TaylUR 3, a multivariate arbitrary-order automatic differentiation package for Fortran 95
von Hippel, G. M.
2010-03-01
This new version of TaylUR is based on a completely new core, which now is able to compute the numerical values of all of a complex-valued function's partial derivatives up to an arbitrary order, including mixed partial derivatives. New version program summaryProgram title: TaylUR Catalogue identifier: ADXR_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXR_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPLv2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6750 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19 162 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: Any computer with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler Operating system: Any system with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler Classification: 4.12, 4.14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADXR_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 176 (2007) 710 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Problems that require potentially high orders of partial derivatives with respect to several variables or derivatives of complex-valued functions, such as e.g. momentum or mass expansions of Feynman diagrams in perturbative QFT, and which previous versions of this TaylUR [1,2] cannot handle due to their lack of support for mixed partial derivatives. Solution method: Arithmetic operators and Fortran intrinsics are overloaded to act correctly on objects of a defined type taylor, which encodes a function along with its first few partial derivatives with respect to the user-defined independent variables. Derivatives of products and composite functions are computed using multivariate forms [3] of Leibniz's rule D(fg)=∑{ν!}/{μ!(μ-ν)!}DfDg where ν=(ν,…,ν), |ν|=∑j=1dν, ν!=∏j=1dν!, Df=∂f/(∂x⋯∂x), and μ0,0related extension to the functionality of the module is the HESSIAN function that returns the Hessian
von Hippel, G. M.
2007-06-01
We present a new version of TaylUR, a Fortran 95 module to automatically compute the numerical values of a complex-valued function's derivatives with respect to several variables up to an arbitrary order in each variable, but excluding mixed derivatives. The new version fixes a potentially serious bug in the code for exponential-related functions that could corrupt the imaginary parts of derivatives, as well as being compatible with a wider range of compilers. Program summaryTitle of program: TaylUR Catalogue identifier: ADXR_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXR_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Programming language used: Fortran 95 Computer: Any computer with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler Operating system: Any system with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6548 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 468 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADXR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 569-576 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: yes Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem: Problems that require potentially high orders of derivatives with respect to some variables or derivatives of complex-valued functions, such as, e.g., expansions of Feynman diagrams in particle masses in perturbative Quantum Field Theory. Solution method: Arithmetic operators and Fortran intrinsics are overloaded to act correctly on objects of a defined type taylor, which encodes a function along with its first few derivatives with respect to the user-defined independent variables. Derivatives of products and composite functions are computed using Leibniz's rule and Fàa di Bruno's formula. Reasons for the new version: The previous version [G.M. von Hippel, TaylUR, an arbitrary-order diagonal automatic differentiation package for
CHENG Min; TANG Tiantong; YAO Zhenhua; ZHU Jingping
2001-01-01
Differential algebraic method is apowerful technique in computer numerical analysisbased on nonstandard analysis and formal series the-ory. It can compute arbitrary high order derivativeswith excellent accuracy. The principle of differentialalgebraic method is applied to calculate high orderaberrations of combined electromagnetic focusing sys-tems. As an example, third-order geometric aberra-tion coefficients of an actual combined electromagneticfocusing system were calculated. The arbitrary highorder aberrations are conveniently calculated by dif-ferential algebraic method and the fifth-order aberra-tion diagrams are given.
Bashir Ahmad
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We study boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions of order $q in (m-1, m]$, $m ge 2$ with multi-strip boundary conditions. Multi-strip boundary conditions may be regarded as the generalization of multi-point boundary conditions. Our problem is new in the sense that we consider a nonlocal strip condition of the form: $$ x(1=sum_{i=1}^{n-2}alpha_i int^{eta_i}_{zeta_i} x(sds, $$ which can be viewed as an extension of a multi-point nonlocal boundary condition: $$ x(1=sum_{i=1}^{n-2}alpha_i x(eta_i. $$ In fact, the strip condition corresponds to a continuous distribution of the values of the unknown function on arbitrary finite segments $(zeta_i,eta_i$ of the interval $[0,1]$ and the effect of these strips is accumulated at $x=1$. Such problems occur in the applied fields such as wave propagation and geophysics. Some new existence and uniqueness results are obtained by using a variety of fixed point theorems. Some illustrative examples are also discussed.
Automatic differentiation bibliography
Corliss, G.F. (comp.)
1992-07-01
This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.
Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference
Kucukelbir, Alp; Tran, Dustin; Ranganath, Rajesh; Gelman, Andrew; Blei, David M.
2016-01-01
Probabilistic modeling is iterative. A scientist posits a simple model, fits it to her data, refines it according to her analysis, and repeats. However, fitting complex models to large data is a bottleneck in this process. Deriving algorithms for new models can be both mathematically and computationally challenging, which makes it difficult to efficiently cycle through the steps. To this end, we develop automatic differentiation variational inference (ADVI). Using our method, the scientist on...
Hankel complementary integral transformations of arbitrary order
M. Linares Linares
1992-01-01
Full Text Available Four selfreciprocal integral transformations of Hankel type are defined through(ℋi,μf(y=Fi(y=∫0∞αi(xℊi,μ(xyf(xdx, ℋi,μ−1=ℋi,μ,where i=1,2,3,4; μ≥0; α1(x=x1+2μ, ℊ1,μ(x=x−μJμ(x, Jμ(x being the Bessel function of the first kind of order μ; α2(x=x1−2μ, ℊ2,μ(x=(−1μx2μℊ1,μ(x; α3(x=x−1−2μ, ℊ3,μ(x=x1+2μℊ1,μ(x, and α4(x=x−1+2μ, ℊ4,μ(x=(−1μxℊ1,μ(x. The simultaneous use of transformations ℋ1,μ, and ℋ2,μ, (which are denoted by ℋμ allows us to solve many problems of Mathematical Physics involving the differential operator Δμ=D2+(1+2μx−1D, whereas the pair of transformations ℋ3,μ and ℋ4,μ, (which we express by ℋμ* permits us to tackle those problems containing its adjoint operator Δμ*=D2−(1+2μx−1D+(1+2μx−2, no matter what the real value of μ be. These transformations are also investigated in a space of generalized functions according to the mixed Parseval equation∫0∞f(xg(xdx=∫0∞(ℋμf(y(ℋμ*g(ydy,which is now valid for all real μ.
ON QUADRATURE FORMULAE FOR SINGULAR INTEGRALS OF ARBITRARY ORDER
杜金元
2004-01-01
Some quadrature formulae for the numerical evaluation of singular integrals of arbitrary order are established and both the estimate of remainder and the convergence of each quadrature formula derived here are also given.
Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms for Machine Learning
Baydin, Atilim Gunes; Pearlmutter, Barak A.
2014-01-01
Automatic differentiation --- the mechanical transformation of numeric computer programs to calculate derivatives efficiently and accurately --- dates to the origin of the computer age. Reverse mode automatic differentiation both antedates and generalizes the method of backwards propagation of errors used in machine learning. Despite this, practitioners in a variety of fields, including machine learning, have been little influenced by automatic differentiation, and make scant use of available...
Making automatic differentiation truly automatic : coupling PETSc with ADIC
Despite its name, automatic differentiation (AD) is often far from an automatic process. often one must specify independent and dependent variables, indicate the derivative quantities to be computed, and perhaps even provide information about the structure of the Jacobians or Hessians being computed. However, when AD is used in conjunction with a toolkit with well-defined interfaces, many of these issues do not arise. They describe recent research into coupling the ADIC automatic differentiation tool with PETSc, a toolkit for the parallel numerical solution of PDEs. This research leverages the interfaces and objects of PETSc to make the AD process very nearly transparent
Simpler Online Updates for Arbitrary-Order Central Moments
Meng, Xiangrui
2015-01-01
Statistical moments are widely used in descriptive statistics. Therefore efficient and numerically stable implementations are important in practice. Pebay [1] derives online update formulas for arbitrary-order central moments. We present a simpler version that is also easier to implement.
Arbitrary-order parasupersymmetric coherent states of quantum harmonic oscillator
Fakhri, H. [Faculty of Physics, Tabriz University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Hfakhri@ark.tabrizu.ac.ir; Bahadori, M.E. [Faculty of Physics, Tabriz University, Tabriz (IR): Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences, Tabriz (Iran)]. E-mail: Msph0977@ark.tabrizu.ac.ir
2000-10-13
The eigenstates of arbitrary-order parasupersymmetric Hamiltonian p corresponding to a particle with spin p/2 in the presence of a harmonic oscillator potential and constant magnetic field directed along the z-axis are constructed in terms of eigenstates of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. Also, parasupersymmetric coherent states with degenerate multiplicity of an ad hoc bosonic annihilation operator of parasupersymmetric eigenstates of the Hamiltonian mentioned above are calculated. (author)
Arbitrary-order parasupersymmetric coherent states of quantum harmonic oscillator
The eigenstates of arbitrary-order parasupersymmetric Hamiltonian p corresponding to a particle with spin p/2 in the presence of a harmonic oscillator potential and constant magnetic field directed along the z-axis are constructed in terms of eigenstates of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. Also, parasupersymmetric coherent states with degenerate multiplicity of an ad hoc bosonic annihilation operator of parasupersymmetric eigenstates of the Hamiltonian mentioned above are calculated. (author)
Bark frequency transform using an arbitrary order allpass filter1
Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.
2010-01-01
We propose an arbitrary order stable allpass filter structure for frequency transformation from Hertz to Bark scale. According to the proposed filter structure, the first order allpass filter is causal, but the second and higher order allpass filters are non-causal. We find that the accuracy of the transformation significantly improves when a second or higher order allpass filter is designed compared to a first order allpass filter. We also find that the RMS error of the transformation monoto...
Arbitrary Order Charge Approximation Event Driven Phase Lock Loop Model
Daniels, Brian; Farrell, Ronan; Baldwin, Gerard
2004-01-01
An alternative technique for the derivation of an event driven phase lock loop (PLL) model is presented enabling the modelling of higher order PLLs. Event driven models have previously been developed for 2nd, and 3rd order PLLs [1,2,3], however for higher order systems (5th, 6th etc.) the derivation of the loop filter difference equations are not amenable. This paper introduces a technique to model PLLs with arbitrary order filters that removes the restriction on the loop...
Irreducible Cartesian tensors of highest weight, for arbitrary order
Mane, S. R.
2016-03-01
A closed form expression is presented for the irreducible Cartesian tensor of highest weight, for arbitrary order. Two proofs are offered, one employing bookkeeping of indices and, after establishing the connection with the so-called natural tensors and their projection operators, the other one employing purely coordinate-free tensor manipulations. Some theorems and formulas in the published literature are generalized from SO(3) to SO(n), for dimensions n ≥ 3.
Computer Corner: Automatic Differentiation and APL.
Neidinger, Richard D.
1989-01-01
Described are several programs that enable the user to evaluate derivatives to order n of any elementary function by using the combination of automatic differentiation method and A Programming Language (APL). Programs calculating first- and higher-order derivatives are presented. Selected APL symbols are appended. (YP)
Automatic Differentiation and its Program Realization
Hartman, J.; Lukšan, Ladislav; Zítko, J.
2009-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 5 (2009), s. 865-883. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : automatic differentiation * modeling languages * systems of optimization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/140037
Automatic differentiation and lattice function matching
Although popularized in accelerator physics for the calculation of the Taylor coefficients of phase space maps, automatic differentiation is a generic and powerful technique applicable to any problem where fast and accurate evaluation of (usually first order) derivatives is needed. Problems requiring the evaluation of sensitivities with respect to parameters of a model or the minimization of an error function permeate applications in accelerator physics. The advent of languages with built-in support for operator overloading-such as C++-results in greatly simplified syntax and highly maintainable software. To illustrate this point in practice, we apply automatic differentiation techniques to linear lattice function matching, an important problem encountered in the context of designing insertions or transfer lines between accelerators
DiffSharp: Automatic Differentiation Library
Baydin, Atilim Gunes; Pearlmutter, Barak A; Siskind, Jeffrey Mark
2015-01-01
In this paper we introduce DiffSharp, an automatic differentiation (AD) library designed with machine learning in mind. AD is a family of techniques that evaluate derivatives at machine precision with only a small constant factor of overhead, by systematically applying the chain rule of calculus at the elementary operator level. DiffSharp aims to make an extensive array of AD techniques available, in convenient form, to the machine learning community. These including arbitrary nesting of forw...
A taxonomy of automatic differentiation tools
Juedes, D.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)
1991-01-01
Many of the current automatic differentiation (AD) tools have similar characteristics. Unfortunately, the similarities between these various AD tools often cannot be easily ascertained by reading the corresponding documentation. To clarify this situation, a taxonomy of AD tools is presented. The taxonomy places AD tools into the Elemental, Extensional, Integral, Operational, and Symbolic classes. This taxonomy is used to classify twenty-nine AD tools. Each tool is examined individually with respect to the mode of differentiation used and the degree of derivatives computed. A list detailing the availability of the surveyed AD tools is provided in the Appendix. 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Sensitivity analysis and design optimization through automatic differentiation
Automatic differentiation is a technique for transforming a program or subprogram that computes a function, including arbitrarily complex simulation codes, into one that computes the derivatives of that function. We describe the implementation and application of automatic differentiation tools. We highlight recent advances in the combinatorial algorithms and compiler technology that underlie successful implementation of automatic differentiation tools. We discuss applications of automatic differentiation in design optimization and sensitivity analysis. We also describe ongoing research in the design of language-independent source transformation infrastructures for automatic differentiation algorithms
TMB: Automatic differentiation and laplace approximation
Kristensen, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders; Berg, Casper Willestofte;
2016-01-01
TMB is an open source R package that enables quick implementation of complex nonlinear random effects (latent variable) models in a manner similar to the established AD Model Builder package (ADMB, http://admb-project.org/; Fournier et al. 2011). In addition, it offers easy access to parallel...... computations. The user defines the joint likelihood for the data and the random effects as a C++ template function, while all the other operations are done in R; e.g., reading in the data. The package evaluates and maximizes the Laplace approximation of the marginal likelihood where the random effects are...... automatically integrated out. This approximation, and its derivatives, are obtained using automatic differentiation (up to order three) of the joint likelihood. The computations are designed to be fast for problems with many random effects (approximate to 10(6)) and parameters (approximate to 10...
Automatic differentiation for reduced sequential quadratic programming
Liao Liangcai; Li Jin; Tan Yuejin
2007-01-01
In order to slove the large-scale nonlinear programming (NLP) problems efficiently, an efficient optimization algorithm based on reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) and automatic differentiation (AD) is presented in this paper. With the characteristics of sparseness, relatively low degrees of freedom and equality constraints utilized, the nonlinear programming problem is solved by improved rSQP solver. In the solving process, AD technology is used to obtain accurate gradient information. The numerical results show that the combined algorithm, which is suitable for large-scale process optimization problems, can calculate more efficiently than rSQP itself.
Automatic differentiation: Obtaining fast and reliable derivatives -- fast
Bischof, C.H.; Khademi, P.M.; Pusch, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Carle, A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Center for Research on Parallel Computation
1994-12-31
In this paper, the authors introduce automatic differentiation as a method for computing derivatives of large computer codes. After a brief discussion of methods of differentiating codes, they review automatic differentiation and introduce the ADIFOR (Automatic DIfferentiation of FORtran) tool. They highlight some applications of ADIFOR to large industrial and scientific codes (groundwater transport, CFD airfoil design, and sensitivity-enhanced MM5 mesoscale weather model), and discuss the effectiveness and performance of their approach. Finally, they discuss sparsity in automatic differentiation and introduce the SparsLinC library.
