phase equilibrium involving aqueous ions or complex ions potentially coexisting with solid oxides or hydrated oxides is essential in understanding fuel behaviour in direct contact with water. The treatment will describe a method of constructing the diagrams by Gibbs energy minimization, highlight the significant features of the diagrams, and show how the data may be used in support of a mass transport model. Recent modelling activity in our laboratory has put emphasis on high temperature equilibrium involving UO2 with noble metal fission products. Under lower temperature conditions, defective fuel may come into direct contact with the water phase. The chemical consequences require the introduction of aqueous ions into the computations. The data must be consistent with that for the solid oxide phases used in the U-O temperature-composition phase diagram development. A good test of self-consistency is the generation of the Pourbaix diagram for that element. The presentation will show how these diagrams may be developed by means that do not require an a priori knowledge of adjacent phases or domains. The technique of Gibbs energy minimization will be illustrated with graphical and tabular displays of the steps in this versatile approach. The presentation will conclude by showing how the data may be blended together to understand the boundary condition in the transport of Mo and Tc from defective fuel into the primary heat transfer system. (author)
Reading fitness landscape diagrams through HSAB concepts
Highlights: • Qualitative information from HSAB descriptors. • 2D–3D diagrams using chemical descriptors (χ, η, ω, α) and principles (MHP, mEP, mPP). • Estimate of the energy exchange during reaction paths. • Examples from complex systems (geochemistry). - Abstract: Fitness landscapes are conceived as range of mountains, with local peaks and valleys. In terms of potential, such topographic variations indicate places of local instability or stability. The chemical potential, or electronegativity, its value changed of sign, carries similar information. In addition to chemical descriptors defined through hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concepts and computed through density functional theory (DFT), the principles that rule chemical reactions allow the design of such landscape diagrams. The simplest diagram uses electrophilicity and hardness as coordinates. It allows examining the influence of maximum hardness or minimum electrophilicity principles. A third dimension is introduced within such a diagram by mapping the topography of electronegativity, polarizability or charge exchange. Introducing charge exchange during chemical reactions, or mapping a third parameter (f.i. polarizability) reinforces the information carried by a simple binary diagram. Examples of such diagrams are provided, using data from Earth Sciences, simple oxides or ligands
Class diagram based evaluation of software performance
Pham, Huong V.; Nguyen, Binh N.
2013-03-01
The evaluation of software performance in the early stages of the software life cycle is important and it has been widely studied. In the software model specification, class diagram is the important object-oriented software specification model. The measures based on a class diagram have been widely studied to evaluate quality of software such as complexity, maintainability, reuse capability, etc. However the software performance evaluation based on Class model has not been widely studied, especially for object-oriented design of embedded software. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new approach to directly evaluate the software performance based on class diagrams. From a class diagram, we determine the parameters which are used to evaluate and build formula of the measures such as Size of Class Variables, Size of Class Methods, Size of Instance Variables, Size of Instance Methods, etc. Then, we do analysis of the dependence of performance on these measures and build the performance evaluation function from class diagram. Thereby we can choose the best class diagram based on this evaluation function.
Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams
Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde
2013-01-01
Learning environments for object-oriented modelling in UML which offer a rich interaction usually impose, in return, strong restrictions on the range of exercises they can address. We propose to overcome this limit by including a diagnostic module that compares the student diagram with a reference diagram. This approach enables to combine the advantages of an open environment (in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram) with a s...
Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao
2015-06-01
We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the d log form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plücker coordinates beyond Plücker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plücker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.
The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning
Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.
2015-01-01
Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…
Root systems and diagram calculus. II. Quadratic forms for the Carter diagrams
Stekolshchik, Rafael
2010-01-01
We study the class C4 of Carter diagrams containing 4-cycle. For any G from C4, and hence, for the conjugacy class associated with G, we introduce the partial Cartan matrix B_L which is similar to the Cartan matrix B. We consider linkage diagrams obtained from G by adding one root together with its bonds such that the resulting subset of roots is linearly independent. We enumerate linkage diagrams for the Carter diagrams of C4 and D_l, E_6, E_7, E_8 by means of some properties of the partial Cartan matrix. The linkage diagrams connected under the action of dual partial Weyl group constitute one or more components. The obtained graph is called the linkage system which is similar to the weight system arising in the representation theory of the semisimple Lie algebras. For Carter diagrams E_6(a_i) and E_6 the linkage system has two components, each of which contains 27 elements; for Carter diagrams E_7(a_i) and for E_7, the linkage system has a single component containing 56 elements; for Carter diagrams D_l(a_i...
The Use of Computational Diagrams and Nomograms in Higher Education.
Brandenburg, Richard K.; Simpson, William A.
1984-01-01
The use of computational diagrams and nomographs for the calculations that frequently occur in college administration is examined. Steps in constructing a nomograph and a four-dimensional computational diagram are detailed, and uses of three- and four-dimensional diagrams are covered. Diagrams and nomographs are useful in the following cases: (1)…
49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...
Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy
Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James
2010-01-01
Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…
Sunset Science. II. A useful diagram
Young, Andrew T.; Kattawar, George W.
1998-06-01
We present diagrams that show how layers in atmospheric thermal structure are related to the altitudes at which they are seen tangentially. These dip diagrams show that the inferior mirage greatly magnifies the apparent angular size of the lowest few centimeters of atmosphere. Conversely, inversion layers below eye level are compressed even to zero apparent thickness, in ducts. The diagrams show that, even when distant objects are miraged, the ray crossings occur beyond the lowest point on each ray where the line of sight is tangent to a horizontal surface in the atmosphere. Therefore the apparent altitudes of these tangent points are a monotonic function of their actual heights in the atmosphere. This monotonicity explains an apparent paradox in low-Sun images.
Phase diagrams modified by interfacial penalties
Atanacković T.M.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The conventional forms of phase diagrams are constructed without consideration of interfacial energies and they represent an important tool for chemical engineers and metallurgists. If interfacial energies are taken into consideration, it is intuitively obvious that the regions of phase equilibria must become smaller, because there is a penalty on the formation of interfaces. We investigate this phenomenon qualitatively for a one-dimensional model, in which the phases occur as layers rather than droplets or bubbles. The modified phase diagrams are shown in Chapters 3 and 4.
System Model Semantics of Class Diagrams
Cengarle, Maria Victoria; Grönninger, Hans; Rumpe, Bernhard
2014-01-01
Defining semantics for UML is a difficult task. Disagreements in the meaning of UML constructs as well as the size of UML are major obstacles. In this report, we describe our approach to define the semantics for UML. Semantics is defined denotationally as a mapping into our semantics domain called the system model [4, 5, 6]. We demonstrate our approach by defining the semantics for a comprehensive version of class diagrams. The semantics definition is detailed for UML/P class diagrams, a vari...
Pourbaix diagrams for mixed metal oxides
Thermodynamic information for copper compounds and aqueous species, including estimated values at elevated temperatures, is analyzed. Potential-pH diagrams (Pourbaix diagrams) for the Cu-H2O, Fe-H2O and Fe-Cu-H2O systems are presented and the solubilities of copper and iron oxides (including mixed copper-iron oxide) are evaluated. These results are used to interpret the observed precipitation of oxides on BWR fuel and to estimate the effect of hydrogen water chemistry on their behavior
MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework
Wang, Zheng; Pu, Geguang; Li, Jianwen; He, Jifeng; Qin, Shengchao; Larsen, Kim G.; Madsen, Jan; Gu, Bin
2012-01-01
systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way to...... checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems....
Required Behavior of Sequence Diagrams: Semantics and Conformance
Lu, Lunjin; Kim, Dae-Kyoo
2010-01-01
Sequence diagrams are a widely used design notation for describing software behaviors. Many reusable software artifacts such as design patterns and design aspects make use of sequence diagrams to describe interaction behaviors. When a pattern or an aspect is reused in an application, it is important to ensure that the sequence diagrams for the application conform to the corresponding sequence diagrams for the pattern or aspect. Reasoning about conformance relationship between sequence diagram...
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)
Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams
Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie
2011-01-01
For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…
Magnetic phase diagram of ultrathin films
Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Stefanowicz, W.; Maziewski, A.
2007-01-01
Roč. 101, - (2007), 113904/1-113904/6. ISSN 0021-8979 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 3177 - NANOMAG-LAB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ultrathin film * magnetization distribution * phase diagram Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.171, year: 2007
Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment
The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process
Construction of Lax operators from weight diagrams
We show that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to read-off the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax pair generates the modified KdV equations, and have been shown in some cases to produce acceptable solutions of the string equation of matrix models
Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package
Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan
Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.
Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.
Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne
2002-01-01
Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)
Fine structure of the butterfly diagram revisited
Major, Balázs
The latitudinal time distribution of sunspots (butterfly diagram) was studied by Becker (1959) and Antalová & Gnevyshev (1985). Our goal is to revisit these studies. In the first case we check whether there is a poleward migration in sunspot activity. In the second case we confirm the results, and make more quantitative statements concerning their significance and the position of the activity peaks.
Graphic lambda calculus and knot diagrams
Buliga, Marius
2012-01-01
In arXiv:1207.0332 [cs.LO] was proposed a graphic lambda calculus formalism, which has sectors corresponding to untyped lambda calculus and emergent algebras. Here we explore the sector covering knot diagrams, which are constructed as macros over the graphic lambda calculus.
Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams
Davydychev, Andrei I
2016-01-01
A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.
Phase Diagrams of Strongly Interacting Theories
Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally report...
Parallel Computation of Feynman diagrams with DIANA
Tentyukov, M.; Fleischer, J.
2003-01-01
Co-operation of the Feynman DIagram ANAlyzer (DIANA) with the underlying operational system (UNIX) is presented. We discuss operators to run external commands and a recent development of parallel processing facilities and an extension in the spirit of a component model.
Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction
Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition
Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams
Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.
2003-10-01
An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution
On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Diagram Type and Expertise
Störrle, Harald
2012-01-01
Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only. In the...... current paper, we expand on our earlier experiments by varying both diagram types and populations studied. We find no difference in the beneficial evidence of good layout wrt. diagram types. We also find support for the hypothesis that experts benefit less than novices. While still lacking independent...
Students' different understandings of class diagrams
Boustedt, Jonas
2012-03-01
The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.
The mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams
The writhe of a knot diagram is a simple geometric measure of the complexity of the knot diagram. It plays an important role not only in knot theory itself, but also in various applications of knot theory to fields such as molecular biology and polymer physics. The mean squared writhe of any sample of knot diagrams with n crossings is n when for each diagram at each crossing one of the two strands is chosen as the overpass at random with probability one-half. However, such a diagram is usually not minimal. If we restrict ourselves to a minimal knot diagram, then the choice of which strand is the over- or under-strand at each crossing is no longer independent of the neighboring crossings and a larger mean squared writhe is expected for minimal diagrams. This paper explores the effect on the correlation between the mean squared writhe and the diagrams imposed by the condition that diagrams are minimal by studying the writhe of classes of reduced, alternating knot diagrams. We demonstrate that the behavior of the mean squared writhe heavily depends on the underlying space of diagram templates. In particular this is true when the sample space contains only diagrams of a special structure. When the sample space is large enough to contain not only diagrams of a special type, then the mean squared writhe for n crossing diagrams tends to grow linearly with n, but at a faster rate than n, indicating an intrinsic property of alternating knot diagrams. Studying the mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams also provides some insight into the properties of the diagram generating methods used, which is an important area of study in the applications of random knot theory.
ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT
Miroslav Grgec
2007-06-01
Full Text Available When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD, object diagram (OD, sequence diagram (SD, collaboration diagram (COD, state chart diagram (SCD, activity diagram (AD, 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD, 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram, 4. Physical view (deployment diagram, and 5. Use case view (use case diagram, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD which combines the four mentioned above. With sequence diagram constructs we are describing object behavior in scope of one use case and their interaction. Each object in system goes through a so called lifecycle (create, supplement object with data, use object, decommission object. The concept of the object lifecycle is used to understand and formalize the behavior of objects from creation to deletion. With help of sequence diagram concepts our paper will describe the way of interaction modeling between objects through lifeline of each of them, and their importance in software development.
Condon domain phase diagram for silver
We present the Condon domain phase diagram for a silver single crystal measured in magnetic fields up to 28 T and temperatures down to 1.3 K. A standard ac method with a pickup coil system is used at low frequency for the measurements of the de Haas-van Alphen effect (dHvA). The transition point from the state of homogeneous magnetization to the inhomogeneous Condon domain state (CDS) is found as the point where a small irreversibility in the dHvA magnetization arises, as manifested by an extremely nonlinear response in the pickup voltage showing threshold character. The third harmonic content in the ac response is used to determine with high precision the CDS phase boundary. The experimentally determined Condon domain phase diagram is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction calculated by the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich formula.
Extracting parameters from Colour-Magnitude Diagrams
Bonatto, C; Kepler, S O; Bica, E
2015-01-01
We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M\\,67, NGC\\,6791, and NGC\\,2635, which are characterised by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.
Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram
Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael
We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.
Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases
We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data
MHV diagrams in momentum twistor space
Bullimore, Mathew; Mason, Lionel; Skinner, David
2010-12-01
We show that there are remarkable simplifications when the MHV diagram formalism for mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills is reformulated in momentum twistor space. The vertices are replaced by unity while each propagator becomes a dual superconformal `R-invariant' whose arguments may be read off from the diagram, and include an arbitrarily chosen reference twistor. The momentum twistor MHV rules generate a formula for the full, all-loop planar integrand for the super Yang-Mills S-matrix that is manifestly dual superconformally invariant up to the choice of a reference twistor. We give a general proof of this reformulation and illustrate its use by computing the momentum twistor NMHV and N2MHV tree amplitudes and the integrands of the MHV and NMHV 1-loop and the MHV 2-loop planar amplitudes.
Diagram of the uranium prospection perforation
We call diagrams to the drawn up one continuous of parameters physicists of the formation trimmed by a perforation based on the depth. The method is interesting not only for the putting in evidence of the mineralized levels but also it stops to determine the variations of lithology had by one part to the intrinsic properties of minerals (quartz, clays, carbonates) and to their variation of tenor and by another one, to variations of porosity and permeability of the formation
Empirical Phase Diagram of Congested Traffic Flow
Lee, H. Y.; Lee, H. -W.; Kim, D.
1999-01-01
We present an empirical phase diagram of the congested traffic flow measured on a highway section with one effective on-ramp. Through the analysis of local density-flow relations and global spatial structure of the congested region, four distinct congested traffic states are identified. These states appear at different levels of the upstream flux and the on-ramp flux, thereby generating a phase digram of the congested traffic flow. Observed traffic states are discussed in connection with rece...
Formal Semantics of Time Sequence Diagrams
Christian Facchi
2016-01-01
Time Sequence Diagrams (TSDs) are a graphical representation employed to clarify the communication between service users and a service provider in the ISO/OSI basic reference model. In this paper we define the syntax and semantics of a textual representation for TSDs. As well, we provide a method for translating TSDs into this language. Furthermore, some extensions of TSDs are introduced that allow some special facets of an arbitrary layer to be described.
Drawing Tree Diagrams: Problems and Suggestions
Qiang Wang
2010-01-01
Starting from the theoretical goal of syntax, and taking the difference between pedagogical grammar and syntax into consideration, this article, based on the author’s teaching practice and review of exam papers, analyzes common problems in drawing tree diagrams such as ternary branching and improper marking of grammatical categories, followed by proposals for constructing such representations, with a view to helping students to achieve reasonable and elegant drawings, and also to helping teac...
Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams
The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras
Temperature Diagrams of Eutectoid Steel Heating
A. P. Nesenchuk
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problems pertaining to power- and resource-saving while heating eutectoid steel in furnaces of mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor plants (blanking and mechanical assembly production are considered in the paper. The paper shows that a heating device according to its heating technical parameters must be developed with due account of a temperature diagram having properties which are peculiar to the heated charge.
Phase diagrams modified by interfacial penalties
Atanacković T.M.; Huo Y.; Jeličić Z.; Müller I.
2007-01-01
The conventional forms of phase diagrams are constructed without consideration of interfacial energies and they represent an important tool for chemical engineers and metallurgists. If interfacial energies are taken into consideration, it is intuitively obvious that the regions of phase equilibria must become smaller, because there is a penalty on the formation of interfaces. We investigate this phenomenon qualitatively for a one-dimensional model, in which the phases occur as layers rather...
Invited Commentary: Causal Diagrams and Measurement Bias
Hernán, Miguel A.; Cole, Stephen R.
2009-01-01
Causal inferences about the effect of an exposure on an outcome may be biased by errors in the measurement of either the exposure or the outcome. Measurement errors of exposure and outcome can be classified into 4 types: independent nondifferential, dependent nondifferential, independent differential, and dependent differential. Here the authors describe how causal diagrams can be used to represent these 4 types of measurement bias and discuss some problems that arise when using measured expo...
Mac Gaul de Jorge, Marcia; Aballay, Patricia; Zamora, Rodrigo Gabriel; Soria, Marcelo A.
2009-01-01
The team of researchers develops and implements technological resources focused on a methodological strategy that supports its use. Our investigation deals with the analysis beginner students’ competences attending the Analisis de Sistema career at the UNSa, in order to solve different computing problems such as the analysis of the design if the diagram N-S and the desktop test. This work describes the process undertaken by the educational software design called Diagramar. Its development and...
Fluctuations and the QCD Phase Diagram
Koch, Volker
2016-01-01
In this contribution we will discuss how the study of various fluctuation observables may be used to explore the phase diagram of the strong interaction. We will briefly summarize the present study of experimental and theoretical research in this area. We will then discuss various corrections and issues which need to be understood and applied for a meaningful comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical predictions. This contribution is dedicated to Andrzej Bialas on the occasion of his $80^{\\mathrm{th}}$ birthday.
