Lin, Trista; Rivano, Hervé; Le Mouël, Frédéric
International audience The deployment of urban infrastructure is very important for urban sensor applications. In this paper, we studied and introduced the deployment strategy of wireless on-street parking sensor networks. We defined a multiple-objective problem with four objectives, and solved them with real street parking map. The results show two sets of Pareto Front with the minimum energy consumption, sensing information delay and the amount of deployed routers and gateways. The resul...
Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt;
The availability on the market of powerful and lightweight mobile devices has led to a fast diffusion of mobile services for end users and the trend is shifting from voice based services to multimedia contents distribution. The current access networks are, however, able to support relatively low...... data rates and with limited Quality of Service (QoS). In order to extend the access to high data rate services to wireless users, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) established new requirements for future wireless communication technologies of up to 1Gbps in low mobility and up to 100Mbps...
McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G. [and others
We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.
Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J
A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.
Allen Husker; Igor Stubailo; Monica Kohler; Paul Davis
Technological and scientific preparations are occurring for the development of a multi-hop radio-linked seismic array (MHRLSA) of 50 broadband stations (GURALP 3ts) and its first few deployments. A ruggedized data relay device (DRD) is being fabricated using Intel’¡Çs new low power, small form factor stargate motherboard. A DRD will be placed at each node of the array and configured as a local area network (LAN) with station spacing up to 10 km. The objective is to use protocols that have bee...
Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs offers a lot of application opportunities in the area of health care. Recent developments in sensors and radio communication technologies have motivated many researchers to design WBAN systems for application in healthcare provision. Power consumption is still a limiting factor in realizing a WBAN with a very long lifetime. In order for wireless body area networks to ensure widespread use and adoption, some of the design constraints should be solved to promote uptake and meet social expectations. As a result, design of energy efficient WBANs is required to enhance battery life at the same time ensure that sensor nodes are small enough to be conveniently worn or implanted in the body. Energy consumption in WBANs happens during sensing, processing and communication. This research focused on designing an energy efficient model during communication between sensors. The parameters were simulated and implemented using MATLAB and Simulink simulation software. The sensors are randomly localized on a plane and distance between them calculated. The model uses a relay between the sensors and the coordinator to reduce power consumption by sensors during signal transmission. The relay is dedicated to retransmitting signals onl
Sanfeliu, Alberto; Punsola, Albert; Yoshimura, Yuji; Llácer, María Rosa; Gramunt, María Dolors
In this article we present a study of the legal challenges that must be solved in order to deploy robots and sensors in urban areas. We start describing urban issues and robot deployment problems that can derive in legal aspects. Then we identify the main challenges and then we focus in the privacy issue, discussing the concept, the European laws concerning these topics and its approach in networking robots in urban areas. Moreover, we describe some of the problems with cameras and wireless c...
Baek, In Hwan
Biomedical devices in the past provided limited capability for the data acquisition and presented the data in the form of user interface for a care provider to observe. Now, what is required for biomedical devices has fundamentally changed. Many devices must now support secure networking and include a network of sensors to enable machine learning-based sensor fusion for accurate inference of the subject’s state.This thesis introduces an Internet-of-Things (IoT) body area network (BAN) platfor...
Ishmael, J; Bury, S.; Pezaros, D.; Race, N. J. P.
Inadequate Internet access is widening the digital divide between town and countryside, degrading both social communication and business advancements in rural areas. Wireless mesh networking can provide an excellent framework for delivering broadband services to such areas. With this in mind, Lancaster University deployed a WMN in the rural village of Wray over a three-year period, providing the community with Internet service that exceeds many urban offerings. The project gave researchers...
This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context for these...... experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current and...
Recep Özdağ; Ali Karcı
The dynamic deployment of sensors in wireless networks significantly affects the performance of the network. However, the efficient application of dynamic deployments which determines the positions of the sensors within the network increases the coverage area of the network. As a result of this, dynamic deployment increases the efficiency of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, dynamic deployment was applied to WSNs which consist of mobile sensors by aiming at increasing the co...
Le Pape, Florian; Bean, Chris; Craig, David; Jousset, Philippe; Horan, Clare; Hogg, Colin; Donne, Sarah; McCann, Hannah; Möllhoff, Martin; Kirk, Henning; Ploetz, Aline
With the presence of the stormy NE Atlantic, Ireland is ideally located to investigate further our understanding of ocean generated microseisms and use noise correlation methods to develop seismic imaging in marine environments as well as time-lapse monitoring. In order to study the microseismic activity offshore Ireland, 10 Broad Band Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) units including hydrophones have been deployed in January 2016 across the shelf offshore Donegal and out into the Rockall Trough. This survey represents the first Broadband passive study in this part of the NE Atlantic. The instruments will be recovered in August 2016 providing 8 months worth of data to study microseisms but also the offshore seismic activity in the area. One of the main goal of the survey is to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of dominant microseism source regions, close to the microseism sources. Additionally we will study the coupling of seismic and acoustic signals at the sea bed and its evolution in both the deep water and continental shelf areas. Furthermore, the survey also aims to investigate further the relationship between sea state conditions (e.g. wave height, period), seafloor pressure variations and seismic data recorded on both land and seafloor. Finally, the deployed OBS network is also the first ever attempt to closely monitor local offshore earthquakes in Ireland. Ireland seismicity although relatively low can reduce slope stability and poses the possibility of triggering large offshore landslides and local tsunamis.
Lloret Mauri, Jaime; Rawat, Danda B; Perez, Javier Manuel Aguiar
INTRODUCTIONEfficient Spectrum Management: Challenges and Solutions; Tarek M. Salem, Sherine M. Abdel-Kader, Salah M. Abdel-MaGeid, and Mohamed ZakiA Survey on Joint Routing and Dynamic spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianzhong Xie, Helin Yang, and Athanasios V. VasilakosNeighbor Discovery for Cognitive Radio Networks; Athar Ali Khan, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, and Yasir SaleemSPECTRUM SENSINGTime-Domain Cognitive Sensor Networking; Stefano Busanelli, Gianluigi Ferrari, Alessandro Colazzo, and Jean-Michel DricotSpectrum Sensing in Cognitive Wireless Networks; Danda B. Rawat and Chan
... Employment and Training Administration Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Alpharetta, GA; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Hunt Valley, MD; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering)...
K.; Martinez; Hart, J. K.; Ong, R.
A wireless sensor network deployment on a glacier in Iceland is described. The system uses power management as well as power harvesting to provide long-term environment sensing. Advances in base station and sensor node design as well as initial results are described.
The plethora of connected devices, such as attractive smartphones, data dongles and 3G/4G built-in tablet computers, has brought mobile operators to face increasing demand in mobile broadband traffic and services. In addition to the roll-out of Long Term Evolution (LTE), the deployment of small low......-powered base stations is a promising cost-effective solution to considerably enhance user experience. In such a network topology, which is denoted as heterogeneous deployment, the macro layer is expected to provide wider coverage but lower average data speeds whereas small cells are targeted at extending...... network coverage and boosting network capacity in traffic hot-spot areas. The thesis deals with the deployment of both outdoor small cells and indoor femto cells. Amongst the outdoor solution, particular emphasis is put on relay base stations as backhaul costs can be reduced by utilizing LTE spectrum...
Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are among the most promising technologies of the new millennium. The opportunities afforded by being able to program networks of small, lightweight, low-power, computation- and bandwidth-limited nodes have attracted a large community of researchers and developers. However, the unique set of capabilities offered by the technology produces an exciting but complex design space, which is often difficult to negotiate in an application context. Deploying sensing physical environments produces its own set of challenges, and can push systems into failure modes, thus revealing problems that can be difficult to discover or reproduce in simulation or the laboratory. Sustained efforts in the area of wireless networked sensing over the last 15 years have resulted in a large number of theoretical developments, substantial practical achievements, and a wealth of lessons for the future. It is clear that in order to bridge the gap between (on the one hand) visions of very large scale, autonomous, randomly deployed networks and (on the other) the actual performance of fielded systems, we need to view deployment as an essential component in the process of developing sensor networks: a process that includes hardware and software solutions that serve specific applications and end-user needs. Incorporating deployment into the design process reveals a new and different set of requirements and considerations, whose solutions require innovative thinking, multidisciplinary teams and strong involvement from end-user communities. This special feature uncovers and documents some of the hurdles encountered and solutions offered by experimental scientists when deploying and evaluating wireless sensor networks in situ, in a variety of well specified application scenarios. The papers specifically address issues of generic importance for WSN system designers: (i) data quality, (ii) communications availability and quality, (iii) alternative, low-energy sensing
Dervis Karaboga; Celal Ozturk; Beyza Gorkemli
As the usage and development of wireless sensor networks are increasing, the problems related to these networks are being realized. Dynamic deployment is one of the main topics that directly affect the performance of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the artificial bee colony algorithm is applied to the dynamic deployment of stationary and mobile sensor networks to achieve better performance by trying to increase the coverage area of the network. A probabilistic detection model is ...
José-Vicente López-Bao; Alejandro Rodríguez,; Joan Garcia-Haro; Pawel Kulakowski; Fernando Losilla; Felipe Garcia-Sanchez; Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez; Francisco Palomares
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures). This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal) tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to ...
Fakrulradzi Idris; Norlezah Hashim
Multi-hop wireless network uses two or more wireless hops to send information from source to destination. This paper presents the design and deployment of multi-hop wireless network testbed in Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). While using the testbed to provide additional WiFi coverage around the cafeteria area in UTeM Industrial Campus, real-time measurements of various key parameters are carried out. This paper also provides some technical details of the testbed implementation as ...
Noureddine Assad; Brahim Elbhiri; Moulay Ahmed Faqihi; Mohamed Ouadou; Driss Aboutajdine
The intrusion detection application in a homogeneous wireless sensor network is defined as a mechanism to detect unauthorized intrusions or anomalous moving attackers in a field of interest. The quality of deterministic sensor nodes deployment can be determined sufficiently by a rigorous analysis before the deployment. However, when random deployment is required, determining the deployment quality becomes challenging. An area may require that multiple nodes monitor each point from the sen...
Jose Carlos Pacho
Full Text Available As Wireless Sensor Networks are being adopted by industry and agriculture for large-scale and unattended deployments, the need for reliable and energy-conservative protocols become critical. Physical and Link layer efforts for energy conservation are not mostly considered by routing protocols that put their efforts on maintaining reliability and throughput. Gradient-based routing protocols route data through most reliable links aiming to ensure 99% packet delivery. However, they suffer from the so-called ”hot spot” problem. Most reliable routes waste their energy fast, thus partitioning the network and reducing the area monitored. To cope with this ”hot spot” problem we propose ZERO a combined approach at Network and Link layers to increase network lifespan while conserving reliability levels by means of probabilistic load balancing techniques.
Ozturk, Celal; Karaboga, Dervis; Gorkemli, Beyza
As the usage and development of wireless sensor networks are increasing, the problems related to these networks are being realized. Dynamic deployment is one of the main topics that directly affect the performance of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the artificial bee colony algorithm is applied to the dynamic deployment of stationary and mobile sensor networks to achieve better performance by trying to increase the coverage area of the network. A probabilistic detection model is considered to obtain more realistic results while computing the effectively covered area. Performance of the algorithm is compared with that of the particle swarm optimization algorithm, which is also a swarm based optimization technique and formerly used in wireless sensor network deployment. Results show artificial bee colony algorithm can be preferable in the dynamic deployment of wireless sensor networks. PMID:22163942
Full Text Available As the usage and development of wireless sensor networks are increasing, the problems related to these networks are being realized. Dynamic deployment is one of the main topics that directly affect the performance of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the artificial bee colony algorithm is applied to the dynamic deployment of stationary and mobile sensor networks to achieve better performance by trying to increase the coverage area of the network. A probabilistic detection model is considered to obtain more realistic results while computing the effectively covered area. Performance of the algorithm is compared with that of the particle swarm optimization algorithm, which is also a swarm based optimization technique and formerly used in wireless sensor network deployment. Results show artificial bee colony algorithm can be preferable in the dynamic deployment of wireless sensor networks.
Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren
The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the
K.Sheela Sobana Rani; Dr.N.DEVARAJAN
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), sensor node deployment is essential for maximizing the coverage and detection probabilities. But the existing optimization solution suffers from limited energy storage, node death, increased network traffic etc. To solve these issues, we propose a multi-objective PSO and fuzzy based optimization model for sensor node deployment. The objectives considered in the paper include maximizing network coverage, connectivity and network lifetime. A fuzzy rule is cons...
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures. This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth.
Full Text Available As the usage and development of wireless sensor networks increases, problems related to these networks are becoming apparent. Dynamic deployment is one of the main topics that directly affects the performance of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, biogeography-based optimization is applied to the dynamic deployment of static and mobile sensor networks to achieve better performance by trying to increase the coverage area of the network. A binary detection model is considered to obtain realistic results while computing the effectively covered area. Performance of the algorithm is compared with that of the artificial bee colony algorithm, Homo-H-VFCPSO and stud genetic algorithm that are also population-based optimization algorithms. Results show biogeography-based optimization can be preferable in the dynamic deployment of wireless sensor networks.
Procket Networks, a provider of high performance Internet Protocol (IP) technology and products has announced that the University of Cambridge has deployed the PRO/8801(TM) router into its research network to develop industry-leading deep packet inspection applications. The major application for this deployment is to identify and understand new traffic patterns created by large scale scientific computations and downloads such as the GRID (1 page).
Kulkarni, Nandkumar P.; Prasad, Ramjee; Cornean, Horia;
Sensor deployment is one of the key topics addressed in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). This paper proposes a new deployment technique of sensor nodes for WSN called as Quasi Random Deployment (QRD). The novel approach to deploy sensor nodes in QRD fashion is to improve the energy efficiency...... of the WSN in order to increase the network life time and coverage. The QRD produces highly uniform coordinates and it systematically fills the specified area. Along with Random Deployment (RD) pattern of wireless sensor node QRD is analysed in this study. The network is simulated using NS-2 simulator...
Full Text Available The intrusion detection application in a homogeneous wireless sensor network is defined as a mechanism to detect unauthorized intrusions or anomalous moving attackers in a field of interest. The quality of deterministic sensor nodes deployment can be determined sufficiently by a rigorous analysis before the deployment. However, when random deployment is required, determining the deployment quality becomes challenging. An area may require that multiple nodes monitor each point from the sensing area; this constraint is known as k-coverage where k is the number of nodes. The deployment quality of sensor nodes depends directly on node density and sensing range; mainly a random sensor nodes deployment is required. The major question is centred around the problem of network coverage, how can we guarantee that each point of the sensing area is covered by the required number of sensor nodes and what a sufficient condition to guarantee the network coverage? To deal with this, probabilistic intrusion detection models are adopted, called single/multi-sensing detection, and the deployment quality issue is surveyed and analysed in terms of coverage. We evaluate the capability of our probabilistic model in homogeneous wireless sensor network, in terms of sensing range, node density, and intrusion distance.
Shankle, Dean E.; Shankle, Jeremy P.
Please, cite this publication as: Shankle, D.E., & Shankle, J.P. (2006). Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org
Fan, Gaojuan; Wang, Ruchuan; Huang, Haiping; Sun, Lijuan; Sha, Chao
Deployment quality and cost are two conflicting aspects in wireless sensor networks. Random deployment, where the monitored field is covered by randomly and uniformly deployed sensor nodes, is an appropriate approach for large-scale network applications. However, their successful applications depend considerably on the deployment quality that uses the minimum number of sensors to achieve a desired coverage. Currently, the number of sensors required to meet the desired coverage is based on asymptotic analysis, which cannot meet deployment quality due to coverage overestimation in real applications. In this paper, we first investigate the coverage overestimation and address the challenge of designing coverage-guaranteed deployment strategies. To overcome this problem, we propose two deployment strategies, namely, the Expected-area Coverage Deployment (ECD) and BOundary Assistant Deployment (BOAD). The deployment quality of the two strategies is analyzed mathematically. Under the analysis, a lower bound on the number of deployed sensor nodes is given to satisfy the desired deployment quality. We justify the correctness of our analysis through rigorous proof, and validate the effectiveness of the two strategies through extensive simulation experiments. The simulation results show that both strategies alleviate the coverage overestimation significantly. In addition, we also evaluate two proposed strategies in the context of target detection application. The comparison results demonstrate that if the target appears at the boundary of monitored region in a given random deployment, the average intrusion distance of BOAD is considerably shorter than that of ECD with the same desired deployment quality. In contrast, ECD has better performance in terms of the average intrusion distance when the invasion of intruder is from the inside of monitored region. PMID:22294915
Sunrise, the alternative telecoms provider in Switzerland, is finalizing the installation of a mobile network comprising about forty sites located around the new particle accelerator at CERN (1 paragraph)
Achir, Nadjib; Muhlethaler, Paul
International audience —In this paper we propose an optimal deployment and distributed packet scheduling of multi-sink Wireless Sensors networks (WNSs). This work is devoted to computing the optimal deployment of sinks for a given maximum number of hops between nodes and sinks. We also propose an optimal distributed packet scheduling in order to estimate the minimum energy consumption. We consider the energy consumed due to reporting, forwarding and overhearing. In contrast to reporting an...