Hydrocode sensivities by means of automatic differentiation
The purpose of this project has been to provide sensitivities of results from an Eulerian hydrodynamics computer code (hydrocode) for use in design-optimization and uncertainty analyses. We began by applying an equation-based sensitivity technique used successfully in the early eighties that was applied to reactor-safety thermal-hydraulics problems, which is called Differential Sensitivity Theory (DST). The methodology is as follows: the system of partial differential equations (the forward or physical PDEs) is assembled, and differentiated with respect to the model parameters of interest; the adjoint equations are then determined using the inner-product rules of Hilbert spaces; and finally, the resulting adjoint PDEs are solved using straightforward numerical operators. The forward-variable solutions when needed for the adjoint solutions are provided by the original computer code that solves the physical (or forward) problem. In the present hydrocode application, acceptable results were obtained for one-material, one-dimensional problems. The DST results were then improved by means of ''compatible'' finite difference operators. We have seen, however, that DST techniques do not produce accurate values for sensitivities to all of the parameters of interest and for problems with discontinuities such as a multi-material problem. To obtain accurate sensitivities for arbitrary numerical resolution a more code-based approach was then tried. We attempted to apply automatic differentiation (AD) in the forward mode using Automatic Differentiation of Fortran (ADIFOR, version 2.0) and the Tangent-linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC) in the forward and adjoint modes. We were successful for one-dimensional problems in both modes but failed to obtain accurate sensitivities in the adjoint mode for two-dimensional problem. Here we present the successful results for two-dimensional problems in both the forward and adjoint modes using ADIFOR, version 3.0. In what follows, we
Automatic differentiation based solution of strongly coupled problems in engineering
Hudobivnik, Blaž
2016-01-01
The doctoral thesis presents an approach for the formulation and solution of strongly coupled engineering problems with the finite element method using the automatic differentiation technique that the software tools AceGen and AceFEM enables. It has been shown that it is possible to transform arbitrarily weak form of differential equation of coupled problems into scalar function pseudo-potential. By using the automatic differentiation and appropriate exceptions in the differentiation pr...
Meshing Highly Regular Structures: The Case of Super Carbon Nanotubes of Arbitrary Order
Christian Schröppel
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Mesh generation is an important step in many numerical methods. We present the “Hierarchical Graph Meshing” (HGM method as a novel approach to mesh generation, based on algebraic graph theory. The HGM method can be used to systematically construct configurations exhibiting multiple hierarchies and complex symmetry characteristics. The hierarchical description of structures provided by the HGM method can be exploited to increase the efficiency of multiscale and multigrid methods. In this paper, the HGM method is employed for the systematic construction of super carbon nanotubes of arbitrary order, which present a pertinent example of structurally and geometrically complex, yet highly regular, structures. The HGM algorithm is computationally efficient and exhibits good scaling characteristics. In particular, it scales linearly for super carbon nanotube structures and is working much faster than geometry-based methods employing neighborhood search algorithms. Its modular character makes it conducive to automatization. For the generation of a mesh, the information about the geometry of the structure in a given configuration is added in a way that relates geometric symmetries to structural symmetries. The intrinsically hierarchic description of the resulting mesh greatly reduces the effort of determining mesh hierarchies for multigrid and multiscale applications and helps to exploit symmetry-related methods in the mechanical analysis of complex structures.
CIP/multi-moment finite volume method with arbitrary order of accuracy
XIAO, FENG; Ii, Satoshi
2012-01-01
This paper presents a general formulation of the CIP/multi-moment finite volume method (CIP/MM FVM) for arbitrary order of accuracy. Reconstruction up to arbitrary order can be built on single cell by adding extra derivative moments at the cell boundary. The volume integrated average (VIA) is updated via a flux-form finite volume formulation, whereas the point-based derivative moments are computed as local derivative Riemann problems by either direct interpolation or approximate Riemann solvers.
Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation
Corliss, G.F. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Griewank, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
1993-05-01
We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste.
Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation
Corliss, G.F. (Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Griewank, A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))
1993-01-01
We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste.
Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation
We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste
Automatic differentiation, tangent linear models, and (pseudo) adjoints
Bischof, C.H.
1993-12-31
This paper provides a brief introduction to automatic differentiation and relates it to the tangent linear model and adjoint approaches commonly used in meteorology. After a brief review of the forward and reverse mode of automatic differentiation, the ADIFOR automatic differentiation tool is introduced, and initial results of a sensitivity-enhanced version of the MM5 PSU/NCAR mesoscale weather model are presented. We also present a novel approach to the computation of gradients that uses a reverse mode approach at the time loop level and a forward mode approach at every time step. The resulting ``pseudoadjoint`` shares the characteristic of an adjoint code that the ratio of gradient to function evaluation does not depend on the number of independent variables. In contrast to a true adjoint approach, however, the nonlinearity of the model plays no role in the complexity of the derivative code.
Nonlinear model predictive control using automatic differentiation
Al Seyab, Rihab Khalid Shakir
2006-01-01
Although nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) might be the best choice for a nonlinear plant, it is still not widely used. This is mainly due to the computational burden associated with solving online a set of nonlinear differential equations and a nonlinear dynamic optimization problem in real time. This thesis is concerned with strategies aimed at reducing the computational burden involved in different stages of the NMPC such as optimization problem, state estimation, an...
Automatic differentiation for PDES: Unsaturated flow case study
Corliss, G.F.; Bischof, C.; Griewank, A.; Wright, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Robey, T. (Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States))
1992-01-01
The techniques of automatic differentiation are applied to an example partial differential equation arising from the modeling of unsaturated flow. One common paradigm for the numerical solution to some classes of two-, three-, or higher-dimensional partial differential equations is as follows: Given a PDE and boundary conditions, apply finite difference or finite element approximations on some appropriate (frequently nonuniform) grid, and enforce an approximate solution by solving a nonlinear system F(u)=0 for the residual by Newton's method. The dimension of the nonlinear system F(u)=0 is proportional to the number of grid points. In current algorithms, the Jacobian J required by Newton's method is computed by some combination of hand coding, divided differences, matrix coloring, and partial separability. We present a case study documenting the steps we took in analyzing a code provided by Robey for modeling unsaturated flow in porous media. Our purpose was to compute J by automatic differentiation using ADOL-C, a tool for automatic differentiation using overloaded operators in C++.
Automatic differentiation for PDES: Unsaturated flow case study
Corliss, G.F.; Bischof, C.; Griewank, A.; Wright, S.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Robey, T. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1992-07-01
The techniques of automatic differentiation are applied to an example partial differential equation arising from the modeling of unsaturated flow. One common paradigm for the numerical solution to some classes of two-, three-, or higher-dimensional partial differential equations is as follows: Given a PDE and boundary conditions, apply finite difference or finite element approximations on some appropriate (frequently nonuniform) grid, and enforce an approximate solution by solving a nonlinear system F(u)=0 for the residual by Newton`s method. The dimension of the nonlinear system F(u)=0 is proportional to the number of grid points. In current algorithms, the Jacobian J required by Newton`s method is computed by some combination of hand coding, divided differences, matrix coloring, and partial separability. We present a case study documenting the steps we took in analyzing a code provided by Robey for modeling unsaturated flow in porous media. Our purpose was to compute J by automatic differentiation using ADOL-C, a tool for automatic differentiation using overloaded operators in C++.
Quasi-normal Frequencies in Schwarzschild space-time to Arbitrary Order for Large Overtone Number
Casals, Marc
2016-01-01
We analytically investigate the spin-1 quasinormal mode frequencies of Schwarzschild black hole space-time. We formally determine these frequencies to arbitrary order as an expansion for large imaginary part (i.e., large-n, where n is the overtone number). As an example of the practicality of this formal procedure, we analytically calculate the explicit frequencies up to order $n^{-5/2}$.
Arbitrary Order Mixed Mimetic Finite Differences Method with Nodal Degrees of Freedom
Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Manzini, Gianmarco [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-09-01
In this work we consider a modification to an arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method (MFD) for a diffusion equation on general polygonal meshes [1]. The modification is based on moving some degrees of freedom (DoF) for a flux variable from edges to vertices. We showed that for a non-degenerate element this transformation is locally equivalent, i.e. there is a one-to-one map between the new and the old DoF. Globally, on the other hand, this transformation leads to a reduction of the total number of degrees of freedom (by up to 40%) and additional continuity of the discrete flux.
Shchepunov, V A; Cappuzzello, F; Foti, A; Lazzaro, A; Melita, A L; Nociforo, C; Winfield, J S
2003-01-01
The large angular (approx 50 msr) and momentum (approx 20%) acceptance spectrometer MAGNEX is under construction at the South National Laboratories INFN. In the spectrometer, positions of ions in two planes near the focal plane and their vertical positions near the target are measured. The energy resolution of about 1000 is achieved due to the use of the reconstruction of trajectories and reconstructive correction of aberrations. Main features of the spectrometer ion optics are considered. A numerical method of calculation of an arbitrary order transfer map is proposed. In this method, a transfer map is calculated using, as input, initial and final coordinates of a set of rays in an ion-optical system. The rays start at the nods of a regular multi-dimensional mesh in the particle phase space. Rays of the set are chosen automatically according to the order and dimension of the map to be calculated. Final coordinates of the rays are calculated with a regular numerical integration. The proposed is, in fact, a ge...
Clad — Automatic Differentiation Using Clang and LLVM
Vassilev, V.; Vassilev, M.; Penev, A.; Moneta, L.; Ilieva, V.
2015-05-01
Differentiation is ubiquitous in high energy physics, for instance in minimization algorithms and statistical analysis, in detector alignment and calibration, and in theory. Automatic differentiation (AD) avoids well-known limitations in round-offs and speed, which symbolic and numerical differentiation suffer from, by transforming the source code of functions. We will present how AD can be used to compute the gradient of multi-variate functions and functor objects. We will explain approaches to implement an AD tool. We will show how LLVM, Clang and Cling (ROOT's C++11 interpreter) simplifies creation of such a tool. We describe how the tool could be integrated within any framework. We will demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept prototype, called Clad, which is able to generate n-th order derivatives of C++ functions and other language constructs. We also demonstrate how Clad can offload laborious computations from the CPU using OpenCL.
Post-convergence automatic differentiation of iterative schemes
A new approach for performing automatic differentiation (AD) of computer codes that embody an iterative procedure, based on differentiating a single additional iteration upon achieving convergence, is described and implemented. This post-convergence automatic differentiation (PAD) technique results in better accuracy of the computed derivatives, as it eliminates part of the derivatives convergence error, and a large reduction in execution time, especially when many iterations are required to achieve convergence. In addition, it provides a way to compute derivatives of the converged solution without having to repeat the entire iterative process every time new parameters are considered. These advantages are demonstrated and the PAD technique is validated via a set of three linear and nonlinear codes used to solve neutron transport and fluid flow problems. The PAD technique reduces the execution time over direct AD by a factor of up to 30 and improves the accuracy of the derivatives by up to two orders of magnitude. The PAD technique's biggest disadvantage lies in the necessity to compute the iterative map's Jacobian, which for large problems can be prohibitive. Methods are discussed to alleviate this difficulty
Automatic differentiation of codes in nuclear engineering applications
We discuss our experience in applying automatic differentiation (AD) to calculations in nuclear reactor applications. The document is intended as a guideline on how to apply AD to Fortran codes with significant legacy components; it is also a part of a larger research effort in uncertainty quantification using sampling methods augmented with derivative information. We provide a brief theoretical description of the concept of AD, explain the necessary changes in the code structure, and remark on possible ways to deal with non-differentiability. Numerical experiments were carried out where the derivative of a functional subset of the SAS4A/SASSYS code was computed in forward mode with several AD tools. The results are in good agreement with both the real and complex finite-difference approximations of the derivative.
Automatic differentiation of codes in nuclear engineering applications.
Alexe, M.; Roderick, O.; Utke, J.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland, P.; Fanning, T.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.; Unv. of Chicago
2009-12-01
We discuss our experience in applying automatic differentiation (AD) to calculations in nuclear reactor applications. The document is intended as a guideline on how to apply AD to Fortran codes with significant legacy components; it is also a part of a larger research effort in uncertainty quantification using sampling methods augmented with derivative information. We provide a brief theoretical description of the concept of AD, explain the necessary changes in the code structure, and remark on possible ways to deal with non-differentiability. Numerical experiments were carried out where the derivative of a functional subset of the SAS4A/SASSYS code was computed in forward mode with several AD tools. The results are in good agreement with both the real and complex finite-difference approximations of the derivative.
Optimized higher-order automatic differentiation for the Faddeeva function
Charpentier, Isabelle
2016-08-01
Considerable research efforts have been directed at implementing the Faddeeva function w(z) and its derivatives with respect to z, but these did not consider the key computing issue of a possible dependence of z on some variable t. The general case is to differentiate the compound function w(z(t)) = w ∘ z(t) with respect to t by applying the chain rule for a first order derivative, or Faà di Bruno's formula for higher-order ones. Higher-order automatic differentiation (HOAD) is an efficient and accurate technique for derivative calculation along scientific computing codes. Although codes are available for w(z) , a special symbolic HOAD is required to compute accurate higher-order derivatives for w ∘ z(t) in an efficient manner. A thorough evaluation is carried out considering a nontrivial case study in optics to support this assertion.
A Modular Arbitrary-Order Ocean-Atmosphere Model: MAOOAM v1.0
De Cruz, L; Vannitsem, S
2016-01-01
This paper describes a reduced-order quasi-geostrophic coupled ocean-atmosphere model that allows for an arbitrary number of atmospheric and oceanic modes to be retained in the spectral decomposition. The modularity of this new model allows one to easily modify the model physics. Using this new model, coined "Modular Arbitrary-Order Ocean-Atmosphere Model" (maooam), we analyse the dependence of the model dynamics on the truncation level of the spectral expansion, and unveil spurious behaviour that may exist at low resolution by a comparison with the higher resolution versions. In particular, we assess the robustness of the coupled low-frequency variability when the number of modes is increased. An "optimal" version is proposed for which the ocean resolution is sufficiently high while the total number of modes is small enough to allow for a tractable and extensive analysis of the dynamics.
Generation of arbitrary order Bessel beams via 3D printed axicons at the terahertz frequency range.
Wei, Xuli; Liu, Changming; Niu, Liting; Zhang, Zhongqi; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong
2015-12-20
We present the generation of arbitrary order Bessel beams at 0.3 THz through the implementation of suitably designed axicons based on 3D printing technology. The helical axicons, which possess thickness gradients in both radial and azimuthal directions, can convert the incident Gaussian beam into a high-order Bessel beam with spiral phase structure. The evolution of the generated Bessel beams are characterized experimentally with a three-dimensional field scanner. Moreover, the topological charges carried by the high-order Bessel beams are determined by the fork-like interferograms. This 3D-printing-based Bessel beam generation technique is useful not only for THz imaging systems with zero-order Bessel beams but also for future orbital-angular-momentum-based THz free-space communication with higher-order Bessel beams. PMID:26837031
Shchepunov, V.A. E-mail: shchepun@sunhe.jinr.rushchepunov@lns.infn.it; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Melita, A.L.; Nociforo, C.; Winfield, J.S
2003-05-01
The large angular ({approx}50 msr) and momentum ({approx}20%) acceptance spectrometer MAGNEX is under construction at the South National Laboratories INFN. In the spectrometer, positions of ions in two planes near the focal plane and their vertical positions near the target are measured. The energy resolution of about 1000 is achieved due to the use of the reconstruction of trajectories and reconstructive correction of aberrations. Main features of the spectrometer ion optics are considered. A numerical method of calculation of an arbitrary order transfer map is proposed. In this method, a transfer map is calculated using, as input, initial and final coordinates of a set of rays in an ion-optical system. The rays start at the nods of a regular multi-dimensional mesh in the particle phase space. Rays of the set are chosen automatically according to the order and dimension of the map to be calculated. Final coordinates of the rays are calculated with a regular numerical integration. The proposed is, in fact, a general (ray tracing based) method of calculation of a transfer map, of any order and dimension, for an arbitrary ion-optical system. The method has been used for numerical simulations of the reconstructive correction of aberrations in the MAGNEX spectrometer. Simulation results are considered. A C++ class library has been developed to realize the proposed transfer map calculation method. Elementary operations with vectors and maps, both being C++ objects, are realized as C++ operator functions. The map order is defined by a user at the moment of initialization of the corresponding map object. Its maximum value is limited only by an available computer memory. Computational aspects of the method are discussed in brief.