Linearly recursive sequences and Dynkin diagrams
Reutenauer, Christophe
2012-01-01
Motivated by a construction in the theory of cluster algebras (Fomin and Zelevinsky), one associates to each acyclic directed graph a family of sequences of natural integers, one for each vertex; this construction is called a {\\em frieze}; these sequences are given by nonlinear recursions (with division), and the fact that they are integers is a consequence of the Laurent phenomenon of Fomin and Zelevinsky. If the sequences satisfy a linear recursion with constant coefficients, then the graph must be a Dynkin diagram or an extended Dynkin diagram, with an acyclic orientation. The converse also holds: the sequences of the frieze associated to an oriented Dynkin or Euclidean diagram satisfy linear recursions, and are even $\\mathbb N$-rational. One uses in the proof objects called $SL_2$-{\\em tilings of the plane}, which are fillings of the discrete plane such that each adjacent 2 by 2 minor is equal to 1. These objects, which have applications in the theory of cluster algebras, are interesting for themselves. S...
Developing grain boundary diagrams for multicomponent alloys
Impurity-based, premelting-like, intergranular films (IGFs, a common type of grain boundary complexion) can form in various materials and influence sintering, creep, and microstructure development. A thermodynamic framework is presented to forecast the formation and stability of these premelting-like grain boundary complexions (a.k.a. interfacial “phases” that are thermodynamically two dimensional) in multicomponent alloys to consider the interactions of multiple alloying elements. Key thermodynamic parameters that control the interfacial segregation and disordering behaviors have been identified and systematically examined. Subsequently, ternary and quaternary grain boundary diagrams have been computed and used to forecast the sintering behaviors of W–Ni–M (M = Fe, Co, Cr, Zr, Nb and Ti) and Mo–Si–B–M (M = Ni, Co and Fe) systems. This work supports a long-range scientific goal of extending bulk computational thermodynamics and CALPHAD methods to interfaces and developing grain boundary complexion (interfacial “phase”) diagrams as extensions to bulk phase diagrams, which can be a generally useful materials science tool
Regime Diagrams for K-Theory Dispersion
Smith, Ronald B.
2011-06-01
In atmospheric dispersion, the "non-Gaussian" effects of gravitational settling, the vertical gradient in diffusivity and the surface deposition do not enter uniformly but rather break up parameter space into several discrete regimes. Here, we describe regime diagrams that are constructed for K-theory dispersion of effluent from a surface line source in unsheared inhomogeneous turbulence, using a previously derived Fourier-Hankel method. This K-theory formulation differs from the traditional one by keeping a non-zero diffusivity at the ground. This change allows for turbulent exchange between the canopy and the atmosphere and allows new natural length scales to emerge. The axes on the regime diagrams are non-dimensional distance defined as the ratio of downwind distance to the characteristic length scale for each effect. For each value of the ratio of settling speed to the K gradient, two to four regimes are found. Concentration formulae are given for each regime. The regime diagrams allow real dispersion problems to be categorized and the validity of end-state concentration formulae to be judged.
Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram
Gibson, D. M.
1985-01-01
Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.
Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic
Tucker, D. S.
1991-01-01
Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.
On-Shell Diagrams for N = 8 Supergravity Amplitudes
Heslop, Paul
2016-01-01
We define recursion relations for N = 8 supergravity amplitudes using a generalization of the on-shell diagrams developed for planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills. Although the recursion relations generically give rise to non-planar on-shell diagrams, we show that at tree-level the recursion can be chosen to yield only planar diagrams, the same diagrams occurring in the planar N = 4 theory. This implies non-trivial identities for non-planar diagrams as well as interesting relations between the N = 4 and N = 8 theories. We show that the on-shell diagrams of N = 8 supergravity obey equivalence relations analogous to those of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, and we develop a systematic algorithm for reading off Grassmannian integral formulae directly from the on-shell diagrams. We also show that the 1-loop 4-point amplitude of N = 8 supergravity can be obtained from on-shell diagrams.
Voronoi Diagrams for Pure 1-qubit Quantum States
Kato, K; Imai, H; Imai, K; Kato, Kimikazu; Oto, Mayumi; Imai, Hiroshi; Imai, Keiko
2006-01-01
1-qubit quantum states form a space called the three-dimensional Bloch ball. To compute Holevo capacity, Voronoi diagrams in the Bloch ball with respect to the quantum divergence have been used as a powerful tool. These diagrams basically treat mixed quantum states corresponding to points in the interior of the Bloch ball. Due to the existence of logarithm in the quantum divergence, the diagrams are not defined on pure quantum states corresponding to points on the two-dimensional sphere. This paper first defines the Voronoi diagrams for pure quantum states on the Bloch sphere by the Fubini-Study distance and the Bures distance. We also introduce other Voronoi diagrams on the sphere obtained by taking a limit of Voronoi diagrams for mixed quantum states by the quantum divergences in the Bloch ball. These diagrams are shown to be equivalent to the ordinary Voronoi diagram on the sphere.
Semantics-based Refinement of Mandatory Behavior of Sequence Diagrams
Lu, Lunjin
2010-01-01
Sequence diagrams are a widely used design notation for describing software behaviors. Many reusable software artifacts such as design patterns and design aspects make use of sequence diagrams to describe interaction behaviors. When a pattern or an aspect is reused in an application, it is important to ensure that the sequence diagrams for the application correctly refines the corresponding sequence diagrams for the pattern or aspect. Reasoning about refinement of sequence diagrams has not been addressed adequately in literature. In this paper, we focus on refinement of mandatory behavior specified by a UML sequence diagram. A novel trace semantics is given that captures precisely mandatory behavior specified by a sequence diagram and a refinement relation between sequence diagrams is formalized based on the semantics. Properties of the trace semantics and the refinement relation are studied.
Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory
Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
2000-08-01
The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.
New phase diagram for black holes and strings on cylinders
We introduce a novel type of phase diagram for black holes and black strings on cylinders. The phase diagram involves a new asymptotic quantity called the relative binding energy. We plot the uniform string and the non-uniform string solutions in this new phase diagram using Wiseman's data. Intersection rules for branches of solutions in the phase diagram are deduced from a new Smarr formula that we derive
The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions
de Freitas, Elizabeth
2012-01-01
This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…
The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams
Meij, van der Jan; Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, Anjo
2015-01-01
An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header ce
30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted as... 12(d) of the Act. (b) The MMS shall prepare leasing maps and official protraction diagrams of...
IDEAL: A Software Package for Analysis of Influence Diagrams
Srinivas, Sampath; Breese, John S.
2013-01-01
IDEAL (Influence Diagram Evaluation and Analysis in Lisp) is a software environment for creation and evaluation of belief networks and influence diagrams. IDEAL is primarily a research tool and provides an implementation of many of the latest developments in belief network and influence diagram evaluation in a unified framework. This paper describes IDEAL and some lessons learned during its development.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary
1993-06-30
This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.
Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++
Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard
2008-01-01
In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...
Generic Phase Diagram of Binary Superlattices
Tkachenko, Alexei
Emergence of a large variety of self-assembled superlattices is a dramatic recent trend in the fields of nanoparticle and colloidal sciences. Motivated by this development, we propose a model that combines simplicity with a remarkably rich phase behavior, applicable to a wide range of such self-assembled systems. Those include nanoparticle and colloidal assemblies driven by DNA-mediated interactions, electrostatics, and possibly, by controlled drying. In our model, a binary system of Large and Small hard sphere (L and S)interact via selective short-range (''sticky'') attraction. In its simplest version, this Binary Sticky Sphere model features attraction only between 'S' and 'L' particles, respectively. We demonstrate that in the limit when this attraction is sufficiently strong compared to kT, the problem becomes purely geometrical: the thermodynamically preferred state should maximize the number of S-L contacts. A general procedure for constructing the phase diagram as a function of system composition f, and particle size ratio r, is outlined. In this way, the global phase behavior can be calculated very efficiently, for a given set of plausible candidate phases. Furthermore, the geometric nature of the problem enables us to generate those candidate phases through a well defined and intuitive construction. We calculate the phase diagrams both for 2D and 3D systems, and compare the results with existing experiments. Most of the 3D superlattices observed to date are featured in our phase diagram, while several more are yet to be discovered. The research was carried out at the CFN, DOE Office of Science Facility, at BNL, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.
Recent results in Ring Diagram analysis
Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina
2013-01-01
The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and developed quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2 to 30 degrees) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and, for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides i...
On critical exponents without Feynman diagrams
Sen, Kallol
2015-01-01
In order to achieve a better analytic handle on the modern conformal bootstrap program, we re-examine and extend the pioneering 1974 work of Polyakov's, which was based on consistency between the operator product expansion and unitarity. As in the bootstrap approach, this method does not depend on evaluating Feynman diagrams. We show how this approach can be used to compute the anomalous dimensions of certain operators in the $O(n)$ model at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in $4-\\epsilon$ dimensions up to $O(\\epsilon^2)$.
High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams
Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng
2013-01-01
High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature
Analysis of bottleneck motion using Voronoi diagrams
Liddle, Jack; Steffen, Bernhard
2010-01-01
Standard definitions of the density exhibit large fluctuations when the size of the measurement area is comparable with the size of a pedestrian. An alternative measurement method exists where a personal space, calculated through the Voronoi diagram, is assigned to each pedestrian. In this contribution this method is applied to an experiment studying motion through a bottleneck and the reduced fluctuations demonstrated. The integrated density also permits examination on much smaller spatial scales than the standard definition, the insights into the pedestrian motion this provides are discussed.
