Diversity of the genus Polylepis (Rosaceae, Sanguisorbeae in the Peruvian Andes
Wilfredo Mendoza
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This study provides information on the diversity of Peruvian species of Polylepis. Nineteen (19 species are reported here (more than 70% of the 27 species registered for the whole Andean region. As a result, Peru could be considered as the country with the largest diversity of Polylepis species, in comparison with Bolivia (13, Ecuador (7, Argentina (4, Colombia (3, Chile (2, and Venezuela (1. The species occur in 19 departments of Peru, with the majority of them in Cusco (10 and Ayacucho (8. Species diversity is mostly concentrated in the Peruvian southern Andes (15 species, with the region becoming the potential center of diversification of the genus Polylepis. Regarding their altitudinal distribution, the greatest diversity (18 is found between 3000 and 4000 m.
Gareca Leon, Edgar
2012-01-01
Conservation biology, defined by its goalto halt or repair the undeniable, massive damage that is being done to ecosystems, species, and the relationships of humans to the environment, can help to understand how native species respond to the main threats to biodiversity. The tropical Andes is one of the most important mountainous hotspots of biodiversity, and the ecosystems above the forest line contain one of the most threatened ecosystems in South America, the Polylepis woodlands. The main...
The Gilbert Arborescence Problem
Volz, M G; Ras, C J; Swanepoel, K J; Thomas, D A
2009-01-01
We investigate the problem of designing a minimum cost flow network interconnecting n sources and a single sink, each with known locations and flows. The network may contain other unprescribed nodes, known as Steiner points. For concave increasing cost functions, a minimum cost network of this sort has a tree topology, and hence can be called a Minimum Gilbert Arborescence (MGA). We characterise the local topological structure of Steiner points in MGAs, showing, in particular, that for a wide range of metrics and cost-functions the degree of each Steiner point is 3.
Toponym Disambiguation by Arborescent Relationships
Imene Bensalem
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The way of referring to a place in the geographical space can be formal, based on the spatial coordinates, or informal, which we use in natural language by using toponyms (place names. A toponym can represent several geographical places. This ambiguity made problematic its conversion towards a unique formal representation. Toponym disambiguation in text is the task of assigning a unique location to an ambiguous place name in a given textual context. Approach: Several toponym disambiguation heuristics assumed a geographical proximity between the toponyms of the same context. This proximity can be in terms of spatial distance or in terms of arborsecent relationships, i.e., proximity in the hierarchical tree of the world places. This study presented a new toponym disambiguation heuristic in text based on the quantification of the arborescent proximity between toponyms. This quantification was done by a new measure of geographical correlation that we call the Geographical Density. Results: Our method was compared to the state of the art methods using GeoSemCor corpus and it has outperformed them in term of recall (87.4% and coverage (99.0%. The results showed that the toponyms of the same context are much closer in terms of arborescent relationships than in terms of spatial relationships. Conclusion: We believe that the quantification of arborescent relationships between toponyms of the same textual context is a good way to improve the recall of TD task. However, all the arborescent relationships types must be considered and not only the meronymy, which is the relation the most exploited in the existing TD methods.
Tabulating knot polynomials for arborescent knots
Mironov, A; Morozov, An; Sleptsov, A; Ramadevi, P; Singh, Vivek Kumar
2016-01-01
Arborescent knots are the ones which can be represented in terms of double fat graphs or equivalently as tree Feynman diagrams. This is the class of knots for which the present knowledge is enough for lifting topological description to the level of effective analytical formulas. The paper describes the origin and structure of the new tables of colored knot polynomials, which will be posted at the dedicated site. Even if formal expressions are known in terms of modular transformation matrices, the computation in finite time requires additional ideas. We use the "family" approach, and apply it to arborescent knots in Rolfsen table by developing a Feynman diagram technique, associated with an auxiliary matrix model field theory. Gauge invariance in this theory helps to provide meaning to Racah matrices in the case of non-trivial multiplicities and explains the need for peculiar sign prescriptions in the calculation of [21]-colored HOMFLY polynomials.
Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.
Salm, Rodolfo
2005-11-01
This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests. PMID:16532195
Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.
Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso
2014-02-01
Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow. PMID:24488857
Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands
Brian R. Zutta; Phillip W. Rundel; Sassan Saatchi; Jorge D. Casana; Paul Gauthier Gauthier; Aldo Soto; Yessenia Velazco; Wolfgang Buermann
2012-01-01
Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects...
Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands
Brian R. Zutta
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.
Vegetation of a Polylepis incarum forest (Rosaceae) in Lampa district, Puno, Peru
Montesinos, D.B.; Pinto, A.; Farfán, D.F.B.; Galiano, Y.W.
2015-01-01
Abstract The vegetation of the Polylepis incarum (Bitter) M. Kessler & Schmidt-LeBuhn forests was studied in the Lamparaquen annex in the province of Lampa, Puno department in 2009 and 2014. A total of 83 vascular species belonging to 35 families were determined. The lifeforms are represented by
2012-01-01
Zamia huilensis Calonje, Esquivel, & D.W. Stev., a new arborescent species from theEastern Cordillera of Colombia (Department of Huila), is described and illustrated. Itis compared to Z. muricata Willd., which has similar leaflet shape, and to Z. tolimensisCalonje, Esquivel & D.W. Stev., with which it shares some reproductive characters.It differs from Z. muricata in having an arborescent trunk, beige-yellow to beigeovulate strobili supported by short peduncles, and microsporangia agg...
Randall R. Jiménez; Jorengeth Abad Rodríguez-Rodríguez
2015-01-01
The intensity of aggression against intruders by owners of a territory has been related to the type of resources available to an individual within its territory. The influence of perch-site characteristics on aggressive behavior of resident male Norops polylepis in presence of an intruder male was investigated in this study. At each perch site, pairwise encounters were conducted in which the aggressive behavior of resident males was recorded, along with the diameter of the perch and the numbe...
Boyle, Kelly S; Tricas, Timothy C
2010-11-15
Acoustic behaviors are widespread among diverse fish taxa but mechanisms of sound production are known from relatively few species, vary widely and convergent mechanisms are poorly known. We examined the sound production mechanism in the pyramid butterflyfish, Hemitaurichthys polylepis, a member of the socially and ecologically diverse reef fish family Chaetodontidae. In the field, fish produce pulse trains at dusk during social interactions that are probably related to mate attraction and courtship. In laboratory experiments, sound production was synchronized to high-speed video to determine body movement associated with sound generation. In addition, electromyography (EMG) recordings tested the activity of six candidate muscles. Fish produced individual pulses with a mean peak frequency of 97 Hz in rapid succession. EMG experiments show that anterior hypaxial muscles contract at high bilaterally synchronous rates (up to 120 Hz) in near perfect association with rapid inward buckling visible outside the body over the anterior swim bladder. Muscle activity often showed EMG doublets that occurred within the time of a single sound pulse but was not sustained. Buckling and sound pulse rates correlated strongly (R(2)≈1.00) and sound pulse rate measured over two successive pulses (maximum of 38 pulses s(-1)) was lower than muscle firing rate. These results show that the extrinsic swim bladder muscles of pyramid butterflyfish involve single contractions that produce pulses in a manner similar to distantly related teleosts, but involve a novel doublet motor-neuron firing pattern. Thus, the sound production mechanism in pyramid butterflyfish is likely convergent with several percomorph taxa and divergent from the related chaetodontid genus Forcipiger. PMID:21037068
Ranking graph edges by the weight of their spanning arborescences or trees
Paulo Oswaldo Boaventura-Netto
2008-04-01
Full Text Available A result based on a classic theorem of graph theory is generalized for edge-valued graphs, allowing determination of the total value of the spanning arborescences with a given root and containing a given arc in a directed valued graph. A corresponding result for undirected valued graphs is also presented. In both cases, the technique allows for a ranking of the graph edges by importance under this criterion. This ranking is proposed as a tool to determine the relative importance of the edges of a graph in network vulnerability studies. Some examples of application are presented.Um resultado baseado em um teorema clássico da teoria dos grafos é aqui generalizado para grafos valorados, permitindo a determinação do valor total das arborescências parciais com raiz dada que contenham um arco dado, em um grafo orientado valorado. Um resultado correspondente para grafos não orientados valorados é também apresentado. Em ambos os casos, a técnica descrita permite uma hierarquização por importância das ligações do grafo, sob este critério. Esta hierarquização é proposta como uma ferramenta para determinar a importância relativa das ligações de um grafo em estudos sobre vulnerabilidade de redes. Alguns exemplos aplicados são apresentados.
Small-scale mapping of indeterminate arborescent acroporid coral ( Acropora cervicornis) patches
Walker, B. K.; Larson, E. A.; Moulding, A. L.; Gilliam, D. S.
2012-09-01
Western Atlantic populations of the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis have drastically declined over the past few decades. Hence, interest in its ecology and spatial extent has increased. Acroporid corals with indeterminate arborescent growth like A. cervicornis primarily reproduce asexually by fragmentation, which can lead to extensive monotypic patches. Since fragmentation is a major component in indeterminate acroporid reproduction, these patches may expand or move over time. Periodic perimeter mapping facilitates comparison of patch areas to determine movement or expansion. A repeatable, low-cost method using a differential GPS carried by a snorkeler was employed to map the perimeter of A. cervicornis patches in southeast Florida. Perimeters were mapped over a 3-year period. Patch boundaries were dynamic, expanding in one or more directions. Patch areas increased by up to 7.5 times their original size and moved up to 51 m. Results were corroborated by spatial cluster analyses of in situ live coral cover measurements. Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and Anselin Local Moran's I spatial cluster analyses of live coral cover within an array of in situ monitoring plots indicated that significant high cover clusters moved in the direction of mapped patch perimeter expansion. Expansion was coupled by more than 50 % decreases in total live cover. Information gained herein shows that A. cervicornis patches are spatially and temporally dynamic, having implications to long-term permanent transect monitoring studies and framework development. Results may be applicable to other shallow water indeterminate arborescent acroporid coral species.
Low temperature resistance in saplings and ramets of Polylepis sericea in the Venezuelan Andes
Rada, Fermín; García-Núñez, Carlos; Rangel, Sairo
2009-09-01
The frequent occurrence of all year-round below zero temperatures in tropical high mountains constitutes a most stressful climatic factor that plants have to confront. Polylepis forests are found well above the continuous forest line and are distributed throughout the Andean range. These trees require particular traits to overcome functional limitations imposed on them at such altitudes. Considering seedling and sapling stages as filter phases in stressful environments, some functional aspects of the regeneration of Polylepis sericea, a species associated to rock outcrops in the Venezuelan Andes, were studied. We characterized microclimatic conditions within a forest, in a forest gap and surrounding open páramo and determined low temperature resistance mechanisms in seedlings, saplings and ramets. Conditions in the forest understory were more stable compared to the forest gaps and open surrounding páramo. Minimum temperatures close to the ground were 3.6 °C lower in the open páramo compared to the forest understory. Maximum temperatures were 9.0 °C higher in the open páramo. Ice nucleation and injury temperatures occurred between -6 and -8 °C for both ramets and saplings, an evidence of frost avoidance to low nighttime temperatures. In this particular forest, this resistance ability is determinant in their island-like distribution in very specific less severe temperature habitats.