Wang, Sheng; Wang, Xue; Ma, Junjie
Sensor nodes deployment problem is one of the fundamental issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which should consider a tradeoff among several metrics, such as coverage area, reliability, accuracy, lifetime etc. The mobile sensor nodes which can relocate themselves can be used to optimize the nodes deployment under various kinds of situations. Because coverage area is hard to be calculated by analytical method, an areas division method is introduced to evaluate the coverage area metric for simplifying calculation. Then we introduce a practically feasible combined metric which refers to coverage area, reliability, accuracy and lifetime, which uses areas division, detecting reliability, Mahalanobis distance and energy entropy as metric functions. Here, nodes deployment is considered as an optimization problem. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has a series of advantages, such as, high-speed regional convergence, efficient global searching ability, and so on, is suitable for solving multi-dimension function optimization in continuous space. So we adopt PSO for nodes deployment optimization where the combined metric is considered as fitness function. Because the combined metric is multiform and changeable in PSO, we can adopt different combined metrics for different applications, while other strategies just consider the coverage area in nodes deployment. The experimental results verify that the PSO based mobile nodes deployment strategy has good performance in quickness, which can improve the capabilities of WSNs and dynamically adjust the deployment according to the changes of situation, especially when some areas need multiple-node-measurement.
K.Sheela Sobana Rani
Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN, sensor node deployment is essential for maximizing the coverage and detection probabilities. But the existing optimization solution suffers from limited energy storage, node death, increased network traffic etc. To solve these issues, we propose a multi-objective PSO and fuzzy based optimization model for sensor node deployment. The objectives considered in the paper include maximizing network coverage, connectivity and network lifetime. A fuzzy rule is constructed with the input parameters suchas node degree, link quality and residual energy. Depending upon the outcome of the fuzzy logic, the nodes are categorized into good, normal and bad. After the initial deployment of good nodes, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO based technique is applied for the deployment of other nodes. Keeping the good nodes as the reference points, PSO iteration is performed such that each bad and normal node is connected to at least one good node. Thus from our simulation results we show that the fuzzy logic and the optimizationtechnique provides efficient and accurate decisions for node deployment.
Legrand, Arnaud; Quinson, Martin
The monitoring infrastructure constitutes a key component of any Grid scheduler. The Network Weather Service (NWS) is the most commonly used tool to fulfill this need. Unfortunately, users have to deploy the NWS manually, which can be very tedious and error-prone. This paper characterizes the NWS deployment requirements and introduces a method based on the Effective Network View (ENV) network mapper to automatically perform this task. We also present the resulting deployment on our lab's LAN.
Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.
Li, Qiao-Qin; Gong, Haigang; Liu, Ming; Yang, Mei; Zheng, Jun
This paper is focused on the study of the energy hole problem in the Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC)-structure, a highly scalable wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture. Based on an analysis on the traffic load distribution in PMRC-based WSNs, we propose a novel load-similar node distribution strategy combined with the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL) scheme to address the energy hole problem in PMRC-based WSNs. In this strategy, sensor nodes are deployed in the network area according to the load distribution. That is, more nodes shall be deployed in the range where the average load is higher, and then the loads among different areas in the sensor network tend to be balanced. Simulation results demonstrate that the load-similar node distribution strategy prolongs network lifetime and reduces the average packet latency in comparison with existing nonuniform node distribution and uniform node distribution strategies. Note that, besides the PMRC structure, the analysis model and the proposed load-similar node distribution strategy are also applicable to other multi-hop WSN structures. PMID:22163809
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the study of the energy hole problem in the Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC-structure, a highly scalable wireless sensor network (WSN architecture. Based on an analysis on the traffic load distribution in PMRC-based WSNs, we propose a novel load-similar node distribution strategy combined with the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL scheme to address the energy hole problem in PMRC-based WSNs. In this strategy, sensor nodes are deployed in the network area according to the load distribution. That is, more nodes shall be deployed in the range where the average load is higher, and then the loads among different areas in the sensor network tend to be balanced. Simulation results demonstrate that the load-similar node distribution strategy prolongs network lifetime and reduces the average packet latency in comparison with existing nonuniform node distribution and uniform node distribution strategies. Note that, besides the PMRC structure, the analysis model and the proposed load-similar node distribution strategy are also applicable to other multi-hop WSN structures.
Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David
A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub loca...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....
Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco
In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709
Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco
In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709
Hoang, Tien Dung
The purpose of this thesis is doing the research about IPv6, concentrate in how to deploy an IPv6 network based on IPv4 network without making any interruption to IPv4 network. This thesis is made for Financing and Promoting Technology Corporation (FPT) in Vietnam. This thesis is completed in two main parts. The theoretical part is making research about IPv4 and IPv6 to have the point of view about IPv4 and IPv6 basically, and from those one, seeing the advantages of IPv6 comparing wit...
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are one of the most exciting and challenging research areas. Sensor nodes (SNs are generally deployed randomly from some flying base station (BS in the deployment area, which may result uneven distribution of these static SNs. Besides these, they may be damaged because of natural calamities. In order to obtain the homogeneous distribution it is necessary to provide external kinetic to these static SNs until they acquire the appropriate position in the deployment area. In this paper, we propose a framework for fault revoking and homogeneous distribution of randomly deployed SNs in the deployment area, so that the sink node within various clusters consumes equal amount of energy. The external kinetic to these static SNs for their homogeneous distribution is provided by the MSNs which are rich in energy. However, if any node gets damaged due to some environmental activity, then the framework makes provision for fault revoking with the help of Fault Revoking Mobile Sensor Node (FRN in the deployment area.
Horré, Wouter; Hughes, Danny; Michiels, Sam; Joosen, Wouter
If we are to deploy sensor applications in a realistic business context, we must provide innovative middleware services to control and enforce required system behavior; in order to correctly interpret collected temperature data, for example, sensor applications require guarantees about minimal coverage and the number of available sensors. The extreme dynamism, scale and unreliability of wireless sensor networks represent major challenges in contemporary software management. This paper pres...
Jose Carlos Pacho; Xavier Vilajosana; Jose Lopez Vicario; Juan, Angel A.; Ignasi Vilajosana; Antoni Morell; Jordi Llosa
As Wireless Sensor Networks are being adopted by industry and agriculture for large-scale and unattended deployments, the need for reliable and energy-conservative protocols become critical. Physical and Link layer efforts for energy conservation are not mostly considered by routing protocols that put their efforts on maintaining reliability and throughput. Gradient-based routing protocols route data through most reliable links aiming to ensure 99% packet delivery. However, they suffer from t...
Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Williams, Idongesit
This paper discusses the potentials of mobile WiMAX as a backhaul technology in rural areas for the purpose of providing broadband internet services. Rural areas are known to be commercially unviable for the deployment of telecommunications services. Fixed network technologies are more expensive to...... deploy than mobile technologies. But in many developing countries, there is preference for the deployment of fiber optics rather than a broadband wireless solution for the deployment of broadband internet. Argument is made in this paper using the Expectation Confirmation Theory to reveal the level of...... satisfaction of mobile WiMAX compared to what Fiber optics would bring to rural areas in terms of broadband provisioning, Cost of access, Cost of deployment, Network accessibility and availability. The case of investigation is Northern Ghana due to the proliferation of rural areas in that region. The...
Pitro Zafiropulo is a- staff member at the IBM Research Laboratories at Zurich. He joined IBM in 1968 and has worked on protocol validation, synthesis, integrated networks, network reliability, PABX's and speech recognition. Local Area Networks are intended to provide improved communication capabilities such as high data throughput rates, low error rates and ease of connection among terminal stations and comuters. These new types of networks operate within a limited geographical range like an establishment, campus or building and are owned by a single organization. The presentation introduces these networks and the main techniques are described. It then proceeds to evaluate the main switching techniques as they apply to LAN ring and bus configurations. The preferred technique of token-ring distributed switching is identified. The contents of Mr. Zafiropoulo's talk was somewhat similar to the paper of Mr. Kummerle, which is therefore included in these Proceedings.
Full Text Available With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network.
Azpilicueta, Leyre; López-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Martínez, Carlos; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco
With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network. PMID:27455270
Full Text Available Site Surveys play a very important role in the successful and efficient deployment of wireless networks. The first step is to understand the basic goal of a wireless network, which is mainly to provide an appropriate coverage and throughput to all end users with high efficiency, full coverage and reasonable cost. Site Surveys is very important for the sake of planning and designing a wireless network specifically in outdoor networks, to provide a wireless solution that will deliver the required wireless coverage, data rates, network capacity, roaming capability and Quality of Service (QoS. The survey usually involves a site visit to test for RF interference, and to identify optimum installation locations for access points. This requires analysis of building floor plans, inspection of the facility, and use of site survey tools. Interviews with IT management and the end users of the wireless network are also important to determine the design parameters for the wireless network. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN can be implemented and deployed using different techniques and methodologies, starting from site survey to launching. The main problems are that some areas may not be covered well and the high cost of equipment. This paper discusses a technique that helps determining the best location for access points using GPS system, in order to choose the optimal number of access points. This technique has a positive impact on the cost. Another important factor is the type of antenna, which has a very important effect on both cost and coverage issues.
DSL technology enables very high bandwidth transmission in a point-to-point fashion from a customer's premises to a central office (CO), wiring center, or other logical point of traffic aggregation. Unlike many technologies that enable broadband Internet access, DSL technology does not determine a specific architecture to be deployed at either the customer's premises or in the service/access provider's network. In fact, DSL technology can be used in conjunction with a variety of network architectures. While being agnostic regarding to higher-layer protocols, there are still several critical 'protocol specific' issues that need to be addressed when deploying DSL as a solution for IP (Internet/intrAnet) access. This paper will address these issues and present a range of network architectures that incorporate DSL technology. This paper will only focus on those architectures that enable IP access. These architectures are divided into three categories: Traditional Dialled Model (TDM), frame-based (Frame Relay/Ethernet), and cell-based (ATM).
Svensson, Torbjorn K.; Karlsson, Per-Olov E.
This paper reports on the first steps taken by TeliaSonera towards deploying optical performance monitoring (OPM) in the company"s transport network, in order to assure increasingly reliable communications on the physical layer. The big leap, a world-wide deployment of OPM still awaits a breakthrough. There is required very obvious benefits from using OPM in order to change this stalemate. Reasons may be the anaemic economy of many telecom operators, shareholders" pushing for short-term payback, and reluctance to add complexity and to integrate a system management. Technically, legacy digital systems do already have a proven ability of monitoring, so adding OPM to the dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) systems in operation should be judged with care. Duly installed, today"s DWDM systems do their job well, owing to rigorous rules for link design and a prosperous power budget, a power management inherent to the system, and a reliable supplier"s support. So what may bring this stalemate to an end? -A growing number of appliances of OPM, for enhancing network operation and maintenance, and enabling new customer services, will most certainly bring momentum to a change. The first employment of OPM in TeliaSonera"s network is launched this year, 2004. The preparedness of future OPM dependent services and transport technologies will thereby be granted.
Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed
DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab
Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.
Dehwah, Ahmad H.
The successful deployment of a large scale solar powered wireless sensor network in an urban, desert environment is a very complex task. Specific cities of such environments cause a variety of operational problems, ranging from hardware faults to operational challenges, for instance due to the high variability of solar energy availability. Even a seemingly functional sensor network created in the lab does not guarantee reliable long term operation, which is absolutely necessary given the cost and difficulty of accessing sensor nodes in urban environments. As part of a larger traffic flow wireless sensor network project, we conducted several deployments in the last two years to evaluate the long-term performance of solar-powered urban wireless sensor networks in a desert area. In this article, we share our experiences in all domains of sensor network operations, from the conception of hardware to post-deployment analysis, including operational constraints that directly impact the software that can be run. We illustrate these experiences using numerous experimental results, and present multiple unexpected operational problems as well as some possible solutions to address them. We also show that current technology is far from meeting all operational constraints for these demanding applications, in which sensor networks are to operate for years to become economically appealing.
Meysam Argany; Mir Abolfazl Mostafavi; Christian Gagné
Wireless sensor networks are increasingly used for tracking and monitoring dynamic phenomena in urban and natural areas. Spatial coverage is an important issue in sensor networks in order to fulfill the needs of sensing applications. Optimization methods are widely used to efficiently distribute sensor nodes in the network to achieve a desired level of coverage. Most of the existing algorithms do not consider the characteristics of the real environment in the optimization process. In this pap...
Mohammad Ali Afsharkazemi
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an empirical study of QFD implementation when fuzzy numbers are used to handle the uncertainty associated with different components of the proposed model. We implement fuzzy analytical network to find the relative importance of various criteria and using fuzzy numbers we calculate the relative importance of these factors. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy matrix and house of quality to study the products development in QFD and also the second phase i.e. part deployment. In most researches, the primary objective is only on CRs to implement the quality function deployment and some other criteria such as production costs, manufacturing costs etc were disregarded. The results of using fuzzy analysis network process based on the QFD model in Daroupat packaging company to develop PVDC show that the most important indexes are being waterproof, resistant pill packages, and production cost. In addition, the PVDC coating is the most important index in terms of company experts’ point of view.
Sinha, Abhishek; Vasilakos, Athanasios V
Rapid progress made in the field of sensor technology, wireless communication, and computer networks in recent past, led to the development of wireless Ad-hoc sensor networks, consisting of small, low-cost sensors, which can monitor wide and remote areas with precision and liveliness unseen to the date without the intervention of a human operator. This work comes up with a stochastic model for periodic sensor-deployment (in face of their limited amount of battery-life) to maintain a minimal node-connectivity in wireless sensor networks. The node deployment cannot be modeled by using results from conventional continuous birth-death process, since new nodes are added to the network in bursts, i.e. the birth process is not continuous in practical situations. We analyze the periodic node deployment process using discrete birth-continuous death process and obtain two important statistical measures of the existing number of nodes in the network, namely the mean and variance. We show that the above mentioned sequenc...
Mekikis, Prodromos Vasileios; KARTSAKLI, Elli; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Lalos, Aris S.; Alonso Zárate, Luis Gonzaga; Verikoukis, Christos
Random dense deployment of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), consisting of macro base stations (BS) and small cells (SC), can provide higher quality of service (QoS) while increasing the energy efficiency of the cellular network. In addition, it is possible to achieve lower deployment cost and, therefore, maximize the benefits for the network providers. In this paper, we propose a novel method to determine the minimum deployment cost of a two-tier heterogeneous cellular network using random d...
METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl
Katiyar, Sumit; Agrawal, N K
As the mobile telecommunication systems are growing tremendously all over the world, the numbers of handheld and base stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in the neighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning wither the radiated electromagnetic fields from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. Recently UP High Court in India ordered for removal of BTS towers from residential area, it has created panic among cellular communication network designers too. Green cellular networks could be a solution for the above problem. This paper deals with green cellular networks with the help of multi-layer overlaid hierarchical structure (macro / micro / pico / femto cells). Macrocell for area coverage, micro for pedestrian and a slow moving traffic while pico for indoor use and femto for individual high capacity users. This could be the answer of the problem of ...
Jesus A. Alonso-López
Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform’s control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.. The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.
Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A; Smilansky, Zeev
This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage. PMID:23748169
Full Text Available With the standardization of IEEE 802.11, there has been an explosive growth of wireless local area networks (WLAN. Recently, this cost effective technology is being developed aggressively for establishing metro-scale “cellular Wi-Fi” network to support seamless Internet access in the urban area. We envision a large scale WLAN system in the future where Access Points (APs will be scattered over an entire city enabling people to use their mobile devices ubiquitously. The problem addressed in this paper involves finding the minimum number of gateways and their optimal placement so as to minimize the network installation costs while maintaining reliability, flexibility and an acceptable grade of service. The problem is modeled taking a network graph, where the nodes represents either the Access Points of IEEE 802.11 or wired backbone gateways. In this paper, we present two methods (1 an innovative approach using integer linear programming (ILP for gateway selection in the cellular Wi-Fi network, and (2 a completely new heuristic (OPEN/CLOSE to solve the gateway selection problem. In the ILP model, we developed a set of linear inequalities based on various constraints. The ILP model is solved by using lp-solve, a simplex-based software for linear and integer programming problems. The second approach is an OPEN/CLOSE heuristic, tailored for cellular Wi-Fi, which arrives at a sub-optimal solution. Java programming language is used for simulation in OPEN/CLOSE heuristic. Extensive simulations are carried out for performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed approaches can effectively identify a set of gateways at optimal locations in a cellular Wi-Fi network, resulting in an overall cost reduction of up to 50%. The technique presented in this paper is generalized and can be used for gateway selection for other networks as well.
Ardáiz Villanueva, Óscar; Navarro Moldes, Leandro
An application network consists of a number of application servers distributed throughout the Internet, connected and coordinated to provide services with low latency. Adding, removing and migrating servers, application networks adapt to demand variations. To create new servers anywhere in the Internet a programmable Internet service infrastructure is needed. In addition application network servers must be deployed coordinately. We propose a framework for application network deployment that i...
Xiang, Xinjian; Guo, Xiaoqing
ZigBee is an emerging wireless network technology, according to china's digital agricultural feature such as remote, dispersion, variability and diversity, the ZigBee-based wireless sensor network for digital agricultural data acquisition is one of the best ways to build the system. In this paper, based on ZigBee wireless sensor network deployment planning principles and the status of our digital agriculture, we study several ZigBee wireless sensor network nodes deployment program for differe...
Since Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are subject to failures, fault-tolerance becomes an important requirement for many WSN applications. Fault-tolerance can be enabled in different areas of WSN design and operation, including the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer and the initial topology design. To be robust to failures, a MAC protocol must be able to adapt to traffic fluctuations and topology dynamics. We design ER-MAC that can switch from energy-efficient operation in norma...