Influence Diagrams for Optimal Maintenance Planning
Friis-Hansen, Andreas
2000-01-01
Over the last two decades Bayesian networks and influence diagrams have received notable attention within the field of artificial intelligence and expert systems. During the last few years the technology has been further developed for problem solving within other engineering fields. The objective...... reliability methods FORM/SORM. The Bayesian network model is argumented by decision and utility nodes, thus forming a full decision model for inspection planning. With the applied program package the optimal inspection plan is easily obtained. Moreover, the updating facilities allow for fast changes of the...
Toward a phase diagram for stocks
Ivanova, K.
1999-08-01
A display of the tentatively basic parameters of stocks, i.e. the daily closing price and the daily transaction volume is presented eliminating the time variable between them. The “phase diagram” looks like a triangular region similar to the two-phase region of traffic diagrams. The data is taken for two companies (SGP and OXHP) which present different long-range correlations in the closing price value as examined by the linearly Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) statistical method. Substructures are observed in the “phase diagram” as due to changes in management policy, e.g. stock splits.
Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes
Niedermayer, F.; Weisz, P.
2016-06-01
This paper discusses the methods and the results used in an accompanying paper describing the matching of effective chiral Lagrangians in dimensional and lattice regularizations. We present methods to compute 2-loop massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of these regularizations. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations, extending the results of Hasenfratz and Leutwyler for the case of dimensional regularization and we introduce a new method to calculate precisely the expansion coefficients of the 1-loop lattice sums.
A comparative study of linear and region based diagrams
Björn Gottfried
2015-06-01
Full Text Available There are two categories of objects spatial information science investigates: actual objects and their spatial properties, such as in geography, and abstract objects which are employed metaphorically, as for visual languages. A prominent example of the latter are diagrams that model knowledge of some domain. Different aspects of diagrams are of interest, including their formal properties or how human users work with them, for example, with diagrams representing sets. The literature about diagrammatic systems for the representation of sets shows a dominance of region-based diagrams like Euler circles and Venn diagrams. The effectiveness of these diagrams, however, is limited because region-based diagrams become quite complex for more then three sets. By contrast, linear diagrams are not equally prevalent but enable the representation of a greater number of sets without getting cluttered. Cluttered diagrams exhibit inherent complexity due to overlapping objects, irrelevant details, or other reasons that impinge upon their legibility. This study contrasts both types of diagrammatic systems and investigates whether the performance of users differs for both kinds of diagrams. A significant difference can be shown regarding the number of diagrams that can be drawn within a fixed period of time and regarding the number of errors made. The results indicate that linear diagrams are more effective by being more restrictive and because region based diagrams show much clutter due to overlapping, coincident, and tangentially touching contours, as well as an overwhelming number of empty zones. Linear diagrams are less prone to errors and do not suffer from clutter.
The magnetized effective QCD phase diagram
Ayala, Alejandro; Hernandez, L A; Loewe, M; Zamora, R
2015-01-01
The QCD phase diagram in the temperature versus quark chemical potential plane is studied in the presence of a magnetic field, using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. It is shown that the decrease of the couplings with increasing field strength obtained in this model leads to the critical temperature for the phase transition to decrease with increasing field intensity (inverse magnetic catalysis). This happens provided that plasma screening is properly accounted for. It is also found that with increasing field strength the location of the critical end point (CEP) in the phase diagram moves toward lower values of the critical quark chemical potential and larger values of the critical temperature. In addition, the CEP approaches the temperature axis for large values of the magnetic field. We argue that a similar behavior is to be expected in QCD, since the physical impact of the magnetic field, regardless of strength, is to produce a spatial dimension reduction, whereby virtual quark-antiquark pairs are...
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram; and Vol. 3, Technology Evaluation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B,and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA, and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2. The data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right comer of each sheet
An updated Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram
Cardone, V F; Dainotti, M G
2009-01-01
Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted much attention as a possible way to extend the Hubble diagram to very high redshift. To this aim, the luminosity (or isotropic emitted energy) of a GRB at redshift z must be evaluated from a correlation with a distance independent quantity so that one can then solve for the luminosity distance D_L(z) and hence the distance modulus mu(z). Averaging over five different two parameters correlations and using a fiducial cosmological model to calibrate them, Schaefer (2007) has compiled a sample of 69 GRBs with measured mu(z) which has since then been widely used to constrain cosmological parameters. We update here that sample by many aspects. First, we add a recently found correlation for the X - ray afterglow and use a Bayesian inspired fitting method to calibrate the different GRBs correlations known insofar assuming a fiducial LCDM model in agreement with the recent WMAP5 data. Averaging over six correlations, we end with a new GRBs Hubble diagram comprising 83 ob...
Kinematical Diagrams for Conical Relativistic Jets
Gopal-Krishna; Pronoy Sircar; Samir Dhurde
2007-03-01
We present diagrams depicting the expected inter-dependences of two key kinematical parameters of radio knots in the parsec-scale jets of blazars, deduced from VLBI observations. The two parameters are the apparent speed (app = capp) and the effective Doppler boosting factor (eff) of the relativistically moving radio knot. A novel aspect of these analytical computations of – diagrams is that they are made for parsecscale jets having a conical shape, with modest opening angles ( up to 10°), in accord with the VLBI observations of the nuclei of the nearest radio galaxies. Another motivating factor is the recent finding that consideration of a conical geometry can have important implications for the interpretation of a variety of radio observations of blazar jets. In addition to uniform jet flows (i.e., those having a uniform bulk Lorentz factor, ), computational results are also presented for stratified jets where an ultra-relativistic central spine along the jet axis is surrounded by a slower moving sheath, possibly arising from a velocity shear.
Isolated pulsar spin evolution on the diagram
Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.
2010-05-01
We look at two contrasting spin-down models for isolated radio pulsars and, accounting for selection effects, synthesize observable populations. While our goal is to reproduce all of the observable characteristics, in this paper we pay particular attention to the form of the spin period versus period derivative () diagram and its dependence on various pulsar properties. We analyse the initial spin period, the braking index, the magnetic field, various beaming models as well as the pulsar's luminosity. In addition to considering the standard magnetic dipole model for pulsar spin-down, we also consider the recent hybrid model proposed by Contopoulos and Spitkovsky. The magnetic dipole model, however, does a better job of reproducing the observed pulsar population. We conclude that random alignment angles and period-dependent luminosity distributions are essential to reproduce the observed diagram. We also consider the time decay of alignment angles and attempt to reconcile various models currently being studied. We conclude that in order to account for recent evidence for the alignment found by Weltevrede and Johnston, the braking torque on a neutron star should not depend strongly on the inclination. Our simulation code is publicly available and includes a web-based interface to examine the results and make predictions for yields of current and future surveys.
Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram
Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.
2014-03-01
Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.
Phase diagrams of disordered Weyl semimetals
Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.
2016-02-01
Weyl semimetals are gapless quasitopological materials with a set of isolated nodal points forming their Fermi surface. They manifest their quasitopological character in a series of topological electromagnetic responses including the anomalous Hall effect. Here, we study the effect of disorder on Weyl semimetals while monitoring both their nodal/semimetallic and topological properties through computations of the localization length and the Hall conductivity. We examine three different lattice tight-binding models which realize the Weyl semimetal in part of their phase diagram and look for universal features that are common to all of the models, and interesting distinguishing features of each model. We present detailed phase diagrams of these models for large system sizes and we find that weak disorder preserves the nodal points up to the diffusive limit, but does affect the Hall conductivity. We show that the trend of the Hall conductivity is consistent with an effective picture in which disorder causes the Weyl nodes move within the Brillouin zone along a specific direction that depends deterministically on the properties of the model and the neighboring phases to the Weyl semimetal phase. We also uncover an unusual (nonquantized) anomalous Hall insulator phase which can only exist in the presence of disorder.
Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation
This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER's major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram
Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram
deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.
VennDiagram: a package for the generation of highly-customizable Venn and Euler diagrams in R
Boutros Paul C
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization of orthogonal (disjoint or overlapping datasets is a common task in bioinformatics. Few tools exist to automate the generation of extensively-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment. To fill this gap we introduce VennDiagram, an R package that enables the automated generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn diagrams with up to four sets and Euler diagrams with up to three sets. Results The VennDiagram package offers the user the ability to customize essentially all aspects of the generated diagrams, including font sizes, label styles and locations, and the overall rotation of the diagram. We have implemented scaled Venn and Euler diagrams, which increase graphical accuracy and visual appeal. Diagrams are generated as high-definition TIFF files, simplifying the process of creating publication-quality figures and easing integration with established analysis pipelines. Conclusions The VennDiagram package allows the creation of high quality Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment.
The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram
de Freitas, Elizabeth
2012-01-01
This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…
Recent results in Ring Diagram analysis
Rabello-Soares, M Cristina
2013-01-01
The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and developed quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2 to 30 degrees) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and, for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI (on board SOHO), GONG+ network and more recently HMI (on SDO), many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity; and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progre...