Parallel computation of automatic differentiation applied to magnetic field calculations
The author presents a parallelization of an accelerator physics application to simulate magnetic field in three dimensions. The problem involves the evaluation of high order derivatives with respect to two variables of a multivariate function. Automatic differentiation software had been used with some success, but the computation time was prohibitive. The implementation runs on several platforms, including a network of workstations using PVM, a MasPar using MPFortran, and a CM-5 using CMFortran. A careful examination of the code led to several optimizations that improved its serial performance by a factor of 8.7. The parallelization produced further improvements, especially on the MasPar with a speedup factor of 620. As a result a problem that took six days on a SPARC 10/41 now runs in minutes on the MasPar, making it feasible for physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to simulate larger magnets
Automatic differentiation of melanoma and clark nevus skin lesions
LeAnder, R. W.; Kasture, A.; Pandey, A.; Umbaugh, S. E.
2007-03-01
Clark nevus. Consequently, grouping melanoma and melanoma in situ together achieves the best results in classifying and automatically differentiating melanoma from Clark nevus lesions.
An automatic detection software for differential reflection spectroscopy
Yuksel, Seniha Esen; Dubroca, Thierry; Hummel, Rolf E.; Gader, Paul D.
2012-06-01
Recent terrorist attacks have sprung a need for a large scale explosive detector. Our group has developed differential reflection spectroscopy which can detect explosive residue on surfaces such as parcel, cargo and luggage. In short, broad band ultra-violet and visible light is shone onto a material (such as a parcel) moving on a conveyor belt. Upon reflection off the surface, the light intensity is recorded with a spectrograph (spectrometer in combination with a CCD camera). This reflected light intensity is then subtracted and normalized with the next data point collected, resulting in differential reflection spectra in the 200-500 nm range. Explosives show spectral finger-prints at specific wavelengths, for example, the spectrum of 2,4,6, trinitrotoluene (TNT) shows an absorption edge at 420 nm. Additionally, we have developed an automated software which detects the characteristic features of explosives. One of the biggest challenges for the algorithm is to reach a practical limit of detection. In this study, we introduce our automatic detection software which is a combination of principal component analysis and support vector machines. Finally we present the sensitivity and selectivity response of our algorithm as a function of the amount of explosive detected on a given surface.
Strange Attractors in the Vannimenus Model on an Arbitrary Order Cayley Tree
We consider the Vannimenus model on a Cayley tree of arbitrary order k with competing nearest-neighbour interactions J1 and next-nearest-neighbour interactions J2 and J3 in the presence of an external magnetic field h. In this paper we study the phase diagram of the model using an iterative scheme for a renormalized effective nearest-neighbour coupling Kr and effective field per site Xr for spins on the rth level; it recovers, as particular cases, previous works by Vannimenus, Inawashiro et al, Mariz et al and Ganikhodjaev and Uguz. Each phase is characterized by a particular attractor and the phase diagram is obtained by following the evolution and detecting the qualitative changements of these attractors. These changements can be either continuous or abrupt, respectively characterizing second- or first- order phase transitions. We present a few typical attractors and at finite temperatures, several interesting features (evolution of reentrances, separation of the modulated region into few disconnected pieces, etc) are exhibited for typical values of parameters.
Development of multi-mode diabatic spin-orbit models at arbitrary order
Weike, Thomas; Eisfeld, Wolfgang
2016-03-01
The derivation of diabatic spin-orbit (SO) Hamiltonians is presented, which are expanded in terms of nuclear coordinates to arbitrary order including the treatment of multi-mode systems, having more than one mode of the same symmetry. The derivation is based on the microscopic Breit-Pauli SO operator and the consequent utilization of time reversal and spatial symmetry transformation properties of basis functions and coordinates. The method is demonstrated for a set of 2E and 2A1 states in C3 v ∗ (double group) symmetry, once for a 3D case of one a1 and one e mode and once for a 9D case of three a1 and three e coordinates. It is shown that the general structure of the diabatic SO Hamiltonian only depends on the basis states and is strictly imposed by time reversal symmetry. The resulting matrix can be expressed easily by a power series using six parametrized structure matrices as expansion coefficients multiplied by the associated monomials in terms of symmetrized coordinates. The explicit example presented here provides a full-dimensional diabatic SO model for methyl halide cations, which will be studied in the future.
Fournier, David A.; Skaug, Hans J.; Ancheta, Johnoel;
2011-01-01
Many criteria for statistical parameter estimation, such as maximum likelihood, are formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem.Automatic Differentiation Model Builder (ADMB) is a programming framework based on automatic differentiation, aimed at highly nonlinear models with a large number of...
The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications
Spence, Peter J., E-mail: peter.spence@awe.co.uk
2015-09-01
A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent
The Modular Arbitrary-Order Ocean-Atmosphere Model of the RMIB: MAOOAM
De Cruz, Lesley; Demaeyer, Jonathan; Vannitsem, Stéphane
2016-04-01
The coupled ocean-atmosphere system exhibits a decadal variability at midlatitudes, which gives rise to the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NOA). The driving mechanism behind this variability has been the subject of much interest and debate in recent years. This conundrum was addressed using several low-order coupled ocean-atmosphere models for midlatitudes, with an increasing level of physical realism: OA-QG-WS v1 [1], v2 [2], and most recently, VDDG [3]. The VDDG-model was designed to capture the key dynamics of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, featuring a two-layer atmosphere over a shallow-water ocean layer with passively advected temperature. It incorporates both frictional coupling and an energy balance scheme which accounts for radiative and heat fluxes between ocean and atmosphere. The spectral expansion was truncated at 10 atmospheric and 8 oceanic modes, and a coupled low-frequency variability was found. We present an extended version of the VDDG model, in which an arbitrary number of atmospheric and oceanic modes can be retained. The modularity of the new model version allows one to easily modify the model physics. Using this new model, named the "Modular Arbitrary-Order Ocean-Atmosphere Model" (MAOOAM), we analyse the dependence of the model dynamics on the truncation level of the spectral expansion. Indeed, previous studies have shown that spurious behaviour may exist in low-resolution models, which can be unveiled by a comparison with their high-resolution counterparts [4]. In particular, we assess the robustness of the coupled low-frequency variability when the number of modes is increased. References [1] Vannitsem, S.: Dynamics and predictability of a low-order wind-driven ocean-atmosphere coupled model, Climate dynamics, 42, 1981-1998, 2014. [2] Vannitsem, S. and De Cruz, L.: A 24-variable low-order coupled ocean-atmosphere model: OA-QG-WS v2, Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 649-662, 2014. [3] Vannitsem, S., Demaeyer, J., De Cruz, L., and Ghil
Pymanopt: A Python Toolbox for Manifold Optimization using Automatic Differentiation
Townsend, James; Koep, Niklas; Weichwald, Sebastian
2016-01-01
Manifold optimization is a method for (non-convex) optimization of an objective function, subject to constraints which are smooth, in the sense that the set of points which satisfy the constraints admits the structure of a differentiable manifold. While many optimization problems are of the described form, technicalities of differential geometry and the laborious calculation of derivatives pose a significant barrier for experimenting with manifold optimization techniques. We introduce Pymanop...
Automatically activated stereotypes and differential treatment against the obese in hiring
Rooth, Dan-Olof
2008-01-01
This study provides empirical support for automatically activated associations inducing unequal treatment against the obese among recruiters in a real-life hiring situation. A field experiment on differential treatment against obese job applicants in hiring is combined with a measure of employers' automatic/implicit performance stereotype toward obese relative to normal weight using the implicit association test. We find a strong and statistically significant obesity difference in the correla...
Automatic differentiation tools in the dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes
Castro M.C.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Automatic Differentiation is a relatively recent technique developed for the differentiation of functions applicable directly to the source code to compute the function written in standard programming languages. That technique permits the automatization of the differentiation step, crucial for dynamic simulation and optimization of processes. The values for the derivatives obtained with AD are exact (to roundoff. The theoretical exactness of the AD comes from the fact that it uses the same rules of differentiation as in differential calculus, but these rules are applied to an algorithmic specification of the function rather than to a formula. The main purpose of this contribution is to discuss the impact of Automatic Differentiation in the field of dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes. The influence of the differentiation technique on the behavior of the integration code, the performance of the generated code and the incorporation of AD tools in consistent initialization tools are discussed from the viewpoint of dynamic simulation of typical models in chemical engineering.
Automatic differentiation of u- and n-serrated patterns in direct immunofluorescence images
Shi, Chenyu; Guo, Jiapan; Azzopardi, George; Meijer, Joost; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Petkov, Nicolai
2015-01-01
Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin. Manual u- and n-serrated patterns analysis in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) images is used in medical practice to differentiate EBA from other forms of pemphigoid. The manual analysis of serration patterns in DIF images is very challenging, mainly due to noise and lack of training of the immunofluorescence (IF) microscopists. There are no automatic techniques to distinguish these two types of ...
Algorithms and design for a second-order automatic differentiation module
Abate, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Texas Inst. for Computational and Applied Mathematics; Bischof, C.; Roh, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Carle, A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Center for Research on Parallel Computation
1997-07-01
This article describes approaches to computing second-order derivatives with automatic differentiation (AD) based on the forward mode and the propagation of univariate Taylor series. Performance results are given that show the speedup possible with these techniques relative to existing approaches. The authors also describe a new source transformation AD module for computing second-order derivatives of C and Fortran codes and the underlying infrastructure used to create a language-independent translation tool.
DNAD, a simple tool for automatic differentiation of Fortran codes using dual numbers
Yu, Wenbin; Blair, Maxwell
2013-05-01
DNAD (dual number automatic differentiation) is a simple, general-purpose tool to automatically differentiate Fortran codes written in modern Fortran (F90/ 95/2003) or legacy codes written in previous version of the Fortran language. It implements the forward mode of automatic differentiation using the arithmetic of dual numbers and the operator overloading feature of F90/ 95/2003. Very minimum changes of the source codes are needed to compute the first derivatives of Fortran programs. The advantages of DNAD in comparison to other existing similar computer codes are its programming simplicity, extensibility, and computational efficiency. Specifically, DNAD is more accurate and efficient than the popular complex-step approximation. Several examples are used to demonstrate its applications and advantages. Program summaryProgram title: DNAD Catalogue identifier: AEOS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3922 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 275 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90/95/2003. Computer: All computers with a modern FORTRAN compiler. Operating system: All platforms with a modern FORTRAN compiler. Classification: 4.12, 6.2. Nature of problem: Derivatives of outputs with respect to inputs of a Fortran code are often needed in physics, chemistry, and engineering. The author of the analysis code may no longer be available and the user may not have a deep knowledge of the code. Thus a simple tool is necessary to automatically differentiate the code with very minimum change to the source codes. This can be achieved using dual number arithmetic and operator overloading. Solution method: A new data type is defined with the first scalar
Forth, Shaun A.; Edvall, Marcus
2007-01-01
MAD is a Matlab library of functions and utilities for the automatic differentiation of Matlab functions/statements via operator and function overloading. Currently the forward mode of automatic differentiation is supported via the fmad class. For a single directional derivative objects of the fmad class use Matlab arrays of the same size for a variable's value and its directional derivative. Multiple directional derivatives are stored in objects of the derivvec class allowi...
Simulation of nonisothermal, multiphase flow through fractured geothermal reservoirs involves the solution of a system of strongly nonlinear algebraic equations. The Newton-Raphson method used to solve such a nonlinear system of equations requires the evaluation of a Jacobian matrix. In this paper we discuss automatic differentiation (AD) as a method for analytically computing the Jacobian matrix of derivatives. Robustness and efficiency of the AD-generated derivative codes are compared with a conventional derivative computation approach based on first-order finite differences
We study the efficient solution of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion problems. An implicit time discretization leads to the solution of systems of non-linear equations which couple radiation energy and material temperature. We consider the implicit Euler method, the mid-point scheme, the two-step backward differentiation formula, and a two-stage implicit Runge-Kutta method for time discretization. We employ a Newton-Krylov method in the solution of arising non-linear problems. We describe the computation of the Jacobian matrix for Newton's method using automatic differentiation based on the operator overloading in Fortran 90. For GMRES iterations, we propose a simple multigrid preconditioner applied directly to the coupled linearized problems. We demonstrate the efficiency and scalability of the proposed solution procedure by solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional model problems
Differential Evolution for Optimization of PID Gains in Automatic Generation Control
Dr. L.D. Arya,
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Automatic generation control (AGC of a multi area power system provides power demand signals for AGC power generators to control frequency and tie-line power flow due to the large load changes or other disturbances. Occurrence of large megawatt imbalance causes large frequency deviations from its nominal value which may be a threat to secure operation of power system. To avoid such situation,emergency control to maintain the system frequency using differential evolution (DE based proportionalintegral- derivative (PID controller is proposed in this paper. DE is one of the most powerful stochastic real parameter optimization in current use. DE based optimum gains give better optimal transient response of frequency and tie line power changes compared to particle swarm optimization based gains.
Uncertainty Calculation of Roundness Assessment by Automatic Differentiation in Coordinate Metrology
Jia-chun LIN; Michael Krystek; Zhao-yao SHI
2010-01-01
Recently, Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) are widely used to measure roundness errors. Roundness is calculated from a large number of points collected from the profiles of the parts. According to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), all measurement results must have a stated uncertainty associated the them. However, no CMMs give the uncertainty value of the roundness, because no suitable measurement uncertainty calculation procedure exists. In the case of roundness measurement in coordinate metrology, this paper suggests the algorithms for the calculation of the measurement uncertainty of the roundness deviation based on the two mainly used association criteria, LSC and MZC. The calculation of the sensitivity coefficients for the uncertainty calculation can be done by automatic differentiation, in order to avoid introducing additional errors by the traditional difference quotient approximations. The proposed methods are exact and need input data only as the measured coordinates of the data points and their associated uncertainties.
An inverse radiative transfer model of the vegetation canopy based on automatic differentiation
This paper presents an inverse model of radiation transfer processes occurring in the solar domain in vegetation plant canopies. It uses a gradient method to minimize the misfit between model simulation and observed radiant fluxes plus the deviation from prior information on the unknown model parameters. The second derivative of the misfit approximates uncertainty ranges for the estimated model parameters. In a second step, uncertainties are propagated from parameters to simulated radiant fluxes via the model's first derivative. All derivative information is provided by a highly efficient code generated via automatic differentiation of the radiative transfer code. The paper further derives and evaluates an approach for avoiding secondary minima of the misfit. The approach exploits the smooth dependence of the solution on the observations, and relies on a database of solutions for a discretized version of the observation space
Automatic Detection of Exudates in Retinal Fundus Images using Differential Morphological Profile
Shraddha Tripathi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic method for exudate detection from colour fundus imagesbased on Differential Morphological Profile (DMP.The detection of exudates is important for the identification of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. The method involves of three main phases. Inthe first phase, pre processing tasks like Gaussian smoothing and contrast enhancement is done. In the second phase, DMP is applied on the pre-processed image. The image obtained from DMP containshighlighted bright regions consisting of exudates and optic disc. In the next phase, feature extraction based on location of optic disc, shape index and area is done to obtain actual exudates. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by applying it on the DIARETDB1 database. The specificity,sensitivity and PPV of the proposed method were compared with two other methods. The results showthat the proposed method gives better results than the other conventional methods.