Nowadays, strategic marketing management has become an accepted practice in the strategic field. An increasing number of researchers consider marketing strategies for offering key competitive advantages associated with strategic marketing management. Every decision in the strategic field should be based on three dimensions of evaluating market, evaluating competitors and evaluating company. In this research, a model has been developed for selecting and ranking marketing strategies considering the evaluation of market (customer satisfaction elements, competitors and company based on Kano model. Quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic network process (ANP approaches have been used for market prioritization. The research has been carried out in three phases. In Phase one, the Kano model of customer satisfaction has been used to determine which requirements of a product or service brings more satisfaction to the customers, followed by the evaluation of competitors and gap analyze. In Phase two, The QFD approach has been used to incorporate the voice of customer (VOC into the marketing strategies of the company and has provided a systematic planning tool for considering the information of elements (in the last phase to make appropriate decisions effectively and efficiently. In Phase three, the ANP method has been used to analyze strategic actions considering company conditions. Finally the outputs of QFD have been corrected by ANP weights. Findings imply that the three most important strategic actions which are important for the company include offering differentiated and new generation of products to the market (leapfrog strategy, optimizing visual properties of products, and widespread and attractive advertising (frontal attack.
Katiyar, Sumit; K. Jain, R.; K. Agrawal, N.
As the mobile telecommunication systems are growing tremendously all over the world, the numbers of handheld and base stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in the neighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning wither the radiated electromagnetic fields from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. Recently UP High Court in India ordered for removal of BTS towers from residential area, it has created panic among cellular communication network designers too. Green cellular networks could be a solution for the above problem. This paper deals with green cellular networks with the help of multi-layer overlaid hierarchical structure (macro / micro / pico / femto cells). Macrocell for area coverage, micro for pedestrian and a slow moving traffic while pico for indoor use and femto for individual high capacity users. This could be the answer of the problem of energy conservation and enhancement of spectral density also.
CHEN Guang-zhu; ZHU Zhen-cai; ZHOU Gong-bo; SHEN Chun-feng; SUN Yan-jing
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are very important for monitoring underground mine safety. Sensor node deployment affects the performances of WSNs. In our study, a chain-type wireless underground mine sensor network (CWUMSN) is first presented. A CWUMSN can monitor the environment and locate miners in underground mines. The lowest density deployment strategies of cluster head nodes are discussed theoretically. We prove that the lifetime of CWUMSN with a non-uniform deployment strategy is longer than with a uniform deployment strategy. Secondly, we present the algorithm of non-uniform lowest density deployment of cluster head nodes. Next, we propose a dynamic choice algorithm of cluster head nodes for CWUMSN which can improve the adaptability of networks. Our experiments of CWUMSN with both non-uniform lowest density and uniform lowest density deployments are simulated. The results show that the lifetime of CWUMSN with non-uniform lowest density deployment is almost 2.5 times as long as that of the uniform lowest density deployment. This work provides a new deployment strategy for wireless underground mine sensor networks and then effectively promotes the application of wireless sensor networks to underground mines.
Full Text Available Nowadays, strategic marketing management has become an accepted practice in the strategic field. An increasing number of researchers consider marketing strategies for offering key competitive advantages associated with strategic marketing management. Every decision in the strategic field should be based on three dimensions of evaluating market, evaluating competitors and evaluating company. In this research, a model has been developed for selecting and ranking marketing strategies considering the evaluation of market (customer satisfaction elements, competitors and company based on Kano model. Quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic network process (ANP approaches have been used for market prioritization. The research has been carried out in three phases. In Phase one, the Kano model of customer satisfaction has been used to determine which requirements of a product or service brings more satisfaction to the customers, followed by the evaluation of competitors and gap analyze. In Phase two, The QFD approach has been used to incorporate the voice of customer (VOC into the marketing strategies of the company and has provided a systematic planning tool for considering the information of elements (in the last phase to make appropriate decisions effectively and efficiently. In Phase three, the ANP method has been used to analyze strategic actions considering company conditions. Finally the outputs of QFD have been corrected by ANP weights. Findings imply that the three most important strategic actions which are important for the company include offering differentiated and new generation of products to the market (leapfrog strategy, optimizing visual properties of products, and widespread and attractive advertising (frontal attack.
This study reports results of, as well as experiences and engineering challenges encountered, during a pilot deployment of a Dual Prediction and Probabilistic Scheduler (DPPS) for energy efficient data collection (EEDC). The deployment was motivated by sensor network supplier, Senceive Ltd., whose researchers wanted to incorporate more intelligence into their firmware to facilitate more cost effective remote asset management. The process of embedding and deploying DPPS, highlighted the importance of re-evaluating the assumptions typically overlooked in computer simulations and emphasises the need for sensor network researchers as a whole to reconsider the usefulness of EEDC protocols through real-life experimental deployment.
Garcia Alfaro, Joaquin; Cuppens, Frédéric; CUPPENS-BOULAHIA, Nora; Preda, Stere
We present the core functionality of MIRAGE, a management tool for the analysis and deployment of configuration policies over network security components, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and VPN routers.We review the two main functionalities embedded in our current prototype: (1) a bottom-up analysis of already deployed network security configurations and (2) a top-down refinement of global policies into network security component configurations. In both cases, MIRAGE provides...
Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Smith, Ethan; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen
A networked gamma radiation detection system with directional sensitivity and energy spectral data acquisition capability is being developed by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory to support the close and intense tactical engagement of law enforcement who carry out counterterrorism missions. In the proposed design, three clusters of 2″ × 4″ × 16″ sodium iodide crystals (4 each) with digiBASE-E (for list mode data collection) would be placed on the passenger side of a minivan. To enhance localization and facilitate rapid identification of isotopes, advanced smart real-time localization and radioisotope identification algorithms like WAVRAD (wavelet-assisted variance reduction for anomaly detection) and NSCRAD (nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection) will be incorporated. We will test a collection of algorithms and analysis that centers on the problem of radiation detection with a distributed sensor network. We will study the basic characteristics of a radiation sensor network and focus on the trade-offs between false positive alarm rates, true positive alarm rates, and time to detect multiple radiation sources in a large area. Empirical and simulation analyses of critical system parameters, such as number of sensors, sensor placement, and sensor response functions, will be examined. This networked system will provide an integrated radiation detection architecture and framework with (i) a large nationally recognized search database equivalent that would help generate a common operational picture in a major radiological crisis; (ii) a robust reach back connectivity for search data to be evaluated by home teams; and, finally, (iii) a possibility of integrating search data from multi-agency responders.
Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi
To accommodate the rapidly increasing demand for wireless broadband communications in Smart Grid (SG) networks, research efforts are currently ongoing to enable the SG networks to utilize the TV spectrum according to the Cognitive Radio paradigm. To this aim, in this letter, we develop an analytical framework for the optimal deployment of multiple closely-located SG Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs) concurrently using the same TV spectrum. The objective is to derive the optimal values for both the number of NANs and their coverage. More specifically, regarding the number of NANs, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression that assures the deployment of the maximum number of NANs in the considered region satisfying a given collision constraint on the transmissions of the NANs. Regarding the NAN coverage, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression of the NAN transmission range that assures the maximum coverage of each NAN in the considered region satisfying the given collision constraint. All the theoretical results are derived by adopting a stochastic approach. Finally, numerical results validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27171099
ElNashar, Ayman; Sherif, Mahmoud
This book provides an insight into the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, and deployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. In addition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTE network architecture and different deployment scenarios of commercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE focusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and Physical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers the concepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling, and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocol layers. It describes the details of the optimization process including performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms in addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies based on actual field results. The book provides detailed performance analysis of key fe...
Chen, Xiang; Waluyo, Agustinus Borgy; Pek, Isaac; Yeoh, Wee-Soon
This paper presents a flexible, efficient and lightweight Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) Middleware. The Middleware is developed to bridge the communication between mobile device as a gateway and the sensor nodes, and therefore it shields the underlying sensor and OS/protocol stack away from the WBAN application layer. The middleware is coded in the form of lightweight dynamic link library, which allows the application developer to simply incorporate the middleware resource dynamic link library into their application and call the required functions (i.e. data acquisition, resource management and configurations). A showcase of the middleware deployment is exhibited at the end of the paper. PMID:21096294
Guangming Shi; Xiaotian Wang; Fei Qi; Chang Wang
Deployment is a critical issue affecting the quality of service of camera networks. The deployment aims at adopting the least number of cameras to cover the whole scene, which may have obstacles to occlude the line of sight, with expected observation quality. This is generally formulated as a non-convex optimization problem, which is hard to solve in polynomial time. In this paper, we propose an efficient convex solution for deployment optimizing the observation quality based on a novel aniso...
Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José;
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro......-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway...... communication-based applications. The micro-cell deployment is compared with a classical macro-cell deployment in terms of transmission performance. Simulation results show a capacity improvement in the micro-cell deployment and its positive impact on critical (safety) and non-critical applications....
Liu, Naisen; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Jingchao; Pang, Fangrong; Ni, Jun
Considering that agricultural production is characterized by vast areas, scattered fields and long crop growth cycles, intelligent wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are suitable for monitoring crop growth information. Cost and coverage are the most key indexes for WSN applications. The differences in crop conditions are influenced by the spatial distribution of soil nutrients. If the nutrients are distributed evenly, the crop conditions are expected to be approximately uniform with little difference; on the contrary, there will be great differences in crop conditions. In accordance with the differences in the spatial distribution of soil information in farmland, fuzzy c-means clustering was applied to divide the farmland into several areas, where the soil fertility of each area is nearly uniform. Then the crop growth information in the area could be monitored with complete coverage by deploying a sensor node there, which could greatly decrease the deployed sensor nodes. Moreover, in order to accurately judge the optimal cluster number of fuzzy c-means clustering, a discriminant function for Normalized Intra-Cluster Coefficient of Variation (NICCV) was established. The sensitivity analysis indicates that NICCV is insensitive to the fuzzy weighting exponent, but it shows a strong sensitivity to the number of clusters. PMID:26569243
Full Text Available In Spain, the established fire control policy states that all fires must be controlled and put out as soon as possible. Though budgets have not restricted operations until recently, we still experience large fires and we often face multiple-fire situations. Furthermore, fire conditions are expected to worsen in the future and budgets are expected to drop. To optimize the deployment of firefighting resources, we must gain insights into the factors affecting how it is conducted. We analyzed the national data base of historical fire records in Spain for patterns of deployment of fire suppression resources for large fires. We used artificial neural networks to model the relationships between the daily fire load, fire duration, fire type, fire size and response time, and the personnel and terrestrial and aerial units deployed for each fire in the period 1998-2008. Most of the models highlighted the positive correlation of burned area and fire duration with the number of resources assigned to each fire and some highlighted the negative influence of daily fire load. We found evidence suggesting that firefighting resources in Spain may already be under duress in their compliance with Spain’s current full suppression policy.
Efficient self-organizing virtual clusterheads that supervise data collection based on their wireless connectivity, risk, and overhead costs, are an important element of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This function is especially critical during deployment when system resources are allocated to a subsequent application. In the presented research, a model used to deploy intrusion detection capability on a Local Area Network (LAN), in the literature, was extended to develop a role-based hierarchical agent deployment algorithm for a WSN. The resulting model took into consideration the monitoring capability, risk, deployment distribution cost, and monitoring cost associated with each node. Changing the original LAN methodology approach to model a cluster-based sensor network depended on the ability to duplicate a specific parameter that represented the monitoring capability. Furthermore, other parameters derived from a LAN can elevate costs and risk of deployment, as well as jeopardize the success of an application on a WSN. A key component of the approach presented in this research was to reduce the costs when established clusterheads in the network were found to be capable of hosting additional detection agents. In addition, another cost savings component of the study addressed the reduction of vulnerabilities associated with deployment of agents to high volume nodes. The effectiveness of the presented method was validated by comparing it against a type of a power-based scheme that used each node's remaining energy as the deployment value. While available energy is directly related to the model used in the presented method, the study deliberately sought out nodes that were identified with having superior monitoring capability, cost less to create and sustain, and are at low-risk of an attack. This work investigated improving the efficiency of an intrusion detection system (IDS) by using the proposed model to deploy monitoring agents after a temperature sensing
Full Text Available Temperature in an urban area exhibits a complicated pattern due to complexity of infrastructure. Despite geographical proximity, structures of a group of buildings and streets affect changes in temperature. To investigate the pattern of fine-grained distribution of temperature, we installed a densely distributed sensor network called UScan. In this paper, we describe the system architecture of UScan as well as experience learned from installing 200 sensors in downtown Tokyo. The field experiment of UScan system operated for two months to collect long-term urban temperature data. To analyze the collected data in an efficient manner, we propose a lightweight clustering methodology to study the correlation between the pattern of temperature and various environmental factors including the amount of sunshine, the width of streets, and the existence of trees. The analysis reveals meaningful results and asserts the necessity of fine-grained deployment of sensors in an urban area.
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks promised to do for observation systems what consumer electronics have done for areas like photography—drive down the price per observation (photograph, introduce new functionality and capabilities, and make, what had been a relatively exclusive set of technologies and capabilities, ubiquitous. While this may have been true for some terrestrial sensor networks there are issues in the marine environment that have limited the realization of ubiquitous cheap sensing. This paper reports on the lessons learned from two years of operation of wireless sensor networks deployed at seven coral reefs along the Great Barrier Reef in north-eastern Australia.
Full Text Available Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations.
Kristensen, Preben Sander; Holmen, Elsebeth
During 1993-94 the authors followed a product development process in a Danish Butter Cookie company. The process was structured according to the Quality Function Deployment technique House of Quality. Customer attributes were derived from a discus a diabetics end-user focus group. During a series...... of meetings the production manager and the marketing manager transformed attributes into characteristics and constructed Houses of Quality for a sugar-free cookie. As expected, most product characteristics were deployed to potential suppliers. In this way the company identified the departments and...... transformation processes and characteristics constituting this fan were based on the company's knowledge before entering into development interaction with suppliers. If these characteristics are used to express the company's demand in the subsequent interaction process, much information may be lost. We suggest...
Ekaterina Shurkova; Ruzana Ishak; Stephan Olariu; Shaharuddin Salleh
The phenomenal advances in MEMS and nanotechnology make it feasible to build small devices, referred to as sensors that are able to sense, compute and communicate over small distances. The massive deployment of these small devices raises the fascinating question of whether or not the sensors, as a collectivity, will display emergent behavior, just as living organisms do. In this work we report on a recent effort intended to observe emerging behavior of large groups of sensor nodes, like livin...
Alberto Sendin; Ivan Peña; Pablo Angueira
Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS) existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV) segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC) have been extensively used in electricity grids ...
Joon-Woo Lee; Won Kim
This paper reports the design of a randomly deployed heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) with two types of nodes: a powerful node and an ordinary node. Powerful nodes, such as Cluster Heads (CHs), communicate directly to the data sink of the network, and ordinary nodes sense the desired information and transmit the processed data to powerful nodes. The heterogeneity of HWSNs improves the networks lifetime and coverage. This paper focuses on the design of a random network among HWSNs....
Marshall, I. W.; Price, M. C.; Li, H.; Boyd, N.; Boult, S.
It has widely [1-3] been proposed that sensor networks are a good solution for environmental monitoring. However, this application presents a number of major challenges for current technology. In particular environmental science involves the study of coupled non-equilibrium dynamic processes that generate time series with non-stationary means and strongly dependent variables and which operate in the presence of large amounts of noise/interference (thermal, chemical and biological) and multiple quasi-periodic forcing factors (diurnal cycles, tides, etc). This typically means that any analysis must be based on large data samples obtained at multiple scales of space and time. In addition the areas of interest are large, relatively inaccessible and typically extremely hostile to electronic instrumentation. Our analysis of these factors has encouraged us to focus on this list of generic requirements; a) Node lifetime (between visits) should be 1 yr or greater b) Communication range should be ~250m c) Nodes should be portable, unobtrusive, low cost, etc. d) Networks are expected to be sparse since areas of interest are large and budgets are small However, the characteristics of each environment, the dominant processes operating in it and the measurements that are of interest are sufficiently different that the design of an appropriate sensor network solution is normally most determined by site specific constraints. Most importantly the opportunities for exploiting contextual correlation to disambiguate observations and improve the maintenance and robustness of a deployed sensor network are always site specific. We will describe the design and initial deployment of a hydrological sensor network we are developing to assess the hydro-dynamics of surface water drainage into Great Crowden Brook in the Peak District (UK). The complete network will observe soil moisture, temperature and rainfall on a number of transects across the valley, and will also investigate water quality
Doudou, Messaoud; Djenouri, Djamel; Barceló Ordinas, José María; Badache, Nadjib
The real-world node deployment aspect is investigated, while considering cost minimization for resolving the energy hole around the sink, which represents a serious problem in typical sensor networks with uniform distribution. A novel strategy is proposed that is based on the use of two sinks and a few extra relay nodes close to the sinks' areas. The traffic is then alternatively sent to the sinks in every other cycle. As a second contribution, an efficient data collection mechanism has been ...
Aziz, Adel; Herzen, Julien
The knowledge of how to exactly deploy a wireless multi-hop network can be of interest for both researchers and engineers. Engineers may be interested in the possibility of extending the coverage area of their traditional access point and to provide ubiquitous Internet connectivity at a significantly reduced cost and some communities have already started to do so. Researchers need large-scale testbeds offering a certain level of flexibility in order to study the behavior of existing protocols...
Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David
A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem w...... in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....
Friday, Adrian; Wu, Maomao; Schmid, Stefan; Finney, Joseph; Cheverst, Keith; Davies, Nigel
This paper presents a novel wireless access point architecture designed to support the development of next generation mobile context-aware applications over metropolitan scale areas. In addition, once deployed, this network will allow ordinary citizens secure, accountable and convenient access to the Internet from their local city and campus environments. The proposed architecture is based on an approach utilising a modified Mobile IPv6 protocol stack that uses packet marking and network leve...
Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng
Promises of ubiquitous control of the physical environment by massively-deployed wireless sensor networks open avenues for new applications that will redefine the way we live and work. Due to small size and low cost of sensor devices, visionaries promise systems enabled by deployment of massive numbers of sensors ubiquitous throughout our environment working in concert. Recent research has concentrated on developing techniques for performing relatively simple tasks with minimal energy expense, assuming some form of centralized control. Unfortunately, centralized control is not conducive to parallel activities and does not scale to massive size networks. Execution of simple tasks in sparse networks will not lead to the sophisticated applications predicted. We propose a new way of looking at massively-deployed sensor networks, motivated by lessons learned from the way biological ecosystems are organized. We demonstrate that in such a model, fully distributed data aggregation can be performed in a scalable fashion in massively deployed sensor networks, where motes operate on local information, making local decisions that are aggregated across the network to achieve globally-meaningful effects. We show that such architectures may be used to facilitate communication and synchronization in a fault-tolerant manner, while balancing workload and required energy expenditure throughout the network.
Yu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Jiaxin; Fan, Jiaru; Zhang, Tao
In wireless sensor networks (WSN), sensor deployment is one of the main topics for enhancing the sensor’s coverage rate. In this paper, by modifying updating equation of onlooker bee and scout bee of original artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, a sensor deployment algorithm based on the modified ABC algorithm is proposed. Some new parameters such as forgetting and neighbor factor for accelerating the convergence speed and probability of mutant for maximizing the coverage rate are introduce...
Internet2, a consortium effort of over 100 universities, is investing in upgrading campus and national computer network platforms for such applications as digital libraries, collaboration environments, tele-medicine, and distance-independent instruction. The project is described, issues the project intends to address are detailed, and ways in…
Alvarez, Rosio; Rodriguez, Juana Maria
This paper examines Municipal Wireless (MW) deployments in the United States. In particular, the interest is in understanding how discourse has worked to mobilize widespread support for MW networks. We explore how local governments discursively deploy the language of social movements to create a shared understanding of the networking needs of communities. Through the process of"framing" local governments assign meaning to the MW networks in ways intended to mobilize support anddemobilize opposition. The mobilizing potential of a frame varies and is dependent on its centrality and cultural resonance. We examine the framing efforts of MW networks by using a sample of Request for Proposals for community wireless networks, semi-structured interviews and local media sources. Prominent values that are central to a majority of the projects and others that are culturally specific are identified and analyzed for their mobilizing potency.
Full Text Available Increasing amount of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN applications require low network delays. However, current research on WSNs has mainly concentrated on optimizing energy-efficiency omitting low network delays. This paper presents a novel WSN design targeted at applications requiring low data transfer delays and high reliability. We present the whole design flow from user requirements to an actual pilot deployment in a real hospital unit. The WSN includes multihop low-delay data transfer and energy-efficient mobile nodes reaching lifetime of years with small batteries. The nodes communicate using a low-cost low-power 2.4 GHz radio. The network is used in a security application with which personnel can send alarms in threatening situations. Also, a multitude of sensor measurements and actuator control is possible with the WSN. A full-scale pilot deployment is extensively experimented for performance results. Currently, the pilot network is in use at the hospital.
Juul, Jakob Pilegaard; Green, Ole; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg
In the agricultural domain, proper storage conditions of crops is important to avoid losses due to degradation of crop quality. Currently, monitoring storages is often done manually and by using only a few samples. This makes the process time-consuming and in many cases the few samples taken cannot...... of the system are also discussed. It is concluded that the network works well for the intended application and that the intended users also see a value in the provided service....
Over the past decades, the progress inWirelss Sensor Network (WSN) technology, both in terms of processing capability and energy consumption reduction, has evolved WSNs into complex systems that can gather information about the monitored environment and make prompt and intelligent decisions. In the beginning, military applications drove the research and development of WSNs, with large-scale acoustic systems for underwater surveillance, radar systems for the collection of data on air target...
Wei; WEI; Lijun; LIAO; Jianxin; YU
It is an important means in management of improving both the quality and quantity of cultivated land to monitor grade changes in cultivated land quality. How to deploy monitoring network system and its point reasonably and roundly are the key to the technology of monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality by monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality dynamically in order to obtain the information to the index of cultivated land quality and its changes based on the existing achievements of farmland classification and grading. Spatial analysis method is used to demarcate monitoring area and deploy monitoring point according to ARCGIS,of which the result can meet the demand for monitoring grade changes in cultivated land.
Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter
The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are gaining popularity as distributed monitoring systems in safety critical applications, when the location to be controlled may be dangerous for a human operator or difficult to access. Fire is one of the major thread in urban as well as in open environments, and WSNs are receiving increasing attention as a mean to build effective and timely fire protection systems. The present paper presents a novel analytical technique for the study of the propagation of a fire in a wide open area and the interaction with a WSN deployed to monitor the outbreak of the fire and to send a warning signal to a base station. For the complex scenario under study, an analytical modeling and analysis technique based on Markovian agents (MAs) is discussed. It is shown that, even if the overall state space of the models is huge, nevertheless an analytical solution is feasible, by exploiting the locality of the interactions among MAs, based on a message passing mechanism combined with a perception function. - Highlights: • We present a revised theory of Markovian agent models, detailing the analysis techniques and its complexity • We a target a complex application of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that monitors forest fire. • The model captures the propagation of fire, heat, and the detection by the WSN. • We compute key performance indices such us the fire propagation front, and message travel time. • We perform an extensive set of experiments to study the effectiveness of the WSN in detecting forest fire
In the early stages of system development, model checking is a good practice for examining the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Model checking involves verifying a system's properties based on the system's finite state model. For varying applications like computers and wireless communication prior to expensive simulations, model checking has become a vital requirement in order to investigate the performance and reliability. In this paper for the first time, we are presenting probabilistic and hybrid model checking tools which are being implemented to analyse and verify the WSN applications and their examples. Here we are categorizing the model checking tools and presenting how they have been used for the investigation of various behaviours of WSN solutions. Consequently, this paper helps readers/researchers to choose the appropriate model checking tool and to get benefited in shape of validating their solutions. The paper has also highlighted the problems of existing model checking tools within WSN domain. (author)
Full Text Available The continuously emerging, operationally and managerially independent, geographically distributedcomputer networks deployable in an evolutionarily manner have created greater challenges in securingthem. Several research works and experiments have convinced the security expert that Network IntrusionDetection Systems (NIDS or Network Intrusion Prevention Systems (NIPS alone are not capable ofsecuring the Computer Networks from internal and external threats completely. In this paper we presentthe design of Intrusion Collaborative System which is a combination of NIDS,NIPS, Honeypots, softwaretools like nmap, iptables etc. Our Design is tested against existing attacks based on Snort Rules andseveral customized DDOS , remote and guest attacks. Dynamic rules are generated during every unusualbehavior that helps Intrusion Collaborative System to continuously learn about new attacks. Also aformal approach to deploy Live Intrusion Collaboration Systems based on System of Systems Concept isProposed.
Guang-ping Qi; Ping Song; Ke-jie Li
A novel bionic swarm intelligence algorithm, called ant colony algorithm based on a blackboard mechanism, is proposed to solve the autonomy and dynamic deployment of mobiles sensor networks effectively. A blackboard mechanism is introduced into the system for making pheromone and completing the algorithm. Every node, which can be looked as an ant, makes one information zone in its memory for communicating with other nodes and leaves pheromone, which is created by ant itself in nature. Then ant colony theory is used to find the optimization scheme for path planning and deployment of mobile Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). We test the algorithm in a dynamic and unconfigurable environment. The results indicate that the algorithm can reduce the power consumption by 13% averagely, enhance the efficiency of path planning and deployment of mobile WSN by 15% averagely.
Makhloufi, Rafik; Bonnet, Grégory; Doyen, Guillaume; Gaïti, Dominique
International audience Standard static centralized network management approaches are unsuitable for managing large, dynamic and distributed networks. Some decentralized approaches based on the P2P model have emerged to overcome the limitations of these centralized approaches like lack of scalability and fault-tolerance. However, they do not address issues related to the deployment of management information which is crucial in a decentralized management context because of the heterogeneous ...
Gerardino, Guillermo Andrés Pocovi; Barcos, Sonia; Wang, Hua; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Rosa, Claudio
Dual Connectivity (DC) has been studied and proved to be an effective solution to deal with the fragmented resources in deployment scenarios where the macro and small cells use different frequency carriers. The performance of DC has mainly been analyzed using generic network models such as those ...
Full Text Available Robotic sensor deployment is fundamental for the effectiveness of wireless robot sensor networks - a good deployment algorithm leads to good coverage and connectivity with low energy consumption for the whole network. Virtual force-based algorithms (VFAs is one of the most popular approaches to this problem. In VFA, sensors are treated as points subject to repulsive and attractive forces exerted among them - sensors can move according to imaginary force generated in algorithms. In this paper, a virtual spring force-based algorithm with proper damping is proposed for the deployment of sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN. A new metric called Pair Correlation Diversion (PCD is introduced to evaluate the uniformity of the sensor distribution. Numerical simulations showed that damping can affect the network coverage, energy consumption, convergence time and general topology in the deployment. Moreover, it was found that damping effect (imaginary friction force has significant influence on algortithm outcomes. In addition, when working under approximate critical-damping condition, the proposed approach has the advantage of a higher coverage rate, better configurational uniformity and less energy consumption.
"Force10 Networks, Inc. today announced that Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has successfully deployed Force10 E-Series switch/routers to connect to the TeraGrid, the world's largest supercomputing grid, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF)" (1/2 page).
To identify effect of military deployment in operational area on trend of smoking cigarettes among troops. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was carried out in an Army Brigade deployed in Operation Al-Mizan, Swat, from Jan to March 2014. Material and Methods: Whole troops of an army brigade deployed in operation Al-Mizan, Swat were the part of present study. Total strength of brigade comprised of 1850 troops. Out of these 1850, officers constituted 53 (2.86%) and rest 1797 (97.14%) were Junior Commissioned officers (JCOs), noncommissioned officers (NCOs) and soldiers. All ranks other than officers were collectively termed as soldiers. All the individuals were given structured questionnaire to fill. The information was gathered on variables like age, rank, unit, education, duration of deployment in operational area, habit of smoking, intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily) and change in the habit and intensity of smoking after being deployed in the operational area. Information was also gathered from the individuals about the reasons for change in the habit (starting or stopping smoking) and intensity of smoking after deployment in operational area. Forty nine individuals with less than 6 months duration in operational area were excluded. All the other officers and soldiers (1801) having served more than 6 months in the operational area were included in the study. Results: There were total 1801 individuals included in the study. Officers constituted 52 (2.88%) of the total and rest 1749 (97.12%) were soldiers. The mean age of officers was 26.34 ± 4.6 years and mean age of soldiers was 27.92 ± 4.5 years. The overall frequency of smoking in officers and soldiers in the operational area came out to be 29.6%, however the overall frequency of smoking in these individuals before coming to operational area was 26.8%. There were 3 officers and 47 soldiers who started smoking in the operational area
Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, the available energy of sensor nodes is limited and hard to renew. The energy supervision is also very critical. In Mission Critical Surveillance application, due tonode’s battery depletion, coverage hole may be created. Hole at Critical Point (CP leads to performance degradation of overall network. It is merely impossible, to redeploy sensor nodes or to recharge the battery in middle run during monitoring. The proposed Energy Balanced-Dynamic Deployment (EB-DD Optimization approach, positions the self deployable mobile sensors towards CP according to its Energy Density. This balances the Energy Density of the network thereby increasing the Reliable Lifetime. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the approach in terms of balanced Energy Density around CPs with less mobility.
This report sought to identify limitation on large scale deployment of wind energy in the UK. A description of the existing electricity supply system in England, Scotland and Wales is given, and operational aspects of the integrated electricity networks, licence conditions, types of wind turbine generators, and the scope for deployment of wind energy in the UK are addressed. A review of technical limitations and technical criteria stipulated by the Distribution and Grid Codes, the effects of system losses, and commercial issues are examined. Potential solutions to technical limitations are proposed, and recommendations are outlined.
The field of Home Area Networks (HAN), a dedicated residential subset of LAN technologies for home-based use, is fast becoming the next frontier for the communications industry.This book describes the various technologies involved in the implementation of a HAN: high-speed Internet connections, indoor implementations, services, software, and management packages. It also reviews multimedia applications (which are increasingly the most important and complex aspects of most HANs) with a detailed description of IPTV technology. It highlights the main technologies used for HANs: information tra
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 95 Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... (MedRadio) rules to permit the development of new Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) devices in the 2360... permit the development of new Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) devices in the 2360-2400 MHz band....
Full Text Available All the user-friendly services require technologies that enable communication between people and objects in close proximity. This paper describes a model of human area networking technology that enables communication by touching, a technology we call Red Tacton. Human area networking technology for communication between mobile terminals and between terminals that are embedded in the environment has become important. When cables are used for communication between terminals, the routing of the cables is clearly inconvenient. When very weak radio signals are used for the communication, data speeds are reduced by packet collision and other such problems in crowded places such as exhibition sites and security risk from unwanted signal interception is another problem. Technology for solving such problems includes the use of the person body as a signal path for communication. A transmission path is formed automatically when a person comes into contact with a device and communication between mobile terminals begins. Here, the human body acts as a transmission medium supporting IEEE 802.3 half duplex communication at 10Mbit/s.
Ferner, Ulric J; Soljanin, Emina
This manuscript provides a model to characterize the energy savings of network coded storage (NCS) in storage area networks (SANs). We consider blocking probability of drives as our measure of performance. A mapping technique to analyze SANs as independent M/G/K/K queues is presented, and blocking probabilities for uncoded storage schemes and NCS are derived and compared. We show that coding operates differently than the amalgamation of file chunks and energy savings are shown to scale well with striping number. We illustrate that for enterprise-level SANs energy savings of 20-50% can be realized.
Full Text Available Sensor nodes (SNs are small sized, low cost devices used to facilitate automation, remote controlling and monitoring. Wireless sensor network (WSN is an environment monitoring network formed by the number of SNs connected by a wireless medium. Deployment of SNs is an essential phase in the life of a WSN as all the other performance matrices such as connectivity, life and coverage directly depends on it. Moreover, the task of deployment becomes challenging when the WSN is to be established in a large scale candidate region within a limited time interval in order to deal with emergency conditions. In this paper a model for time efficient and precise placement of SNs in large-scale candidate region has been proposed. It constitute of two sets of pneumatic launchers (PLs, one on either side of a deployment helicopter. Each PL is governed by software which determines the launch time and velocity of a SN for its precise placement on the predetermined positions. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is more time efficient, feasible and cost effective in comparison to the existing state of art models of deployment and can be opted as an effective alternative to deal with emergency conditions.
The WLCG infrastructure moved from a very rigid network topology, based on the MONARC model, to a more relaxed system, where data movement between regions or countries does not necessarily need to involve T1 centres. While this evolution brought obvious advantages, especially in terms of flexibility for the LHC experiment's data management systems, it also opened the question of how to monitor the increasing number of possible network paths, in order to provide a global reliable network service. The perfSONAR network monitoring system has been evaluated and agreed as a proper solution to cover the WLCG network monitoring use cases: it allows WLCG to plan and execute latency and bandwidth tests between any instrumented endpoint through a central scheduling configuration, it allows archiving of the metrics in a local database, it provides a programmatic and a web based interface exposing the tests results; it also provides a graphical interface for remote management operations. In this contribution we will present our activity to deploy a perfSONAR based network monitoring infrastructure, in the scope of the WLCG Operations Coordination initiative: we will motivate the main choices we agreed in terms of configuration and management, describe the additional tools we developed to complement the standard packages and present the status of the deployment, together with the possible future evolution.
Full Text Available In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites, a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.
Korhonen, Jouni; Soininen, Jonne
Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks - Evolving Mobile Broadband from 2G to LTE and Beyond A practical guide enabling mobile operators to deploy IPv6 with confidence The most widely used cellular mobile broadband network technology is based on the 3GPP standards. The history and background of the 3GPP technology is in the Global Mobile Service (GSM) technology and the work done in European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). This primary voice service network has evolved to be the dominant mobile Internet access technology. Deploying IPv6 in
Levy, I.; Mihele, C.; Lu, G.; Narayan, J.; Hilker, N.; Brook, J. R.