REPRESENTING MARKOV CHAINS WITH TRANSITION DIAGRAMS
Farida Kachapova
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Stochastic processes have many useful applications and are taught in several university programmes. Students often encounter difficulties in learning stochastic processes and Markov chains, in particular. In this article we describe a teaching strategy that uses transition diagrams to represent a Markov chain and to re-define properties of its states in simple terms of directed graphs. This strategy utilises the studentsâ intuition and makes the learning of complex concepts about Markov chains faster and easier. The method is illustrated by worked examples. The described strategy helps students to master properties of finite Markov chains, so they have a solid basis for the study of infinite Markov chains and other stochastic processes.
Phase diagram in the entanglement PNJL model
Friesen, A.; Kalinovsky, Y.; Toneev, V.
2016-01-01
Effects of the vector interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop are studied in combination with the entanglement interaction between the quark and pure gauge sectors. We investigate the QCD phase diagram and find that the first order chiral phase transition at finite baryon chemical potentials and its critical endpoint disappear for sufficiently large values of the vector interaction constant Gv. The presence of an entanglement interaction between quark and pure gauge sectors leads to an increase of the value Gv for which the first order transition disappears. The influence of a nonzero Gv on the curvature of the crossover boundary in the T - μ plane nearby μ= 0 is also examined for both cases.
Probing the QCD phase diagram with fluctuations
Friman, Bengt
2014-08-15
The relevance of higher order cumulants of conserved charges for the analysis of freeze-out and critical conditions in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC is discussed. Using properties of O(4) scaling functions, the generic structure of these higher cumulants at vanishing baryon chemical potential is discussed. Chiral model calculations are then used to study their properties at non-zero baryon chemical potential. It is argued that the rapid variation of sixth and higher order cumulants at the phase boundary may be used to explore the QCD phase diagram in experiment. Moreover, results for the Polyakov loop susceptibilities in SU(3) lattice gauge theory as well as in (2+1) flavor lattice QCD are discussed. An analysis of the ratios of susceptibilities indicates that the deconfinement transition is reflected in characteristic modifications of these ratios.
The Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram
Capozziello, S; Dainotti, M G; De Laurentis, M; Izzo, L; Perillo, M
2011-01-01
Thanks to their enormous energy release, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa). We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial LCDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa to calibrate the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs finding any significant dependence. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift to obtain any statistical improvement. Under this assumption, we then consider possible systematics effects on the HDs introduced by the calibration method, the averaging procedure and the homogeneity of the sample arguing against any significant bias.
Phase diagrams of bosonic ABn chains
Cruz, G. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.
2016-04-01
The A B N - 1 chain is a system that consists of repeating a unit cell with N sites where between the A and B sites there is an energy difference of λ. We considered bosons in these special lattices and took into account the kinetic energy, the local two-body interaction, and the inhomogenous local energy in the Hamiltonian. We found the charge density wave (CDW) and superfluid and Mott insulator phases, and constructed the phase diagram for N = 2 and 3 at the thermodynamic limit. The system exhibited insulator phases for densities ρ = α/ N, with α being an integer. We obtained that superfluid regions separate the insulator phases for densities larger than one. For any N value, we found that for integer densities ρ, the system exhibits ρ + 1 insulator phases, a Mott insulator phase, and ρ CDW phases. For non-integer densities larger than one, several CDW phases appear.
Database design using entity-relationship diagrams
Bagui, Sikha
2011-01-01
Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering ProcessDataBuilding a DatabaseWhat is the Software Engineering Process?Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database Phase 2: Specify the Database Phase 3: Design the DatabaseData and Data ModelsFiles, Records, and Data ItemsMoving from 3 × 5 Cards to ComputersDatabase Models The Hierarchical ModelThe Network ModelThe Relational ModelThe Relational Model and Functional DependenciesFundamental Relational DatabaseRelational Database and SetsFunctional
Reentrant Phase Diagram of Network Fluids
Russo, J.; Tavares, J. M.; Teixeira, P. I. C.; Telo da Gama, M. M.; Sciortino, F.
2011-02-01
We introduce a microscopic model for particles with dissimilar patches which displays an unconventional “pinched” phase diagram, similar to the one predicted by Tlusty and Safran in the context of dipolar fluids [Science 290, 1328 (2000)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.290.5495.1328]. The model—based on two types of patch interactions, which account, respectively, for chaining and branching of the self-assembled networks—is studied both numerically via Monte Carlo simulations and theoretically via first-order perturbation theory. The dense phase is rich in junctions, while the less-dense phase is rich in chain ends. The model provides a reference system for a deep understanding of the competition between condensation and self-assembly into equilibrium-polymer chains.
Improving perturbation theory with cactus diagrams
Constantinou, M; Skouroupathis, A; Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos
2006-01-01
We study a systematic improvement of perturbation theory for gauge fields on the lattice [hep-lat/0606001]; the improvement entails resumming, to all orders in the coupling constant, a dominant subclass of tadpole diagrams. This method, originally proposed for the Wilson gluon action, is extended here to encompass all possible gluon actions made of closed Wilson loops; any fermion action can be employed as well. The effect of resummation is to replace various parameters in the action (coupling constant, Symanzik and clover coefficient) by ``dressed'' values; the latter are solutions to certain coupled integral equations, which are easy to solve numerically. Some positive features of this method are: a) It is gauge invariant, b) it can be systematically applied to improve (to all orders) results obtained at any given order in perturbation theory, c) it does indeed absorb in the dressed parameters the bulk of tadpole contributions. Two different applications are presented: The additive renormalization of fermio...
Transformation of BPMN Diagrams to YAWL Nets
Jianhong Ye
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN is the de facto standard for modeling business processes on a conceptual level. However, BPMN lacks a formal semantics and many of its features need to be further interpret, Consequently that hinders BPMN as a standard to statically check the semantic correctness of models. YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language allows the specification of executable workflow models. A transformation between these two languages enables the integration of different levels of abstraction in process modeling. This paper discusses how to transform BPMN diagrams to YAWL nets. The benefits of the transformation are threefold. Firstly, it clarifies the semantics of BPMN via a mapping to YAWL. Secondly, the deployment of BPMN business process models is simplified. Thirdly, BPMN models can be analyzed with YAWL verification tools.
Bayesian Image Reconstruction Based on Voronoi Diagrams
Cabrera, G F; Hitschfeld, N
2007-01-01
We present a Bayesian Voronoi image reconstruction technique (VIR) for interferometric data. Bayesian analysis applied to the inverse problem allows us to derive the a-posteriori probability of a novel parameterization of interferometric images. We use a variable Voronoi diagram as our model in place of the usual fixed pixel grid. A quantization of the intensity field allows us to calculate the likelihood function and a-priori probabilities. The Voronoi image is optimized including the number of polygons as free parameters. We apply our algorithm to deconvolve simulated interferometric data. Residuals, restored images and chi^2 values are used to compare our reconstructions with fixed grid models. VIR has the advantage of modeling the image with few parameters, obtaining a better image from a Bayesian point of view.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D ampersand D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2
Expression of Superparamagnetic Particles on FORC Diagrams
Hirt, A. M.; Kumari, M.; Crippa, F.; Petri-Fink, A.
2015-12-01
Identification of superparamagnetic (SP) particles in natural materials provides information on processes that lead to the new formation or dissolution of iron oxides. SP particles express themselves on first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams as a distribution centered near the origin of the diagram. Pike et al. (2001, GJI, 145, 721) demonstrated that thermal relaxation produces an upward shift in the FORC distribution, and attributed this to a pause encountered at each reversal field. In this study we examine the relationship between this upward shift and particles size on two sets of synthetic iron oxide nanoparticles. One set of coated magnetite particles have well-constrained particles size with 9, 16 and 20 nm as their diameter. A second set from the FeraSpin™ Series, consisting of FeraSpinXS, M and XL, were evaluated. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the first set of samples is exclusively magnetite, whereas the FeraSpin samples contain predominantly magnetite with some degree of oxidation. Samples from both sets show that the upward shift of the FORC distribution at the origin increases with decreasing particle size. The amount of shift in the FeraSpin series is less when compared to the samples from the first set. This is attributed to the effect of interaction that counteracts the effect of thermal relaxation behavior of the SP particles. The FeraSpin series also shows a broader FORC distribution on the vertical axis that appears to be related to non-saturation of the hysteresis curve at maximum applied field. This non-saturation behavior can be due to spins of very fine particles or oxidation to hematite. AC susceptibility at low temperature indicates that particle interaction may affect the effective magnetic particle size. Our results suggest that the FORC distribution in pure SP particle systems provides information on the particle size distribution or oxidation, which can be further evaluated with low temperature techniques.
2011-09-02
... Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... Protraction Diagram (OPD), Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagrams (SOBDs) located in the... Continental Shelf Block Diagrams in the Gulf of Mexico Located Within Official Protraction Diagram...
Calculating Asteroseismic Diagrams for Solar-Like Oscillations
White, T.R.; Bedding, T.R.; Stello, D.;
2011-01-01
these stars. We investigate the scaling relation between the large frequency separation, Δν, and mean stellar density. Furthermore we present model evolutionary tracks for several asteroseismic diagrams. We have extended the so-called C-D diagram beyond the main sequence to the subgiants and the red...... giant branch. We also consider another asteroseismic diagram, the epsilon diagram, which is more sensitive to variations in stellar properties at the subgiant stages and can aid in determining the correct mode identification. The recent discovery of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants forms the...... basis for a third asteroseismic diagram. We compare the evolutionary model tracks in these asteroseismic diagrams with results from pre-Kepler studies of solar-like oscillations and early results from Kepler....