Moiseev, N. Ya.; Silant'eva, I. Yu.
2008-07-01
An approach to the construction of second-and higher order accurate difference schemes in time and space is described for solving the linear one-and multidimensional advection equations with constant coefficients by the Godunov method with antidiffusion. The differential approximations for schemes of up to the fifth order are constructed and written. For multidimensional advection equations with constant coefficients, it is shown that Godunov schemes with splitting over spatial variables are preferable, since they have a smaller truncation error than schemes without splitting. The high resolution and efficiency of the difference schemes are demonstrated using test computations.
Low rank approach to computing first and higher order derivatives using automatic differentiation
This manuscript outlines a new approach for increasing the efficiency of applying automatic differentiation (AD) to large scale computational models. By using the principles of the Efficient Subspace Method (ESM), low rank approximations of the derivatives for first and higher orders can be calculated using minimized computational resources. The output obtained from nuclear reactor calculations typically has a much smaller numerical rank compared to the number of inputs and outputs. This rank deficiency can be exploited to reduce the number of derivatives that need to be calculated using AD. The effective rank can be determined according to ESM by computing derivatives with AD at random inputs. Reduced or pseudo variables are then defined and new derivatives are calculated with respect to the pseudo variables. Two different AD packages are used: OpenAD and Rapsodia. OpenAD is used to determine the effective rank and the subspace that contains the derivatives. Rapsodia is then used to calculate derivatives with respect to the pseudo variables for the desired order. The overall approach is applied to two simple problems and to MATWS, a safety code for sodium cooled reactors. (authors)
An approach for efficient estimation of passive safety system functional reliability has been developed and applied to a simplified model of the passive residual heat transport system typical of sodium cooled fast reactors to demonstrate the reduction in computational time. The method is based on generating linear approximations to the best estimate computer code, using the technique of automatic reverse differentiation. This technique enables determination of linear approximation to the code in a few runs independent of the number of input variables for each response variable. The likely error due to linear approximation is reduced by augmented sampling through best estimate code in the neighborhood of the linear failure surface but in a sub domain where linear approximation error is relatively more. The efficiency of this new approach is compared with importance sampling MCS which uses the linear approximation near the failure region and with Direct Monte-Carlo Simulation. In the importance sampling MCS, variants employing random sampling with Box-Muller algorithm and Markov Chain algorithm are inter-compared. The significance of the results with respect to system reliability is also discussed.
Spectral Expansion for the Asymptotically Spectral Periodic Differential Operators
O. A. Veliev
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate the spectral expansion for the asymptotically spectral differential operators generated in all real line by ordinary differential expression of arbitrary order with periodic matrix-valued coefficients
Takemiya, Tetsushi
, and that (2) the AMF terminates optimization erroneously when the optimization problems have constraints. The first problem is due to inaccuracy in computing derivatives in the AMF, and the second problem is due to erroneous treatment of the trust region ratio, which sets the size of the domain for an optimization in the AMF. In order to solve the first problem of the AMF, automatic differentiation (AD) technique, which reads the codes of analysis models and automatically generates new derivative codes based on some mathematical rules, is applied. If derivatives are computed with the generated derivative code, they are analytical, and the required computational time is independent of the number of design variables, which is very advantageous for realistic aerospace engineering problems. However, if analysis models implement iterative computations such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which solves system partial differential equations iteratively, computing derivatives through the AD requires a massive memory size. The author solved this deficiency by modifying the AD approach and developing a more efficient implementation with CFD, and successfully applied the AD to general CFD software. In order to solve the second problem of the AMF, the governing equation of the trust region ratio, which is very strict against the violation of constraints, is modified so that it can accept the violation of constraints within some tolerance. By accepting violations of constraints during the optimization process, the AMF can continue optimization without terminating immaturely and eventually find the true optimum design point. With these modifications, the AMF is referred to as "Robust AMF," and it is applied to airfoil and wing aerodynamic design problems using Euler CFD software. The former problem has 21 design variables, and the latter 64. In both problems, derivatives computed with the proposed AD method are first compared with those computed with the finite
Tber, Moulay Hicham; Vidard, Arthur; Dauvergne, Benjamin
2007-01-01
The ocean general circulation model OPA is developed by the LODYC team at Paris VI university. OPA has recently undergone a major rewriting, migrating to FORTRAN95, and its adjoint code needs to be rebuilt. For earlier versions, the adjoint of OPA was written by hand at a high development cost. We use the Automatic Differentiation tool TAPENADE to build mechanicaly the tangent and adjoint codes of OPA. We validate the differentiated codes by comparison with divided differences, and also with an identical twin experiment. We apply state-of-the-art methods to improve the performance of the adjoint code. In particular we implement the Griewank and Walther's binomial checkpointing algorithm which gives us an optimal trade-off between time and memory consumption. We apply a specific strategy to differentiate the iterative linear solver that comes from the implicit time stepping scheme
Allou, Kaoutar; Vial, Jean-Philippe; Béné, Marie C; Lacombe, Francis
2015-01-01
The complete blood cell count and white blood cell differential are the first step in the biological diagnosis of hematological diseases. Both are currently performed by automated instruments which control data and produce alerts. If such flags are activated, the automated differential cannot be validated and the operator must activate a visual blood smear review. Microscopic examination is still today the reference method despite its lack of sensitivity and reproducibility. The HematoFlow™ (Beckman Coulter) system is the first flow cytometry commercialized method designed for the routine differential. Using six markers in five colors and an automated gating strategy, it provides differentials proven to be reliable for 17 leukocyte subpopulations detection. Relying first on a retrospective analysis of 6,462 blood samples processed by HematoFlow™, thresholds were determined to detect the presence of immature granulocytes and/or blast cells. All possible gating strategy misclassifications of leukocyte subpopulations were then summarized in a systematic nomenclature leading to the development of an original flag system based on the detection of aberrant localization of cell events in specific new bivariate histograms. Ultimately, more than 50% of the results could be automatically validated using the HematoFlow™ system, without any false negative, thereby dramatically contributing to an important decrease of technicians' workload. Moreover a noticeable help was given for smear review interpretation and new immunological flags led to the confirmation of blood disease after classical immunophenotyping. These results were confirmed in a second prospective study including 15,335 cases, where more than 50% of the results were automatically validated by this new flag system. MFC stands as being more and more essential for analyzing differentials in routine and this new flag system could greatly improve its implementation. PMID:25906976
Hügelschäfer, Sabine
2011-01-01
Research has shown that economic decision makers often do not behave according to the prescriptions of rationality, but instead show systematic deviations from rational behavior (e.g., Starmer, 2000). One approach to explain these deviations is taking a dual-process perspective (see Evans, 2008; Sanfey & Chang, 2008; Weber & Johnson, 2009) in which a distinction is made between deliberate, resource-consuming controlled processes and fast, effortless automatic processes. In many cases, deviati...
Automatic differentiation of u- and n-serrated patterns in direct immunofluorescence images
Shi, Chenyu; Guo, Jiapan; Azzopardi, George; Meijer, Joost; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Petkov, Nicolai
2015-01-01
Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin. Manual u- and n-serrated patterns analysis in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) images is used in medical practice to differentiate EBA from other forms of pemphigoid. The manual analysis of serration pa
The automatic solution of partial differential equations using a global spectral method
Townsend, Alex; Olver, Sheehan
2015-10-01
A spectral method for solving linear partial differential equations (PDEs) with variable coefficients and general boundary conditions defined on rectangular domains is described, based on separable representations of partial differential operators and the one-dimensional ultraspherical spectral method. If a partial differential operator is of splitting rank 2, such as the operator associated with Poisson or Helmholtz, the corresponding PDE is solved via a generalized Sylvester matrix equation, and a bivariate polynomial approximation of the solution of degree (nx ,ny) is computed in O ((nxny) 3 / 2) operations. Partial differential operators of splitting rank ≥3 are solved via a linear system involving a block-banded matrix in O (min (nx3 ny ,nx ny3)) operations. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of our 2D spectral method to a broad class of PDEs, which includes elliptic and dispersive time-evolution equations. The resulting PDE solver is written in MATLAB and is publicly available as part of CHEBFUN. It can resolve solutions requiring over a million degrees of freedom in under 60 seconds. An experimental implementation in the JULIA language can currently perform the same solve in 10 seconds.
The efficiency of geophysical adjoint codes generated by automatic differentiation tools
Vlasenko, A. V.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.
2016-02-01
The accuracy of numerical models that describe complex physical or chemical processes depends on the choice of model parameters. Estimating an optimal set of parameters by optimization algorithms requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the process of interest to model parameters. Typically the sensitivity computation involves differentiation of the model, which can be performed by applying algorithmic differentiation (AD) tools to the underlying numerical code. However, existing AD tools differ substantially in design, legibility and computational efficiency. In this study we show that, for geophysical data assimilation problems of varying complexity, the performance of adjoint codes generated by the existing AD tools (i) Open_AD, (ii) Tapenade, (iii) NAGWare and (iv) Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran (TAF) can be vastly different. Based on simple test problems, we evaluate the efficiency of each AD tool with respect to computational speed, accuracy of the adjoint, the efficiency of memory usage, and the capability of each AD tool to handle modern FORTRAN 90-95 elements such as structures and pointers, which are new elements that either combine groups of variables or provide aliases to memory addresses, respectively. We show that, while operator overloading tools are the only ones suitable for modern codes written in object-oriented programming languages, their computational efficiency lags behind source transformation by orders of magnitude, rendering the application of these modern tools to practical assimilation problems prohibitive. In contrast, the application of source transformation tools appears to be the most efficient choice, allowing handling even large geophysical data assimilation problems. However, they can only be applied to numerical models written in earlier generations of programming languages. Our study indicates that applying existing AD tools to realistic geophysical problems faces limitations that urgently need to be solved to allow the
Wave propagational inverse problems arise in several applications including medical imaging and geophysical exploration. In these problems, one is interested in obtaining the parameters describing the medium from its response to excitations. The problems are characterized by their large size, and by the hyperbolic equation which models the physical phenomena. The inverse problems are often posed as a nonlinear data-fitting where the unknown parameters are found by minimizing the misfit between the predicted data and the actual data. In order to solve the problem numerically using a gradient-type approach, one must calculate the action of the Jacobian and its adjoint on a given vector. In this paper, the authors explore the use of automatic differentiation (AD) to develop codes that perform these calculations. They show that by exploiting structure at 2 scales, they can arrive at a very efficient code whose main components are produced by AD. In the first scale they exploit the time-stepping nature of the hyperbolic solver by using the Extended Jacobian framework. In the second (finer) scale, they exploit the finite difference stencil in order to make explicit use of the sparsity in the dependence of the output variables to the input variables. The main ideas in this work are illustrated with a simpler, one-dimensional version of the problem. Numerical results are given for both one- and two-dimensional problems. They present computational templates that can be used in conjunction with optimization packages to solve the inverse problem
Kono, Atsushi K.; Ishii, Kazunari; Sofue, Keitaro; Miyamoto, Naokazu [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Himeji Central Hospital, PET Center, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2007-09-15
To evaluate a fully automatic computer-assisted diagnostic system for mild dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), permitting distinction from mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), glucose metabolic images were obtained from mild DLB and mild AD patients. Two groups consisting of 16 mild DLB patients and 21 mild AD patients were recruited for diagnostic evaluation between mild DLB and mild AD. The mean age {+-} SD of the mild DLB group and the mild AD group was 74.3 {+-} 4.9 and 71.7 {+-} 2.1 years, respectively, and the mean scores of the MMSE for the mild DLB and the mild AD group were 21.7 {+-} 1.9 and 23.1 {+-} 2.1, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance, in terms of discrimination between DLB and AD, of conventional axial FDG-PET images inspected visually by experts and beginners with that of our fully automatic diagnosis system using the statistical brain mapping method and Z scores obtained with the DLB template. The diagnostic performance of the automatic system was comparable to that of visual inspection by experts. The area under the ROC curve for the automatic diagnosis system was 0.77. The mean area under the ROC curve for visual inspection by experts and beginners was 0.76 and 0.65, respectively. The fully automatic differential diagnosis system for distinction between mild DLB and AD showed a similar diagnostic accuracy to visual inspection by experts. It would be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish mild DLB from mild AD in clinical practice. (orig.)
Finite Larmor Radius Effects to Arbitrary Order
Knorr, G.; Hansen, F.R.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Pécseli, H.L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1988-01-01
A representation of a finite Larmor radius plasma is proposed, which permits the transition rL → ∞ without becoming mathematically ill-posed. It is being used in a two-dimensional guiding center plasma spectral code and may have useful analytical applications. The ions are represented as guiding...... centers and the Larmor radius is averaged analytically for every Fourier-mode. Finite Larmor radius densities and velocities are thus obtained from guiding center quantities by application of a filter in wave vector space....
Cohomology operators on superstring differential forms
The explicit formulae are derived for cohomology operators on superstring differential forms of arbitrary order. These formulae are used for the study of the gauge invariance of equations of the string field functionals. Various identities for the structure constants of the associated superalgebras are also given
Shahamatnia Ehsan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO, solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert.
Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Dorotovič, Ivan; Fonseca, Jose M.; Ribeiro, Rita A.
2016-03-01
Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert.
Lim, Julian; Teng, James; Wong, Kian Foong; Chee, Michael W L
2016-07-01
Rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce on-the-job fatigue, both physical and mental. However, this practice makes the assumption that recovery from fatigue, as measured by the reversal of performance declines, is the sole effect of taking a break on behavior. Here, through administering rest breaks of differing lengths in between blocks of a mentally demanding symbol decoding task, we show that this assumption may not be strictly true. First, we replicate previous work by showing that taking a longer break leads to two correlated effects: greater immediate rebound in performance, and greater subsequent time-on-task decline. Using fMRI, we reveal that time-on-task in this paradigm is associated with increasing recruitment of fronto-parietal areas associated with top-down control, and decreasing deactivation in the default-mode network. Finally, by analyzing individual differences, we reveal a potential neural basis for our behavioral observation: greater recovery following long breaks is associated with greater activity in the putamen, an area associated with the automatic generation of motor responses, followed by greater activity in left middle frontal gyrus by the end of those task periods. Taken together, this suggests a shift in the implicit engagement of automatic and controlled attentional processing following longer breaks. This shift may be undesirable or detrimental in real-world situations where maintaining a stable level of attention over time is necessary. PMID:27039697
Lemaire, Pierre; Chen, Liming; Ardabilian, Mohsen; Daoudi, Mohamed
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose an holistic, fully auto- matic approach to 3D Facial Expression Recognition (FER). A novel facial representation, namely Differential Mean Curva- ture Maps (DMCMs), is proposed to capture both global and local facial surface deformations which typically occur during facial expressions. These DMCMs are directly extracted from 3D depth images, by calculating the mean curvatures thanks to an integral computation. To account for facial morphology variations, they are fur...
Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong
2014-09-16
Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647
Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) or conventional handheld ultrasonography (HHUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: The study prospectively evaluated 239 lesions in 213 women who were scheduled for open biopsy. The patients underwent ABVS and conventional HHUS. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, false positive rate, false negative rate, and positive and negative predictive values for HHUS and ABVS images were calculated using histopathological examination as the gold standard. Additionally, diagnostic accuracy was further evaluated according to the size of the masses. Results: Among the 239 breast lesions studied, pathology revealed 85 (35.6%) malignant lesions and 154 (64.4%) benign lesions. ABVS was similar to HHUS in terms of sensitivity (95.3% vs. 90.6%), specificity (80.5% vs. 82.5%), accuracy (85.8% vs. 85.3%), positive predictive value (73.0% vs. 74.0%), and negative predictive value (93.3% vs. 94.1%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which is used to estimate the accuracy of the methods, demonstrated only minor differences between HHUS and ABVS (0.928 and 0.948, respectively). Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy of HHUS and ABVS in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions is almost identical. However, ABVS can offer new diagnostic information. ABVS may help to distinguish between real lesions and inhomogeneous areas, find small lesions, and demonstrate the presence of intraductal lesions. This technique is feasible for clinical applications and is a promising new technique in breast imaging.
Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David
1995-01-01
Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.
Waveguide filter-based on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing
Taddei, Caterina; Nguyen, T.H. Yen; Zhuang, Leimeng; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paul; Roeloffzen, Chris G.H.
2013-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a waveguide filterbased on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing. The system principle allows the operation of arbitrary-order differentiation. The realized device is constructed using the basic building blocks of photonic integrated circuits, and fe
Gurappa, N.; Jha, Pankaj K.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2007-01-01
A general method for solving linear differential equations of arbitrary order, is used to arrive at new representations for the solutions of the known differential equations, both without and with a source term. A new quasi-solvable potential has also been constructed taking recourse to the above method.
A note on the Dirichlet problem for model complex partial differential equations
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Karaca, Bahriye
2016-08-01
Complex model partial differential equations of arbitrary order are considered. The uniqueness of the Dirichlet problem is studied. It is proved that the Dirichlet problem for higher order of complex partial differential equations with one complex variable has infinitely many solutions.
Chatelin, Simon; Charpentier, Isabelle; Corbin, Nadège; Meylheuc, Laurence; Vappou, Jonathan
2016-07-01
Quantitative and accurate measurement of in vivo mechanical properties using dynamic elastography has been the scope of many research efforts over the past two decades. Most of the shear-wave-based inverse approaches for magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) make the assumption of isotropic viscoelasticity. In this paper, we propose a quantitative gradient method for inversion of the shear wave equation in anisotropic media derived from a full waveform description using analytical viscoelastic Green formalism and automatic differentiation. The abilities and performances of the proposed identification method are first evaluated on numerical phantoms calculated in a transversely isotropic medium, and subsequently on experimental MRE data measured on an isotropic hydrogel phantom, on an anisotropic cryogel phantom and on an ex vivo fibrous muscle. The experiments are carried out by coupling circular shear wave profiles generated by acoustic radiation force and MRE acquisition of the wave front. Shear modulus values obtained by our MRE method are compared to those obtained by rheometry in the isotropic hydrogel phantom, and are found to be in good agreement despite non-overlapping frequency ranges. Both the cryogel and the ex vivo muscle are found to be anisotropic. Stiffness values in the longitudinal direction are found to be 1.8 times and 1.9 times higher than those in the transverse direction for the cryogel and the muscle, respectively. The proposed method shows great perspectives and substantial benefits for the in vivo quantitative investigation of complex mechanical properties in fibrous soft tissues.
Haeseler, Friedrich
2003-01-01
Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.
Wavelet Methods for Solving Fractional Order Differential Equations
A. K. Gupta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a field of applied mathematics which deals with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary orders. The fractional calculus has gained considerable importance during the past decades mainly due to its application in diverse fields of science and engineering such as viscoelasticity, diffusion of biological population, signal processing, electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, electrochemistry, and many more. In this paper, we review different wavelet methods for solving both linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations. Our goal is to analyze the selected wavelet methods and assess their accuracy and efficiency with regard to solving fractional differential equations. We discuss challenges faced by researchers in this field, and we emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary effort for advancing the study on various wavelets in order to solve differential equations of arbitrary order.
Xinjian Zhang; Xiongwei Liu
2015-01-01
A unified reproducing kernel method for solving linear differential equations with functional constraint is provided. We use a specified inner product to obtain a class of piecewise polynomial reproducing kernels which have a simple unified description. Arbitrary order linear differential operator is proved to be bounded about the special inner product. Based on space decomposition, we present the expressions of exact solution and approximate solution of linear differential equation by the po...
Ordering and transport in generalized continua with arbitrary order parameters
With reference to two phase solids, Gurtin has recently formulated a unified framework for Ginzburg-Landau's and Cahn-Hilliard's equations. The present paper deals with its possible extension to generalized continua described by arbitrary tensor-order parameters. The role of the configurational entropy is discussed in detail. Such an entropy allows to obtain kinetic rules even in the theoretical limit case of frictionless materials. (orig.)
Ordering and transport in generalized continua with arbitrary order parameters
Mariano, P.M.; Augusti, G. [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica
1998-11-01
With reference to two phase solids, Gurtin has recently formulated a unified framework for Ginzburg-Landau`s and Cahn-Hilliard`s equations. The present paper deals with its possible extension to generalized continua described by arbitrary tensor-order parameters. The role of the configurational entropy is discussed in detail. Such an entropy allows to obtain kinetic rules even in the theoretical limit case of frictionless materials. (orig.) 15 refs.
Geometric phases for astigmatic optical modes of arbitrary order
Habraken, Steven J M
2010-01-01
The transverse spatial structure of a basis set of paraxial optical modes is fully characterized by a set of parameters that vary only slowly under free propagation. The parameters specify bosonic ladder operators that connect modes of different order, in analogy to the ladder operators connecting harmonic-oscillator wave functions. The parameter spaces underlying closed subspaces of higher-order modes are carbon copies of the parameter space of the ladder operators. We study the geometry of this space and the geometric phase that arises from it. This phase constitutes the ultimate generalization of the Gouy phase in paraxial wave optics and we recover the ordinary Gouy phase shift and the geometric phase for optical orbital angular momentum states as limiting cases. We discuss an analogy with the Aharonov-Bohm effect that reveals some deep insights in the nature and origin of the generalized Gouy phase shift.
Geometric phases in astigmatic optical modes of arbitrary order
The transverse spatial structure of a paraxial beam of light is fully characterized by a set of parameters that vary only slowly under free propagation. They specify bosonic ladder operators that connect modes of different orders, in analogy to the ladder operators connecting harmonic-oscillator wave functions. The parameter spaces underlying sets of higher-order modes are isomorphic to the parameter space of the ladder operators. We study the geometry of this space and the geometric phase that arises from it. This phase constitutes the ultimate generalization of the Gouy phase in paraxial wave optics. It reduces to the ordinary Gouy phase and the geometric phase of nonastigmatic optical modes with orbital angular momentum in limiting cases. We briefly discuss the well-known analogy between geometric phases and the Aharonov-Bohm effect, which provides some complementary insights into the geometric nature and origin of the generalized Gouy phase shift. Our method also applies to the quantum-mechanical description of wave packets. It allows for obtaining complete sets of normalized solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Cyclic transformations of such wave packets give rise to a phase shift, which has a geometric interpretation in terms of the other degrees of freedom involved.
Liu, Da-Yan
2015-04-30
This paper aims at designing a digital fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation to estimate fractional derivatives with an arbitrary order in noisy case, where the input can be unknown or known with noises. Firstly, an integer order differentiator for the input is constructed using a truncated Jacobi orthogonal series expansion. Then, a new algebraic formula for the Riemann-Liouville derivative is derived, which is enlightened by the algebraic parametric method. Secondly, a digital fractional order differentiator is proposed using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Then, the noise error contribution is analyzed, where an error bound useful for the selection of the design parameter is provided. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the accuracy and the robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiator.
Xinjian Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A unified reproducing kernel method for solving linear differential equations with functional constraint is provided. We use a specified inner product to obtain a class of piecewise polynomial reproducing kernels which have a simple unified description. Arbitrary order linear differential operator is proved to be bounded about the special inner product. Based on space decomposition, we present the expressions of exact solution and approximate solution of linear differential equation by the polynomial reproducing kernel. Error estimation of approximate solution is investigated. Since the approximate solution can be described by polynomials, it is very suitable for numerical calculation.
Computational differentiation and multidisciplinary design
Bischof, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Griewank, A. [Institute of Scientific Computing, Technical Univ. of Dresden, Dresden (Germany)
1993-12-31
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) by means of formal sensitivity analysis requires that each single-discipline analysis code supply not only the output functions for the (usually constrained) optimization process and other discipline analysis inputs, but also the derivatives of all of these output functions with respect to its input variables. Computational differentiation techniques and automatic differentiation tools enable MDO by providing accurate and efficient derivatives of computer programs with little human effort. We discuss the principles behind automatic differentiation and give a brief overview of automatic differentiation tools and how they can be employed judiciously, for example, for sparse Jacobians and to exploit parallelism. We show how, and under what circumstances, automatic differentiation applied to iterative solvers delivers the mathematically desired derivatives. We then show how derivatives that can now be feasibly obtained by computational differentiation techniques can lead to improved solution schemes for nonlinear coupled systems and multidisciplinary design optimization.
Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin
2012-01-01
We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...
Narcis Eduard Mitu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.
Renormalization methods for higher order differential equations
We adapt methodology of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory to approximate solutions to an arbitrary order ordinary differential equation boundary value problem by a second-order equation. In particular, we study equations involving the derivative of a double-well potential such as u − u3 or − u + 2u3. Using momentum (Fourier) space variables we average over short length scales and demonstrate that the higher order derivatives can be neglected within the first cumulant approximation, once length is properly renormalized, yielding an approximation to solutions of the higher order equation from the second order. The results are confirmed using numerical computations. Additional numerics confirm that the main role of the higher order derivatives is in rescaling the length. (paper)
Differential and difference equations a comparison of methods of solution
Maximon, Leonard C
2016-01-01
This book, intended for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering, presents a detailed comparison of the important methods of solution for linear differential and difference equations - variation of constants, reduction of order, Laplace transforms and generating functions - bringing out the similarities as well as the significant differences in the respective analyses. Equations of arbitrary order are studied, followed by a detailed analysis for equations of first and second order. Equations with polynomial coefficients are considered and explicit solutions for equations with linear coefficients are given, showing significant differences in the functional form of solutions of differential equations from those of difference equations. An alternative method of solution involving transformation of both the dependent and independent variables is given for both differential and difference equations. A comprehensive, detailed treatment of Green’s functions and the associat...
Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator
Full Text Available Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health Daytona Beach, Florida. Over the next hour you' ...
Automatic Payroll Deposit System.
Davidson, D. B.
1979-01-01
The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)
Automatic Arabic Text Classification
Al-harbi, S; Almuhareb, A.; Al-Thubaity , A; Khorsheed, M. S.; Al-Rajeh, A.
2008-01-01
Automated document classification is an important text mining task especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Text classification aims to automatically assign the text to a predefined category based on linguistic features. Such a process has different useful applications including, but not restricted to, e-mail spam detection, web page content filtering, and automatic message routing. This paper presents the results of experiments on documen...
In this paper, we devise a systematic procedure to obtain nonlocal symmetries of a class of scalar nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of arbitrary order related to linear ODEs through nonlocal relations. The procedure makes use of the Lie point symmetries of the linear ODEs and the nonlocal connection to deduce the nonlocal symmetries of the corresponding nonlinear ODEs. Using these nonlocal symmetries, we obtain reduction transformations and reduced equations to specific examples. We find that the reduced equations can be explicitly integrated to deduce the general solutions for these cases. We also extend this procedure to coupled higher order nonlinear ODEs with specific reference to second-order nonlinear ODEs. (paper)
Application of multiquadric method for numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations
Sharan, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India); Kansa, E.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gupta, S. [Govt. Girls Sr. Sec. School I, Madangir, New Delhi (India)
1994-01-01
We have used the multiquadric (MQ) approximation scheme for the solution of elliptic partial differential equations with Dirichlet and/or Neumann boundary conditions. The scheme has the advantage to use the data points in arbitrary locations with an arbitrary ordering. Two dimensional Laplace, Poisson and Biharmonic equations describing the various physical processes, have been taken as the test examples. The agreement is found to be very good between the computed and exact solutions. The method also provides an excellent approximation with curve boundary.
Energy and electromagnetism of a differential k-form
Navarro, J
2012-01-01
Let X be a smooth manifold of dimension 1+n endowed with a lorentzian metric g, and let T be the electromagnetic energy tensor associated to a 2-form F. In this paper we characterize this tensor T as the only 2-covariant natural tensor associated to a lorentzian metric and a 2-form that is independent of the unit of scale and satisfies certain condition on its divergence. This characterization is motivated on physical grounds, and can be used to justify the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. More generally, we characterize in a similar manner the energy tensor associated to a differential form of arbitrary order k. Finally, we develop a generalized theory of electromagnetism where charged particles are not punctual, but of an arbitrary fixed dimension p. In this theory, the electromagnetic field F is a differential form of order 2+p and its electromagnetic energy tensor is precisely the energy tensor associated to F.
Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers by...... members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers a...
Smith, Colin Boughton [Energy Metering Technology (United Kingdom)
2000-08-01
At present, energy audits represent only snapshot situations of the flow of energy. The normal pattern of energy audits as seen through the eyes of an experienced energy auditor is described. A brief history of energy auditing is given. It is claimed that the future of energy auditing lies in automatic meter reading with expert data analysis providing continuous automatic auditing thereby reducing the skill element. Ultimately, it will be feasible to carry out auditing at intervals of say 30 minutes rather than five years.
Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike
2014-01-01
Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...
Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel
2014-01-01
This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts. The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop
Differentiation transforming system
Qiang Cheng; Haibin Zhang; Bin Wang; Yonghua Zhao
2009-01-01
The differentiation transforming(DFT)system is developed to produce the tangent linear codes,which is used to calculate the Jacobian-and the Hessian-vector products with no truncation errors.This paper first gives the introduction of the functionality and features of the DFT system,and then discusses several techniques for the implementation of automatic differentiation tools,including data dependence analysis,singular differentiation and code optimization.Finally,the codes generated with DFT used in several applications have been demonstrated.
Automatic Dance Lesson Generation
Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun
2012-01-01
In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…
Rosendahl, Mads
1989-01-01
One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...
Study on time of flight property of electron optical systems by differential algebraic method
Differential algebraic method is a powerful and promising technique in computer numerical analysis. When applied to nonlinear dynamics systems, the arbitrary high-order transfer properties of the systems can be computed directly with high precision. In this paper, the principle of differential algebra is applied to study on the time of flight (TOF) property of electron optical systems and their arbitrary order TOF transfer properties can be numerically calculated out. As an example, TOF transfer properties of a uniform magnetic sector field analyzer have been studied by differential algebraic method. Relative errors of the first-order and second-order TOF transfer coefficients of the magnetic sector field analyzer are of the order 10-11 or smaller compared with the analytic solutions. It is proved that differential algebraic TOF method is of high accuracy and very helpful for high-order TOF transfer property analysis of electron optical systems. (author)
Automatic indexing, compiling and classification
A review of the principles of automatic indexing, is followed by a comparison and summing-up of work by the authors and by a Soviet staff from the Moscou INFORM-ELECTRO Institute. The mathematical and linguistic problems of the automatic building of thesaurus and automatic classification are examined
The paper describes the automatic gaussmeter operating according to the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance. There have been discussed the operating principle, the block diagram and operating parameters of the meter. It can be applied to measurements of induction in electromagnets of wide-line radio-spectrometers EPR and NMR and in calibration stands of magnetic induction values. Frequency range of an autodyne oscillator from 0,6 up to 86 MHz for protons is corresponding to the field range from 0.016 up to 2T. Applicaton of other nuclei, such as 7Li and 2D is also foreseen. The induction measurement is carried over automatically, and the NMR signal and value of measured induction are displayed on a monitor screen. (author)
Vamos¸, C˘alin
2013-01-01
Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.