This study evaluates a deployment strategy of a heavily instrumented mobile lab for characterizing multipollutant spatial patterns based upon a limited number of measurement days spread over different seasons. The measurements obtained through this deployment strategy are used to gain insight into average pollutant levels between routine monitoring sites and in relation to emission sources in the region, as well as to assess correlations between pollutant patterns to better understand the nature of urban air pollutant mixtures. A wide range of locations were part of the deployment in order to characterize the distribution of chronic exposures potentially allowing development of exposure models. Comparison of the mobile lab averages to the available adjacent air quality monitoring network stations to evaluate their representativeness showed that they were in reasonable agreement with the annual averages at the monitoring sites, thus providing some evidence that, through the deployment approach, the mobile lab is able to capture the main features of the average spatial patterns. The differences between mobile lab and network averages varied by pollutant with the best agreement for NO2 with a percentage difference of 20%. Sharp differences in the average spatial distribution were found to exist between different pollutants on multiple scales, particularly on the sub-urban scale, i.e., the neighborhood to street scales. For example, NO2 was observed to be 210-265% higher by the main highway in the study region compared to the nearby urban background monitoring site, while black carbon was higher by 180-200% and particle number concentration was 300% higher. The repeated measurements of near-roadway gradients showed that the rate of change differed by pollutant with elevated concentrations detected up to 600-700 m away for some pollutants. These results demonstrate that through systematic deployment mobile laboratory measurements can be used to characterize average or
Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola; KOVÁCS, Istvan; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben
spectral resources from a common pool based on the individual traffic requirements of the HeNBs, thereby enabling Flexible Spectrum Usage (FSU). It ensures coexistence of several HeNBs in the given geographical area by partially or completely preventing mutual interference on the shared spectrum. A......In this paper we propose a non-contention based mechanism for allocation of the spectral resources by several interfering Home e-NodeBs (HeNBs) deployed by the same or different operators, potentially in random manner in a given geographical area. The proposed mechanism facilitates allocation of...
Full Text Available One of the main challenges in the implementation and design of context-aware scenarios is the adequate deployment strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, mainly due to the strong dependence of the radiofrequency physical layer with the surrounding media, which can lead to non-optimal network designs. In this work, radioplanning analysis for WSN deployment is proposed by employing a deterministic 3D ray launching technique in order to provide insight into complex wireless channel behavior in context-aware indoor scenarios. The proposed radioplanning procedure is validated with a testbed implemented with a Mobile Ad Hoc Network WSN following a chain configuration, enabling the analysis and assessment of a rich variety of parameters, such as received signal level, signal quality and estimation of power consumption. The adoption of deterministic radio channel techniques allows the design and further deployment of WSNs in heterogeneous wireless scenarios with optimized behavior in terms of coverage, capacity, quality of service and energy consumption.
Heterogeneous networks are an attractive means of expanding mobile network capacity. A heterogeneous network is typically composed of multiple radio access technologies (RATs) where the base stations are transmitting with variable power. In this paper, we consider a Heterogeneous network where we complement the macrocell network with low-power low-cost user deployed nodes, such as femtocell base stations to increase the mean achievable capacity of the system. In this context, we integrate macro-femto cellular networks and derive the area spectral efficiency of the proposed two tier Heterogeneous network. We consider the deployment of femtocell base stations around the edge of the macrocell such that this configuration is referred to as femto-on-edge (FOE) configuration. Moreover, FOE configuration mandates reduction in intercell interference due to the mobile users which are located around the edge of the macrocell since these femtocell base stations are low-power nodes which has significantly lower transmission power than macrocell base stations. We present a mathematical analysis to calculate the instantaneous carrier to interference ratio (CIR) of the desired mobile user in macro and femto cellular networks and determine the total area spectral efficiency of the Heterogeneous network. Details of the simulation processes are included to support the analysis and show the efficacy of the proposed deployment. It has been shown that the proposed setup of the Heterogeneous network offers higher area spectral efficiency which aims to fulfill the expected demand of the future mobile users. © 2012 IEEE.
Fermilab is the US Tier-1 Center for CMS data storage and analysis. End-2-End (E2E) circuits are utilized to support high impact data movement into and out of the Tier-1 Center. E2E circuits have been implemented to facilitate the movement of raw experiment data from the Tier-0 Center at CERN, as well as processed data to a number of the US Tier-2 sites. Troubleshooting and monitoring of those circuits presents a significant challenge, since the circuits typically cross multiple research and education networks, each with its own management domain and customized monitoring capabilities. The perfSONAR Monitoring Project was established to facilitate development and deployment of a common monitoring infrastructure across multiple network management domains. Fermilab has deployed perfSONAR across its E2E circuit infrastructure and enhanced the product with several tools that ease the monitoring and management of those circuits. This paper will present the current state of perfSONAR monitoring at Fermilab and detail our experiences using perfSONAR to manage our current E2E circuit infrastructure. We will describe how production network circuits are monitored by perfSONAR E2E Monitoring Points (MPs), and the benefits it has brought to production US CMS networking support
Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab
Fermilab is the US Tier-1 Center for CMS data storage and analysis. End-2-End (E2E) circuits are utilized to support high impact data movement into and out of the Tier-1 Center. E2E circuits have been implemented to facilitate the movement of raw experiment data from the Tier-0 Center at CERN, as well as processed data to a number of the US Tier-2 sites. Troubleshooting and monitoring of those circuits presents a significant challenge, since the circuits typically cross multiple research & education networks, each with its own management domain and customized monitoring capabilities. The perfSONAR Monitoring Project was established to facilitate development and deployment of a common monitoring infrastructure across multiple network management domains. Fermilab has deployed perfSONAR across its E2E circuit infrastructure and enhanced the product with several tools that ease the monitoring and management of those circuits. This paper will present the current state of perfSONAR monitoring at Fermilab and detail our experiences using perfSONAR to manage our current E2E circuit infrastructure. We will describe how production network circuits are monitored by perfSONAR E2E Monitoring Points (MPs), and the benefits it has brought to production US CMS networking support.
Full Text Available ZigBee is a wireless communication technology which provides self-organized, multi-hop and reliable networking facility with long battery lifetime. ZigBee standards have been developed to provide simple, low cost and battery efficient wireless devices. ZigBee operates on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC and physical layer wireless standards to provide network, security and application support services. ZigBee provides wireless networking between low power devices, aimed to reduce the energy consumption and delay. ZigBee technology is deployed in numerous applications such as home based healthcare, medical monitoring and consumer electronics. Data delivery failures occur in ZigBee wireless network due to mobility. Mobility is part of ZigBee vision and it is difficult to provide to/from connections to mobile devices. So, to locate the displaced mobile end devices, the Broadcasting method is used to lessen the effects of mobility. But it consumes large amount of resources in terms of bandwidth and power consumption. Recently Mobility Responsive ZigBee Tree Construction (MRZTC framework is proposed to avoid such resource consumption and provides efficient data transmission between coordinator and mobile end devices. Data delivery ratio is increased efficiently during downlink communication i.e. between coordinator and mobile end device by using deployment framework, rather than using conventional route reconstruction method.
Yuce, Mehmet R
The book provides a comprehensive overview for the latest WBAN systems, technologies, and applications. The chapters of the book have been written by various specialists who are experts in their areas of research and practice. The book starts with the basic techniques involved in designing and building WBAN systems. It explains the deployment issues and then moves into the application areas of WBAN. The remaining chapters focus on the development of hardware, signal processing algorithms, and wireless communication and network design for wearable and implantable body sensors used in WBAN appli
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions proposes to develop the Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems (nPROCESS) for deployment on...
Samrat Pravin Patel; Sumeet S. Deshmukh; Anil R. Rajbhar
An innovative ,cost effective and eco friendly approach for the implementation of wide area wireless network coverage forsurveillance, remote wireless sensing , monitoring and other usage in dense forest and rural areas in developing countries like India andAfrica .The paper gives an simplified layout for the network implementation for bridging the digital divide and the knowledge flowbetween the urban areas and the remote locations where telecom companies cannot reach easily or deploy networ...
Zhou, Hao; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Greenwood, William; Xiao, Yong; Lynch, Jerome; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kamat, Vineet
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can serve as a powerful mobile sensing platform for assessing the health of civil infrastructure systems. To date, the majority of their uses have been dedicated to vision and laser-based spatial imaging using on-board cameras and LiDAR units, respectively. Comparatively less work has focused on integration of other sensing modalities relevant to structural monitoring applications. The overarching goal of this study is to explore the ability for UAVs to deploy a network of wireless sensors on structures for controlled vibration testing. The study develops a UAV platform with an integrated robotic gripper that can be used to install wireless sensors in structures, drop a heavy weight for the introduction of impact loads, and to uninstall wireless sensors for reinstallation elsewhere. A pose estimation algorithm is embedded in the UAV to estimate the location of the UAV during sensor placement and impact load introduction. The Martlet wireless sensor network architecture is integrated with the UAV to provide the UAV a mobile sensing capability. The UAV is programmed to command field deployed Martlets, aggregate and temporarily store data from the wireless sensor network, and to communicate data to a fixed base station on site. This study demonstrates the integrated UAV system using a simply supported beam in the lab with Martlet wireless sensors placed by the UAV and impact load testing performed. The study verifies the feasibility of the integrated UAV-wireless monitoring system architecture with accurate modal characteristics of the beam estimated by modal analysis.
Full Text Available The deployment of passive optical networks (PONs is slow today, especially in Europe, because completely new optical infrastructures are necessary to be installed in the last-mile segments of access networks, which is always very expensive process. One of the possibilities is to design economically effective topologies and to optimize the deployment cost. This article describes the method leading to evaluate an algorithm for designing suboptimal economic solutions and topologies for PONs by focusing on optimization of constructional length of distribution networks. While the typical PON topologies are star topologies or tree-star topologies, the first part of this article introduces new sub algorithm for estimating the minimum star topology. The next section brings the evaluation of two sub algorithms for solving minimum constructional length problems. Finally, all these parts will be merged into a complex algorithm by using clusterization technique to solve optimum topologies. However, the current version of presented algorithm is purely based on mathematical theories and was implemented in Matlab environment. Therefore, it is able to design only theoretical optimum topologies without taking external conditions and real limitations into account. These real conditions will be further implemented in the future, so the algorithm could be also used for practical applications.
Hui Qu; Wicker, Stephen B.
We consider a network of randomly-deployed, low-cost sensors and a single powerful sink node. A partition-based localization algorithm is proposed in which the sink node imparts sector-based location information through the phased-array transmission of a series of beacons. One-hop neighbor information is used by each sensor in a series of sector-partitioning routines to identify the sub-sector in which it resides. A geographic routing algorithm is then proposed which uses the sector-based loc...
Barnawi, Ahmed; Emran, Muhammad; Khan, Asif Irshad; 10.1109/SIECPC.2011.5876936
Over the past few years, mobile operators are faced with enormous challenges. Of such challenges, evolved user demands on personalized applications. Telecommunications industry as well as research community have paid enormous attention to Next Generation Networks (NGN) to address this challenge. NGN is perceived as a sophisticated platform where both application developers and mobile operators cooperate to develop user applications with enhanced quality of experience. The objective of this paper is twofold: first we present an introduction to state-of-the-art NGN testbed to be developed at KAU, and second we provide initial analysis for deploying a mobile application on top of the testbed.
Voice over IP is a major advancement in the field of IP communications systems technology since the advent of Internet. It is a communication technology which enables a device to transmit and receive voice traffic with the help of an IP-based network such as the Internet. Various types and deployments of Voice over IP are prevailing due to its popularity since its origin. Since its advent, it has managed to evolve and has given a platform to be benefited with its numerous advantages not only ...
Tilak, S.; Arzberger, P.; Blenckner, T.; Fountain, T.; Hansen, P.; Kratz, T.; Pierson, D.; Winslow, L.
cyberinfrastructure challenges in a principled manner, we deployed RBNB DataTurbine - an open-source streaming data middleware system. More specifically, RBNB DataTurbine was deployed to perform sensor data acquisition, transport, and dissemination in a scalable and reliable fashion. All legacy data was input into the database designed for use by GLEON sites and the RBNB-based deployment was set up so that real-time data is automatically written into the database. This allowed local researchers not only to use and adapt RBNB DataTurbine for their site, but also enabled them to join the global GLEON community thereby giving them access to international data. In this poster, we discuss the set up at the Lake Erken site (including details on sensors and communication network etc.) followed by description of their traditional data acquisition methodology. We then give a detailed description of our RBNB DataTurbine deployment at Lake Erken.
Semov, Plamen T.; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee;
This paper proposes a novel algorithm for dynamic physical resource allocation based on the use of positioning information during carrier aggregation (CA) in a semi-and uncoordinated deployment of heterogeneous networks (HetNet). The algorithm uses the known Q-learning method enhanced with...... information but the locations of the mobile users and neighboring cells to solve the problem of dynamic physical resource assignment in uncoordinated scenario while accounting for improved allocation and scheduling. The results are compared to the performance when known scheduling algorithms are employed and...... show increased cell throughput, while maintaining an adequate user throughput when employing Q-learning with positioning information....
... Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 95 Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Medical Body Area Network (``MBAN'') coordinator(s) for the 2360-2390 MHz band. Although the ]...
The report assesses Local Area Network Communications with a view to their application in advanced nuclear reactor control and protection systems. Attention is focussed on commercially available techniques and systems for achieving the high reliability and availability required. A basis for evaluating network characteristics in terms of broadband or baseband type, medium, topology, node structure and access method is established. The reliability and availability of networks is then discussed. Several commercial networks are briefly assessed and a distinction made between general purpose networks and those suitable for process control. The communications requirements of nuclear reactor control and protection systems are compared with the facilities provided by current technology
Schweitzer, James A
Protecting Information on Local Area Networks presents the various types of networks and explains why they are being expanded at such a rapid pace. This book considers how management can gain control of the valuable network-services information resources generally available.Organized into three parts encompassing seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various networks and their operations. This text then discusses the appropriate management actions to ensure some control over the use of networks and the business information resource. Other chapters consider the management rat
Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment
Martínez, José F.; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B.; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S.; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio
Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment.
Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.
According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional
Burbank, Jack L.; Kasch, William T.; Andrusenko, Julia; Haberman, Brian K.; Nichols, Robert; Zheng, Harold
This paper presents a concept for a United States Coastal Area Network (U-SCAN) that is comprised of IEEE 802.11, 802.16, and satellite communications technologies. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) on behalf of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) has tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to perform an architectural study into the establishment of a United States Coastal Area Network (U-SCAN). The goal of this study is to define a wireless network architecture that can be deployed to enable contiguous coastal area network coverage for scientific, commercial, and homeland security (e.g. Coast Guard) applications within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), in a manner that is flexible, manageable, and affordable. The JHU/APL study will ultimately provide recommendations to NOPP regarding potential network architectures and technologies that could provide the desired capability, with a particular focus on commercial (both existing and emerging) technologies. This paper presents the envisioned U-SCAN architecture, and presents the envisioned technical capabilities and shortcomings of the component candidate technologies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy
Badreddine, Wafa; Khernane, Nesrine; Potop-Butucaru, Maria; Chaudet, Claude
—Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is a recent challenging area in the domain of health monitoring. There are several concerns in this area ranging from energy efficient communication to designing delays efficient protocols that support nodes dynamicity induced by human body mobility. This paper focuses on the convergecast or data gathering protocols in WBAN. Our contribution is twofold. First, we extensively analyze the impact of postural body mobility on various classes of multi-hop conver...
Majone, B.; Bellin, A.; Filippi, E.; Ioriatti, L.; Martinelli, M.; Massa, A.; Toller, G.
We describe a recent deployment of soil moisture and temperature sensors in an apple tree orchard aimed at exploring the interaction between soil moisture dynamics and plant physiology. The field is divided into three parcels with different constant irrigation rates. The deployment includes dendrometers which monitor the variations of the trunk diameter. The idea is to monitor continuously and at small time steps soil moisture dynamics, soil temperature and a parameter reflecting plant stress at the parcel scale, in order to better investigate the interaction between plant physiology and soil moisture dynamics. Other sensors monitoring plant physiology can be easily accommodated within the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The experimental site is an apple orchard of 5000 m2 located at Cles, province of Trento, Italy, at the elevation of 640 m.a.s.l. In this site about 1200 apple trees are cultivated (cultivar Golden Delicious). The trees have been planted in 2004 in north-south rows 3.5 m apart. The deployment consists of 27 locations connected by a multi hop WSN, each one equipped with 5 soil moisture sensors (capacitance sensors EC-5, decagon Service) at the depths of 10, 20, 30, 50 and 80 cm, and a temperature sensor at the depth of 20 cm, for a total of 135 soil moisture and 27 temperature sensors. The proposed monitoring system is based on totally autonomous sensor nodes which allow both real time and historic data management. The data gathered are then organized in a database on a public web site. The node sensors are connected through an input/output interface to a WSN platform. The power supply consists of a solar panel able to provide 250 mA at 7 V and a 3V DC/DC converter based on a dual frequency high efficient switching regulator. The typical meteorological data are monitored with a weather station located at a distance of approximately 100 m from the experimental site. Great care has been posed to calibration of the capacitance sensors both in the
Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.
picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either the...
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87 with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42 with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.
Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai
Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527
The Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a new and developing technology and the security problem is always important in all networks; therefore, the security problems will be discussed in this article. The article firstly introduces the history of development of IEEE 802.11 and provides an overview of the Wireless LAN. The architecture of WLAN will be referred in next. Finally, the further of the wireless LAN will be prospected by this article.
Moreno-Pérez José A.
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the application of a met heuristic approach based on the Scatter Search to deal with robust optimization of the planning problem in the deploying of the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM technology on an existing optical fiber network taking into account, in addition to the forecasted demands, the uncertainty in the survivability requirements.