Generalized Ellingham diagrams for utilization in solid oxide fuel cells
Kishimoto H.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Generalized Ellingham diagram for the P-O-H and the Ni-P-OH systems have been constructed to investigate thermodynamically the chemical stability of nickel anode against the gaseous impurities containing phosphorous compounds. In the same way as the original Ellingham diagram, the oxygen potential is used as the vertical axis, while the temperature is adopted as horizontal axis. For the P-O-H system which contains many gaseous species, the dominant areas of gaseous species are displayed with a parameter of their partial pressure in an analogous way to the aqueous species in the Pourbaix diagram. The multicomponent Ellingham diagram for the Ni-P-O-H system was constructed in a similar manner to the multicomponent Pourbaix diagram. The obtained diagrams have been discussed to examine the reactivity of nickel anodes with phosphorus compounds in SOFCs in terms of operational variables such as temperature, oxygen potential, overpotential under the anode polarization and so on.
Dilation, smoothed distance, and minimization diagrams of convex functions
Dickerson, Matthew; Eppstein, David; Wortman, Kevin A.
2008-01-01
We study Voronoi diagrams for distance functions that add together two convex functions, each taking as its argument the difference between Cartesian coordinates of two planar points. When the functions do not grow too quickly, then the Voronoi diagram has linear complexity and can be constructed in near-linear randomized expected time. Additionally, the level sets of the distances from the sites form a family of pseudocircles in the plane, all cells in the Voronoi diagram are connected, and ...
Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?
Schuessler, M.; Schmitt, D
2004-01-01
We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnet...
On the impact of layout quality to understanding UML diagrams
Störrle, Harald
2011-01-01
Practical experience suggests that use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. However, existing experimental evidence for this effect is been weak and inconclusive. In this paper, we explore two explanations. Firstly, we observe that the visual qualities of diagrams are more prominent in earlier life cycle phases so that the impact of layout quality should be more apparent in models and diagram types used there, an aspect not studied in previous ...
The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances
Hsin-Hsiung Huang
2016-01-01
Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s), temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation,...
Solubility diagram of the Cu-Ni nanosystem
The application of equilibrium thermodynamics to a nanosystem changes Gibbs's rule of geometrical thermodynamics. This fact leads to the necessity to reconsider the phase diagram and solubility curve concepts. The notions of 'solubility diagram', 'solidus', 'liquidus' are used to discuss the case of phase transition in Cu-Ni nanoparticles. It is shown that, in the limit where thermodynamic arguments remain valid, the solubility diagrams of nanoparticles are functions of their size and nucleation mode. This is demonstrated for different sizes
Supporting UML Sequence Diagrams with a Processor Net Approach
Tony Spiteri Staines
2007-01-01
UML sequence diagrams focus on the interaction between different classes. For distributed real time transaction processing it is possible to end up with complex sequence diagrams, containing messages related to system processes. It is difficult to examine alternative combinations of message passing. A solution is to translate these diagrams into an executable processor net model. This is based on the ‘actor model’, Petri net concepts and higher order net constructs. A case study taken from a ...
Test Case Generation Based on Use case and Sequence Diagram
Santosh Kumar Swain; Durga Prasad Mohapatra; Rajib Mall
2010-01-01
We present a comprehensive test case generation technique from UML models. We use the features in UML 2.0 sequence diagram including conditions, iterations, asynchronous messages and concurrent components. In our approach, test cases are derived from analysis artifacts such as use cases, their corresponding sequence diagrams and constraints specified across all these artifacts. We construct Use case Dependency Graph (UDG) from use case diagram and Concurrent Control Flow Graph (CCFG) from cor...
Visualization of Areas of Interest in Software Architecture Diagrams
Byelas, H.; Telea, A.
2006-01-01
Understanding complex software systems requires getting insight in how system properties, such as performance, trust, reliability, or structural attributes, correspond to the system architecture. Such properties can be seen as defining several ’areas of interest’ over the system architecture. We visualize areas of interest atop of system architecture diagrams using a new technique that minimizes visual clutter for multiple, overlapping areas for large diagrams, yet preserves the diagram layou...
Thermodynamic Venn diagrams: Sorting out forces, fluxes, and Legendre transforms
Kerr, W. C.; Macosko, J. C.
2011-09-01
We show how to use a Venn diagram to illuminate the relations among the different thermodynamic potentials, forces, and fluxes of a simple system. A single diagram shows all of the thermodynamic potentials obtainable by Legendre transformations starting from the internal energy as the fundamental potential. From the diagram, we can also read off the Maxwell relations deduced from each of these potentials. We construct a second Venn diagram that shows the analogous information for the Massieu functions, obtained by Legendre transformations starting from the entropy as the fundamental thermodynamic function.
Computer recognition of slag property diagrams in ternary systems
Jinxiong Lu; Li Wang; Jiongming Zhang; Xinhua Wang
2004-01-01
In order to take data information from the slag property diagram in a ternary system automatically and actually, a picture recognition and drawing software has been developed by Visual Basic 6.0 based on the image coding principle of computer system and the graphics programming method of VB. This software can transform the ternary system isopleth diagram from bitmap format to data file and establish a corresponding database which can be applied to rapidly retrieve a mass of data and make correlative thermodynamics or kinetics calculation. Besides, it still has the function of drawing the ternary system diagram which can draw different kinds of property parameters in the same diagram.
On 2-Site Voronoi Diagrams Under Geometric Distance Functions
Gill Barequet; Matthew Dickerson; David Eppstein; David Hodorkovsky; Kira Vyatkina
2013-01-01
We revisit a new type of Voronoi diagram,in which distance is measured from a point to a pair of points.We consider a few more such distance functions,based on geometric primitives,namely,circles and triangles,and analyze the structure and complexity of the nearest-and furthest-neighbor 2-site Voronoi diagrams of a point set in the plane with respect to these distance functions.In addition,we bring to notice that 2-point site Voronoi diagrams can be alternatively interpreted as 1-site Voronoi diagrams of segments,and thus,our results also enhance the knowledge on the latter.
Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams
Fellows, R.L. [ed.
1993-02-26
The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.
Maries, Alexandru
2016-01-01
Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a give problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing a diagram facilitates problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which 111 students in an algebra-based introductory physics course were subjected to two different interventions during recitation quizzes throughout the semester. They were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem-solving performance of students in different intervention groups. We investigated two problems involving electric field and electric force and found that students who draw expert-like diagrams are more successful problem solvers and that a higher level of detai...
Louati, Aymen; Jerad, Chadlia; Kamel BARKAOUI
2014-01-01
Thanks to its graphical notation and simplicity, Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a de facto standard and a widespread language used in both industry and academia, despite the fact that its semantics is still informal. The Interaction Overview Diagram (IOD) is introduced in UML2; it allows the specification of the behavior in the hierarchical way. This paper is a contribution towards a formal dynamic semantics of UML2. We start by formalizing the Hierarchical use of IOD. Afterward, we compl...
Naima Fathima
2016-01-01
Background: Quality improvement in health care is emerging as a science with proven, effective tools and methodologies. This article aims at presenting the importance of adopting one of the effective and simple methodologies and gives an example of a Driver Diagram in obstetrics. Methods: Usefulness of driver diagram in understanding the aim and the interventions or changes. Results: Various quality improvement tools can be used in the clinical context. Among them, driver diagram is mo...
Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram
Lopez-Corredoira, M; Lusso, E; Risaliti, G
2016-01-01
A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 099% C.L. The Quasi-Steady State Model is excluded at >95% C.L. The remaining four models (Lambda-CDM/wCDM, the R_h=ct Universe, the Friedmann open universe and a Static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only Lambda-CDM/wCDM and $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ also pass the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. The optimized parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM are Omega_m=0.20^{+0.24}_{-0.20} and w_{de}=-1.2^{+1.6}_{-infinity} (the dark-energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Omega_m=0.38^{+0.20}_{-0.19} and w_{de}=-0.28^{+0.52}_{-0.40}. But whereas this optimization of parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.
Tracking alarm causes by logic diagram
An operator should provide the correct and fast actions on a cause of alarms and failure for reducing the effect of failure. There are a lot of study. But most of those studies may use a physical knowledges or causal relationships. Most of those studies impose on high level information like the physical knowledges or causal relationships of failure rather than the logical states or process signals as the detail causes of failure. It is very difficult that the physical knowledges or causal relationships are to be implemented and verified. This paper proposes a methodology for tracking alarm by logic of alarms. This methodology uses the proper logical knowledges on the proven logic and alarm diagram or electrical alarm relay logic than the uncertain physical knowledges or causal relationships. This system is to display the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes. The system can be used for operator to identify the detail causes of alarm without checking all candidates for causes in alarm response procedure and the logical states of alarm with alarm logic disgrams provided on CRT dynamically
The High-z Quasar Hubble Diagram
Melia, Fulvio
2013-01-01
Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z qua...