McCoy, Gary R; Kegel, Jessica U; Touzet, Nicolas; Fleming, Gerard T A; Medlin, Linda K; Raine, Robin
2014-04-01
Traditional methods of identification and enumeration can be somewhat ambiguous when identifying phytoplankton that requires electron microscopic examination to verify specific morphological features. Members of the genus Prymnesium (division Haptophyta), members of the Raphidophyceae and naked dinoflagellates are examples of such phytoplankton whose identification can be difficult. One alternative to traditional microscopy-based methods of identification is to use molecular protocols to detect target species. Methods that measure cellular DNA and RNA content can be used to estimate the number of cells present in a sample. This study investigated the variation of RNA yields in Prymnesium parvum, P. polylepis, cf. Chattonella sp. and Karlodinium veneficum cells grown under different light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrient conditions. This information was used to calibrate the signal intensity of a variety of oligonucleotide probes spotted onto the microarrays for the detection of toxic algae (MIDTAL), which is being developed to aid national monitoring agencies and to provide a faster means of identifying and quantifying harmful phytoplankton in water column samples. PMID:24392749
Gatti, M Genoveva; Campanello, Paula I; Villagra, Mariana; Montti, Lía; Goldstein, Guillermo
2014-06-01
Physiological characteristics of saplings can be considered one of the most basic constraints on species distribution. The shade-tolerant arborescent palm Euterpe edulis Mart. is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. At a local scale, saplings of this species growing in native forests are absent in gaps. We tested the hypothesis whether sensitivity to photoinhibition or hydraulic architecture constrains the distribution of E. edulis saplings in sun-exposed forest environments. Using shade houses and field studies, we evaluated growth, survival, hydraulic traits and the susceptibility of Photosystem II to photoinhibition in E. edulis saplings under different growth irradiances. Survival rates in exposed sites in the field were very low (a median of 7%). All saplings exhibited photoinhibition when exposed to high radiation levels, but acclimation to a high radiation environment increased the rate of recovery. Petiole hydraulic conductivity was similar across treatments regardless of whether it was expressed per petiole cross-sectional area or per leaf area. At the plant level, investment in conductive tissues relative to leaf area (Huber values) increased with increasing irradiance. Under high irradiance conditions, plants experienced leaf water potentials close to the turgor-loss point, and leaf hydraulic conductance decreased by 79% relative to its maximum value. Euterpe edulis saplings were able to adjust their photosynthetic traits to different irradiance conditions, whereas hydraulic characteristics at the leaf level did not change across irradiance treatments. Our results indicate that uncoupling between water demand and supply to leaves apparently associated with high resistances to water flow at leaf insertion points, in addition to small stems with low water storage capacity, weak stomatal control and high vulnerability of leaves to hydraulic dysfunction, are the main ecophysiological constraints that prevent the growth and
Dos Santos Freire, Lucas
Polyisobutylene is fully saturated, therefore exhibits outstanding chemical, oxidative and thermal stability,1 which makes it ideally suitable as a model to study mechanical and viscoelastic properties of elastomers, and to correlate properties with structure. The main objective of this dissertation was to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the synthesis of arborescent (hyperbranched) polyisobutylene (arbPIB) by inimer-type (initiator-monomer) living carbocationic polymerization. The strategy for the effective synthesis of arbPIBs consists of copolymerizing the 4-(2-methoxyisopropyl)styrene (IUPAC name: p-vinylcumyl methyl ether) (IB) via controlled/living carbocationic polymerization using TiCl4 coinitiator. In situ FTIR monitoring showed that the self-condensing vinyl polymerization (SCVP) of MeOIM is possible, and that when copolymerizing MeOIM and IB, a nearly alternating structure and multiple end groups are obtained. arbPIB was synthesized and the repeatability of the polymerization was demonstrated. It was found that higher branching was obtained with increasing [MeOIM] and that branching did not further increase if additional IB was added after the MeOIM had reacted completely. No evident changes were observed when switching solvents from Hx/MeCl to a MeCHx/MeCl mixture. Branching parameters showed that arbPIBs have a behavior between polydisperse stars and polycondensates with the number of branches increasing linearly with molecular weight. Novel arbPIB-based block copolymers (TPEs) were synthesized and it was found that copolymers with low Tg short end blocks and less than 5 mol% of a second monomer exhibit thermoplastic elastomeric properties. The materials were strongly reinforced when compounded with carbon black. arbPIB-b-PS are prospective biomaterials and the establishment of reliable methods for evaluating their short and long term properties is a subject of great importance. A dynamic fatigue testing methodology was developed
Gromadzki, Daniel; Tereshchenko, A.; Makuška, R.
2010-01-01
Roč. 51, č. 24 (2010), s. 5680-5687. ISSN 0032-3861 Grant ostatní: Europan Commission - Marie Curie Research Training Network SOCON(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512331 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : arborescent polyelectrolytes * self condensing AGET ATRP * conformation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2010
A multi-functional heat exchanger-reactor comprising arborescent (tree-like) distributors and collector, 16 mini-channels in parallel and T-mixers is introduced in this paper. Flow distribution property, pressure drop and heat exchange performance of proposed heat exchanger-reactor are tested and discussed. Firstly, flow distribution uniformity is characterized by CFD simulation and then qualitatively confirmed by visualization experiment. Results show that for total flowrates ranging from 5 mL s−1 to 20 mL s−1, good distribution uniformity is obtained, with maximum flowrate deviation less than 10%. Then, experiments of heat exchange between hot and cold water are carried out. High values of overall heat transfer coefficient ranging from 2000 to 5000 W m−2 °C−1 are obtained under our working conditions. The volumetric heat exchange capability (UA/V) is found to be around 200 kW m−3 °C−1, showing a high heat exchange capability with compact design. The roles of end-effect and non-established flow are discussed and are supposed to be responsible for efficient heat transfer. Finally a typical fast exothermic reaction, neutralization between acid and basic solutions, is carried out to test the thermal control capability of the studied heat exchanger-reactor. Results indicate that isothermal condition could be realized by circulating appropriate flowrate of coolant through the heat exchanger. The design of heat exchanger-reactor with arborescent distributor and collector makes possible the application of multi-channel systems. This paper introduces systematically the successful integration of heat exchanger-reactor and its performance evaluation. - Highlights: • A design of mini scale, multichannel heat exchanger-reactor is proposed. • Uniform distribution for parallel channels is obtained with arborescent structure. • High global heat exchange coefficient is found experimentally. • Thermal control capability is verified with an
Bek, Jiří; Drábková, J.; Dašková, Jiřina; Libertín, M.
2008-01-01
Roč. 152, 3-4 (2008), s. 176-199. ISSN 0034-6667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013902; GA ČR GA205/94/1321; GA ČR GA205/02/1121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Carboniferous * Chaloneria * Endosporites * Expansisporites * in situ spores * Polysporia * Triletisporites * Valvisisporites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.325, year: 2008
Vegetación de un bosque de Polylepis incarum (Rosaceae en el distrito de Lampa, Puno, Perú
Daniel B. Montesinos-Tubée
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Se estudió la vegetación de los bosques de Polylepis incarum (Bitter M. Kessler & Schmidt-Lebuhn en el anexo de Lamparaquen, en la provincia de Lampa, departamento de Puno en los años 2009 y 2014. Se determinaron 83 especies vasculares pertenecientes a 35 familias. En cuanto a las formas de vida, dominan las herbáceas, gramíneas, arbustos y árboles, siendo en su mayoría, nativas e endémicas, algunas introducidas. Se identificó el ecosistema queñoal representado por la nueva unidad fitosociológica Lupino chlorolepis-Polylepidetum incari con cuatro subasociaciones respectivamente. La composición florística demuestra una riqueza moderada-alta de especies, siendo las familias con mayor representatividad, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fabaceae y Pteridaceae. Se aplicó el método fitosociológico de Braun-Blanquet para el análisis de unidades vegetativas. Se presenta la clasificación de comunidades mediante el software TWINSPAN, el análisis de ordinación DCA con el software CANOCO 4.5 y un dendrograma basado en correlación de especies para cada cuadrante efectuado con el software PC-ORD. Mayores estudios son aún necesarios para tener una visión más amplia de las comunidades de plantas en otras zonas geográficas, y evaluar como la vegetación puede verse afectadas con el cambio climático y acciones antrópicas.
Kearney, M. Kate
2013-01-01
The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.
José L. Brito
2003-01-01
El hallazgo de tres ejemplares de Balistes polylepis Steindachner, 1876; un ejemplar de Sphoeroides lobatus Steindachner, 1870 y un ejemplar de Mola mola Linnaeus, 1758, en la costa de San Antonio y tres ejemplares de M. ramsayi (Giglioli, 1833), permite aumentar la distribución geográfica conocida de estas especies desde el norte hasta la costa central de Chile. La presencia de estas especies está asociada con los efectos de los fenómenos El Niño 1982-83 y 1997-98The finding of three specime...
Heresanu, Vasile
2003-01-01
Ce travail concerne les effets de champ magnétique sur les arborescences de zinc et de fer obtenues par électrodéposition en cellule fine et les propriétés magnétiques des arborescences de fer. Pour le zinc et sous champ magnétique normal, les changements de morphologie macroscopiques variés sont expliqués par l'action mécanique sur l'agrégat en croissance de convections fluides induites par la force de Lorentz. Un faible effet est observé à l'échelle microscopique mais pas sur la structure c...
Casazza, Peter G.; Lammers, Mark C.
1999-01-01
We show that the classification problem for genus $n$ Banach spaces can be reduced to the unconditionally primary case and that the critical case there is $n=2$. It is further shown that a genus $n$ Banach space is unconditionally primary if and only if it contains a complemented subspace of genus $(n-1)$. We begin the process of classifying the genus 2 spaces by showing they have a strong decomposition property.
Genus four superstring measures
Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Piazza, Francesco Dalla; Geemen, Bert van
2008-01-01
A main issue in superstring theory are the superstring measures. D'Hoker and Phong showed that for genus two these reduce to measures on the moduli space of curves which are determined by modular forms of weight eight and the bosonic measure. They also suggested a generalisation to higher genus. We showed that their approach works, with a minor modification, in genus three and we announced a positive result also in genus four. Here we give the modular form in genus four explicitly. Recently S...
Stoimenow, A.
2003-01-01
We classify all knot diagrams of genus two and three, and give applications to positive, alternating and homogeneous knots, including a classification of achiral genus 2 alternating knots, slice or achiral 2-almost positive knots, a proof of the 3- and 4-move conjectures, and the calculation of the maximal hyperbolic volume for weak genus two knots. We also study the values of the link polynomials at roots of unity, extending denseness results of Jones. Using these values, examples of knots w...
In an earlier work we used a path integral analysis to propose a higher genus generalization of the elliptic genus. We found a cobordism invariant parametrized by Teichmuller space. Here we simplify the formula and study the behavior of our invariant under the action of the mapping class group of the Riemann surface. We find that our invariant is a modular function with multiplier just as in genus one.
Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D
2014-09-01
The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990
Sadek, Mohammad
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider genus one equations of degree $n$, namely a (generalised) binary quartic when $n=2$, a ternary cubic when $n=3$, and a pair of quaternary quadrics when $n=4$. A new definition for the minimality of genus one equations of degree $n$ over local fields is introduced. The advantage of this definition is that it does not depend on invariant theory of genus one curves. We prove that this definition coincides with the classical definition of minimality for all $n\\le4$. As a...