P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI
2013-01-01
The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time A...
Lígia Maria da Silva Ribeiro; Gabriel de Sousa Torcato David
2007-01-01
To profit from the data collected by the SIGARRA academic IS, a systematic setof graphs and statistics has been added to it and are available on-line. Thisanalytic information can be automatically included in a flexible yearly report foreach program as well as in a synthesis report for the whole school. Somedifficulties in the interpretation of some graphs led to the definition of new keyindicators and the development of a data warehouse across the university whereeffective data consolidation...
Automatic Inductive Programming Tutorial
Aler, Ricardo
2006-01-01
Computers that can program themselves is an old dream of Artificial Intelligence, but only nowadays there is some progress of remark. In relation to Machine Learning, a computer program is the most powerful structure that can be learned, pushing the final goal well beyond neural networks or decision trees. There are currently many separate areas, working independently, related to automatic programming, both deductive and inductive. The first goal of this tutorial is to give to the attendants ...
Mueller Loose, Simone
Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....
Automaticity or active control
Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar
This study addresses the quasi-moderating role of habit strength in explaining action loyalty. A model of loyalty behaviour is proposed that extends the traditional satisfaction–intention–action loyalty network. Habit strength is conceptualised as a cognitive construct to refer to the psychologic......, respectively, between intended loyalty and action loyalty. At high levels of habit strength, consumers are more likely to free up cognitive resources and incline the balance from controlled to routine and automatic-like responses....
Automatic digital image registration
Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.
1982-01-01
This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.
Paraconformal structures, ordinary differential equations and totally geodesic manifolds
Kryński, Wojciech
2016-05-01
We construct point invariants of ordinary differential equations of arbitrary order that generalise the Tresse and Cartan invariants of equations of order two and three, respectively. The vanishing of the invariants is equivalent to the existence of a totally geodesic paraconformal structure which consists of a paraconformal structure, an adapted GL(2 , R) -connection and a two-parameter family of totally geodesic hypersurfaces on the solution space. The structures coincide with the projective structures in dimension 2 and with the Einstein-Weyl structures of Lorentzian signature in dimension 3. We show that the totally geodesic paraconformal structures in higher dimensions can be described by a natural analogue of the Hitchin twistor construction. We present a general example of Veronese webs that generalise the hyper-CR Einstein-Weyl structures in dimension 3. The Veronese webs are described by a hierarchy of integrable systems.
Automatic radioactive waste recycling
The production of a plutonium ingot by calcium reduction process at CEA/Valduc generates a residue called 'slag'. This article introduces the recycling unit which is dedicated to the treatment of slags. The aim is to separate and to recycle the plutonium trapped in this bulk on the one hand, and to generate a disposable waste from the slag on the other hand. After a general introduction of the facilities, some elements will be enlightened, particularly the dissolution step, the filtration and the drying equipment. Reflections upon technological constraints will be proposed, and the benefits of a fully automatic recycling unit of nuclear waste will also be stressed. (authors)
Automatic Configuration in NTP
Jiang Zongli(蒋宗礼); Xu Binbin
2003-01-01
NTP is nowadays the most widely used distributed network time protocol, which aims at synchronizing the clocks of computers in a network and keeping the accuracy and validation of the time information which is transmitted in the network. Without automatic configuration mechanism, the stability and flexibility of the synchronization network built upon NTP protocol are not satisfying. P2P's resource discovery mechanism is used to look for time sources in a synchronization network, and according to the network environment and node's quality, the synchronization network is constructed dynamically.
Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency
D. van Gucht; D. Vansteenwegen; O. Van den Bergh; T. Beckers
2008-01-01
In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. Th
Integral valve provides automatic relief and remote venting
Gilmore, R. F.
1969-01-01
In-line, pilot-operated, differential area, poppet type valve provides both automatic relief of a tank at a precise over-pressure and remote control of tank venting. Relief and vent operations are separate functions incorporated in an integral valve package.
A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range
Automatic personnel contamination monitor
United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)
Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer
Deepak Gothwal
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer gets clogged a pressure difference is created between inlet amp outlet nozzle which is sensed by the differential pressure gauges. A differential pressure gauge activates backwash assembly which automatically cleans the strainer. Hence Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer is used to save cleaning time amp it automates the filtering process.
Automatic Speaker Recognition System
Parul,R. B. Dubey
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Spoken language is used by human to convey many types of information. Primarily, speech convey message via words. Owing to advanced speech technologies, people's interactions with remote machines, such as phone banking, internet browsing, and secured information retrieval by voice, is becoming popular today. Speaker verification and speaker identification are important for authentication and verification in security purpose. Speaker identification methods can be divided into text independent and text-dependent. Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing speaker voice on the basis of individual information included in the input speech waves. It consists of comparing a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a set of stored data of known speakers. This process recognizes who has spoken by matching input signal with pre- stored samples. The work is focussed to improve the performance of the speaker verification under noisy conditions.
P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.
Automatic alkaloid removal system.
Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd
2014-01-01
This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795
Regular approach for generating van der Waals Cs coefficients to arbitrary orders
A completely general formalism is developed to describe the energy Edisp = ΣsCs/Rs of dispersion interaction between two atoms in spherically symmetric states. Explicit expressions are given up to the tenth order of perturbation theory for the dispersion energy Edisp and dispersion coefficients Cs. The method could, in principle, be used to derive the expressions for any s while including all contributing orders of perturbation theory for asymptotic interaction between two atoms. The theory is applied to the calculation of the complete series up to s = 30 for two hydrogen atoms in their ground state. A pseudo-state series expansion of the two-atom Green function gives rapid convergence of the series for radial matrix elements. The numerical values of Cs are computed up to C30 to a relative accuracy of 10-7 or better. The dispersion coefficients for the hydrogen-antihydrogen interaction are obtained from the H-H coefficients by simply taking the absolute magnitude of Cs
Neutron star deformation due to arbitrary-order multipolar magnetic fields
Mastrano, Alpha; Melatos, Andrew
2013-01-01
Certain multi-wavelength observations of neutron stars, such as intermittent radio emissions from rotation-powered pulsars beyond the pair-cascade death line, the pulse profile of the magnetar SGR 1900+14 after its 1998 August 27 giant flare, and X-ray spectral features of PSR J0821-4300 and SGR 0418+5729, suggest that the magnetic fields of non-accreting neutron stars are not purely dipolar and may contain higher-order multipoles. Here, we calculate the ellipticity of a non-barotropic neutron star with (i) a quadrupole poloidal-toroidal field, and (ii) a purely poloidal field containing arbitrary multipoles, deriving the relation between the ellipticity and the multipole amplitudes. We present, as a worked example, a purely poloidal field comprising dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components. We show the correlation between field energy and ellipticity for each multipole, that the l=4 multipole has the lowest energy, and that l=5 has the lowest ellipticity. We show how a mixed multipolar field creates an ob...
Wei, W.; Schmitt, F. G.; Huang, Y. X.; Zhang, H. S.
2016-05-01
Turbulent characteristics in the atmospheric surface layer are investigated using a data-driven method, Hilbert spectral analysis. The results from empirical mode decomposition display a set of intrinsic mode functions whose characteristic scales suggest a dyadic filter-bank property. It can be concluded from the joint probability density function of the intrinsic mode functions that the turbulent properties are totally different under different stratifications: the amplitudes (or energies) are arranged according to the stability parameter [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] for stable conditions, but tend to cluster randomly for unstable cases. The intermittency analyses reveal that second-order Hilbert marginal spectra display a power-law behaviour in the inertial subrange, and that the scaling exponent functions deviate from the theoretical values due to the strong intermittency in the stable boundary layer.
The ordinary least-square fitting with polynomial is used in both the dynamic phase of the watt balance method and the weighting phase of joule balance method but few researches have been conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the fitting data in the electrical balance methods. In this paper, a matrix-calculation method for evaluating the uncertainty of the polynomial fitting data is derived and the properties of this method are studied by simulation. Based on this, another two derived methods are proposed. One is used to find the optimal fitting order for the watt or joule balance methods. Accuracy and effective factors of this method are experimented with simulations. The other is used to evaluate the uncertainty of the integral of the fitting data for joule balance, which is demonstrated with an experiment from the NIM-1 joule balance. (paper)
Optical force exerted on a Rayleigh particle by a vector arbitrary-order Bessel beam
Yang, Ruiping; Li, Renxian
2016-07-01
An analytical description of optical force on a Rayleigh particle by a vector Bessel beam is investigated. Linearly, radially, azimuthally, and circularly polarized Bessel beams are considered. The radial, azimuthal, and axial forces by a vector Bessel beam are numerically simulated. The effect of polarization, order of beams, and half-cone angle to the optical force are mainly discussed. For Bessel beams of larger half-cone angle, the non-paraxiality of beams plays an important role in optical forces. Numerical calculations show that optical forces, especially azimuthal forces, are very sensitive to the polarization of beams.
Symbolic computations in applied differential geometry
Gragert, P.K.H.; Kersten, P.H.M.; Martini, R.
1983-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to contribute to the automatic calculations in differential geometry and its applications, with emphasis on the prolongation theory of Estabrook and Wahlquist, and the calculation of invariance groups of exterior differential systems. A large number of worked examples h
Automatic Kurdish Dialects Identification
Hossein Hassani
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Automatic dialect identification is a necessary Lan guage Technology for processing multi- dialect languages in which the dialects are linguis tically far from each other. Particularly, this becomes crucial where the dialects are mutually uni ntelligible. Therefore, to perform computational activities on these languages, the sy stem needs to identify the dialect that is the subject of the process. Kurdish language encompasse s various dialects. It is written using several different scripts. The language lacks of a standard orthography. This situation makes the Kurdish dialectal identification more interesti ng and required, both form the research and from the application perspectives. In this research , we have applied a classification method, based on supervised machine learning, to identify t he dialects of the Kurdish texts. The research has focused on two widely spoken and most dominant Kurdish dialects, namely, Kurmanji and Sorani. The approach could be applied to the other Kurdish dialects as well. The method is also applicable to the languages which are similar to Ku rdish in their dialectal diversity and differences.
Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators
Polonnikov, D Ye
1965-01-01
Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as
Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation
TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.
2014-10-01
Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.
Prospects for de-automatization.
Kihlstrom, John F
2011-06-01
Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765
Process automatization in system administration
Petauer, Janja
2013-01-01
The aim of the thesis is to present automatization of user management in company Studio Moderna. The company has grown exponentially in recent years, that is why we needed to find faster, easier and cheaper way of man- aging user accounts. We automatized processes of creating, changing and removing user accounts within Active Directory. We prepared user interface inside of existing application, used Java Script for drop down menus, wrote script in scripting programming langu...
Automatic Number Plate Recognition System
Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy
2014-01-01
Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...
Eating as an Automatic Behavior
Deborah A. Cohen, MD, MPH; Thomas A. Farley, MD, MPH
2007-01-01
The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do individuals. Automatic behaviors are those that occur without awareness, are initiated without intention, tend to continue without contr...
Sebastian eSchindler
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The direct assessment of explicit attitudes towards performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT measure automatic associations towards a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures. Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control. However, whether or not such indirect tests actually reflect automatic associations is difficult to validate. Electroencephalography´s superior time resolution enables to differentiate between highly automatic compared to more elaborate processing stages. We therefore examined on which processing stages cortical differences between negative or positive attitudes to doping occur, and whether or not these differences can be related to BIAT scores. We tested 42 university students (31 females, 24.43 ± 3.17 years old, who were requested to complete a brief doping IAT (BIAT on attitudes towards doping. Cerebral activity during doping BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Behaviorally, participants D-scores exhibited negative attitudes towards doping, represented by faster reaction times in the doping + dislike pairing task. Event-related potentials (ERPs revealed earliest effects between 200 and 300ms. Here, a relatively larger occipital positivity was found for the doping + dislike pairing task. Further, in the LPP time range between 400 and 600ms a larger late positive potential was found for the doping + dislike pairing task over central regions. These LPP amplitude differences were successfully predicting participants´ BIAT D-scores.Results indicate that event-related potentials differentiate between positive and negative doping attitudes at stages of mid-latency. However, it seems that IAT scores can be predicted only by
Using automatic differentiation in sensitivity analysis of nuclear simulatoin models.
Alexe, M.; Roderick, O.; Anitescu, M.; Utke, J.; Fanning, T.; Hovland, P.; Virginia Tech.
2010-01-01
Sensitivity analysis is an important tool in the study of nuclear systems. In our recent work, we introduced a hybrid method that combines sampling techniques with first-order sensitivity analysis to approximate the effects of uncertainty in parameters of a nuclear reactor simulation model. For elementary examples, the approach offers a substantial advantage (in precision, computational efficiency, or both) over classical methods of uncertainty quantification.
Automatic analysis of double coronal mass ejections from coronagraph images
Jacobs, Matthew; Chang, Lin-Ching; Pulkkinen, Antti; Romano, Michelangelo
2015-11-01
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can have major impacts on man-made technology and humans, both in space and on Earth. These impacts have created a high interest in the study of CMEs in an effort to detect and track events and forecast the CME arrival time to provide time for proper mitigation. A robust automatic real-time CME processing pipeline is greatly desired to avoid laborious and subjective manual processing. Automatic methods have been proposed to segment CMEs from coronagraph images and estimate CME parameters such as their heliocentric location and velocity. However, existing methods suffered from several shortcomings such as the use of hard thresholding and an inability to handle two or more CMEs occurring within the same coronagraph image. Double-CME analysis is a necessity for forecasting the many CME events that occur within short time frames. Robust forecasts for all CME events are required to fully understand space weather impacts. This paper presents a new method to segment CME masses and pattern recognition approaches to differentiate two CMEs in a single coronagraph image. The proposed method is validated on a data set of 30 halo CMEs, with results showing comparable ability in transient arrival time prediction accuracy and the new ability to automatically predict the arrival time of a double-CME event. The proposed method is the first automatic method to successfully calculate CME parameters from double-CME events, making this automatic method applicable to a wider range of CME events.
Design of Automatic Recognition of Cucumber Disease Image
Peng Guo; Tonghai Liu; Naixiang Li
2014-01-01
An automatic recognition method for cucumber disease images is presented. Threshold for image segmentation was generated with 2 dimensional maximum entropy principle and optimized with differential evolution algorithm. With threshold values generated, we segmented cucumber disease images and picked up the lesion with maximum area from segmentation results as representative lesion. Then we analyzed representative lesions of disease images and extracted theirs color features and texture feature...