Kondo phase diagram of quark matter
Yasui, Shigehiro; Itakura, Kazunori
2016-01-01
We discuss the ground state of a quark matter containing heavy quarks as impurities in a simple model which exhibits the QCD Kondo effect. The model includes a current-current interaction with the color exchange between a light quark ($\\psi$) and a heavy quark ($\\Psi$). We introduce a gap function $\\Delta \\sim \\langle \\bar \\psi \\Psi \\rangle $ which represents the correlation between $\\psi$ and $\\Psi$, and perform the mean-field approximation assuming that heavy quarks are uniformly distributed. Values of the gap $\\Delta$ measure the strength of mixing between $\\psi$ and $\\Psi$. The gap equation obtained from the minimum of the thermodynamical potential together with the condition for the heavy-quark number conservation turns out to allow for nonzero values of the gap as the most stable state. We draw a phase diagram in $\\mu$ (the light-quark chemical potential) and $\\lambda$ (an analog of the heavy-quark chemical potential) plane, and identify the region where the QCD Kondo effect occurs.
Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication
2002-01-01
Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.
Phase diagram for inertial granular flows
DeGiuli, E.; McElwaine, J. N.; Wyart, M.
2016-07-01
Flows of hard granular materials depend strongly on the interparticle friction coefficient μp and on the inertial number I , which characterizes proximity to the jamming transition where flow stops. Guided by numerical simulations, we derive the phase diagram of dense inertial flow of spherical particles, finding three regimes for 10-4≲I ≲10-1 : frictionless, frictional sliding, and rolling. These are distinguished by the dominant means of energy dissipation, changing from collisional to sliding friction, and back to collisional, as μp increases from zero at constant I . The three regimes differ in their kinetics and rheology; in particular, the velocity fluctuations and the stress ratio both display nonmonotonic behavior with μp, corresponding to transitions between the three regimes of flow. We rationalize the phase boundaries between these regimes, show that energy balance yields scaling relations between microscopic properties in each of them, and derive the strain scale at which particles lose memory of their velocity. For the frictional sliding regime most relevant experimentally, we find for I ≥10-2.5 that the growth of the macroscopic friction μ (I ) with I is induced by an increase of collisional dissipation. This implies in that range that μ (I ) -μ (0 ) ˜I1 -2 b , where b ≈0.2 is an exponent that characterizes both the dimensionless velocity fluctuations L ˜I-b and the density of sliding contacts χ ˜Ib .
The self-calibrating Hubble diagram
As an increasing number of well measured type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) become available, the statistical uncertainty on w has been reduced to the same size as the systematic uncertainty. The statistical error will decrease further in the near future, and hence the improvement of systematic uncertainties needs to be addressed, if further progress is to be made. We study how uncertainties in the primary reference spectrum — which are a main contribution to the systematic uncertainty budget — affect the measurement of the Dark Energy equation of state parameter w from SNe Ia. The increasing number of SN observations can be used to reduce the uncertainties by including perturbations of the reference spectrum as nuisance parameters in a cosmology fit, thus 'self-calibrating' the Hubble diagram. We employ this method to real SNe data for the first time and find the perturbations of the reference spectrum consistent with zero at the 1%-level. For future surveys we estimate that ∼3500 SNe will be required for our method to outperform the standard method of deriving the cosmological parameters
An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
2011-01-01
The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…
Thermodynamic and phase diagram calculations of Bi-Pb system
Using the existing experimental data on thermodynamic properties of Bi-Pb system and its phase diagram, Gibbs energies of the binary phases of the system were optimized using Lukas computer program. Optimized parameters were used for calculating the phase boundaries of Bi-Pb system and this calculated phase diagram was compared with experimental data. (author)
Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom
de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie
2012-01-01
In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…
FeynEdit - a tool for drawing Feynman diagrams
Hahn, T.; Lang, P.
2007-01-01
We describe the FeynEdit tool for drawing Feynman diagrams. Input and output is done using the LaTeX macros of FeynArts, which also implies that diagrams drawn by FeynArts can be edited with FeynEdit. The LaTeX code can be conveniently transferred using copy-and-paste.
Threshold queueing describes the fundamental diagram of uninterrupted traffic
Baer, Niek; Boucherie, Richard J.; Ommeren, van, J.C.
2012-01-01
Queueing due to congestion is an important aspect of road traffic. This paper provides a brief overview of queueing models for traffic and a novel threshold queue that captures the main aspects of the empirical shape of the fundamental diagram. Our numerical results characterises the sources of variation that influence the shape of the fundamental diagram.
A Dual Importance Diagram Approach to Evaluate Service Quality
Kuan-Kai Huang; Hsin-Hung Wu; Jiunn-I Shieh
2010-01-01
cts between items and overall satisfaction. A case of evaluating the service quality of a particular hospital is illustrated to show how this proposed dual importance diagram works to classify the service items into different types of Kanos categories. The result shows that using the generalized correction-based dual importance diagram is more practical in our case study.
Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science
Chamizo, Jose A.
2012-01-01
The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…
Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?
David Rosengrant
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of students’ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.
DIAGEN-generator of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interaction diagrams
Description of the program code generating inelastic nucleus-nucleus interaction diagrams is given. Probabilities of various diagram appearance are determined within the framework of Glauber approximation. The code allows one to determine cross sections of any processes and the number of spectator nucleons. 12 refs.; 2 figs
RNA secondary structure diagrams for very large molecules: RNAfdl
Hecker, Nikolai; Wiegels, Tim; Torda, Andrew E.
2013-01-01
There are many programs that can read the secondary structure of an RNA molecule and draw a diagram, but hardly any that can cope with 10 3 bases. RNAfdl is slow but capable of producing intersection-free diagrams for ribosome-sized structures, has a graphical user interface for adjustments and...... produces output in common formats....
An Automated Approach to Transform Use Cases into Activity Diagrams
Yue, Tao; Briand, Lionel C.; Labiche, Yvan
Use cases are commonly used to structure and document requirements while UML activity diagrams are often used to visualize and formalize use cases, for example to support automated test case generation. Therefore the automated support for the transition from use cases to activity diagrams would provide significant, practical help. Additionally, traceability could be established through automated transformation, which could then be used for instance to relate requirements to design decisions and test cases. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically generate activity diagrams from use cases while establishing traceability links. Data flow information can also be generated and added to these activity diagrams. Our approach is implemented in a tool, which we used to perform five case studies. The results show that high quality activity diagrams can be generated. Our analysis also shows that our approach outperforms existing academic approaches and commercial tools.
Binary Decision Diagrams and Its Variable Ordering for Disjoint Network
Manoj Singhal
2012-05-01
Full Text Available We know that binary decision diagram is a data structure that is used to store a Boolean function. They are used to find out the terminal reliability of a computer communication network. To generate the binary decision diagram of a given computer communication network, we need to order the edges of the given computer communication network because the size of the binary decision diagram is dependent on the ordering of the variables (edges. There are three types of variable ordering; optimal, good and bad ordering. Optimal ordering are those ordering which generate minimum size binary decision diagram. In this paper we have shown that if a directed computer communication network has m disjoints min-paths then m! optimal variable orderings exist to generate the binary decision diagrams of the given computer communication network.
Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation
Yan, Dongming
2013-04-01
The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool
Duijm, Nijs Jan
2009-01-01
Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... Networks is discussed. Important advantages of safety-barrier diagrams as compared to other graphical risk-analysis methods are, firstly, the relative simplicity that supports communication with non-expert stakeholders and, secondly, the focus on deliberately inserted safety systems that supports the...... management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....
1993-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.
Numerical determination of the forming limit diagrams
T. Pepelnjak
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: At present the industrial practice demands a reliable determination of forming limits which assuresthe prediction of properly selecting the forming process in a digital environment. Therefore, technological limitsdefined with the forming limit diagrams (FLDs have to be known. The experimental evaluation of FLDs forsheet metal is time consuming and demands expensive equipment. The experimental work could be omitted bypredicting the FLD with numerical simulations.Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a methodology to determine the entire range of the FLDfor sheet metal in a digital environment. The Marciniak testing procedure simulated with the FEM programABAQUS was selected to determine the FLD. To assure the reliability of the developed method, differentmaterials were analysed: two types of deep drawing steel, an aluminium 3000 alloy, and a Ti-alloy. The selectedmaterials have different mechanical properties and sheet thicknesses ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.23 mm. For theverification of numerically obtained results parallel experimental determinations of the FLDs were performedshowing a good correlation between the FLDs obtained by both approaches.Findings: A specially developed method for the evaluation of the thickness strain as a function of time as well asthe first and the second time derivation of the thickness strain enable the determination of the onset of necking.Research limitations/implications: The presented method of the digital evaluation of the FLDs is still ina developmental phase and needs further improvements for industrial practice. However, in some cases thenumerical approach had already been used for a fast prediction of the FLD prior to performing the experiments.At the current level the developed program still needs an expert to support it in some critical decisions.Originality/value: Considering some methodological improvements and automation procedures the developedmethod could be used in everyday practice.