Ramos, Carolina; Buitrago, Sindy P; Pulido, Karen L; Vanegas, Leidy J
2013-03-01
Polylepis cuadrijuga is an endemic woody species from the Colombian Eastern range, being the only tree species with capacity to live on mountainous environments beyond 4 000m of altitude. Grazing and agriculture have transformed at least 30% of the Guantiva-La Rusia region, turning continuous extensions of high Andean forest in a fragmented landscape, and P cuadrijuga remnants have become smaller and more isolated. The aim of this study was to establish the environmental differences between a matrix of grazing pastures and the interior of fragments, to evaluate the physiological responses of P cuadrijuga and determining the edge effect. Air temperature and humidity, soil water holding capacity and photosynthetic active radiation, were measured along two 50X2m transects from the matrix toward the center of fragment. Six trees inside the transects were chosen in each one of three sites (matrix, edge and interior) to measure the index chlorophyll content and to sample leaves to assess the leaf area, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, anatomy, health condition and pubescence. Results showed significantly differences between the matrix and the interior and intermediate conditions in the edge. Radiation, temperature and air desiccation were higher in the matrix than in the interior, submitting P cuadrijuga trees to a stressing environment, where they presented stratification of epidermis and palisade parenchyma, and a higher leaf area, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and pubescence than in the interior of fragments. All these physiological traits allow avoiding the photoxidation and damages by freezing or desiccation to which trees are exposed in a grazing pasture matrix. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of healthy leaves in the interior of fragments, showing that high irradiations and extreme air temperature and humidity reach adversely affect to P cuadrijuga. Individuals in the edge had ecophysiological traits similar to the matrix ones, which confirm an
Unimodality and genus distributions
Wan, Liangxia
2014-01-01
New criteria are shown that certain combinations of finite unimodal polynomials are unimodal. %Given unimodal polynomials with explicit expressions and dependent recursion relations, we propose an approach to determine their modes. As applications, unimodality of several polynomial sequences satisfying dependent recurrence relations and their modes are provided. Then unimodality of genus distributions for some ladders and crosses can be determined. As special cases, that of genus distribution...
Wood, B; Collard, M
1999-04-01
A general problem in biology is how to incorporate information about evolutionary history and adaptation into taxonomy. The problem is exemplified in attempts to define our own genus, Homo. Here conventional criteria for allocating fossil species to Homo are reviewed and are found to be either inappropriate or inoperable. We present a revised definition, based on verifiable criteria, for Homo and conclude that two species, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, do not belong in the genus. The earliest taxon to satisfy the criteria is Homo ergaster, or early African Homo erectus, which currently appears in the fossil record at about 1.9 million years ago. PMID:10102822
Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...
The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)
Cabrera, Angel L.
1966-01-01
The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la
Popescu-Pampu, Patrick
2016-01-01
Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.
This paper reports that it is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d = 1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behavior. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY-model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. The authors resolve the apparent paradox
The genus Syncolostemon (Lamiaceae
L. E. Codd
1976-12-01
Full Text Available The genus Syncolostemon E. Mey. ex Benth. is revised and its relationship with Hemizygia (Benth. Briq.f is discussed. A new species, S. comptonii Codd is described and the following new combinations are made: S. parviflorus var. lanceolatus (Guerke Codd (= S . lanceolatus Guerke and S. latidens (N.E. Br. Codd ( = Orthosiphon latidens N.E. Br..
The genus Gelsemium: An update
Dutt, V.; Thakur, S.; V J Dhar; Sharma, A.
2010-01-01
The review includes 103 references on the genus Gelsemium, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Gelsemium. Alkaloids and iridoids constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Most popular species of the genus are the Asian G. elegans and the two North American related species, G. sempervirens and G. rankinii. Gelsemium species are categorized under medicinal as well a...
Genus two trisections are standard
Meier, Jeffrey; Zupan, Alexander
2014-01-01
We show that the only closed 4-manifolds admitting genus two trisections are $S^2 \\times S^2$ and connected sums of $S^1 \\times S^3$, $\\mathbb{CP}^2$, and $\\overline{\\mathbb{CP}}^2$ with two summands. Moreover, each of these manifolds admits a unique genus two trisection up to diffeomorphism. The proof relies heavily on the combinatorics of genus two Heegaard diagrams of $S^3$. As a corollary, we classify two-component links contained in a genus two Heegaard surface for $S^3$ with a surface-s...
Anita Rani
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.
Abelian Duality at Higher Genus
Beasley, Chris
2014-01-01
In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.
The Concordance Genus of 11--Crossing Knots
Kearney, M. Kate
2012-01-01
The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. It is bounded above by the genus of the knot, and bounded below by the slice genus, two well-studied invariants. In this paper we consider the concordance genus of 11--crossing prime knots. This analysis resolves the concordance genus of 533 of the 552 prime 11--crossing knots. The appendix to the paper gives concordance diagrams for 59 knots found to be concordant to knots of lower genus, including null-...
A descendent relation in genus 2
Belorousski, Pasha; Pandharipande, Rahul
1998-01-01
A new codimension 2 relation among descendent strata in the moduli space of stable, 3-pointed, genus 2 curves is found. The space of pointed admissible double covers is used in the calculation. The resulting differential equations satisfied by the genus 2 gravitational potentials of varieties in Gromov-Witten theory are described. These are analogous to the WDVV-equations in genus 0 and Getzler's equations in genus 1. As an application, genus 2 descendent invariants of the projective plane ar...
Chemistry of the Genus Plectranthus
S. M. Batterjee
2002-02-01
Full Text Available This review presents the phytochemical constituents of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 1999. Only a tetrameric derivative of caffeic acid was isolated from P. japonicus, but a group of long-chain alkylphenols, of possible taxonomic significance in the genus, was also isolated. As a genus of the subfamily Nepetoideae, Plectranthus is free from iridoid glycosides and rich in essential oil (i.e. > 0.5% volatile oil on a dry weight basis. Diterpenoids are the more common secondary metabolites in Plectranthus. The majority of them are highly modified abietanoids. This seems to be similar to the pattern of diterpenoids observed for Salvia, but no clerodane diterpenoids were found in Plectranthus.
On genus expansion of superpolynomials
Mironov, A; Sleptsov, A; Smirnov, A
2013-01-01
Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis:the Casimir operators are beta-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is rather straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond this family additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpol...
The genus Gelsemium: An update
V Dutt
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The review includes 103 references on the genus Gelsemium, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Gelsemium. Alkaloids and iridoids constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Most popular species of the genus are the Asian G. elegans and the two North American related species, G. sempervirens and G. rankinii. Gelsemium species are categorized under medicinal as well as poisonous plants. Amongst various species, G. elegans and G. sempervirens possess medicinal value, and have been traditionally used as nervous system relaxant. These plants have been explored exhaustively for their anticancer activity. In the concluding part, the future scope of Gelsemium species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of actions
Twists of genus three Jacobians
Meagher, Stephen
2007-01-01
We give a criterion to distinguish between a genus three Jacobian and its [-1] twist in terms of the product of the 36 even theta nulls. We also express the product of the 36 theta nulls in terms of the discriminant of a genus three curve. The results are arithmetic in nature and thus add to previous work over C on the product of the even theta nulls. They generalize previous work of Ritzenthaler and Lachaud for Abelian threefolds which are (2,2,2) isogenous to a product of elliptic curves. T...
Pseudovirgaria, a fungicolous hyphomycete genus
Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Scheuer, C.
2011-01-01
The genus Pseudovirgaria, based on P. hyperparasitica, was recently introduced for a mycoparasite of rust sori of various species of Frommeella, Pucciniastrum and Phragmidium in Korea. In the present study, an older name introduced by Saccardo based on European material, Rhinotrichum griseum, is sho
Pseudovirgaria, a fungicolous hyphomycete genus
Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Scheuer, C.
2011-01-01
The genus Pseudovirgaria, based on P. hyperparasitica, was recently introduced for a mycoparasite of rust sori of various species of Frommeëlla, Pucciniastrum and Phragmidium in Korea. In the present study, an older name introduced by Saccardo based on European material, Rhinotrichum griseum, is sho
Fiber sums of genus 2 Lefschetz fibrations
Auroux, Denis
2003-01-01
Using the recent results of Siebert and Tian about the holomorphicity of genus 2 Lefschetz fibrations with irreducible singular fibers, we show that any genus 2 Lefschetz fibration becomes holomorphic after fiber sum with a holomorphic fibration.
Genus Reducing Knots in 3-Manifolds
Rieck, Yo’av
2001-01-01
A genus reducing knot is a knot that has infinitely many surgeries after which the Heegaard genus of the manifold reduces. We study certain aspects of this question, in particular solving it for totally orientable Seifert Fibered Spaces, where we find examples of manifolds of arbitrarily high genus containing no such knot.
Singular elliptic genus of normal surfaces
Waelder, Robert
2007-01-01
We define the singular elliptic genus for arbitrary normal surfaces, prove that it is a birational invariant, and show that it generalizes the singular elliptic genus of Borisov and Libgober and the stringy $\\chi_y$ genus of Batyrev and Veys.
On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots
Hom, Jennifer
2012-01-01
The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.
The genus Enterococcus as probiotic: safety concerns
Tatiane Ferreira Araújo
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Species from the genus Enterococcus have been used as probiotic for humans or animals, although this genus is not considered "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS. While enterococci are considered "positive" in food technology, isolates of this genus have emerged as opportunistic pathogens for the humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics that can determine the use of this genus as probiotics. According to the guidelines used to define the genus Enterococcus strains as probiotic a case-by-case evaluation of each potential technological strain is presented and research perspectives for using enterococci as probiotic is also discussed.
On genus expansion of superpolynomials
Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Sleptsov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey(ITEP, Moscow, 117218, Russia)
2013-01-01
Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do ...
CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX
NataliaValeryevnaIvanikova
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.
On genus expansion of superpolynomials
Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)
2014-12-15
Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.
On genus expansion of superpolynomials
Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots
Vortices on higher genus surfaces
We consider the topological interactions of vortices on general surfaces. If the genus of the surface is greater than zero, the handles can carry magnetic flux. The classical state of the vortices and the handles can be described by a mapping from the fundamental group to the unbroken gauge group. The allowed configurations must satisfy a relation induced by the fundamental group. Upon quantization, the handles can carry ''Cheshire charge.'' The motion of the vortices can be described by the braid group of the surface. How the motion of the vortices affects the state is analyzed in detail
NSR superstring measures in genus 5
Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures
Integrable systems in the infinite genus limit
Gesztesy, Fritz
2001-01-01
We provide an elementary approach to integrable systems associated with hyperelliptic curves of infinite genus. In particular, we explore the extent to which the classical Burchnall-Chaundy theory generalizes in the infinite genus limit, and systematically study the effect of Darboux transformations for the KdV hierarchy on such infinite genus curves. Our approach applies to complex-valued periodic solutions of the KdV hierarchy and naturally identifies the Riemann surface familiar from stand...
Geometric Registration of High-genus Surfaces
Wen, Chengfeng; Lui, Lok Ming
2013-01-01
This paper presents a method to obtain geometric registrations between high-genus ($g\\geq 1$) surfaces. Surface registration between simple surfaces, such as simply-connected open surfaces, has been well studied. However, very few works have been carried out for the registration of high-genus surfaces. The high-genus topology of the surface poses great challenge for surface registration. A possible approach is to partition surfaces into simply-connected patches and registration is done patch ...
The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.
Loos, B.P.
1994-01-01
Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...
Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genus Pistacia (Anacardiaceae)
AL-Saghir, Mohannad Ghazi
2006-01-01
Pistacia is an economically important genus because it contains the pistachio crop, P. vera, which has edible seeds of considerable commercial importance. The evolutionary history of the genus and the taxonomic relationships among the species are controversial and not well understood. This study that has been conducted on this genus to refine taxonomic and evolutionary relationship utilizing different types of data (including morphology, anatomy and molecular) The studied species were the fol...