Annual review in automatic programming
Goodman, Richard
2014-01-01
Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in
Local Linearization (LL) methods conform a class of one-step explicit integrators for ODEs derived from the following primary and common strategy: the vector field of the differential equation is locally (piecewise) approximated through a first-order Taylor expansion at each time step, thus obtaining successive linear equations that are explicitly integrated. Hereafter, the LL approach may include some additional strategies to improve that basic affine approximation. Theoretical and practical results have shown that the LL integrators have a number of convenient properties. These include arbitrary order of convergence, A-stability, linearization preserving, regularity under quite general conditions, preservation of the dynamics of the exact solution around hyperbolic equilibrium points and periodic orbits, integration of stiff and high-dimensional equations, low computational cost, and others. In this paper, a review of the LL methods and their properties is presented. (author)
Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Slovenia
Full text: The automatic radiation monitoring system in Slovenia started in early nineties and now it comprises measurements of: 1. External gamma radiation: For the time being there are forty-three probes with GM tubes integrated into a common automatic network, operated at the SNSA. The probes measure dose rate in 30 minute intervals. 2. Aerosol radioactivity: Three automatic aerosol stations measure the concentration of artificial alpha and beta activity in the air, gamma emitting radionuclides, radioactive iodine 131 in the air (in all chemical forms, - natural radon and thoron progeny, 3. Radon progeny concentration: Radon progeny concentration is measured hourly and results are displayed as the equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC), 4. Radioactive deposition measurements: As a support to gamma dose rate measurements - the SNSA developed and installed an automatic measuring station for surface contamination equipped with gamma spectrometry system (with 3x3' NaI(Tl) detector). All data are transferred through the different communication pathways to the SNSA. They are collected in 30 minute intervals. Within these intervals the central computer analyses and processes the collected data, and creates different reports. Every month QA/QC analysis of data is performed, showing the statistics of acquisition errors and availability of measuring results. All results are promptly available at the our WEB pages. The data are checked and daily sent to the EURDEP system at Ispra (Italy) and also to the Austrian, Croatian and Hungarian authorities. (author)
Eating as an Automatic Behavior
Deborah A. Cohen, MD, MPH
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do individuals. Automatic behaviors are those that occur without awareness, are initiated without intention, tend to continue without control, and operate efficiently or with little effort. The concept that eating is an automatic behavior is supported by studies that demonstrate the impact of the environmental context and food presentation on eating. The amount of food eaten is strongly influenced by factors such as portion size, food visibility and salience, and the ease of obtaining food. Moreover, people are often unaware of the amount of food they have eaten or of the environmental influences on their eating. A revised view of eating as an automatic behavior, as opposed to one that humans can self-regulate, has profound implications for our response to the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the focus should be less on nutrition education and more on shaping the food environment.
Automatic Association of News Items.
Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn
1997-01-01
Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)
Automatic quantification of iris color
Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.;
2012-01-01
An automatic algorithm to quantify the eye colour and structural information from standard hi-resolution photos of the human iris has been developed. Initially, the major structures in the eye region are identified including the pupil, iris, sclera, and eyelashes. Based on this segmentation, the ...
05501 Summary -- Automatic Performance Analysis
Gerndt, Hans Michael; Malony, Allen; Miller, Barton P.; Nagel, Wolfgang
2006-01-01
The Workshop on Automatic Performance Analysis (WAPA 2005, Dagstuhl Seminar 05501), held December 13-16, 2005, brought together performance researchers, developers, and practitioners with the goal of better understanding the methods, techniques, and tools that are needed for the automation of performance analysis for high performance computing.
Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances
Dunn, Jonathan Edwin
2013-01-01
This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…
Energy and electromagnetism of a differential k-form
Navarro, J.; Sancho, J. B.
2012-10-01
Let X be a smooth manifold of dimension 1 + n endowed with a Lorentzian metric g. The energy tensor of a 2-form F is locally defined as T_{ab}:= - ( {F_a}i F_{bi} - 1/4 F^{ij} F_{ij} g_{ab} ). In this paper we characterize this tensor as the only 2-covariant natural tensor associated to a Lorentzian metric and a 2-form that is independent of the unit of scale and satisfies certain condition on its divergence. This characterization is motivated on physical grounds, and can be used to justify the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. More generally, we characterize in a similar manner the energy tensor associated to a differential form of arbitrary order k. Finally, we develop a generalized theory of electromagnetism where charged particles are not punctual, but of an arbitrary fixed dimension p. In this theory, the electromagnetic field F is a differential form of order 2 + p and its electromagnetic energy tensor is precisely the energy tensor associated to F.
Orbital welding automatic pressure test by ODA automatic machines is 35 years old
Development review of technology and equipment of automatic orbital welding with automatic pressures test of nuclear power stations pipelines and different purpose objects is performed. Welding variants with automatic pressure test and different welding automatic machines are described. Priority of national developments is underlined
Automatic mapping of monitoring data
Lophaven, Søren; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Søndergaard, Jacob
2005-01-01
This paper presents an approach, based on universal kriging, for automatic mapping of monitoring data. The performance of the mapping approach is tested on two data-sets containing daily mean gamma dose rates in Germany reported by means of the national automatic monitoring network (IMIS). In the...... second dataset an accidental release of radioactivity in the environment was simulated in the South-Western corner of the monitored area. The approach has a tendency to smooth the actual data values, and therefore it underestimates extreme values, as seen in the second dataset. However, it is capable of...... identifying a release of radioactivity provided that the number of sampling locations is sufficiently high. Consequently, we believe that a combination of applying the presented mapping approach and the physical knowledge of the transport processes of radioactivity should be used to predict the extreme values...
Automatic Schema Evolution in Root
ReneBrun; FonsRademakers
2001-01-01
ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.
Physics of Automatic Target Recognition
Sadjadi, Firooz
2007-01-01
Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...
Automatic schema evolution in Root
ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file
Automatic spikes detection in seismogram
王海军; 靳平; 刘贵忠
2003-01-01
@@ Data processing for seismic network is very complex and fussy, because a lot of data is recorded in seismic network every day, which make it impossible to process these data all by manual work. Therefore, seismic data should be processed automatically to produce a initial results about events detection and location. Afterwards, these results are reviewed and modified by analyst. In automatic processing data quality checking is important. There are three main problem data thatexist in real seismic records, which include: spike, repeated data and dropouts. Spike is defined as isolated large amplitude point; the other two problem datahave the same features that amplitude of sample points are uniform in a interval. In data quality checking, the first step is to detect and statistic problem data in a data segment, if percent of problem data exceed a threshold, then the whole data segment is masked and not be processed in the later process.
Automatic registration of satellite imagery
Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.
1997-01-01
Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.
The Automatic Galaxy Collision Software
Smith, Beverly J; Pfeiffer, Phillip; Perkins, Sam; Barkanic, Jason; Fritts, Steve; Southerland, Derek; Manchikalapudi, Dinikar; Baker, Matt; Luckey, John; Franklin, Coral; Moffett, Amanda; Struck, Curtis
2009-01-01
The key to understanding the physical processes that occur during galaxy interactions is dynamical modeling, and especially the detailed matching of numerical models to specific systems. To make modeling interacting galaxies more efficient, we have constructed the `Automatic Galaxy Collision' (AGC) code, which requires less human intervention in finding good matches to data. We present some preliminary results from this code for the well-studied system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5), and address questions of uniqueness of solutions.
Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation
Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John
1994-01-01
Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of ...
Annual review in automatic programming
Halpern, Mark I; Bolliet, Louis
2014-01-01
Computer Science and Technology and their Application is an eight-chapter book that first presents a tutorial on database organization. Subsequent chapters describe the general concepts of Simula 67 programming language; incremental compilation and conversational interpretation; dynamic syntax; the ALGOL 68. Other chapters discuss the general purpose conversational system for graphical programming and automatic theorem proving based on resolution. A survey of extensible programming language is also shown.
Automatically constructing the semantic web
Becerra, Victor Manuel; Brown, Matthew; Nasuto, Slawomir
2008-01-01
The storage and processing capacity realised by computing has lead to an explosion of data retention. We now reach the point of information overload and must begin to use computers to process more complex information. In particular, the proposition of the Semantic Web has given structure to this problem, but has yet realised practically. The largest of its problems is that of ontology construction; without a suitable automatic method most will have to be encoded by hand. In this paper we disc...
Approaches to Automatic Text Structuring
Erbs, Nicolai
2015-01-01
Structured text helps readers to better understand the content of documents. In classic newspaper texts or books, some structure already exists. In the Web 2.0, the amount of textual data, especially user-generated data, has increased dramatically. As a result, there exists a large amount of textual data which lacks structure, thus making it more difficult to understand. In this thesis, we will explore techniques for automatic text structuring to help readers to fulfill their information need...
The Automatic Measurement of Targets
Höhle, Joachim
1997-01-01
The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range. F...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....
Automatically-Programed Machine Tools
Purves, L.; Clerman, N.
1985-01-01
Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.
Automatic translation among spoken languages
Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly
1994-02-01
The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.
Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca
2010-01-01
We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... experimentation. Our results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....
Kosinski, Antoni A
2007-01-01
The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho
Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice.
Lowery, B S; Hardin, C D; Sinclair, S
2001-11-01
Although most research on the control of automatic prejudice has focused on the efficacy of deliberate attempts to suppress or correct for stereotyping, the reported experiments tested the hypothesis that automatic racial prejudice is subject to common social influence. In experiments involving actual interethnic contact, both tacit and expressed social influence reduced the expression of automatic prejudice, as assessed by two different measures of automatic attitudes. Moreover, the automatic social tuning effect depended on participant ethnicity. European Americans (but not Asian Americans) exhibited less automatic prejudice in the presence of a Black experimenter than a White experimenter (Experiments 2 and 4), although both groups exhibited reduced automatic prejudice when instructed to avoid prejudice (Experiment 3). Results are consistent with shared reality theory, which postulates that social regulation is central to social cognition. PMID:11708561
Automatic hypermnesia and impaired recollection in schizophrenia.
Linscott, R J; Knight, R G
2001-10-01
Evidence from studies of nonmnemonic automatic cognitive processes provides reason to expect that schizophrenia is associated with exaggerated automatic memory (implicit memory), or automatic hypermnesia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 22) and control participants (n = 26) were compared on word stem completion (WSC) and list discrimination (LD) tasks administered using the process dissociation procedure. Unadjusted, extended measurement model and dual-process signal-detection methods were used to estimate recollection and automatic memory indices. Schizophrenia was associated with automatic hypermnesia on the WSC task and impaired recollection on both tasks. Thought disorder was associated with even greater automatic hypermnesia. The absence of automatic hypermnesia on the LD task was interpreted with reference to the neuropsychological bases of context and content memory. PMID:11761047
Automatic composition of MRI and SPECT images
The new method to automatically compose MRI image and SPECT image was devised to support the SPECT image which was inferior in the morphological information. This method is a kind of the coordinate transformation to obtain maximal agreement between images using cross correlation of MRI image and SPECT image as the evaluation function to show the degree of the agreement. For the calculation of the cross correlation, MRI T1 weighted image and the morphological information of SPECT image treated by the spatial quadratic differentiation (Laplacian) were used. This method does not require to fix the control point in the tomographic imaging, and can be also applied to PET other than SPECT. This is also useful to follow up the chronological change of a patient by composition among SPECT images and among PET images. Since this method is focused on the internal structure of brain, it is also useful for cases such as cerebral infarction which brain structure has little change. But this method is still under the trial and the examination of the accuracy remained. (K.H.)
Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition
Schachter, Bruce J.
2014-06-01
The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.
Annual review in automatic programming
Goodman, Richard
2014-01-01
Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that discusses the controversy about the suitability of COBOL as a common business oriented language, and the development of different common languages for scientific computation. A couple of papers describes the use of the Genie system in numerical calculation and analyzes Mercury autocode in terms of a phrase structure language, such as in the source language, target language, the order structure of ATLAS, and the meta-syntactical language of the assembly program. Other papers explain interference or an ""intermediate
Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation
Reiter, E R; Levine, J; Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John
1994-01-01
Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of our experiences with IDAS and the lessons we have learned from it will be beneficial for other researchers who wish to build technical-documentation generation systems.
Unsupervised automatic music genre classification
Barreira, Luís Filipe Marques
2010-01-01
Trabalho apresentado no âmbito do Mestrado em Engenharia Informática, como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática In this study we explore automatic music genre recognition and classification of digital music. Music has always been a reflection of culture di erences and an influence in our society. Today’s digital content development triggered the massive use of digital music. Nowadays,digital music is manually labeled without following a universa...
Real time automatic scene classification
Israël, Menno; Broek, van den, Wouter; Putten, van, M.J.A.M.; Uyl, den, T.M.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.
2004-01-01
This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized elements of a scene automatically with so-called ’stuff’ categories (e.g., grass, sky, sand, stone). Campbell et al. [1] use similar concepts to describe certain parts of an image, which they named...
Annual review in automatic programming
Goodman, Richard
2014-01-01
Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the GIER ALGOL compiler, a parameterized compiler based on mechanical linguistics, and the JOVIAL language. A couple of papers describes a commercial use of stacks, an IBM system, and what an ideal computer program support system should be. One paper reviews the system of compilation, the development of a more advanced language, programming techniques, machine independence, and program transfer to other machines. Another paper describes the ALGOL 60 system for the GIER machine including running ALGOL pro
Automatic transcription of polyphonic singing
Paščinski, Uroš
2015-01-01
In this work we focus on automatic transcription of polyphonic singing. In particular we do the multiple fundamental frequency (F0) estimation. From the terrain recordings a test set of Slovenian folk songs with polyphonic singing is extracted and manually transcribed. On the test set we try the general algorithm for multiple F0 detection. An interactive visualization of the main parts of the algorithm is made to analyse how it works and try to detect possible issues. As the data set is ne...
Automatic analysis of multiparty meetings
Steve Renals
2011-10-01
This paper is about the recognition and interpretation of multiparty meetings captured as audio, video and other signals. This is a challenging task since the meetings consist of spontaneous and conversational interactions between a number of participants: it is a multimodal, multiparty, multistream problem. We discuss the capture and annotation of the Augmented Multiparty Interaction (AMI) meeting corpus, the development of a meeting speech recognition system, and systems for the automatic segmentation, summarization and social processing of meetings, together with some example applications based on these systems.
Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request
Makki, Behrooz
2014-11-01
We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.
The Masculinity of Money: Automatic Stereotypes Predict Gender Differences in Estimated Salaries
Williams, Melissa J.; Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Spencer-Rodgers, Julie
2010-01-01
We present the first empirical investigation of why men are assumed to earn higher salaries than women (the "salary estimation effect"). Although this phenomenon is typically attributed to conscious consideration of the national wage gap (i.e., real inequities in salary), we hypothesize instead that it reflects differential, automatic economic…
Bayerlein, Leopold
2014-01-01
This study assesses whether or not undergraduate and postgraduate accounting students at an Australian university differentiate between timely feedback and extremely timely feedback, and whether or not the replacement of manually written formal assessment feedback with automatically generated feedback influences students' perception of…
Friedman, Avner
2006-01-01
This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest
Automatic generation of tourist brochures
Birsak, Michael
2014-05-01
We present a novel framework for the automatic generation of tourist brochures that include routing instructions and additional information presented in the form of so-called detail lenses. The first contribution of this paper is the automatic creation of layouts for the brochures. Our approach is based on the minimization of an energy function that combines multiple goals: positioning of the lenses as close as possible to the corresponding region shown in an overview map, keeping the number of lenses low, and an efficient numbering of the lenses. The second contribution is a route-aware simplification of the graph of streets used for traveling between the points of interest (POIs). This is done by reducing the graph consisting of all shortest paths through the minimization of an energy function. The output is a subset of street segments that enable traveling between all the POIs without considerable detours, while at the same time guaranteeing a clutter-free visualization. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Automatic scanning for nuclear emulsion
Automatic scanning systems have been recently developed for application in neutrino experiments exploiting nuclear emulsion detectors of particle tracks. These systems speed up substantially the analysis of events in emulsion, allowing the realisation of experiments with unprecedented statistics. The pioneering work on automatic scanning has been done by the University of Nagoya (Japan). The so called new track selector has a very good reproducibility in position (∼1 μm) and angle (∼3 mrad), with the possibility to reconstruct, in about 3 s, all the tracks in a view of 150x150 μm2 and 1 mm of thickness. A new system (ultratrack selector), with speed higher by one order of magnitude, has started to be in operation. R and D programs are going on in Nagoya and in other laboratories for new systems. The scanning speed in nuclear emulsion be further increased by an order of magnitude. The recent progress in the technology of digital signal processing and of image acquisition systems (CCDs and fast frame grabbers) allows the realisation of systems with high performance. New interesting applications of the technique in other fields (e.g. in biophysics) have recently been envisaged
Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)
Automatic validation of numerical solutions
Stauning, Ole
1997-01-01
This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings wit...... the mean value enclosure of an integral operator and uses interval Bernstein polynomials for enclosing the solution. Two numerical examples are given, using two orders of approximation and using different numbers of discretization points.......This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings with...... intervals as initial values. A modification of the mean value enclosure of discrete mappings is considered, namely the extended mean value enclosure which in most cases leads to even better enclosures. These methods have previously been described in connection with discretizing solutions of ordinary...