The high-z quasar Hubble Diagram
Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the Rh = ct Universe and ΛCDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the Rh = ct Universe is more likely than ΛCDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%
The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances
Hsin-Hsiung Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s, temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation, corrosion and passivation, precipitation and adsorption for water treatment and leaching and metal recovery for hydrometallurgy. Two basic methods were developed to construct an Eh-pH diagram concerning the ligand component(s. The first method calculates and draws a line between two adjacent species based on their given activities. The second method performs equilibrium calculations over an array of points (500 × 800 or higher are preferred, each representing one Eh and one pH value for the whole system, then combines areas of each dominant species for the diagram. These two methods may produce different diagrams. The fundamental theories, illustrated results, comparison and required conditions behind these two methods are presented and discussed in this paper. The Gibbs phase rule equation for an Eh-pH diagram was derived and verified from actual plots. Besides indicating the stability area of water, an Eh-pH diagram normally shows only half of an overall reaction. However, merging two or more related diagrams together reveals more clearly the possibility of the reactions involved. For instance, leaching of Au with cyanide followed by cementing Au with Zn (Merrill-Crowe process can be illustrated by combining Au-CN and Zn-CN diagrams together. A second example of the galvanic conversion of chalcopyrite can be explained by merging S, Fe–S and Cu–Fe–S diagrams. The calculation of an Eh-pH diagram can be extended easily into another dimension, such
Homotopy theory of modules over diagrams of rings
J. P. C. Greenlees
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Given a diagram of rings, one may consider the category of modules over them. We are interested in the homotopy theory of categories of this type: given a suitable diagram of model categories ℳ( (as runs through the diagram, we consider the category of diagrams where the object ( at comes from ℳ(. We develop model structures on such categories of diagrams and Quillen adjunctions that relate categories based on different diagram shapes. Under certain conditions, cellularizations (or right Bousfield localizations of these adjunctions induce Quillen equivalences. As an application we show that a cellularization of a category of modules over a diagram of ring spectra (or differential graded rings is Quillen equivalent to modules over the associated inverse limit of the rings. Another application of the general machinery here is given in work by the authors on algebraic models of rational equivariant spectra. Some of this material originally appeared in the preprint “An algebraic model for rational torus-equivariant stable homotopy theory”, arXiv:1101.2511, but has been generalized here.
Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model
Ping, Chia Swee [High Impact Research, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-04-24
The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.
Correlation between indentation and tensile stress-strain diagrams
Determination of the similarity coefficient between the diagram of reconstructed hardness and tensile stress-strain diagram is presented. The method generalized analogous approaches and takes into account the dependence of plastic deformation in the impression as a function of strain-hardening coefficient and elastic strain of the impression. It is shown that prospects of developing more accurate methods of the mechanical properties determination through nonrecovered hardness is attributed to hysteresis in the impression which is recorded on a continuous indentation diagram upon reloading. To realize this promising procedure we propose models and methods of more accurate calculation of elastic deformations and Young's modulus in a plastic impression
Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?
Schüssler, M
2004-01-01
We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnetic flux by a flow. These properties seem to be generic for an oscillatory and migratory field of dipole parity and thus do not permit an observational distinction between different dynamo approaches.
Bifurcation diagrams in relation to synchronization in chaotic systems
Debabrata Dutta; Sagar Chakraborty
2010-06-01
We numerically study some of the three-dimensional dynamical systems which exhibit complete synchronization as well as generalized synchronization to show that these systems can be conveniently partitioned into equivalent classes facilitating the study of bifurcation diagrams within each class. We demonstrate how bifurcation diagrams may be helpful in predicting the nature of the driven system by knowing the bifurcation diagram of driving system and vice versa. The study is extended to include the possible generalized synchronization between elements of two different equivalent classes by taking the Rössler-driven-Lorenz-system as an example.
Charts for prediction and chance dazzling diagrams on your PC
Markus, Mario
2007-01-01
This innovative book brings together two disciplines - science and art - and enables readers to produce their own computer-generated displays. 44 colour plates and 200 black and white pictures showcase the diagrams that can easily be reproduced using the accompanying CD-ROM. It is possible to create diagrams that indicate predictability or unpredictability of physical, chemical, ecological, mathematical or economic systems. Grey levels and colours indicate the stability of a predictable system, or the extent of unpredictability. In addition, diagrams can be drawn purely for their aesthetic val
Simulation of Induction Motor Characteristics Using a Circle Diagram
Mesņajevs, A; Ketnere, E; Meišele, A
2010-01-01
The circle diagram helps to identify all electromagnetic values, which describe the machin`s opeation mode at different slip values and gives them a better description when machine`s operating mode is changing.
Some techniques for calculating two-loop diagrams
Davydychev, A I
1996-01-01
A brief overview of some recent publications related to the evaluation of two-loop Feynman diagrams is given. (Talk given at the International Symposium on Radiative Corrections CRAD96, Cracow, Poland, 1--5 August 1996)
Revised Pourbaix diagrams for Copper at 5-150 C
Pourbaix diagrams have been revised. Predominance diagrams for dissolved copper species have also been calculated. Five different total concentrations for dissolved copper have been used in the calculations (from 10-3 to 10-9). The complete hydrolysis series of copper(I) and (II) have not been included in earlier published Pourbaix diagrams, and these species are covered for the first time in this work. At acidic pH, increasing temperature decreases the immunity area, and therefore, it increases the corrosion of the copper. At alkaline pH-values corrosion also increases with the temperature due to the decrease of both passivity and immunity areas. The calculated diagrams are used as a base for the discussion of the corrosion behaviour of the copper canisters in the Swedish radioactive waste management program. 62 refs, 37 figs, 3 tabs
Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Alaska Region NAD 83
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...
Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Atlantic Region NAD 83
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...
Official Protraction Diagram and Leasing Map Boundaries - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows official protraction diagram (OPD) and leasing map boundaries covering areas of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) within Federal jurisdiction....
Alaska NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Outlines
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...
Cu–Ni nanoalloy phase diagram – Prediction and experiment
Sopoušek, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Pinkas, J.; Brož, P.; Buršík, Jiří; Stýskalík, A.; Škoda, D.; Zobač, O.; Lee, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 45, June (2014), s. 33-39. ISSN 0364-5916 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nanoalloy * phase diagram * thermodynamic modeling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.370, year: 2014
Panov, G. A.; Zakharov, M. A.
2015-11-01
The present work is devoted to the phase diagrams calculation of AIIIBV systems within the framework of the generalized lattice model taking account of volume effects. The theoretically calculated phase diagram is compared with the corresponding experimental diagrams.
Computer Simulation of IT-diagrams of Steel
B. Smoljan
2004-01-01
Computer simulation of austenite decomposition has been investigated. The inversion method of prediction of phase portion in steel based on hardenability curve of Jominy-specimen has been established. The designed method of prediction austenite decomposition has been used in computer simulation of isothermal transformation (IT) diagram of low alloyed steel. IT-diagrams of low alloyed steel can be successfully predicted by proposed method of computer simulation.
The calculation of CCT diagrams for engineering steels
J. Trzaska; A. Jagiełło; L.A. Dobrzański
2009-01-01
Purpose: of this paper is to present numerical methods for calculation of CCT diagrams for engineering steels.Design/methodology/approach: The presented numerical methods for calculating the anisothermic diagrams of supercooled austenite are based on physical, statistical or artificial intelligence methods. In many cases input data are chemical composition and austenitising temperature. The results of calculations consist of temperature of the beginning and the end of particular transformatio...
Voltage Stability Evaluation by Using Maximum Power Transfer Phasor Diagram
Mustafa Turan; Serdar Basar Demircioglu; Mehmet Ali Yalcin
2006-01-01
From voltage stability point of view, maximum permissible loading limits must not be exceeded in operation of power systems. In this study, a maximum power transfer phasor diagram is proposed for easy evaluation the relations between major parameters affecting voltage stability margins. In construction of that diagram, local bus measurements and estimated parameters of Thevenin equivalent for N-bus power system are used. Critical values for major parameters and a voltage stability margin are ...
Evaluation of multi-box diagrams in six dimensions
We present a simple method which simplifies the evaluation of the on-shell multiple box diagrams reducing them to triangle type ones. For the L-loop diagram one gets the expression in terms of Feynman parameters with 2L-fold integration. As examples we consider the 2 and 3 loops cases, the numerical integration up to six loops is also presented. The method is valid in six dimensions where neither UV not IR divergences appear
On Hardy's paradox, weak measurements, and multitasking diagrams
We discuss Hardy's paradox and weak measurements by using multitasking diagrams, which are introduced to illustrate the progress of quantum probabilities through the double interferometer system. We explain how Hardy's paradox is avoided and elaborate on the outcome of weak measurements in this context. -- Highlights: → Hardy's paradox explained and eliminated. → Weak measurements: what is really measured? → Multitasking diagrams: introduced and used to discuss quantum mechanical processes.
Handling Stability of Tractor Semitrailer Based on Handling Diagram
Ren Yuan-yuan; Zheng Xue-lian; Li Xian-sheng
2012-01-01
Handling instability is a serious threat to driving safety. In order to analyze the handling stability of a tractor semitrailer, a handling diagram can be used. In our research, considering the impact of multiple nonsteering rear axles and nonlinear characteristics of tires on vehicle handling stability, the handling equations are developed for description of stability of tractor semi-trailer. Then we obtain handling diagrams so as to study the influence of driving speed, loaded mass, and fif...