Florens, Vincent; Gilmer, Patrick M.
2003-01-01
We define Casson-Gordon sigma-invariants for links and give a lower bound of the slice genus of a link in terms of these invariants. We study as an example a family of two component links of genus h and show that their slice genus is h, whereas the Murasugi-Tristram inequality does not obstruct this link from bounding an annulus in the 4-ball.
The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology
Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and; Paraskev T Nedialkov; Stefan D. Nikolov
2009-01-01
The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed dis...
Generating the genus g+1 Goeritz group of a genus g handlebody
Scharlemann, Martin
2011-01-01
A specific set of 4g+1 elements is shown to generate the Goeritz group of the genus g+1 Heegaard splitting of a genus g handlebody. These generators are consistent with Powell's proposed generating set for the Goeritz group of the genus g+1 splitting of S^3. There are two proofs: one using purely classical techniques and one using thin position.
Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.
2009-05-01
Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.
Three New Species of the Genus Ochroconis
Samerpitak, K.; Gerrits van den Ende, A. H. G.; Menken, S.B.J.; Hoog, de, G.S.
2015-01-01
Ochroconis bacilliformis, O. phaeophora and O. robusta, three novel species of the melanized genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae, Venturiales), are described, illustrated and distinguished phenotypically and molecularly from previously described species in the genus Ochroconis. Their potential significance for infection of cold-blooded vertebrates is discussed.
Positive curvature and the elliptic genus
Weisskopf, Nicolas
2013-01-01
We prove several results about the vanishing of the elliptic genus on positively curved Spin manifolds with logarithmic symmetry rank. The proofs are based on the rigidity of the elliptic genus and Kennard's improvement of the Connectedness Lemma for transversely intersecting, totally geodesic submanifolds.
Revision of the genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae)
Sunarno, B.
2005-01-01
The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Seven species are recognised. Several earlier described species are synonymous to L. pumila and reduced to varieties of that species: var. alata, var. lanceolata, var. neriifolia and var. sessilifolia. A new record of L. longistyla is mentioned. Labisia malouiana and L. obtusifolia are excluded from the genus.
Phenetic relationships in the genus Myotis
Findley, James S.
1970-01-01
The genus Myotis is of interest to the evolutionist because of its diversity and because of its nearly cosmopolitan distribution. An understanding of the biology of this remarkable genus may provide insight into its success, as well as the success of other expansive groups of mammals. As part of an
The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry
We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)
The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology
Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed distribution of these compounds among the different Chenopodium species with the related references is given in tables. In addition, this review discusses the traditional medicinal uses of different Chenopodium species as well as recent developments done in this aspect.
Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).
Couvreur, Thomas L P
2014-01-01
The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846
Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)
Uffelen, van Gerda A.
1983-01-01
The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.
The geometric genus of hypersurface singularities
Andras Nemethi; Baldur Sigurdsson
2014-01-01
Using the path lattice cohomology we provide a conceptual topological characterization of the geometric genus for certain complex normal surface singularities with rational homology sphere links, which is uniformly valid for all superisolated and Newton non--degenerate hypersurface singularities.
Evolutionary history of the genus Trisopterus.
Gonzalez, Elena G; Cunha, Regina L; Sevilla, Rafael G; Ghanavi, Hamid R; Krey, Grigorios; Bautista, José M
2012-03-01
The group of small poor cods and pouts from the genus Trisopterus, belonging to the Gadidae family, comprises four described benthopelagic species that occur across the North-eastern Atlantic, from the Baltic Sea to the coast of Morocco, and the Mediterranean. Here, we combined molecular data from mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes to confirm the taxonomic status of the described species and to disentangle the evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses supported the monophyly of the genus Trisopterus and confirmed the recently described species Trisopterus capelanus. A relaxed molecular clock analysis estimated an Oligocene origin for the group (~30 million years ago; mya) indicating this genus as one of the most ancestral within the Gadidae family. The closure and re-opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) probably triggered the speciation process that resulted in the recently described T. capelanus. PMID:22178361
The genus Calappa in the Ionian Sea
Pastore, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Taranto (Italy). Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico
1995-12-31
Until now the genus Calappa in the Mediterranean sea was represented by Calappa granulata (l., 1758). With the present paper, two new species, Calappa rissoana and Calappa tuerkajana and Calappa pelii Herklots (1851) too, are signaled in such basin.
Pollen morphology of the genus Malus Mill.
Irina Dyakova
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The study of pollen morphology of some species of the genus Malus (Rosaceae was carried out. All investigated species are characterized by tricolpate pollen grains, but differ by their size and coloration.
Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho
2014-01-01
The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed bas...
Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus
King Graham J; Østergaard Lars
2008-01-01
Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left ...
Symmetry of Embedded Genus-One Helicoids
Bernstein, Jacob; Breiner, Christine
2010-01-01
In this note, we use the Lopez-Ros deformation introduced in [9] to show that any embedded genus-one helicoid must be symmetric with respect to rotation by 180 degrees around a normal line. This partially answers a conjecture of Bobenko from [3]. We also show this symmetry holds for an embedded genus-k helicoid $\\Sigma$, provided the underlying conformal structure of $\\Sigma$ is hyperelliptic.
Cosmetic crossings of genus one knots
Balm, Cheryl
2011-01-01
We show that for genus one knots the Alexander polynomial and the homology of the double cover branching over the knot provide obstructions to cosmetic crossings. As an application we prove the nugatory crossing conjecture for the negatively twisted, positive Whitehead doubles of all knots. We also verify the conjecture for several families of pretzel knots and all genus one knots with up to 10 crossings.
Constructing Numerical Semigroups of a Given Genus
Zhao, Yufei
2009-01-01
Let n_g denote the number of numerical semigroups of genus g. Bras-Amoros conjectured that n_g possesses certain Fibonacci-like properties. Almost all previous attempts at proving this conjecture were based on analyzing the semigroup tree. We offer a new, simpler approach to counting numerical semigroups of a given genus. Our method gives direct constructions of families of numerical semigroups, without referring to the generators or the semigroup tree. In particular, we give an improved asym...
Remarks on Superstring amplitudes in higher genus
Manni, Riccardo Salvati
2008-01-01
Very recently, Grushevsky continued D'Hoker and Phong's program of finding the chiral superstring measure from first principles by constructing modular forms satisfying certain factorization constraints. He has proposed an ansatz in genus 4 and conjectured a possible formula for the superstring measure in any genus, subject to the condition that certain modular forms admit holomorphic roots. In this note we want to give some evidence that Grushevsky's approach seems to be very fruitful.
Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport
Gudiksen, Asgerd
Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, maskulinum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under afvikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...
Phylogeography of genus Squalius in Albania
Radek Šanda; Miroslav Švátora
2015-01-01
This study is focused on the issue of the Squalius genus phylogeography in Albania in the Balkan region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish of the genus Squalius from various river systems in the Adriatic Sea region. There were identified three genetic lineages of unclear taxonomic position, where the genetic variation between identified clades range from 1.6 to 2.1 %. The first lineage...
Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)
Schouten, R.T.A.
1986-01-01
In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand east to E. New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago; the genus is absent from Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Species distinction is difficult because the androecium, which provides good charact...
Genus 2 Curves with Complex Multiplication
Goren, Eyal Z
2010-01-01
Genus 2 curves are useful in cryptography for both discrete-log based and pairing-based systems, but a method is required to compute genus 2 curves such that the Jacobian has a given number of points. Currently, all known methods involve constructing genus 2 curves with complex multiplication via computing their three Igusa class polynomials. These polynomials have rational coefficients and require extensive computation and precision to compute. Both the computation and the complexity analysis of these algorithms can be improved by a more precise understanding of the denominators of the coefficients of the polynomials. The main goal of this paper is to give a bound on the denominators of Igusa class polynomials of genus 2 curves with CM by a primitive quartic CM field. We give an overview of Igusa's results on the moduli space of genus two curves and the method to construct genus 2 curves via their Igusa invariants. We also give a complete characterization of the reduction type of a CM abelian surface, for bi...
The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae
L. E. Codd
1984-12-01
Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.
Mohamed S. Mohamedsaid
1993-01-01
The genus Coelocrania Jacoby is reviewed, with the resurrection of the genus Pseudosastra Jacoby. Four new species are herein described from Malaysia: Pseudosastra depressa, P. ghazallyi , P. indah, and P. latiffi. Keys to the species of Coelocrania and Pseudosastra are provided.
Higher-genus Gromov-Witten invariants as genus 0 invariants of symmetric products
Costello, Kevin
2003-01-01
I prove a formula expressing the descendent genus g Gromov-Witten invariants of a projective variety X in terms of genus 0 invariants of its symmetric product stack S^{g+1}(X). When X is a point, the latter are structure constants of the symmetric group, and we obtain a new way of calculating the Gromov-Witten invariants of a point.
A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization
Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I
2008-06-16
In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.
The genus curve of the Abell clusters
Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc
1994-01-01
We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).
Matrix models as CFT: Genus expansion
We show how the formulation of the matrix models as conformal field theories on a Riemann surfaces can be used to compute the genus expansion of the observables. Here we consider the simplest example of the Hermitian matrix model, where the classical solution is described by a hyperelliptic Riemann surface. To each branch point of the Riemann surface we associate an operator which represents a twist field dressed by the modes of the twisted boson. The partition function of the matrix model is computed as a correlation function of such dressed twist fields. The perturbative construction of the dressing operators yields a set of Feynman rules for the genus expansion, which involve vertices, propagators and tadpoles. The vertices are universal, the propagators and the tadpoles depend on the Riemann surface. As a demonstration we evaluate the genus-two free energy using the Feynman rules.
The lichen genus parmotrema in South Korea.
Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun
2013-03-01
Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536
Genus Mikania: chemical composition and phytotherapeutical activity
Luciane C. Rufatto
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The genus Mikania ranks high in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Its main distribution is in South America, but some species are found in Asia, North America and Africa. It is used for treating fever, rheumatism, colds and respiratory diseases, as well as snake bites and scorpion stings, due to its broad spectrum of action. There are approximately 430 species of this genus and only 12% have been studied, highlighting their chemical and pharmacological diversity. The main chemical groups are: coumarins and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenes lactones, diterpenes, phytosterols/terpenoids and flavonoids. This review aims to supply useful references for scientists interested in natural products and the search for new compounds, from over the 300 already described for the genus.
The toroidal block and the genus expansion
Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian
2012-01-01
We study the correspondence between four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and two-dimensional conformal field theories in the case of N=2* gauge theory. We emphasize the genus expansion on the gauge theory side, as obtained via geometric engineering from the topological string. This point of view uncovers modular properties of the one-point conformal block on a torus with complexified intermediate momenta: in the large intermediate weight limit, it is a power series whose coefficients are quasi-modular forms. The all-genus viewpoint that the conformal field theory approach lends to the topological string yields insight into the analytic structure of the topological string partition function.
Constructing Numerical Semigroups of a Given Genus
Zhao, Yufei
2009-01-01
Let n_g denote the number of numerical semigroups of genus g. Bras-Amoros conjectured that n_g possesses certain Fibonacci-like properties. Almost all previous attempts at proving this conjecture were based on analyzing the semigroup tree. We offer a new, simpler approach to counting numerical semigroups of a given genus. Our method gives direct constructions of families of numerical semigroups, without referring to the generators or the semigroup tree. In particular, we give an improved asymptotic lower bound for n_g.
Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira
Paster, B.J.; Pelletier, D.A.; Dewhirst, F.E.; Weisburg, W.G.; Fussing, V.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Dannenberg, S.; Schroeder, I.
1996-01-01
Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Cristispira to other spirochetes. Since Cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from bacterial DNA isolated from Cristispira a...... genus within this family. A fluorescently labeled DNA probe designed from the CP1 sequence was used for in situ hybridization experiments to verify that the sequence obtained was derived from the observed Cristispira cells....
Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium
Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;
2014-01-01
Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens...... on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working...
Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations
Tenni, Elisa
2010-01-01
K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.
The genus of curve, pants and flip graphs
Parlier, Hugo; Petri, Bram
2014-01-01
This article is about the graph genus of certain well studied graphs in surface theory: the curve, pants and flip graphs. We study both the genus of these graphs and the genus of their quotients by the mapping class group. The full graphs, except for in some low complexity cases, all have infinite genus. The curve graph once quotiented by the mapping class group has the genus of a complete graph so its genus is well known by a theorem of Ringel and Youngs. For the other two graphs we are able...
Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae
Olubukola ADEDEJI
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.
Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae
Thomas Couvreur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name U. pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with U. zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and U. modestum Diels are transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov.. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.
The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.
Loos, B.P.
1994-01-01
Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the
Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces
Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;
2014-01-01
The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other ...
Counting plane curves of any genus
Caporaso, Lucia; Harris, Joe
1996-01-01
We obtain a recursive formula answering the following question: How many irreducible, plane curves of degree d and (geometric) genus g pass through 3d-1+g general points in the plane? The formula is proved by studying suitable degenerations of plane curves.
Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)
Jensen, Søren Rosendal
An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...
Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from the Genus Ligularia.
Wu, Ling; Liao, Zhixin; Liu, Chao; Jia, Haiyang; Sun, Jinyue
2016-06-01
Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites found in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. PMID:27161126
The genus Echinostelium (Myxomycetes in Lithuania
Gražina Adamonytė
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Seven species of the genus – Echinostelium apitectum, E. arboreum, E. brooksii, E. colliculosum, E. corynophorum, E. aff. elachiston, E. minutum – are reported from Lithuania. Their morphological peculiarities are discussed; a key to the species, pictures and distribution maps are given.
The genus Echinostelium (Myxomycetes) in Lithuania
Gražina Adamonytė
2013-01-01
Seven species of the genus – Echinostelium apitectum, E. arboreum, E. brooksii, E. colliculosum, E. corynophorum, E. aff. elachiston, E. minutum – are reported from Lithuania. Their morphological peculiarities are discussed; a key to the species, pictures and distribution maps are given.
The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia
Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary
1991-01-01
The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The genu
Henrard, J.Th.
1937-01-01
In conclusion, we propose the following nomenclatural alterations. For a good classification, the genus Vulpia is to be accepted as a member of the Festuceae. Various names of Vulpia are fixed according to our present rules of nomenclature, viz. V. bromoides (L.) GRAY, V. membranacea (L.) LINK, V. g
Cosmetic surgeries on genus one knots
Wang, Jiajun
2005-01-01
In this paper, we prove that there are no truly cosmetic surgeries on genus one classical knots. If the two surgery slopes have the same sign, we give the only possibilities of reflectively cosmetic surgeries. The result is an application of Heegaard Floer theory and number theory.
Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae
Hou, Ding
1967-01-01
During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I, volum
Revision of the genus Fordia (Papilionaceae: Millettieae)
Buijsen, J.R.M.
1988-01-01
In Fordia, a small genus of Southeast Asian Papilionaceae, 8 species are accepted and 2 subspecies, one of which is newly described (F. splendidissima subsp. rheophytica). The name of F. splendidissima is a new combination of an old name proposed by Miquel. Six names (among which F. coriacea, F. gib
Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)
Schouten, R.T.A.
1986-01-01
In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand
Nomenclatural changes in the genus Bremeria (Rubiaceae)
Davis, A.P.; Razafimandimbison, S.G.; Andriambololonera, S.
2011-01-01
Five new combinations are made in the genus Bremeria: B. arachnocarpa, B. eriantha, B. scabrella, B. landia var. holosericea, and B. landia var. stadmanii. Bremeria gerrardii is conspecific with Gaertnera phanerophlebia, and thus excluded from Bremeria. Lectotypes are designated for Mussaenda erecti
Tunnel number one, genus one fibered knots
Baker, Kenneth L.; Johnson, Jesse E.; Klodginski, Elizabeth A.
2006-01-01
We determine the genus one fibered knots in lens spaces that have tunnel number one. We also show that every tunnel number one, once-punctured torus bundle is the result of Dehn filling a component of the Whitehead link in the 3-sphere.
Genus two Heegaard splittings of exteriors of 1-genus 1-bridge knots II
Goda, Hiroshi
2010-01-01
A knot K is called a 1-genus 1-bridge knot in a 3-manifold M if (M,K) has a Heegaard splitting (V_1,t_1)\\cup (V_2,t_2) where V_i is a solid torus and t_i is a boundary parallel arc properly embedded in V_i. If the exterior of a knot has a genus 2 Heegaard splitting, we say that the knot has an unknotting tunnel. Naturally the exterior of a 1-genus 1-bridge knot K allows a genus 2 Heegaard splitting, i.e., K has an unknotting tunnel. But, in general, there are unknotting tunnels which are not derived form this procedure. Some of them may be levelled with the torus \\partial V_1=\\partial V_2, whose case was studied in our previous paper. In this paper, we consider the remaining case.
A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar
Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin
2016-01-01
Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.
Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection
Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H
2001-01-01
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine, ...
Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)
Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.
2010-01-01
Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.
Elliptic genus of phases of N=2 theories
Libgober, A.
2014-01-01
We discuss an algebro-geometric description of Witten's phases of N=2 theories and propose a definition of their elliptic genus provided some conditions on singularities of the phases are met. For Landau-Ginzburg phase one recovers elliptic genus of LG models proposed in physics literature in early 90s. For certain transitions between phases we derive invariance of elliptic genus from an equivariant form of McKay correspondence for elliptic genus. As special cases one obtains Landau-Giznburg/...
A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula
Disha Arora; Anita Rani; Anupam Sharma
2013-01-01
This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been tradi...
The strong symmetric genus of the finite Coxeter groups
Jackson, Michael A.
2004-01-01
The strong symmetric genus of a finite group G is the smallest genus of a closed orientable topological surface on which G acts faithfully as a group of orientation preserving automorphisms. In this paper we complete the calculation of the strong symmetric genus for each finite Coxeter group excluding the group E8.
Positive braid knots of maximal topological 4-genus
Liechti, Livio
2015-01-01
We show that a positive braid knot has maximal topological 4-genus exactly if it has maximal signature invariant. As an application, we determine all positive braid knots with maximal topological 4-genus and compute the topological 4-genus for all positive braid knots with up to 12 crossings.
Redefinition of the genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 (Acari: Actinedida)
André, H.M.
1985-01-01
The genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 is redefined from the study of the type-species, T. triophthalmus (Oudemans, 1929). The genus Metatriophtydeus André, 1980 is a junior synonym of Triophtydeus. Species belonging or likely to belong to the genus Triophtydeus are listed and generic and specific characters are discussed.
Limit groups, positive-genus towers and measure equivalence
Bridson, Martin R.; Tweedale, Michael; Wilton, Henry
2005-01-01
By definition, an $\\omega$-residually free tower is positive-genus if all surfaces used in its construction are of positive genus. We prove that every limit group is virtually a subgroup of a positive-genus $\\omega$-residually free tower. By combining this with results of Gaboriau, we prove that elementarily free groups are measure equivalent to free groups.
A taxonomic revision of the genus Ixonanthes (Linaceae)
Kool, R.
1980-01-01
In this revision 3 species are recognized for the Southeast Asian, mainly Malesian, genus Ixonanthes Jack (Linaceae). No new species are described, while 29 names have been placed into synonymy. It is proposed to unite the African genus Phyllocosmus Klotzsch with the American genus Ochthocosmus Benth.
Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae
In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...
Crossoliparis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, Malaxideae), from neotropic
Hanna B. Margońska
2011-01-01
A new genus Crossoliparis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae), from tropical area of Central America is proposed. The new genus type species is described and illustrated. Keys to species of genus Crossoliparis and its close related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Americas, is added.
Crossoliparis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, Malaxideae, from neotropic
Hanna B. Margońska
2011-04-01
Full Text Available A new genus Crossoliparis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, from tropical area of Central America is proposed. The new genus type species is described and illustrated. Keys to species of genus Crossoliparis and its close related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Americas, is added.
Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.; Waterman, M.S.
2013-01-01
To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...
Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)
Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Brumfield, Robb T.
2010-01-01
Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.
The toroidal block and the genus expansion
Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Troost, Jan
2013-03-01
We study the correspondence between four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and two-dimensional conformal field theories in the case of {N}={2^{*}} gauge theory. We emphasize the genus expansion on the gauge theory side, as obtained via geometric engineering from the topological string. This point of view uncovers modular properties of the one-point conformal block on a torus with complexified intermediate momenta: in the large intermediate weight limit, it is a power series whose coefficients are quasimodular forms. The all-genus viewpoint that the conformal field theory approach lends to the topological string yields insight into the analytic structure of the topological string partition function in the field theory limit.
On the genus of a maximal curve
Korchmaros, Gabor; Torres, Fernando
2000-01-01
Previous results on genera g of F_{q^2}-maximal curves are improved: (1) Either g\\leq (q^2-q+4)/6, or g=\\lfloor(q-1)^2/4\\rfloor, or g=q(q-1)/2; (2) The hypothesis on the existence of a particular Weierstrass point in \\cite{at} is proved; (3) For q\\equiv 1\\pmod{3}, q\\ge 13, no F_{q^2}-maximal curve of genus (q-1)(q-2)/3 exists; (4) For q\\equiv 2\\pmod{3}, q\\ge 11, the non-singular F_{q^2}-model of the plane curve of equation y^q+y=x^{(q+1)/3} is the unique F_{q^2}-maximal curve of genus g=(q-1)...
Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum.
Lombard, L; Serrato-Diaz, L M; Cheewangkoon, R; French-Monar, R D; Decock, C; Crous, P W
2014-06-01
Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage. PMID:25264387
Elliptic Genus of Phases of N = 2 Theories
Libgober, Anatoly
2015-12-01
We discuss an algebro-geometric description of Witten's phases of N = 2 theories and propose a definition of their elliptic genus provided some conditions on singularities of the phases are met. For Landau-Ginzburg phase one recovers elliptic genus of LG models proposed in physics literature in early 1990s. For certain transitions between phases we derive invariance of elliptic genus from an equivariant form of McKay correspondence for elliptic genus. As special cases one obtains Landau-Giznburg/Calabi-Yau correspondence for elliptic genus of weighted homogeneous potentials as well as certain hybrid/CY correspondences.
Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Ixora.
Chen, Li-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ye-Gao
2016-03-01
Ixora is a genus of ca. 400 species in the family Rubiaceae. Since the 1940s, eighty-one compounds including phenolics, peptides, terpenoids, and sterols have been isolated from six species of the genus Ixora. Pharmacological studies have shown that these compounds and extracts from the Ixora genus have extensive activities, such as antitumor, chemoprotective, and antioxidant activities. In this review, we summarize the phytochemical progress and list the compounds isolated from the genus Ixora. The biological activities of this genus are also covered. PMID:26916522
Perturbations of quadratic centers of genus one
Gautier, Sebastien; Gavrilov, Lubomir; Iliev, Iliya D.