Efficient self-organizing virtual clusterheads that supervise data collection based on their wireless connectivity, risk, and overhead costs, are an important element of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This function is especially critical during deployment when system resources are allocated to a subsequent application. In the presented research,…
Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes. PMID:25321550
Full Text Available The advent of social media can be seen both as a risk and an opportunity by armed forces. Previous research has primarily examined whether or not the use of social media endangers or strengthens armed forces’ strategic narrative. We examine armed forces’ perceptions of risks and opportunities on a broad basis, with a particular focus on areas of deployment. The article is based on a survey of perceptions of social media amongst the armed forces of EU member states, thus adding to previous research through its comparative perspective. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on larger powers, such as the US and the UK, this article includes the views of the armed forces of 26 EU states, including several smaller nations. In analyzing the results we asked whether or not risk and opportunity perceptions were related to national ICT maturity and the existence of a social media strategy. The analysis shows that perceptions of opportunities outweigh perceptions of risks, with marketing and two-way communication as the two most prominent opportunities offered by the use of social media. Also, armed forces in countries with a moderate to high ICT maturity emphasize social media as a good way for marketing purposes.
Objective: To find the Frequency of Gingival and Periodontal Diseases among Troops Deployed in Operational Area and to evaluate the treatment needs which might be helpful in oral health policy planning and specific intervention against periodontal disease. Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at 140 mobile dental unit Swat from Dec 2009 to June 2011. Subjects and Methods: the periodontal status of 1500 personnels of Pakistan Army was examined using Basic periodontal Examination Index. Data was evaluated by SPSS version 16. Percentage of various gingival and periodontal disease traits was calculated and treatment needs determined. Results: Out of total 1500 subjects 12.8% subjects were having satisfactory periodontal health and required no treatment whereas 38.3% were having gingivitis requiring oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. Gingivitis modified by local factors was seen in 23.5% and required oral hygiene instruction and correction of modifying factors. Some (13.6%) were having mild periodontitis and required scaling, root planning and oral hygiene instruction whereas 11.8% were having moderate or advance periodontitis and required comprehensive periodontal treatment including surgical treatment. Conclusion: A large number of cases (82.7%) of gingivitis and periodontitis were detected in subject population which shows lack of awareness and self -consciousness among troops regarding their oral hygiene. (author)
Sobiesiak, M.; Eggert, S.; Woith, H.; Grosser, H.; Peyrat, S.; Vilotte, J.; Medina, E.; Ruch, J.; Walter, T.; Victor, P.; Barrientos, S.; Gonzalez, G.
After the November 14, 2007 Tocopilla earthquake in northern Chile, a local network of 20 short period seismic stations, 5 strong motion instruments, 6 GPS stations and 3 extensometers has been installed in the fault plane area between Tocopilla and Antofagasta by the German Task Force for earthquakes (GFZ Potsdam). The hydrogeology group of the TF sampled 20 thermal water sources in the area of the El Tatio geyser field, located about 170 km E of the epicentre. In collaboration with the IPG Paris, 4 broad band stations were deployed at the northern end of the fault plane between Tocopilla and Maria Elena. Major targets of the investigations of the aftershock sequence are the segment boundary between the 1995 Antofagasta earthquake and the recent Tocopilla event, stress transfer between both successively ruptured subduction zone segments, structural properties of the fault plane, possible consequences for the northern adjacent Iquique segment, and the influence of earthquake seismic waves on the El Tatio hydrothermal field. In our presentation we would like to show first results on the spatial distribution of the aftershocks and discuss these in relation to studies we have made on the Antofagasta aftershock sequence.
Wei, Wei; Liao, Lijun; Yu, Jianxin
It is an important means in management of improving both the quality and quantity of cultivated land to monitor grade changes in cultivated land quality. How to deploy monitoring network system and its point reasonably and roundly are the key to the technology of monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality by monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality dynamically in order to obtain the information to the index of cultivated land quality and its changes based on the existing a...
Sipes, Donald L., Jr.; Loveless, Robert
The advent of digital technology in HFC networks has opened up a myriad of opportunities for MSOs. The introduction of these advanced services comes at a cost: namely, the need for increased capacity; and especially increased reusable bandwidth. In HFC networks all services are ostensibly broadcast: the prime difference between services being the footprint over which these services are broadcast. Channel lineups for broadcast video services typically cover the largest are. Advertising zones are typically second, usually on the order of a typical 20K home hub. For initial penetrations for high speed data services such as cable modems, a typical hub site will be divided into several sectors using a single 6 MHz channel. Telephony services are broadcast over the smallest area, typically a 6 MHz channel for each node. Naturally as penetration of these services increase, the broadcast area for each will also decrease.
Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective i...
...), 95.1217(a)(3), 95.1223 and 95.1225 published at 78 FR 55715, September 11, 2012 are effective... First Report and Order, FCC 12-54, published at 78 FR 55715, September 11, 2012. The OMB Control Number... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 Medical Body Area Networks AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...
This paper introduces Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), including the concept, history, characters and the foreground of its development, it also narrates in detail the several key techniques used to implement IEEE802.11 WLAN, and ideas on key technology of future progress in wireless LAN field have also been presented. (authors)
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for wide area networks. 54.518 Section... area networks. To the extent that states, schools, or libraries build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of such wide area networks shall not be eligible...
LTE (Long Term Evolution)as a long-term evolution of 3G system application,this year has been extensively around the world,and in the LTE process,operators pay more and more attention to network construction.Bearer network deployment must consider how to make full use of the existing cyber source, the function deployment,network capacity,traffic safety,maintainability and meet the LTE business development,and reduce the cost of network technology development,adaptation of 2G/3G/LTE collaborative development.This paper takes IPRAN bearer network(IP Radio Access Network)as an example,the IPRAN bearer network LTE service deployment.% LTE(Long Term Evolution)作为3G 系统的长期演进，今年来在世界各地得到了广泛的应用发展，而在推进 LTE 的进程中，运营商越来越重视承载网的建设。承载网的部署必须考虑如何充分利用现有网络资源，在功能部署、网络容量、业务安全、可维护性等方面满足 LTE 业务发展，并减低网络技术演进代价，适应2G/3G/LTE 协同发展。本文以联通承载网 IPRAN（IP Radio Access Network ）方案为例，阐述下 IPRAN 承载网 LTE 业务的业务部署。
Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan
Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data
Khairi, K.; Lambak, Z.; Ahmad, A.; Abdul Kadir, M. Z.; Hamzah, Z.; Tarsono, D.; Abd. Manaf, Z.; Mohamad, R.; Abd. Rahman, M. N.; Samsuri, N.; Fong, K. H.
We present analysis of different modulation formats using actual Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) data of deployed fiber links in the metro area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Simulations have been conducted for comparing the performance of Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ), Return-to-Zero (RZ), Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero (CSRZ), Phase Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT) and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation formats for possible future upgrade to 40Gbps from an existing 10Gbps DWDM system. The performance in terms of BER is presented to illustrate the limitations attributed to PMD based on current existing network configurations.
Local-area communication networks represent a new field of activity. In this paper we first describe three scenarios for the use of these networks, and then discuss various technical approaches. Particular emphasis is put on bus and ring systems with various media access control mechanisms. Specifically, we compare the delay-throughput characteristic of two access methods, carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection and token passing, and discuss some significant differences of bus and ring systems concerning wiring, media, transmission, and reliability. (orig.)
Modern health care system is one of the most popular Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) applications and a hot area of research subject to present work. In this paper, we present Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT) for WBASNs. The proposed routing protocol uses fixed deployment of wireless sensors (nodes) such that these are placed according to energy levels. Moreover, we use direct communication for the deliver...
Lloret, Jaime; Garcia, Miguel; Bri, Diana; Sendra, Sandra
Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world. PMID:22291533
Full Text Available Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world.
Neuhaeuser, Jakob; D'Angelo, Lorenzo T
The goal of the concept and of the device presented in this contribution is to be able to collect sensor data from wearable sensors directly, automatically and wirelessly and to make them available over a wired local area network. Several concepts in e-health and telemedicine make use of portable and wearable sensors to collect movement or activity data. Usually these data are either collected via a wireless personal area network or using a connection to the user's smartphone. However, users might not carry smartphones on them while inside a residential building such as a nursing home or a hospital, but also within their home. Also, in such areas the use of other wireless communication technologies might be limited. The presented system is an embedded server which can be deployed in several rooms in order to ensure live data collection in bigger buildings. Also, the collection of data batches recorded out of range, as soon as a connection is established, is also possible. Both, the system concept and the realization are presented. PMID:24110771
Riha, B; Brian02 Looney, B; Miles Denham, M; Christopher Bagwell, C; Richard Hall, R; Carol Eddy-Dilek, C
The purpose of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using edible oils for remediation of the low but persistent chlorinated solvent (cVOC) groundwater contamination at the SRS T-Area. The following studies were completed: (1) Review of cVOC degradation processes and edible oil delivery for enhanced bioremediation. (2) Column studies to investigate placing neat oil on top of the water table to increase oil saturation and sequestration. (3) Analysis of T-Area groundwater geochemistry to determine the applicability of edible oils for remediation at this site. (4) Microcosm studies to evaluate biotic and abiotic processes for the T-Area groundwater system and evaluation of the existing microbial community with and with out soybean oil amendments. (5) Monitoring of a surrogate vadose zone site undergoing edible oil remediation at the SRS to understand partitioning and biotransformation products of the soybean oil. (6) Design of a delivery system for neat and emulsified edible oil deployment for the T-Area groundwater plume. A corresponding white paper is available for each of the studies listed. This paper provides a summary and overview of the studies completed for the remediation of the T-Area groundwater plume using edible oils. This report begins with a summary of the results and a brief description of the preliminary oil deployment design followed by brief descriptions of T-Area and current groundwater conditions as related to edible oil deployment. This is followed by a review of the remediation processes using edible oils and specific results from modeling, field and laboratory studies. Finally, a description of the preliminary design for full scale oil deployment is presented.
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are getting more widespread use and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as environmental monitoring, smart homes, military surveillance, forests, habitat monitoring, farmlands and precision agriculture. Due to the limited battery power, energy efficiency is the most challenging problem in wireless sensor network. For various applications, it is necessary to deploy sensor node in efficient way to monitor the event precisely, achieve balance energy depletion and extend the network lifetime. In many-to-one traffic pattern, nodes closer to the sink have heavier traffic loads and deplete their energy quickly; this leads to energy holes around the sink. Due to the creation of energy holes, data can no longer be delivered to the sink, although most of sensor nodes have enough residual energy. To overcome the problem of energy hole and achieving sub-balanced energy consumption in corona-based wireless sensor network, engineered Gaussian deployment strategies are proposed. Simulation result shows that the proposed technique maximizes the network lifetime, data delivery, energy consumption and also reducing the chances of energy-hole formation in a network.
Shi, Xiaomeng; Lucani, Daniel
A network coding scheme for practical implementations of wireless body area networks is presented, with the objective of providing reliability under low-energy constraints. We propose a simple network layer protocol, study the mean energy to complete in-cast transmissions of given packets from the sensors to the base station (BS), and show through numerical examples that this scheme can reduce the overall energy consumption. More specifically, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is used to allocate the wireless channel to individual nodes. Each node linearly combines its data packets before taking turns to send the ensuing mixtures to the BS. An acknowledgement message is broadcasted by the BS after each round of transmissions, indicating the number of coded packets to be transmitted in the next round. We parametrically study the optimal number of coded packets to send, in terms of completion energy, given the packet erasure probabilities, and the energy use for transmitting data packets as well as listening...
Karyono, Karyono; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Haryanto, Iyan; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian; Rohadi, Suprianto; Suardi, Iman; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu
The spectacular Lusi eruption started in northeast Java, Indonesia the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. Lusi is located few kilometres to the NE of the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. Lusi sits upon the Watukosek fault system. From this volcanic complex originates the Watukosek fault system that was reactivated by the M6.3 earthquake in 2006 and is still periodically reactivated by the frequent seismicity. To date Lusi is still active and erupting gas, water, mud and clasts. Gas and water data show that the Lusi plumbing system is connected with the neighbouring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. This makes the Lusi eruption a "sedimentary hosted geothermal system". To verify and characterise the occurrence of seismic activity and how this perturbs the connected Watukosek fault, the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic system and the ongoing Lusi eruption, we deployed 30 seismic stations (short-period and broadband) in this region of the East Java basin. The seismic stations are more densely distributed around LUSI and the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. Fewer stations are positioned around the volcanic arc. Our study sheds light on the seismic activity along the Watukosek fault system and describes the waveforms associated to the geysering activity of Lusi. The initial network aims to locate small event that may not be captured by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) seismic network and it will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-Arjuno Welirang region and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. Such variations will then be ideally related to
The sensor deployment is one of the fundamental problems in wireless sensor networks,which affects the sensing area of nodes and the quality of service of information transmission.The existing deployment algorithms require the extra detection and repair the covered holes on the boundary,so the cost of deployment is high and the distribution of nodes is uneven.To solve this problem,this paper proposes an improved scheme of sensor deployment,firstly,the scheme processes the border deployment in order to ensure the complete coverage and connectivity,then the new region is generated based on the new convex polygon generation algorithm,finally,the improved scheme is recursive called in the new region,until the entire sensing area of nodes is completely covered.The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is better than the existing deployment schemes in terms of the number of nodes in the deployment and the scalability.%节点部署是无线传感器网络的基本问题之一,关系到网络的感知范围和信息传输服务质量。现有的部署算法需要额外探测和修复边界上的覆盖空洞,从而增加了网络部署的成本而且使得节点分布不均匀。针对这一问题,提出了一种改进的节点部署方案,首先进行边界部署,以保证边界上的完全覆盖和连通;然后在感应区域内生成一个新的凸多边形区域,在此新区域上再递归调用边界部署算法,直到整个感应区域被完全覆盖。理论分析和仿真实验表明,在部署节点个数和可扩展性方面均优于已有的部署方案。
Antoniadis, Panayotis; Fdida, Serge; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George
In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictit...
Ullah, Sana; Vasilakos, Athanasios; Chao, Han-Chieh; Suzuki, Junichi
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a promising technology for medical and non-medical applications. WBANs consist of a number of miniaturized, portable, and autonomous sensor nodes that are used for long-term health monitoring of patients. These sensor nodes continuously collect information of patients, which are used for ubiquitous health monitoring. In addition, WBANs may be used for managing catastrophic events and increasing the effectiveness and performance of rescue for...
Jiang, Peng; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Jun; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Le
Most of the existing node depth-adjustment deployment algorithms for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) just consider how to optimize network coverage and connectivity rate. However, these literatures don't discuss full network connectivity, while optimization of network energy efficiency and network reliability are vital topics for UWSN deployment. Therefore, in this study, a depth-adjustment deployment algorithm based on two-dimensional (2D) convex hull and spanning tree (NDACS) for UWSNs is proposed. First, the proposed algorithm uses the geometric characteristics of a 2D convex hull and empty circle to find the optimal location of a sleep node and activate it, minimizes the network coverage overlaps of the 2D plane, and then increases the coverage rate until the first layer coverage threshold is reached. Second, the sink node acts as a root node of all active nodes on the 2D convex hull and then forms a small spanning tree gradually. Finally, the depth-adjustment strategy based on time marker is used to achieve the three-dimensional overall network deployment. Compared with existing depth-adjustment deployment algorithms, the simulation results show that the NDACS algorithm can maintain full network connectivity with high network coverage rate, as well as improved network average node degree, thus increasing network reliability. PMID:27428970
Jiang, Peng; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Jun; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Le
Most of the existing node depth-adjustment deployment algorithms for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) just consider how to optimize network coverage and connectivity rate. However, these literatures don’t discuss full network connectivity, while optimization of network energy efficiency and network reliability are vital topics for UWSN deployment. Therefore, in this study, a depth-adjustment deployment algorithm based on two-dimensional (2D) convex hull and spanning tree (NDACS) for UWSNs is proposed. First, the proposed algorithm uses the geometric characteristics of a 2D convex hull and empty circle to find the optimal location of a sleep node and activate it, minimizes the network coverage overlaps of the 2D plane, and then increases the coverage rate until the first layer coverage threshold is reached. Second, the sink node acts as a root node of all active nodes on the 2D convex hull and then forms a small spanning tree gradually. Finally, the depth-adjustment strategy based on time marker is used to achieve the three-dimensional overall network deployment. Compared with existing depth-adjustment deployment algorithms, the simulation results show that the NDACS algorithm can maintain full network connectivity with high network coverage rate, as well as improved network average node degree, thus increasing network reliability. PMID:27428970
Tarique Jamil Saifullah Khanzada
Full Text Available The Internet is migrating from IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4 to IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6. The high cost of migration services from IPv4-IPv6 and system complexity are main factors for slow adaption of IPv6 This paper presents the implementation of migration techniques from IPv4-IPv6. Furthermore, existing IPv4 addresses have already been depleted in IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and will be soon exhausted in RIR (Regional Internet Registry while more clients are joining the Internet. Slower rate of the progress of IPv6 confirms complete shifting from IPv4-IPv6 at once is still long away, although fewer parts of IPv6 have been employed in current market goods. Integration of IPv4 and IPv6 is carried in order to take care of online users. In this paper, it is suggested that hierarchical direction finding structural design in IPv4 and IPv6 will improve the efficiency of IPv4 network. This research work provides the way to design the network scenario for the carrier grade set of connections. The carrier grade network scenario routers are named to be Karachi, Sukkur, Islamabad, Multan and Peshawar for the managerial simulation purposes. The carrier grade network deployment is implemented along with dual stack to migrate to IPv6. This study holds the way to deploy IPv4-IPv6 carrier grade network by providing real time scenario which is yet not considered in the literature to the best of our knowledge
The Internet is migrating from IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) to IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6). The high cost of migration services from IPv4-IPv6 and system complexity are main factors for slow adaption of IPv6 This paper presents the implementation of migration techniques from IPv4-IPv6. Furthermore, existing IPv4 addresses have already been depleted in IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) and will be soon exhausted in RIR (Regional Internet Registry) while more clients are joining the Internet. Slower rate of the progress of IPv6 confirms complete shifting from IPv4-IPv6 at once is still long away, although fewer parts of IPv6 have been employed in current market goods. Integration of IPv4 and IPv6 is carried in order to take care of online users. In this paper, it is suggested that hierarchical direction finding structural design in IPv4 and IPv6 will improve the efficiency of IPv4 network. This research work provides the way to design the network scenario for the carrier grade set of connections. The carrier grade network scenario routers are named to be Karachi, Sukkur, Islamabad, Multan and Peshawar for the managerial simulation purposes. The carrier grade network deployment is implemented along with dual stack to migrate to IPv6. This study holds the way to deploy IPv4-IPv6 carrier grade network by providing real time scenario which is yet not considered in the literature to the best of our knowledge. (author)
De Silva Varuni; Jayasekera Nicholas ELW; Hanwella Raveen
Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple ...