2007-01-01
We propose a program for finding the cyclicity of period annuli of quadratic systems with centers of genus one. As a first step, we classify all such systems and determine the essential one-parameter quadratic perturbations which produce the maximal number of limit cycles. We compute the associated Poincare-Pontryagin-Melnikov functions whose zeros control the number of limit cycles. To illustrate our approach, we determine the cyclicity of the annuli of two particular reversible systems.
Cyanobacteria of the Genus Prochlorothrix †
Pinevich, Alexander; Velichko, Natalia; Ivanikova, Natalia
2012-01-01
Green cyanobacteria differ from the blue–green cyanobacteria by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light-harvesting antenna. Three genera of the green cyanobacteria namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus, and Prochloron are unicellular and inhabit marine environments. Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its prominent role in marine primary productivity. The fourth genus Prochlorothrix is represented by the filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the other green cyanob...
The toroidal block and the genus expansion
Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Troost, Jan
2012-01-01
We study the correspondence between four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and two-dimensional conformal field theories in the case of N=2* gauge theory. We emphasize the genus expansion on the gauge theory side, as obtained via geometric engineering from the topological string. This point of view uncovers modular properties of the one-point conformal block on a torus with complexified intermediate momenta: in the large intermediate weight limit, it is a power series whose coefficient...
The diatom genus Proboscia in subarctic waters
Takahashi, Kozo; Jordan, Richard; Priddle, Julian
1994-01-01
A study of modem pelagic subarctic Pacific phytoplankton has revealed the presence of three distinct species of Proboscia Sundstrom, including the type species P. alata and two new species with historical complications, P. subarctica (= Rhizosolenia alata f. curvirostris Gran) is markedly different in proboscis and valve morphology from the type species and in fact bears more resemblance to fossil members of the genus. P. eumorpha (= R. obtusa Hensen sensu Ostenfeld) resembles the austral spe...
Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum
Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.
2014-01-01
Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation facto...
Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus
Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.
2011-11-01
Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.
The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives
Dinesh Kumar; Vikrant Arya; Zulfiqar Ali Bhat; Nisar Ahmad Khan; Deo Nandan Prasad
2012-01-01
Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailm...
Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus
Hebert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Pons, Nicolas; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Goux, Didier; Batto, Jean-Michel; Laugier, Claire; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine
2012-01-01
The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS). While 212 CDSs ...
Operators and higher genus mirror curves
Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos
2016-01-01
We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C^3/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.
The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives
Dinesh Kumar
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.
Phylogeography of genus Squalius in Albania
Radek Šanda
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This study is focused on the issue of the Squalius genus phylogeography in Albania in the Balkan region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish of the genus Squalius from various river systems in the Adriatic Sea region. There were identified three genetic lineages of unclear taxonomic position, where the genetic variation between identified clades range from 1.6 to 2.1 %. The first lineage is distributed in the Neretva River drainage in Bosnia and Hercegovina, i.e. north of Albania and in the whole remaining Periadriatic regions, whereas the second lineage is especially spread in the northern part of Albania and the third lineage occurs especially in the zone of the European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula (lakes Ohrid and Prespa, from where expands to the southern part of Albania. Both lineages sympatrically coincide in the hydrological river-lake system of Ohrid-Drin-Skadar. The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the Squalius genus in the region seems to be interesting topic for subsequent and more detailed study.
The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa
W. H. Eshbaugh
1983-12-01
Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C. annuum and C. frutescens.
Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus
King Graham J
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.
Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Gaither, Thomas W; Miller, Dennis L; Lado, Carlos; Keller, Harold W
2005-01-01
The genus Schenella has proven difficult to classify since its description as a new genus in 1911. Macbride placed it with the Myxomycetes but it was unclear with which myxomycete, if any, it should be grouped. Recent identification of abundant samples of Schenella has aided a re-evaluation of its classification as a myxomycete. Morphological evidence based on light and scanning electron microscopy of recently collected specimens and on the type specimen of Macbride suggested that it might be synonymous with the gasteromycete Pyrenogaster Analysis of DNA sequences from freshly isolated samples indicates that the genus Schenella is related closely to an anciently diverged, monophyletic group of fungi that includes several gasteromycete genera, among them Geastrum, Sphaerobolus and Pseudocolus. Comparisons of the morphology and DNA sequences of authentically identified specimens of Pyrenogaster atrogleba indicate that it is synonymous with Schenella simplex. The nomenclatural implications of this discovery are discussed. PMID:16389965
Genus two Heegaard splittings of exteriors of 1-genus 1-bridge knots
Goda, Hiroshi
2010-01-01
A knot K in a closed connected orientable 3-manifold M is called a 1-genus 1-bridge knot if (M,K) has a splitting into two pairs of a solid torus V_i (i=1,2) and a boundary parallel arc in it. The splitting induces a genus two Heegaard splitting of the exterior of K naturally, i.e., K has an unknotting tunnel. However the converse is not true in general. Then we study such general case in this paper. One of the conclusions is that the unknotting tunnel may be levelled with the torus \\partial V_1=\\partial V_2.
Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.
Laurent Hébert
Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.
The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere
Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.
1979-01-01
The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.
Double genus expansion for general Ω background
Prudenziati, Andrea
2016-07-01
We will show how the refined holomorphic anomaly equation obeyed by the Nekrasov partition function at generic 𝜖1, 𝜖2 values becomes compatible, in a certain two-parameter expansion, with the assumption that both parameters are associated to genus counting. The underlying worldsheet theory will be analyzed and constrained in various ways, and we will provide both physical interpretation and some alternative evidence for this model. Finally, we will use the Gopakumar-Vafa formulation for the refined topological string in order to give a more quantitative description.
Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lee, Kimyeong; Park, Jaemo; Vafa, Cumrun
2014-01-01
We study a family of 2d N=(0,4) gauge theories which describes at low energy the dynamics of E-strings, the M2-branes suspended between a pair of M5 and M9 branes. The gauge theory is engineered using a duality with type IIA theory, leading to the D2-branes suspended between an NS5-brane and 8 D8-branes on an O8-plane. We compute the elliptic genus of this family of theories, and find agreement with the known results for single and two E-strings. The partition function can in principle be com...
Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium
Loup, Mackenzie
1995-01-01
In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.
A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae
E. YU Yembaturova
2009-12-01
Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.
Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus
Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld
2015-01-01
characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...
Yucca: A medicinally significant genus with manifold therapeutic attributes
Patel, Seema
2012-01-01
The genus Yucca comprising of several species is dominant across the chaparrals, canyons and deserts of American South West and Mexico. This genus has long been a source of sustenance and drugs for the Native Americans. In the wake of revived interest in drug discovery from plant sources, this genus has been investigated and startling nutritive and therapeutic capacities have come forth. Apart from the functional food potential, antioxidant, antiinflammation, antiarthritic, anticancer, antidi...
Microsatellites in the genus Xiphophorus, developed in Xiphophorus montezumae
Seckinger, Jens; Brinkmann, Henner; Meyer, Axel
2002-01-01
Species of the genus Xiphophorus (swordtails and platies) are of great interest for the study of evolution of sexually selected traits like the sword, which is an elongation of ventral fin rays of the male caudal fin, that has evolved in several species within this genus. The detection of 10 microsatellites within the genus Xiphophorus will enable studies about the correlation of this trait with sexual reproductive success of males possessing swords of different lengths. These microsatellites...
Variance Analysis of Genus Ipomoea based on Morphological Characters
DWI PRIYANTO; SURATMAN; AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN
2000-01-01
The objective of this research was to find out the variability of morphological characters of genus Ipomoea, including coefficient variance and phylogenetic relationships. Genus Ipomoea has been identified consisting of four species i.e. Ipomoea crassicaulis Rob, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., Ipomoea reptans Poir and Ipomoea leari. Four species of the genus took from surround the lake inside the campus of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. Comparison of species variability was based on the varia...
Kim, Joonho; Lee, Kimyeong; Park, Jaemo; Vafa, Cumrun
2014-01-01
We study a family of 2d N=(0,4) gauge theories which describes at low energy the dynamics of E-strings, the M2-branes suspended between a pair of M5 and M9 branes. The gauge theory is engineered using a duality with type IIA theory, leading to the D2-branes suspended between an NS5-brane and 8 D8-branes on an O8-plane. We compute the elliptic genus of this family of theories, and find agreement with the known results for single and two E-strings. The partition function can in principle be computed for arbitrary number of E-strings, and we compute them explicitly for low numbers. We test our predictions against the partially known results from topological strings, as well as from the instanton calculus of 5d Sp(1) gauge theory. Given the relation to topological strings, our computation provides the all genus partition function of the refined topological strings on the canonical bundle over 1/2 K3.
Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.
1994-01-01
A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.
Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira
Paster, B.J.; Pelletier, D.A.; Dewhirst, F.E.;
1996-01-01
a cell-laden crystalline styles of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. The amplified products were then cloned into Escherichia coli plasmids. Sequence comparisons of the gene coding for 16S rRNA (rDNA) insert of one clone, designated CP1, indicated that it was spirochetal. The sequence of the 16S rDNA...... insert of another clone was mycoplasmal. The CP1 sequence possessed most of the individual base signatures that are unique to 16S rRNA (or rDNA) sequences of known spirochetes. CP1 branched deeply among other spirochetal genera within the family Spirochaetaceae, and accordingly, it represents a separate......Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Cristispira to other spirochetes. Since Cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from bacterial DNA isolated from Cristispira...
Chromosome studies in the genus Jatropha L.
R.Sasikala and M.Paramathma
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The inflorescences of ten species of the genus Jatropha were fixed in Cornoy’s fluid (6:3:1. Acetocarmine stain (2% wasused for staining the pollen mother cells. Seven species exhibited 11 bivalents and 2n =22 and x=11. But the two otherspecies, J.villosa var. villosa and J.villosa var. ramnadensis showed only 10 bivalents and 2n number of 20 chromosomesand x=10. The study concluded the occurrence of two kinds of haploid chromosome numbers of n =10 and n =11. ExceptJatropha tanjorensis, cytological investigation in all species exhibited normal and complete pairing and bivalent formationin metaphase I and equal separation of chromosome in anaphase and indicated that the course of meiosis was normal.Jatropha tanjorensis did not exhibit normal course of meiosis and no proper count of chromosomes could be made. Presentchromosomal studies in Jatropha revealed the existence of two basic chromosomes numbers x = 5 and x = 6.
Anomaly cancelling terms from the elliptic genus
We calculate the heterotic string one-loop diagram in 2n+2 dimensions with one external Bμν and n external gravitons and/or gauge bosons. The result is a modular integral over the weight zero terms of the character valued partition function (or elliptic genus) of the theory, and can be directly expressed in terms of the factor which multiplies Tr F2-Tr R2 in the field theory anomaly. The integrands have a non-trivial dependence on the modular parameter τ, reflecting contributions not only from the physical massless states but also from an infinity of 'unphysical' modes. Some of them are identical to integrands which have been discussed recently in relation with Atkin-Lehner symmetry and the cosmological constant. As a corollary we find a method to compute these integrals without using Atkin-Lehner transformations. (orig.)
The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account
I. Kukkonen
1983-12-01
Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S. filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S. madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.
The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae
Kenneth G. V. Smith
1989-01-01
Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.
Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group
Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas
2015-01-01
Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...
Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces
Menotti, Pietro
2015-01-01
The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, in the case of higher genus is related also to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.