Maamoun, Khaled Mohamed
Fault localization is the process of realizing the true source of a failure from a set of collected failure notifications. Isolating failure recovery within the network optical domain is necessary to resolve alarm storm problems. The introduction of the monitoring trail (m-trail) has been proven to deliver better performance by employing monitoring resources in a form of optical trails - a monitoring framework that generalizes all the previously reported counterparts. In this dissertation, the m-trail design is explored and a focus is given to the analysis on using m-trails with established lightpaths to achieve fault localization. This process saves network resources by reducing the number of the m-trails required for fault localization and therefore the number of wavelengths used in the network. A novel approach based on Geographic Midpoint Technique, an adapted version of the Chinese Postman's Problem (CPP) solution and an adapted version of the Traveling Salesman's Problem (TSP) solution algorithms is introduced. The desirable features of network architectures and the enabling of innovative technologies for delivering future millimeter-waveband (mm-WB) Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems for wireless services integrated in a Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is proposed in this dissertation. For the conceptual illustration, a DWDM RoF system with channel spacing of 12.5 GHz is considered. The mm-WB Radio Frequency (RF) signal is obtained at each Optical Network Unit (ONU) by simultaneously using optical heterodyning photo detection between two optical carriers. The generated RF modulated signal has a frequency of 12.5 GHz. This RoF system is easy, cost-effective, resistant to laser phase noise and also reduces maintenance needs, in principle. A revision of related RoF network proposals and experiments is also included. A number of models for Passive Optical Networks (PON)/ RoF-PON that combine both innovative and existing ideas along with a number of
Full Text Available Abstract Personal area networks and, more specifically, body area networks (BANs are key building blocks of future generation networks and of the Internet of Things as well. In this article, we present a novel analytical framework for network performance analysis of body sensor networks with hierarchical (tree topologies. This framework takes into account the specificities of the on-body channel modeling and the impact of the surrounding environment. The obtained results clearly highlight the differences between indoor and outdoor scenarios, and provide several insights on BAN design and analysis. In particular, it will be shown that the BAN topology should be selected according to the foreseen medical application and the deployment environment.
Antoniadis, Panayotis; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George
In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictitious play) regime. We consider either power or throughput based costs of networking, and the cases of identical or heterogeneous (independent) users/players. In a numerical study we consider diverse players, and we see that the effects of altruism for similar players can be beneficial in the presence of significant congestion, but excessive altruism may lead to underuse of the channel when demand is low.
Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Hadley, Mark D.
With the wide array of home area network (HAN) options being presented as solutions to smart grid challenges for the home, it is time to compare and contrast their strengths and weaknesses. This white paper examines leading and emerging HAN technologies. The emergence of the smart grid is bringing more networking players into the field. The need for low consistent bandwidth usage differs enough from the traditional information technology world to open the door to new technologies. The predominant players currently consist of a blend of the old and new. Within the wired world Ethernet and HomePlug Green PHY are leading the way with an advantage to HomePlug because it doesn't require installing new wires. In the wireless the realm there are many more competitors but WiFi and ZigBee seem to have the most momentum.
Montillet, J.-P.; Roberts, G. W.; Hancock, C.; Meng, X.; Ogundipe, O.; Barnes, J.
Locata is a new positioning technology developed by the Locata Corporation. At the beginning of 2007, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG) bought and received a network of Locata transceivers with two rovers. The purpose is to solve the challenges identified when surveying in dense multipath areas (i.e. urban canyons). In this paper, the technology is tested in an urban canyon scenario on the University park at the University of Nottingham. By comparing Locata position solutions with the true positions calculated with a total station and a carrier-phase GPS, the results show that centimetre-level accuracy is achievable in difficult environments in the presence of Wi-Fi signals. The rover’s estimated coordinates may diverge in some cases. Finally, a comparison study shows that Real Time Kinematic GPS and Locata technologies have similar accuracy when both are available.
Full Text Available Fibre channel storage area networks (SAN are widely implemented in production data center environments. Recently the storage industry has moved towards deployment of distributed SANs (DSAN, geographically dispersed across large physical distances. In a DSAN, specialized gateway devices interconnect the individual Fibre Channel (FC fabrics over IP networks using TCP/IP based protocols (iFCP or FCIP or over metro to long distance optical networks such as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM based networks that utilize native FC ports supporting large numbers of link credits. When using TCP/IP based storage networking protocols to interconnect local FC fabrics in a DSAN, the sustained throughput achievable depends upon the link characteristics and TCP/IP stack implementation. Sustaining maximum possible storage traffic throughput across the wide area network enables practical DSAN deployments by maintaining the required site to site service level agreements.This study explores the effects of several TCP/IP modifications on sustained traffic throughput for a DSAN interconnected via iFCP gateways across an impaired network. The TCP/IP stack modifications, known as storage friendly, include changes to the window scaling, congestion avoidance, and fast recovery algorithms. The theoretical background and experimental results are presented to explain and illustrate these modifications.
Hu, Liang; Coletti, Claudio; Nguyen, Huan Cong;
This paper investigates the downlink performance of indoor deployed Wi-Fi and Femto as the offloading solution to the LTE macro cellular networks in a real large-scale dense-urban scenario. With an assumed traffic volume of 50x compared to today’s levels, it is estimated that the LTE dual......-carrier macro network will suffer high network outage which is defined as proportion of outage users. A user is considered to be in outage if they have a user throughput less than 1 Mbps. We evaluate the performance of indoor Wi-Fi and Femto cell deployment to offload the congested LTE macro network. We show...... that, in a dual-carrier LTE macro case, Wi-Fi access point density of 230/km2 is required to meet the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) - less than 10% of users have a throughput below 1 Mbps whereas out-band Femto access point density of 1200/km2 is required. Furthermore, we show that in-band Femto cell...
WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) on sisätiloissa tai ihmiskehon välittömässä läheisyydessä käytettävä lyhyen kantaman langaton tiedonsiirtotapa. Se soveltuu sekä lääketieteellisiin että ei-lääketieteellisiin sovelluksiin. Yleisimmin sitä käytetään lääketieteessä potilaan reaaliaikaisessa diagnosoinnissa. Olemassa olevat lyhyen kantaman tiedonsiirtoteknologiat, kuten Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), ZigBee ja Wi-Fi olisivat olleet soveltuvia teknologioita WBAN:lle. Ne ovat k...
Fasee Ullah; Abdul Hanan Abdullah; Muhammad Qasim Jan; Kashif Naseer Qureshi
In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), various biomedical sensors (BMSs) are deployed to monitor various vital signs of a patient for detecting the abnormality of the vital signs. These BMSs inform the medical staff in advance before the patient’s life goes into a threatening situation. In WBAN, routing layer has the same challenges as generally seen in WSN, but the unique requirements of WBANs need to be addressed by the novel routing mechanisms quite differently from the routing mechanism in...
Somasundaram, M.; R. Sivakumar
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body fu...
Poppe, Andreas; Schrenk, Bernhard; Hipp, Florian; Peev, Momtchil; Aleksic, Slavisa; Franzl, Gerald; Ciurana Aguilar, Alex; Martín Ayuso, Vicente
The deployment of Quantum Key Distribution forces the development of QKD-links to be operated in current and next-generation photonic metro-access networks. These highly heterogeneous architectures determine the conditions QKD-links need to be optimized for.
Dittmann, Lars; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Checko, Aleksandra
In future mobile networks aggregation at different levels is necessary but at the same time imposes challenges that mandate looking into new architectures. This paper presents the design consideration approach for a C-RAN based mobile aggregation network used in the EU HARP project....... With this architecture fronthaul aggregation is performed which might be an option for future generation of mobile networks....
Li Dong; Liu Wei; Hui Chunli; Huang Changcheng; Cui Li
This paper describes the deployment optimization technology and the cross-layer design of a surveillance WSN system applied in relic protection. Facing the typical technical challenges in the application context of relic protection, we firstly propose a deployment technology based on ant colony optimization algorithm (DT-ACO) to overcome the difficulties in communication connectivity and sensing coverage. Meanwhile, DT-ACO minimizes the overall cost of the system as much as possible. Secondly we propose a novel power-aware cross-layer scheme (PACS) to facilitate adjustable system lifetime and surveillance accuracy. The performance analysis shows that we achieve lower device cost, significant extension of the system lifetime and improvement on the data delivery rate compared with the traditional methods.
Botsford, Louis W; White, J Wilson; Carr, Mark H; Caselle, Jennifer E
California responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed California's entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30-50% of coastline to protect marine ecosystems. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the California processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, California had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure ecosystem sustainability. PMID:25358301
Jabin, Joshua M.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis develops a model and performs analysis to estimate the operational effectiveness of the Marine Aviation Logistics Support Program II (MALSP II) under different system configurations and resource allocation policies. MALSP II is designed to protect the aviation logistics system from uncertain, possibly high variance, demand that could have a significant detrimental impact on the material readiness of deployed aircraft. Altho...
Takizawa, Kenichi; Aoyagi, Akahiro; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Katayama, Norihiko; Yekeh, Kamya; Takehiko, Yazdandoost; Kohno, Kobayashi Ryuji
Wireless patient monitoring using wearable sensors is a promising application. This paper provides stochastic channel models for wireless body area network (WBAN) on the human body. Parameters of the channel models are extracted from measured channel transfer functions (CTFs) in a hospital room. Measured frequency bands are selected so as to include permissible bands for WBAN; ultra wideband (UWB), the industry, science and medical (ISM) bands, and wireless medical telemetry system (WMTS) bands. As channel models, both a path loss model and a power delay profile (PDP) model are considered. But, even though path loss models are derived for the all frequency bands, PDP model is only for the UWB band due to the highly frequency selectiveness of UWB channels. The parameters extracted from the measurement results are summarized for each channel model. PMID:19162968
the storage infrastructure is the foundation on which information relies and therefore must support a company's business objectives and business model. In this environment, simply deploying more and faster storage devices is not enough; a new kind of infrastructure is needed, one that provides more enhanced network availability, data accessibility, and system manageability than is provided by today's infrastructure. The SAN meets this challenge. The SAN liberates the storage device, so it is not on a particular server bus, and attaches it directly to the network. In other words, storage is externalized and functionally distributed across the organization. The SAN also enables the centralizing of storage devices and the clustering of servers, which makes for easier and less expensive administration. So the idea is to create an intelligent SAN infrastructure that stretches to meet increased demands, allows highly available and heterogeneous access to expanding information.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent a class of miniaturized information systems designed to monitor physical environments. These smart monitoring systems form collaborative networks utilizing autonomous sensing, data-collection, and processing to provide real-time analytics of observed environments. As a fundamental research area in…
Martins, Luciano; Ferramola Pozzuto, João; Olimpio Tognolli, João; Chaves, Niudomar Siqueira De A.; Reggiani, Atilio Eduardo; Hortêncio, Claudio Antonio
This article presents the implementation of a testbed and the experimental results obtained with it on the Brazilian Experimental Network of the government-sponsored "GIGA Project." The use of IPv6 integrated to current and emerging optical architectures and technologies, such as dense wavelength division multiplexing and 10-gigabit Ethernet on the core and gigabit capable passive optical network and optical distribution network on access, were tested. These protocols, architectures, and optical technologies are promising and part of a brand new worldwide technological scenario that has being fairly adopted in the networks of enterprises and providers of the world.
Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4-based devices networks known by the name of LR-WPAN (Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network are characterized by low computation, memory and storage space, and they do not possess an infrastructure. This makes them dynamic and easy to deploy, but in the other hand, this makes them very vulnerable to security issues, as they are low energy so they cant implement current security solutions, and they are deployed in non-secure environments that makes them susceptible to eavesdropping attacks. Most proposed solutions draw out the security of the bootstrapping and commissioning phases as the percentage of existing of an intruder in this time is very low. In this paper, we propose a security model for LR-WPANs based on symmetric cryptography, which takes into account securing the bootstrapping phase, with an analysis of the effectiveness of this proposal and the measures of its implementation.
Smart homes use sensor based networks to capture activities and offer learned services to the user. These smart home networks are challenging because they mainly use wireless communication at frequencies that are shared with other services and equipments. One of the major challenges is the interf...
... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... through the area. Dated: August 2, 2010. D.A. Neptun, Rear Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, Commander,...
Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.
Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via
Le Xuan Hung
Full Text Available For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODEplus. It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1 Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2 The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3 The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4 Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5 No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODEplus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully.
Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Keener, Tim C.; Soon-Jai Khang
Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The syst...
Sossan, Fabrizio; Darulová, Jana; Paolone, Mario; Kahl, Annelen; Bartlett, Stuart John; Lehning, Michael
In fixed PV installations, the azimuth and tilt of the panels are normally chosen with the objective of maximizing the plant capacity factor. In this paper, we show that when considering distribution networks with densely clustered PV plants, there exist installation criteria other than the conventional that achieve higher net PV production without violating distribution network constraints. In particular, we formulate an optimization problem to determine the siting, sizing, azimuth and tilt ...
Zhu, Quanyan; Clark, Andrew; Poovendran, Radha; Basar, Tamer
As social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are becoming increasingly popular, a growing number of malicious attacks, such as phishing and malware, are exploiting them. Among these attacks, social botnets have sophisticated infrastructure that leverages compromised users accounts, known as bots, to automate the creation of new social networking accounts for spamming and malware propagation. Traditional defense mechanisms are often passive and reactive to non-zero-day attacks. In t...
António Pereira; Florentino Fdez-Riverola; Filipe Felisberto; Nuno Costa
The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge ...
Thotahewa, Kasun Maduranga Silva; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit
This book explores the design of ultra wideband (UWB) technology for wireless body-area networks (WBAN). The authors describe a novel implementation of WBAN sensor nodes that use UWB for data transmission and narrow band for data reception, enabling low power sensor nodes, with high data rate capability. The discussion also includes power efficient, medium access control (MAC) protocol design for UWB based WBAN applications and the authors present a MAC protocol in which a guaranteed delivery mechanism is utilized to transfer data with high priority. Readers will also benefit from this book’s feasibility analysis of the UWB technology for human implant applications through the study of electromagnetic and thermal power absorption of human tissue that is exposed to UWB signals. • Describes hardware platform development for IR-UWB based WBAN communication; • Discusses power efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol design for IR-UWB based WBAN applications; • Includes feasibility analy...
Fatehy, Mohammed; Kohno, Ryuji
The successful realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology supports different medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications but stand in a need for an innovative solution to meet the different requirements of these applications. Previously, we proposed to use adaptive processing gain (PG) to fulfill the different QoS requirements of these WBAN applications. In this paper, interference occurred between two different BANs in a UWB-based system has been analyzed in terms of acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs' PG providing the required QoS for each BAN. The first BAN employed for a healthcare device (e.g. EEG, ECG, etc.) with a relatively longer spreading sequence is used and the second customized for entertainment application (e.g. wireless headset, wireless game pad, etc.) where a shorter spreading code is assigned. Considering bandwidth utilization and difference in the employed spreading sequence, the acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs should fall between 0.05 and 0.5 in order to optimize the used spreading sequence and in the meantime satisfying the required QoS for these applications. PMID:24109913
TIS - the process supervisory LAN was installed at both the NPP V-1 twin-units of WWER-440/230 type and the NPP V-2 twin-units of WWER-440/213 type at Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovak Republic, in 1992. It represents a superstructure to the existing reactor unit process computers RPP-16S and IV 500 MA at the NPP V-1 and IVS Komplex Uran 2M and KVRK at the NPP V-2. The principal goal of TIS is to supply both the main control room staff and the NPP operation personnel and operation mode engineers with process information in a larger extent and on a higher level than the existing process computers do. TIS provides following process supervision functions: Taking over Data, Data Processing, Operative and Historical Data Collection, Active Alarm Management, Mimic Diagrams, REAL-time and Historical Trending, Horizontal Bargraphs, Data Tables, Report Generation, Shift Supervisor Support in case of Failure/Accident at NPP, User Database Applications, Computerized Operating Procedures, Programmable Prompts to Operator, ''Desk-top'' Calculator, Communication with Professional Departments, Auto-diagnostics. TIS is a PC local area network of QNX NET type, its data transmission rate being 2.5 Mbits/second. TIS is run under QNX operating system. Application software modules are written in QNX C and C-86 languages. Some functions were completed in OnCmd v.4.2 database environment. (author). 2 figs
Michael H Parsons
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been
Lusheng Wang; Yamei Wang; Zhizhong Ding; Xiumin Wang
With the rapid development of wireless networking technologies, the Internet of Things and heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) tend to be integrated to form a promising wireless network paradigm for 5G. Hyper-dense sensor and mobile devices will be deployed under the coverage of heterogeneous cells, so that each of them could freely select any available cell covering it and compete for resource with others selecting the same cell, forming a cell selection (CS) game between these devices. S...
Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I; 10.5121/ijdms.2010.2305
The Next Generation Networks (NGN) aims to integrate for IP-based telecom infrastructures and provide most advance & high speed emerging value added services. NGN capable to provide higher innovative services, these services will able to integrate communication and Web service into a single platform. IP Multimedia Subsystem, a NGN leading technology, enables a variety of NGN-compliant communications services to interoperate while being accessed through different kinds of access networks, preferably broadband. IMSâNGN services essential by both consumer and corporate users are by now used to access services, even communications services through the web and web-based communities and social networks, It is key for success of IMS-based services to be provided with efficient web access, so users can benefit from those new services by using web-based applications and user interfaces, not only NGN-IMS User Equipments and SIP protocol. Many Service are under planning which provided only under convergence of ...
Taylor Lee Mayol
Full Text Available Since 2004, the creation of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs in Madagascar has exponentially increased, highlighting the need for improved information sharing between communities and between support organizations. Until recently, however, these LMMAs operated in relative isolation, with little communication or coordination between LMMA community associations.Madagascar’s first national LMMA forum was held to address this need in June 2012 in the village of Andavadoaka. The forum brought together 55 community members from 18 LMMAs throughout Madagascar, representing a total of 134 villages. A principle outcome of this meeting was the formation of a national LMMA network named MIHARI, a Malagasy acronym that translates into ‘local marine resource management’. The nascent MIHARI network is an informal network that was inspired by the success of the LMMA Network in the Indo-Pacific region. MIHARI aims to facilitate peer-to-peer learning amongst coastal communities, improve communication, raise the profile and expand the use of the LMMA approach and serve as a unified lobbying platform for the interests of Madagascar’s traditional fishers.The creation of MIHARI represents a significant development towards uniting community-led approaches to conservation in Madagascar and highlights the significant role LMMAs can play in marine conservation on a national scale. This is of particular significance in Madagascar, a country with little capacity or financial resources to oversee large-scale marine conservation efforts, a problem compounded by both the vast coastline and geographical isolation of many fishing communities. Madagascar’s new LMMA network is leading the way for coastal community conservation in the western Indian Ocean and aims to serve as the basis for a wider regional LMMA network. RésuméDepuis 2004, la mise en place d’Aires Marines Gérées Localement (AMGL à Madagascar suit une augmentation exponentielle, mettant en lumi
Samuel de Barros Moraes
Full Text Available This case study, based on interviews and technical analysis of a Brazilian water utility with more than 10 million clients, aims to understand what kind of adjusts on a telecommunications network, developed for operational and corporate use, demands to support a smart metering system, identifying this synergies and challenges.
Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.
This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.
The primary aim of the IN was to enhance the core telephony services offered by traditional telecommunications networks, which usually amounted to making and receiving voice calls, sometimes with call divert. This core would then provide a basis upon which operators could build services in addition to those already present on astandard telephone exchange. Using the intelligent network (IN) approach for supporting telecommunications services enables the use of productivity-enhancing techniques...
Antonio F. Gómez Skarmeta
Full Text Available The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain.
Bleda, Andrés L; Jara, Antonio J; Maestre, Rafael; Santa, Guadalupe; Gómez Skarmeta, Antonio F
The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT) and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain. PMID:22778653
Taylor, J. G.; Schmitz, N.; Ziemons, K.; Grosse-Ruyken, M. L.; Gruber, O; Müller-Gärtner, H. W.; Shah, J. N.
A network of brain areas is expected to be involved in supporting the motion aftereffect. The most active components of this network were determined by means of an fMRI study of nine subjects exposed to a visual stimulus of moving bars producing the effect. Across the subjects, common areas were identified during various stages of the effect, as well as networks of areas specific to a single stage. In addition to the well-known motion-sensitive area MT the prefrontal brain areas BA44 and 47 a...
Trifa, Vlad; Girod, Lewis; Travis C. Collier; Blumstein, Daniel; Taylor, C E
To understand the complex interactions among animals within an ecosystem, biologists need to be able to track their location and social interactions. There are a variety of factors that make this difficult. We propose using adaptive, embedded networked sensing technologies to develop an efficient means for wildlife monitoring. This paper surveys our research; we demonstrate how a self-organizing system can efficiently conduct real-time acoustic source detection and localization using distribu...
Escolà Henke, Jean Miquel
A Hotel chain distributed over Europe wishes to provide wireless access to Internet for the hosted customers and offer an integral security through a Unified Threat Management ( UTM ) The project will consist; in one hand, based on the customer's needs, on adding a wireless access, with a captive portal authentication centralized at our company being able to manage users as well as the wireless networks remotely. On the other hand, the securization and management of the communication li...
Gaoning, He; Betz, Sharon; Debbah, Merouane
International audience We present a non-cooperative game-theoretic approach for the distributed resource allocation problem in the context of multiple transmitters communicating with multiple receivers through parallel independent fading channels, which is closely related with small-cell multi-user orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, e.g., Wi-Fi hotspots. We assume that all the transmitters are rational, selfish, and each one carries the objective of maximizing its ...
Hu, Pili; Fan, Qijiang; Lau, Wing Cheong
In this paper, we present the design, implementation and our year-long maintenance experience of SNSAPI, a Python-based middleware which unifies the interfaces and data structures of heterogeneous Social Networking Services (SNS). Unlike most prior works, our middleware is user-oriented and requires zero infrastructure support. It enables a user to readily conduct online social activities in a programmable, cross-platform fashion while gradually reducing the dependence on centralized Online S...
Dangui Yan; Chengchang Zhang; Honghua Liao; Lisheng Yang; Ping Li; Guogang Yang
Aiming at the problem of inefficiency of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access point (AP) deployment in urban environment, a new algorithm for AP deployment based on physical distance and channel isolation (DPDCI) is proposed. First, it detects the position information of deployed APs and then calculates the interference penalty factor combined with physical distance and channel isolation, and finally gets the optimal location and channel of the new AP through the genetic algorithm. Comp...
Dong, Jie; SMITH, DAVID
In this paper, a cooperative two-hop communication scheme, together with opportunistic relaying (OR), is applied within a mobile wireless body area network (WBAN). Its effectiveness in interference mitigation is investigated in a scenario where there are multiple closely-located networks. Due to a typical WBAN's nature, no coordination is used among different WBANs. A suitable time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) is adopted as both an intra-network and also an inter-network access scheme. Ext...
Intrusion detection is an important aspect of the research of network safety in wireless sensor networks.Aiming at the disadvan-tages of existing intrusion detection schemes that they only consider the protection of single network infrastructure but rarely deem the WSN as a whole in intrusion detection,this paper presents a node deployment scheme for boundary intrusion detection.Firstly,it deems the entire monitoring area as a whole,and then deploys the nodes based on reverse Gaussian distribution,the larger number of sensor nodes is deployed to the area closing the boundary,finally,in order to ensure the connectivity and coverage over the entire network,the area is divided onto multiple rounds,the required minimum number of the deployed sensor nodes in each round is analysed theoretically.Simulation experimental results show that this scheme can effectively realise intrusion detection,and is superior to Gaussian deployment and uniform deployment sce-narios in terms of intrusion distance and the number of sensor nodes by invasion triggered.%入侵检测是无线传感器网络安全研究的一个重要方面。针对现有的入侵检测方案大多只考虑保护单一的网络设施，很少将整个WSN网络看作一个整体来进行入侵检测的不足，提出一种面向边界入侵检测的节点部署方案。首先将整个监测区域看作一个整体，然后基于逆高斯分布对节点进行部署，靠近边界的区域被部署更多数量的传感器节点，最后为了保证整个网络的连通和覆盖，通过将整个区域划分为多个轮，从理论上分析了在每轮中所需部署传感器节点的最少数目。仿真实验结果表明，该方案能够有效地实现入侵检测，在入侵距离和入侵所触发的传感器节点数目方面都要优于高斯部署和均匀部署方案。
Liu, C.; Lu, P.; WU, H.
Landslide is one of the most destructive natural disasters, which severely affects human lives as well as the safety of personal properties and public infrastructures. Monitoring and predicting landslide movements can keep an adequate safety level for human beings in those situations. This paper indicated a newly developed Stereo Multi-sensor Landslide Monitoring Network (SMSLMN) based on a uniform temporal geo-reference. Actually, early in 2003, SAMOA (Surveillance et Auscultation des Mouvements de Terrain Alpins, French) project was put forwarded as a plan for landslide movements monitoring. However, SAMOA project did not establish a stereo observation network to fully cover the surface and internal part of landslide. SMSLMN integrated various sensors, including space-borne, airborne, in-situ and underground sensors, which can quantitatively monitor the slide-body and obtain portent information of movement in high frequency with high resolution. The whole network has been deployed at the Xishan landslide, Sichuan, P.R.China. According to various characteristic of stereo monitoring sensors, observation capabilities indicators for different sensors were proposed in order to obtain the optimal sensors combination groups and observation strategy. Meanwhile, adaptive networking and reliable data communication methods were developed to apply intelligent observation and sensor data transmission. Some key technologies, such as signal amplification and intelligence extraction technology, data access frequency adaptive adjustment technology, different sensor synchronization control technology were developed to overcome the problems in complex observation environment. The collaboratively observation data have been transferred to the remote data center where is thousands miles away from the giant landslide spot. These data were introduced into the landslide stability analysis model, and some primary conclusion will be achieved at the end of paper.
The ever increasing demand for performance and data security improvement in wireless local area network (W LAN) has motivated increasing the difficulties to crack the system by man-in -the middle attacks. There are two primary and main objectives of this thesis to enhance data security in WLAN. The first objective is the enhancement of identities-exchange and key-exchange during authentication process. The second objective is the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm based on key-updating to enhance the performance of data-security in WLAN. The current asymmetrical encryption algorithms are used to authenticate the devices in WLAN to each other. They are used to exchange the identities and the keys in a secret channel during the authentication process. This thesis investigates the problems of identities- exchange. The enhancement of the identities-exchange and key-exchange stages during the authentication process has been suggested and studied in the thesis to solve the drawbacks of the traditional asymmetrical encryption algorithms.Next the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption to encrypt the data during the data exchange process gives a new approach to increase the difficulties to the man in the middle attacks to crack the system.The key updating with each packet is the new approach to solve the problem of the fixed key used to encrypt / decrypt the data with all packets in WLAN.A Comparative study between the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithms and the other algorithms is presented in the thesis. Proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm is applied on a text, voice, and image messages as practical applications of the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm. Finally, the man-in-the middle attacks can broadcast noise signals in WLAN channels to prevent the data to reach correctly to the end-user. The quality of the received image is measured for the proposed and the traditional symmetrical encryption algorithms to
Today the Networks grow in the- scale along many dimensions, among those one of the dimensions is to analyze Network Traffic and to predict the traffic for future Networks. The fastest growth of DCN (Data Communication Networks) over the past decades has resulted in the development of various Network utilities, which perform Network evaluation in different domains. As more and more people are getting interested in the networking, more network monitoring application is being developed by the computer scientists and engineers. Usually, a network consist of different platforms and operating systems. On a Network packets of various types such as data packets, control packets, travel from PC to PC. In this paper we are going to present a network diagnostic Tool that captures all packets over local area network (LAN). The Network Diagnostic Tool captures packets under the platform windows NT/2000. The execution mode of the tool is absolutely at Run time. It tracks the packets as they move on from the lowest layer to the upper layer in the TCP/IP Protocol Stack. It efficiently decrypts all the incoming packets using the RFC (Request for Comments) standards. The results suggest that the Network Diagnostic tool successfully decrypts all the incoming network traffic accurately and efficiently. (author)
Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão;
activities with the Autonomous Component Carrier Selection (ACCS) algorithm, a distributed solution for interference management among small neighboring cells. A preliminary evaluation of the algorithm performance is provided considering its live execution on a software defined radio network testbed. The......Next generation wireless networks aim at a significant improvement of the spectral efficiency in order to meet the dramatic increase in data service demand. In local area scenarios user-deployed base stations are expected to take place, thus making the centralized planning of frequency resources...... among the cells, a non-viable solution. Cognitive Radio (CR) and Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) are the research paradigms which are expected to provide the network nodes the capabilities for an autonomous and efficient selection of the spectrum resources. In this paper we present the first experimental...
Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) are envisioned to enable next-generation cellular networks by providing higher spectral and energy efficiency. A HetNet is typically composed of multiple radio access technologies where several low-power low-cost operators or user-deployed small-cell base stations (SBSs) complement the macrocell network. In this paper, we consider a two-tier HetNet where the SBSs are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the resultant configuration is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE). Each mobile user in a small cell is considered capable of adapting its uplink transmit power according to a location-based slow power control mechanism. The COE configuration is observed to increase the uplink area spectral efficiency (ASE) and energy efficiency while reducing the cochannel interference power. A moment-generating-function (MGF)-based approach has been exploited to derive the analytical bounds on the uplink ASE of the COE configuration. The derived expressions are generalized for any composite fading distribution, and closed-form expressions are presented for the generalized- K fading channels. Simulation results are included to support the analysis and to show the efficacy of the COE configuration. A comparative performance analysis is also provided to demonstrate the improvements in the performance of cell-edge users of the COE configuration compared with that of macro-only networks (MoNets) and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2013 IEEE.
Full Text Available The primary aim of the IN was to enhance the core telephony services offered by traditional telecommunications networks, which usually amounted to making and receiving voice calls, sometimes with call divert. This core would then provide a basis upon which operators could build services in addition to those already present on astandard telephone exchange. Using the intelligent network (IN approach for supporting telecommunications services enables the use of productivity-enhancing techniques for the creation of new services. Rather than creating new services by cutting fresh software code, modules of service-independent logic can be arranged using graphical user interfaces. As a result, advanced telecommunications services, which are independent of the central switch, can be created more quickly than ever.
Arrobo, Gabriel E; Gitlin, Richard D
In this paper we propose a highly reliable wireless body area network (WBAN) that provides increased throughput and avoids single points of failure. Such networks improve upon current WBANs by taking advantage of a new technology, Cooperative Network Coding (CNC). Using CNC in wireless body area network to support real-time applications is an attractive solution to combat packet loss, reduce latency due to retransmissions, avoid single points of failure, and improve the probability of successful recovery of the information at the destination. In this paper, we have extended Cooperative Network Coding, from its original configuration (one-to-one) to many-to-many as in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Cooperative Network Coding results in increased throughput and network reliability because of the cooperation of the nodes in transmitting coded combination packets across spatially distinct paths to the information sinks. PMID:22254774
Gritzalis, S; Gritzalis, D; Moulinos, C; Iliadis, J
In this paper we describe a pilot architecture aiming at protecting Web-based medical applications through the development of a virtual private medical network. The basic technology, which is utilized by this integrated architecture, is the Trusted Third Party (TTP). In specific, a TTP is used to generate, distribute, and revoke digital certificates to/from medical practitioners and healthcare organizations wishing to communicate in a secure way. Digital certificates and digital signatures are, in particular, used to provide peer and data origin authentication and access control functionalities. We also propose a logical Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) architecture, which is robust, scalable, and based on standards. This architecture aims at supporting large-scale healthcare applications. It supports openness, scalability, flexibility and extensibility, and can be integrated with existing TTP schemes and infrastructures offering transparency and adequate security. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed architecture enjoys all desirable usability characteristics, and meets the set of criteria, which constitutes an applicable framework for the development of trusted medical services over the Web. PMID:11583408
Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.
A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.
Ivanov, Ilia N.; Simpson, John T.
A method of preparing a network comprises disposing a solution comprising particulate materials in a solvent onto a superhydrophobic surface comprising a plurality of superhydrophobic features and interfacial areas between the superhydrophobic features. The plurality of superhydrophobic features has a water contact angle of at least about 150.degree.. The method of preparing the network also comprises removing the solvent from the solution of the particulate materials, and forming a network of the particulate materials in the interfacial areas, the particulate materials receding to the interfacial areas as the solvent is removed.
Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W
The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.
John, Wolfgang; Devlic, Alisa; Ding, Zhemin; Jocha, David; Kern, Andras; Kind, Mario; Köpsel, Andreas; Nordell, Viktor; Sharma, Sachin; Sköldström, Pontus; Staessens, Dimitri; Takacs, Attila; Topp, Steffen; Westphal, F. -Joachim; Woesner, Hagen
This report defines a carrier-grade split architecture based on requirements identified during the SPARC project. It presents the SplitArchitecture proposal, the SPARC concept for Software Defined Networking (SDN) introduced for large-scale wide area networks such as access/aggregation networks, and evaluates technical issues against architectural trade-offs. First we present the control and management architecture of the proposed SplitArchitecture. Here, we discuss a recursive control archit...
Md. Asdaque Hussain; Md. Nasre Alam; Kyung Sup Kwak
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer ...
朱炳春; 贾潞华; 等
This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media access control protocols.We have designed ralated network simulation systems.With these simulation systems,the characteristics and performanceof the two MANs can be achieved.