The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces
Menotti, Pietro
2016-05-01
The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.
A path integral derivation of χy-genus
The formula for the Hirzebruch χy-genus of complex manifolds is a consequence of the Hirzebruch-Riemann-Roch formula. The classical index formulae for Todd genus, Euler number and signature correspond to the case when the complex variable y=0, -1 and 1 respectively. Here we give a direct derivation of this nice formula based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics
The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces
The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces. (paper)
Tsiangia, a new genus based on Gaertnera Hongkongensis (Rubiaceae)
But, P. Pui-Hay; Hsue, Hsiang-hao; Li, Ping-T’ao
1986-01-01
Detailed examination of the holotype and isotype of Gaertnera hongkongensis Seemann led to the conclusion that this species does not belong to Gaertnera nor to Randia. A new genus, Tsiangia, is proposed to accommodate the new combination Tsiangia hongkongensis. This new genus is retained in Rubiaceae.
Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria.
Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Caiqiong; Chen, Yegao
2016-07-01
Psychotria is a genus of ca. 1500 species in the family Rubiaceae. Up to now, 41 species of the Psychotria genus have been chemically investigated, and 159 compounds, including alkaloids of indole, quinoline and benzoquinolizidine type, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and aliphatic compounds have been isolated. These compounds show potent bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities. PMID:27206020
The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy
Maroyi, A.
2012-01-01
This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of
Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces
Quantum field theory for b-c systems is formulated on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We make use of the formalism recently developed by Krichever and Novikov. Hamiltonian is defined properly, and the Ward-Takahashi identities are derived on higher-genus Riemann surfaces. (author)
A taxonomic revision of the Genus Origanum (Labiatae)
Ietswaart, J.H.
1980-01-01
The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Origanum (Labiatae, Saturejeae). As this difficult genus was never before monographed, a revisional study was much needed. The data presented are mainly based on the study of herbarium specimens and in some cases of living ones.
Refined Chern-Simons Theory in Genus Two
Arthamonov, Semeon
2015-01-01
Reshetikhin-Turaev (a.k.a. Chern-Simons) TQFT is a functor that associates vector spaces to two-dimensional genus g surfaces and linear operators to automorphisms of surfaces. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that there exists a Macdonald q,t-deformation -- refinement -- of these operators that preserves the defining relations of the mapping class groups beyond genus 1. For this we explicitly construct the refined TQFT representation of the genus 2 mapping class group in the case of rank one TQFT. This is a direct generalization of the original genus 1 construction of arXiv:1105.5117, opening a question if it extends to any genus. Our construction is built upon a q,t-deformation of the square of q-6j symbol of U_q(sl_2), which we define using the Macdonald version of Fourier duality. This allows to compute the refined Jones polynomial for arbitrary knots in genus 2. In contrast with genus 1, the refined Jones polynomial in genus 2 does not appear to agree with the Poincare polynomial of the triply ...
Studies in the Ericoideae. II. The new genus Stokoeanthus
E. G. H. Oliver
1976-12-01
Full Text Available The new monotypic genus Stokoeanthus is described, its type and only species being the new species S. chionophilus E. G. H. Oliver. The position of the genus in the subfamily, its relationships and the reasons for its establishment are given.
Genus Two Zhu Theory for Vertex Operator Algebras
Gilroy, Thomas
2015-01-01
We consider correlation functions for a vertex operator algebra on a genus two Riemann surface formed by sewing two tori together. We describe a generalisation of genus one Zhu recursion expressing an arbitrary genus two $n$--point correlation function in terms of $(n-1)$--point functions. We consider several applications including the correlation functions for the Heisenberg vertex operator algebra and its modules, Virasoro correlation functions and genus two Ward identities. We derive novel differential equations in terms of a differential operator on the genus two Siegel upper half plane for holomorphic $1$--forms, the normalised bidifferential of the second kind and the Heisenberg partition function. We also prove that the holomorphic mapping from the sewing parameter domain to the Siegel upper half plane is injective but not surjective.
Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas
Rodriguez-R Luis M
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.
Notes on hyperelliptic fibrations of genus 3, II
Murakami, Masaaki
2013-01-01
This is the part II of the series under the same title. In part I, using the approach developed by Catanese--Pignatelli arXiv:math/0503294, we gave a structure theorem for hyperelliptic genus 3 fibrations all of whose fibers are 2-connected (arXiv:1209.6278 [math.AG]). In this part II, we shall give a structure theorem for smooth deformation families of these to non-hyperelliptic genus 3 fibrations. As an application, we shall give a set of sufficient conditions for our genus 3 hyperelliptic ...
Bheemamyces, a new genus of the family Asterinaceae (Ascomycetes
V.B. Hosagoudar
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Bheemamyces with its type B. argyreicola, a new genus and a new species of the family Asterinaceae, collected on the leaves of Argyreia nervosa from the Malabar Botanic Garden, Kozhikode, Kerala, has been described and illustrated in detail. This genus differs from other genera of the family Asterinaceae in having the mycelia originated from the main hyphae, lifted slightly above the host surface, appearing like a ‘whip’, possessing intercalary and sub intercalary or sub lateral appressoria. Another such taxon, Asterina argyreiae Hansf. has been brought under this genus as Bheemamyces argyreiae (Hansf. comb. nov.
The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.
Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C
2011-02-01
Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids. PMID:21337498
toward a phylogeny of the kukri snakes, genus oligodon
无
2010-01-01
the south and southeast asian snake genus oligodon,known for its egg-eating feeding behavior,has been a taxonomically and systematically challenging group.this work provides the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.we use approximately 1900 base pairs of mitochondrial dna sequence data to infer the relationships of these snakes,and we examine congruence between the phylogeny and hemipenial characters.a hypothesis for the position of oligodon within the colubridae is also proposed.we discuss the implications of the phylogeny for previous taxonomic groupings,and consider the usefulness of the trees in analysis of behavior and biogeography of this genus.
Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes from India
A. Subrahmanyam
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales with its type species A. variosporum, is described from India. The new genus is distinct in producing dimorphic sporangia and multispored, acolumellate and globose macrosporangia with persistent, thin peridium. Sparingly, portions of the sporangial wall at the top and bottom of the sporangia are dissolved at maturity to release the sporangiospores whilst, in its close ally Gilbertella, the sporangium breaks open via a longitudinal suture. Further, the smaller sporangia (microsporangia are without a longitudinal suture and produce variable number of spores. The sporangiospores are pale brown, longitudinally striated without any appendages. Besides, the new genus produces neither rhizoids nor zygospores.
Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)
Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.
2012-01-01
A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.
The mapping glass group for genus 2
This article represents joint work with Tullio Regge and essentially concerns the symmetries of the hexagon. When space Σ is a genus 2 Riemann surface the observable of the theory are the gauge-invariant normalized traces of the SL(2,R) matrices which form the spinor representation of π1(Σ). It was extremely difficult to find a suitable notation for the 15 possible traces, in fact we shall simultaneously use two equivalent (and hopefully not too ambiguous) notations which are now described. First, define Bn = c(U1aV1bU2cV2d) where c(x) = 1/2 Tr(x), x element of π1, and n = a + 2b +4c + 8d = 1 . . . 15. There are two exception to ???, namely B3 = c (U1V1-1) and B12 = c(U2V2-1). SL(2,R) identities will reduce all other traces. These can be arranged to fit on a hexagon where each line, internal or on the border, represents one of the Bn. Instead of numbering the lines number the points so that, for example, B1 is equivalent to A12, B5 to A36, with Aij = Aji, where we use different letters A,B, to avoid confusion. This is the second notation. They can be related through the 6 x 6 symmetric matrix Aij whose components are precisely the elements Aij and Aii (no sum) = 1
American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia
Woodring, W.P.
1927-01-01
Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.
The genus Echium (Boraginaceae in southern Africa
E. Retief
1998-12-01
Full Text Available The genus Echium L. (Boraginaceae comprises about 60 species, mainly from Macaronesia. Europe, western Asia and North Africa. Two species E plantagineum L. and E. vulgare L. were introduced into southern Africa and have become naturalised. The species occur mainly as roadside weeds in the region. Echium is closely related to Lobostemon Lehm. (incl. Echiostachys Levyns, endemic in the southwestern Cape region. Pollen morphology shows a remarkable similarity between these genera, even suggesting that they could be merged. However, other characters, such as bilobed styles (Echium versus undivided ones (Lobostemon and the presence of an annulus, composed of a minute collar or 5-10 minute hairy lobules, at the bottom of the corolla tube inside (Echium, in contrast to hairs and/or scales at the base of the filaments (Lobostemon contradict the pollen structure, and Echium and Lobostemon are therefore regarded as two separate genera. Significant taxonomic characters, an identification key, full descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps of E. plantagineum and E. vulgare are given.
A Cytotaxonomic Study in the Genus Zingiber
AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to know the taxonomic structure of the genus of Zingiber based on cytological characters such as ratio of number, shape and size of chromosome. Zingiber specimens were mainly from Bogor botanical garden. There were seven species studied, Z. amaricans Nor., Z. aromaticum Val., Z. cassumunar Roxb., Z. gramineum Bl., Z. officinale Roxb., Z. ottensii Val. and Z. zerumbet (L. J.E. Smith. Z. officinale (local name: Jahe consinsting of 4 varieties, big ginger (jahe gajah, red ginger (jahe merah, small ginger (jahe emprit and blue-dark browny ginger (jahe wulung. Species identification was based on the literature such as of Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink (1968, Holttum (1950, and Burkill (1935. Semi permanent squash method using acetoorcein dye was used to prepare the sample (Darnaedi, 1991; Okada, 1981; Robert and Short, 1979. The results of the study indicate that the number of chromosomes of all species studied were the same, 2n=32. The length size of the first chromosome pair was about 2m. The shape of the chromosomes was mostly metacentric. Length and shape of each pair of chromosomes were hard to be determined accurately using this method, so that the chromosomal karyotype map unable to be constructed in this study. Giemsa C-banding method might be used to solve the problems. ©
Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.
De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco
2016-03-01
Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. PMID:27001126
Genetics and Genomics of the Genus Amycolatopsis.
Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Lal, Rup
2016-09-01
Actinobacteria are gram-positive filamentous bacteria which contains some of the most deadly human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Nocardia farcinica), plant pathogens (Streptomyces scabies, Leifsonia xyli) along with organisms that produces antibiotic (Streptomycetes, Amycolatopsis, Salinospora). Interestingly, these bacteria are equipped with an extraordinary capability of producing antibiotics and other metabolites which have medicinal properties. With the advent of inexpensive genome sequencing techniques and their clinical importance, many genomes of Actinobacteria have been successfully sequenced. These days, with the constant increasing number of drug-resistant bacteria, the urgent need for discovering new antibiotics has emerged as a major scientific challenge. And, unfortunately the traditional method of screening bacterial strains for the production of antibiotics has decreased leading to a paradigm shift in the planning and execution of discovery of novel biosynthetic gene clusters via genome mining process. The entire focus has shifted to the evaluation of genetic capacity of organisms for metabolite production and activation of cryptic gene clusters. This has been made possible only due to the availability of genome sequencing and has been augmented by genomic studies and new biotechnological approaches. Through this article, we present the analysis of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Amycolatopsis, sequenced till date with a focus on completely sequenced genomes and their application for further studies. PMID:27407288
Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).
Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago
1999-01-01
The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.
Diterpenoids from Roots and Aerial Parts of the Genus Stachys
Franco Piozzi; Maurizio Bruno
2011-01-01
The occurrence of diterpenoids from roots and aerial parts of the species of the genus Stachys (Lamiaceae, Labiatae) is reviewed. The presence of these diterpenoids in other taxa and their biological properties have been also reviewed.
A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica
A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....
A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula
Disha Arora
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.
A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.
Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam
2013-07-01
This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926
The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)
NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子
1988-01-01
The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.
Higher genus correlators from the hermitian one-matrix model
We develop an iterative algorithm for the genus expansion of the hermitian NxN one-matrix model (is the Penner model in an external field). By introducing moments of the external field, we prove that the genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends only on 3g-2+m lower moments (3g-2 for the partition function). We present the explicit results for the partition function and the one-loop correlator in genus one. We compare the correlators for the hermitian one-matrix model with those at zero momenta for c=1 CFT and show an agreement of the one-loop correlators for genus zero. (orig.)
Spectral Theory and Mirror Curves of Higher Genus
Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos
2015-01-01
Recently, a correspondence has been proposed between spectral theory and topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this paper we develop in detail this correspondence for mirror curves of higher genus, which display many new features as compared to the genus one case studied so far. Given a curve of genus g, our quantization scheme leads to g different trace class operators. Their spectral properties are encoded in a generalized spectral determinant, which is an entire function on the Calabi-Yau moduli space. We conjecture an exact expression for this spectral determinant in terms of the standard and refined topological string amplitudes. This conjecture provides a non-perturbative definition of the topological string on these geometries, in which the genus expansion emerges in a suitable 't Hooft limit of the spectral traces of the operators. In contrast to what happens in quantum integrable systems, our quantization scheme leads to a single quantization condition, which is elegantly encoded by t...
BRST quantization of superconformal theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces
A complex contour integral method is constructed and applied to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization procedure of string theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces with N=0 and 1 Krichever-Novikov (KN) algebras. This method makes calculations very simple. It is shown that the critical spacetime dimension of the string theories on a genus-g Riemann surface equals that of the string theories on a genus-zero Riemann surface, and that the 'Regge intercepts' in the genus-g case are α(g)=1-3/4g-9/8g2 and 1/2-3/4g-17/16g2 for bosonic strings and superstrings, respectively. (orig.)
Some adaptational peculiarities of introduced species of the genus Hydrangea
V. N. Kuchma
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Among studied the Hydrangea L. genus the species, which most adapted to the environment of steppe conditions, were developed. H. cinerea Stall. and H. bretschneider Dipp. are recommended for use in laying out of parks, etc.
Separating Curve Complex of the Genus Two Surface is Hyperbolic
Sultan, Harold Mark
2011-01-01
A proof that the separating curve complex of the closed genus two surface has a quasi-distance formula and is delta hyperbolic using tools of Masur and Schleimer. This answers in the affirmative a Conjecture of Schleimer.
Notes on genus Eurydoxa Filipjev (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China
BYUN Bong-Kyu; YAN Shan-chun; LI Cheng-de
2003-01-01
Genus Eurydoxa Filipjev in China is reviewed and noted for the first time. Based on the present study, two species are recognized, including rhodopa Diakonoff and advena Filipjev. All available information for the species is reviewed and provided.
Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria
Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorph genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic...
Seidenforchis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae) from Thailand
Hanna B. Margońska
2011-01-01
A new genus Seidenforchis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae) from Southeast Asia is proposed. Three species are transferred from Crepidium to Seidenforchis. Keys for determination of Seidenforchis species and related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Asia, are proposed.
NOMENCLATURAL NOTE ON A GENUS OF ORIENTAL RHAMPHINI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)
Enzo Colonnelli
2013-01-01
The name Megorchestes Kojima, 2011 is here selected as the correct original spelling over Magorchestes (alternative original spelling, here rejected) and Megorchsetes (alternative original spelling, here rejected) of a recently described genus of Oriental Rhamphini.
Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium
Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan [University of Strasbourg; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanov, Pavel S. [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg
2012-01-01
The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.
Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium
Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg
2012-01-01
The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.
Primary description, new combinations and synonyms in the genus Laccaria
Denes PAZMANY
1994-01-01
This paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the primary descriptions and new combinations of the species, varieties, forms and supraspecific taxons of the genus Laccaria and their synonyms, on the base of the published literature.
Quaternion Algebras over Curves of Genus One Without Rational Points
Susanne Pumpl(u)n
2005-01-01
Quaternion algebras over curves of genus one without rational points over perfect fields of characteristic not two are classified. As a consequence, all quaternion algebras over the function field of such a curve, which are unramified everywhere, are classified.
Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?
Katinas, Liliana
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n
Ecua, a new genus op Apocynaceae from Malesia
Middleton, David J.
1996-01-01
Whilst examining the specimens of Apocynaceae in Herbarium Bogoriense I came upon two unknown specimens which appeared to be species of Parsonsia. On further examination they turned out to belong to a new genus related to Parsonsia but differing from it in the stamens which are included within the corolla tube and the shape of the corolla, filaments and anthers. This is the second new genus recently discovered in Malesia, the first being Baharuia D.J. Middleton described from plants collected...
Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.
2014-01-01
The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concate...
The set of numerical semigroups of a given genus
Blanco, V
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a new approach to construct the set of numerical semigroups with a fixed genus. Our methodology is based on the construction of the set of numerical semigroups with fixed Frobenius number and genus. An equivalence relation is given over this set and a tree structure is defined for each equivalence class. We also provide a more efficient algorithm based in the translation of a numerical semigroup to its so-called Kunz-coordinates vector.
Genus Two Stable Maps, Local Equations and Modular Resolutions
Hu, Yi; Li, Jun
2012-01-01
We describe a canonical sequence of modular blowups of the Artin stack of stable weighted genus-two curves that diagonalize certain canonical derived objects of the original Artin stack. This provides a resolution of the primary component of the moduli space of genus two stable maps to projective space, and a partial desingularization of the same moduli space. Our approach should extend to higher genera.
Debatten om begreppen : genus i Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift 1980-1998
Åsberg, Cecilia
1998-01-01
"Concepts up for discussion: On the concept of genus in Swedish Gender Studies" This article concerns a lively conceptual debatethat took place in Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift (Swedish Journal of Women's Studies) between 1980-1998. When Yvonne Hirdman, a Swedish historian, in 1988 introduced the concepts of gender and gender system in KVT (in Swedish: genus and genussystem), this sparked off intense discussions and caused theoretical divisions within Swedish feminism. Opinions were divided ...
A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEOCINNAMOMUM LIOU HO
A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS
1974-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Asiatic Genus Neocinamomum comprises 6 species, of whichN. atjehense is described here for the first time. cinnamomum fargesiiLee. is moved to Neocinnamomum, N. willsonii Allen is consideredto be conspeeific with it. N. delavayi var.Mekongense hand.Mazz israised to specific rank. N. hainanianum Allen is reduced to N. lecomtei.Excluded from the genus is N. confertiflorum, which is moved toLitsea.
The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum
Lenka Kouřimská; Kateřina Ešlerová; Ynus Khatri
2016-01-01
Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activ...
Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers
Zheng, Quan
2016-05-01
We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.
Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One
Usha N Bhosle; Indranil Biswas
2008-02-01
We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{C}$. Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{R}$, with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism classes of stable real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of even rank. We also classify all isomorphism classes of real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of rank one.
Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea
Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun
2013-01-01
Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confir...
A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Myelochroa in South Korea
Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun
2012-01-01
Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded nearly two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the current study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Myelochroa in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review conf...
Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.
Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa
2009-02-01
The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids. PMID:19235157
Revision of the genus Caelospermum Blume (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae, Morindeae)
Johansson, J.T.
1988-01-01
The genus Caelospermum Blume is revised, and a key to the 7 species recognized is presented. Caelospermum consists of lianas and, sometimes, shrubs. The genus is distributed in SE. Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, E. Australia and New Caledonia. Caelospermum is closely related to Morinda, Pogonolobus and Gynochthodes, from which it differs by inflorescence and pollen morphology, etc. Caelospermum paniculatum F. Muell. var. syncarpu...
Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves
Matthew England
2010-03-01
Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.
A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Morrone Juan J.
1995-01-01
Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográf...
An atlas of reproductive development in rockfishes, genus Sebastes
Shaw, Franklin R.; Morado, J. Frank; Lowe, Vanessa C.; McDermott, Susanne F.
2012-01-01
The genus Sebastes consists of over 100 fish species, all of which are viviparous and long-lived. Previous studies have presented schemes on the reproductive biology of a single targeted species of the genus Sebastes, but all appear to possess a similar reproductive biology as evidenced by this and other studies. This atlas stages major events during spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and embryogenesis, including atresia, in six species of Sebastes (S. alutus, S. elongatus, S. helvomaculatus, S. ...
The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography
Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Kathariou, Sophia [North Carolina State University; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing
2009-01-01
Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.
The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*
J. P. Jessop
1966-12-01
Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations: A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br. (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth, A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak. (A. aethiopicus L. var. ternifolius Bak., A. aspergillus, A. obermeyerae, A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth, A. acocksii. A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and A. sprengeri and A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,. A. myersii, which is a nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to A. densiflorus.
The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine
Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.
Tae-Woo Kim
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.
A closed orientable 3-manifold with distinct distance three genus two Heegaard splittings
Berge, John
2009-01-01
We describe an example of a closed orientable 3-manifold with distinct distance three genus two Heegaard splittings. This demonstrates that the constructions of alternate genus two Heegaard splittings of closed orientable 3-manifolds described by Rubinstein and Scharlemann in their 1998 paper Genus Two Heegaard Splittings of Orientable 3-Manifolds, does not yield all alternate genus two splittings and must be augmented.
The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia
Gorovoy, P.
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de
F-theory on Genus-One Fibrations
Braun, Volker
2014-01-01
We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various $SU(5)\\times U(1)^n$ and $E_6$ models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a $\\tau$-function on the base as well as an $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same $\\tau$-function and $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now. Six-dimensional anomaly cancellation as well as Witten's zero-mode count on wrapped branes both imply corrections to the usual F-theory dictionary for some of these models. In particular, n...
A Review on the Terpenes from Genus Vitex.
Yao, Jin-Long; Fang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Rui; Oppong, Mahmood Brobbey; Liu, Er-Wei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han
2016-01-01
The genus Vitex, which belongs to the Verbenaceae family, includes approximately 250 species. Some species of the genus Vitex have traditionally been used for the treatment of headaches, ophthalmodynia, coughs, asthma, premenopausal syndrome, etc. Chemical investigations indicate that the characteristic constituents of the genus Vitex are terpenes, and 210 of these compounds, including monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids, have been obtained from 12 species. Pharmacological studies had shown that these terpenes possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and so on. In this paper, the identity of these terpenes and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, which can provide references for further research regarding the chemistry and utilization of the Vitex species. PMID:27608002
Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.
Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A
2014-12-01
The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944
Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.
Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun
2016-08-01
Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions. PMID:26988527
Evolution of the leukotoxin operon in genus Mannheimia
Larsen, J.; Pedersen, A. G.; Christensen, H.; Bisgaard, M.; Angen, Øystein; Ahrens, Peter; Olsen, J. E.
The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines compositi......The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines......RNA sequences; (iii) phylogeny of 24 leukotoxin gene sequences and 16 homologous genes retrieved from SWISS-PROT by using PSI-BLAST. Our data show no evidence for horizontal gene transfer into this clade. We propose that vertical descent from the common ancestor of genus Mannheimia, with subsequent loss of...