Mukherjee, Amiya
2015-01-01
This book presents a systematic and comprehensive account of the theory of differentiable manifolds and provides the necessary background for the use of fundamental differential topology tools. The text includes, in particular, the earlier works of Stephen Smale, for which he was awarded the Fields Medal. Explicitly, the topics covered are Thom transversality, Morse theory, theory of handle presentation, h-cobordism theorem, and the generalised Poincaré conjecture. The material is the outcome of lectures and seminars on various aspects of differentiable manifolds and differential topology given over the years at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, and at other universities throughout India. The book will appeal to graduate students and researchers interested in these topics. An elementary knowledge of linear algebra, general topology, multivariate calculus, analysis, and algebraic topology is recommended.
Automatic Speech Segmentation Based on HMM
M. Kroul
2007-01-01
This contribution deals with the problem of automatic phoneme segmentation using HMMs. Automatization of speech segmentation task is important for applications, where large amount of data is needed to process, so manual segmentation is out of the question. In this paper we focus on automatic segmentation of recordings, which will be used for triphone synthesis unit database creation. For speech synthesis, the speech unit quality is a crucial aspect, so the maximal accuracy in segmentation is ...
Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations
Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng
2006-01-01
Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.
Automatic inference of specifications using matching logic
Alpuente Frasnedo, María; Feliú Gabaldón, Marco Antonio; Villanueva García, Alicia
2013-01-01
Formal specifications can be used for various software engineering activities ranging from finding errors to documenting software and automatic test-case generation. Automatically discovering specifications for heap-manipulating programs is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a technique for automatically inferring formal specifications from C code which is based on the symbolic execution and automated reasoning tandem "MATCHING LOGIC /K framework". We implemented our technique for ...
An automatic visual analysis system for tennis
Connaghan, Damien; Moran, Kieran; O''Connor, Noel E.
2013-01-01
This article presents a novel video analysis system for coaching tennis players of all levels, which uses computer vision algorithms to automatically edit and index tennis videos into meaningful annotations. Existing tennis coaching software lacks the ability to automatically index a tennis match into key events, and therefore, a coach who uses existing software is burdened with time-consuming manual video editing. This work aims to explore the effectiveness of a system to automatically de...
Towards automatic classification of all WISE sources
Kurcz, A.; Bilicki, M.; Solarz, A.; Krupa, M.; Pollo, A.; Małek, K.
2016-07-01
Context. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has detected hundreds of millions of sources over the entire sky. Classifying them reliably is, however, a challenging task owing to degeneracies in WISE multicolour space and low levels of detection in its two longest-wavelength bandpasses. Simple colour cuts are often not sufficient; for satisfactory levels of completeness and purity, more sophisticated classification methods are needed. Aims: Here we aim to obtain comprehensive and reliable star, galaxy, and quasar catalogues based on automatic source classification in full-sky WISE data. This means that the final classification will employ only parameters available from WISE itself, in particular those which are reliably measured for the majority of sources. Methods: For the automatic classification we applied a supervised machine learning algorithm, support vector machines (SVM). It requires a training sample with relevant classes already identified, and we chose to use the SDSS spectroscopic dataset (DR10) for that purpose. We tested the performance of two kernels used by the classifier, and determined the minimum number of sources in the training set required to achieve stable classification, as well as the minimum dimension of the parameter space. We also tested SVM classification accuracy as a function of extinction and apparent magnitude. Thus, the calibrated classifier was finally applied to all-sky WISE data, flux-limited to 16 mag (Vega) in the 3.4 μm channel. Results: By calibrating on the test data drawn from SDSS, we first established that a polynomial kernel is preferred over a radial one for this particular dataset. Next, using three classification parameters (W1 magnitude, W1-W2 colour, and a differential aperture magnitude) we obtained very good classification efficiency in all the tests. At the bright end, the completeness for stars and galaxies reaches ~95%, deteriorating to ~80% at W1 = 16 mag, while for quasars it stays at a level of
Cerebral Correlates of Automatic Associations Towards Performance Enhancing Substances.
Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja
2015-01-01
The direct assessment of explicit attitudes toward performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports, can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure automatic associations toward a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures). Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control. However, whether or not such indirect tests actually reflect automatic associations is difficult to validate. Electroencephalography (EEG) has a superior time resolution which can differentiate between highly automatic compared to more elaborate processing stages. We therefore used EEG to examine on which processing stages cortical differences between negative or positive attitudes to doping occur, and whether or not these differences can be related to BIAT scores. We tested 42 university students (31 females, 24.43 ± 3.17 years old), who were requested to complete a brief doping IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping. Cerebral activity during doping BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Behaviorally, participants D-scores exhibited negative attitudes toward doping, represented by faster reaction times in the doping + dislike pairing task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed earliest effects between 200 and 300 ms. Here, a relatively larger occipital positivity was found for the doping + dislike pairing task. Further, in the LPP time range between 400 and 600 ms a larger late positive potential was found for the doping + dislike pairing task over central regions. These LPP amplitude differences were successfully predicting participants' BIAT D-scores. Results indicate that event-related potentials differentiate between positive and negative doping attitudes at stages of mid-latency. However, it seems that IAT scores can be predicted only
ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM
Schroer, B. J.
1994-01-01
Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog
Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus
This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device
Automatic home medical product recommendation.
Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang
2012-04-01
Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712
Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors
This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design
Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors
This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)
Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors
The latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant are described. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory; these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)
Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols
Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan
We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.
Autoclass: An automatic classification system
Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin
1991-01-01
The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.
Techniques for automatic speech recognition
Moore, R. K.
1983-05-01
A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).
Automatic force balance calibration system
Ferris, Alice T.
1995-05-01
A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.
Methods of automatic scanning of SSNTDs
The methods of automatic scanning of solid state nuclear track detectors are reviewed. The paper deals with transmission of light, charged particles, chemicals and electrical current through conventionally etched detectors. Special attention is given to the jumping spark technique and breakdown counters. Eventually optical automatic devices are examined. (orig.)
Automatic control of nuclear power plants
The fundamental concepts in automatic control are surveyed, and the purpose of the automatic control of pressurized water reactors is given. The response characteristics for the main components are then studied and block diagrams are given for the main control loops (turbine, steam generator, and nuclear reactors)
Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization
Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
2002-01-01
inheritance with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e...
ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.
Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.
THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…
Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System
Dindo T. Ani
2015-12-01
Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.
Tricomi, FG
2012-01-01
Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and differential
Guggenheimer, Heinrich W
1977-01-01
This is a text of local differential geometry considered as an application of advanced calculus and linear algebra. The discussion is designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate study, and presumes of readers only a fair knowledge of matrix algebra and of advanced calculus of functions of several real variables. The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, begins with a discussion of plane geometry and then treats the local theory of Lie groups and transformation groups, solid differential geometry, and Riemannian geometry, leading to a
AUTOMATIC DESIGNING OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
A. I. Kirspou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Development of automatic designing system for power supply of industrial enterprises is considered in the paper. Its complete structure and principle of operation are determined and established. Modern graphical interface and data scheme are developed, software is completely realized. Methodology and software correspond to the requirements of the up-to-date designing, describe a general algorithm of program process and also reveals properties of automatic designing system objects. Automatic designing system is based on module principle while using object-orientated programming. Automatic designing system makes it possible to carry out consistently designing calculations of power supply system and select the required equipment with subsequent output of all calculations in the form of explanatory note. Automatic designing system can be applied by designing organizations under conditions of actual designing.
Automatic Performance Debugging of SPMD Parallel Programs
Liu, Xu; Zhan, Jianfeng; Tu, Bibo; Meng, Dan
2010-01-01
Automatic performance debugging of parallel applications usually involves two steps: automatic detection of performance bottlenecks and uncovering their root causes for performance optimization. Previous work fails to resolve this challenging issue in several ways: first, several previous efforts automate analysis processes, but present the results in a confined way that only identifies performance problems with apriori knowledge; second, several tools take exploratory or confirmatory data analysis to automatically discover relevant performance data relationships. However, these efforts do not focus on locating performance bottlenecks or uncovering their root causes. In this paper, we design and implement an innovative system, AutoAnalyzer, to automatically debug the performance problems of single program multi-data (SPMD) parallel programs. Our system is unique in terms of two dimensions: first, without any apriori knowledge, we automatically locate bottlenecks and uncover their root causes for performance o...
Development of an automatic calibration device for high-accuracy low temperature thermometers
无
2010-01-01
Based on the analysis and investigation of calibration systems for high-accuracy low temperature thermometers,a new facility for automatic calibration of high-accuracy low temperature thermometers was developed.Continuous calibration for multiple points can be made automatically with this device.According to the thermophysical characteristics of the constant-temperature block in this device,segmented Fuzzy-PID (proportional-integral-differential) algorithm was applied.The experimental results showed that the temperature fluctuation was smaller than ±0.005 K in 30 min.Therefore,this new device can fully meet the calibration requirement of high-precision low temperature thermometers.
Hochstadt, Harry
2012-01-01
Modern approach to differential equations presents subject in terms of ideas and concepts rather than special cases and tricks which traditional courses emphasized. No prerequisites needed other than a good calculus course. Certain concepts from linear algebra used throughout. Problem section at end of each chapter.
Mantovi, A.
2013-01-01
A framework for duality theory is set forth, based on the model-independent role of homotheties. An expansion vector field is introduced as global generator of pure expansion effects, in terms of which to deepen the differential aspects of preference symmetries, fundamental identities and conjugation in connection with the benchmark nature of homothetic models. Potential lines of progress are envisaged.
Automatic reactor power control device
Anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) of a BWR type reactor is judged to generate a signal based on a reactor power signal and a scram actuation demand signal. The ATWS signal and a predetermined water level signal to be generated upon occurrence of ATWS are inputted, and an injection water flow rate signal exhibiting injection water flow rate optimum to reactor flooding and power suppression is outputted. In addition, a reactor pressure setting signal is outputted based on injection performance of a high pressure water injection system or a lower pressure water injection system upon occurrence of ATWS. Further, the reactor pressure setting signal is inputted to calculate opening/closing setting pressure of a main steam relief valve and output an opening setting pressure signal and a closure setting pressure signal for the main steam relief valve. As a result, the reactor power and the reactor water level can be automatically controlled even upon occurrence of ATWS due to failure of insertion of all of the control rods thereby enabling to maintain integrity and safety of the reactor, the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor container. (N.H.)
Pattern-Driven Automatic Parallelization
Christoph W. Kessler
1996-01-01
Full Text Available This article describes a knowledge-based system for automatic parallelization of a wide class of sequential numerical codes operating on vectors and dense matrices, and for execution on distributed memory message-passing multiprocessors. Its main feature is a fast and powerful pattern recognition tool that locally identifies frequently occurring computations and programming concepts in the source code. This tool also works for dusty deck codes that have been "encrypted" by former machine-specific code transformations. Successful pattern recognition guides sophisticated code transformations including local algorithm replacement such that the parallelized code need not emerge from the sequential program structure by just parallelizing the loops. It allows access to an expert's knowledge on useful parallel algorithms, available machine-specific library routines, and powerful program transformations. The partially restored program semantics also supports local array alignment, distribution, and redistribution, and allows for faster and more exact prediction of the performance of the parallelized target code than is usually possible.
M. A. Sharaf; M. A. Banajh; A. A. Alshaary
2007-03-01
In this paper, an efficient iterative method of arbitrary integer order of convergence ≥ 2 has been established for solving the hyperbolic form of Kepler’s equation. The method is of a dynamic nature in the sense that, moving from one iterative scheme to the subsequent one, only additional instruction is needed. Most importantly, the method does not need any prior knowledge of the initial guess. A property which avoids the critical situations between divergent and very slow convergent solutions that may exist in other numerical methods which depend on initial guess. Computational Package for digital implementation of the method is given and is applied to many case studies.
Carré, Jérôme
2011-01-01
The inspiral of two compact objects in gravitational wave astronomy is described by a post-Newtonian expansion in powers of $(v/c)$. In most cases, it is believed that the post-Newtonian expansion is asymptotically divergent. A standard technique for accelerating the convergence of a power series is to re-sum the series by means of a rational polynomial called a Pad\\'e approximation. If we liken this approximation to a matrix, the best convergence is achieved by staying close to a diagonal Pad\\'e approximation. This broadly presents two subsets of the approximation : a super-diagonal approximation $P^M_N$ and a sub-diagonal approximation $P_M^N$, where $M = N+\\epsilon$, and $\\epsilon$ takes the values of 0 or 1. Left as rational polynomials, the coefficients in both the numerator and denominator need to be re-calculated as the order of the initial power series approximation is increased. However, the sub-diagonal Pad\\'e approximant is computationally advantageous as it can be expressed in terms of a Gauss-lik...
Margalef-Roig, J
1992-01-01
...there are reasons enough to warrant a coherent treatment of the main body of differential topology in the realm of Banach manifolds, which is at the same time correct and complete. This book fills the gap: whenever possible the manifolds treated are Banach manifolds with corners. Corners add to the complications and the authors have carefully fathomed the validity of all main results at corners. Even in finite dimensions some results at corners are more complete and better thought out here than elsewhere in the literature. The proofs are correct and with all details. I see this book as a reliable monograph of a well-defined subject; the possibility to fall back to it adds to the feeling of security when climbing in the more dangerous realms of infinite dimensional differential geometry. Peter W. Michor
First Theory Institute on Computational Differentiation
Bischof, C.H.; Griewank, A.; Khademi, P.M. [eds.
1993-12-31
Computational differentiation (CD) is concerned with tools, techniques, and mathematics for generating, with little human effort, efficient and accurate derivative codes from programs written in such computer languages as C and Fortran. The primary purposes of the meeting were to explore the deep complexity issues that lie at the heart of the computation of derivatives from computer programs and to provide a forum for brainstorming on future research directions, including the applications of automatic differentiation (AD) in scientific computing and the development of AD tools.
Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation
Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff
2003-01-01
Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.
Extensometer automatically measures elongation in elastomers
Hooper, C. D.
1966-01-01
Extensometer, with a calibrated shaft, measures the elongation of elastomers and automatically records this distance on a chart. It is adaptable to almost any tensile testing machine and is fabricated at a relatively low cost.
2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...
Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection
Stewart, S.W.
1974-01-01
U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously.
Automatic program debugging for intelligent tutoring systems
Murray, W.R.
1986-01-01
This thesis explores the process by which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The potential of a program debugger to automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic degugger for LISP programs. Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology, and to automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP.
Variable load automatically tests dc power supplies
Burke, H. C., Jr.; Sullivan, R. M.
1965-01-01
Continuously variable load automatically tests dc power supplies over an extended current range. External meters monitor current and voltage, and multipliers at the outputs facilitate plotting the power curve of the unit.
2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...
Coke oven automatic combustion control system
Shihara, Y.
1981-01-01
This article describes and discusses the development and application of an automatic combustion control system for coke ovens that has been used at the Yawata Works of the Nippon Steel Corporation, Japan. (In Japanese)
2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...
2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...
Automatic calibration system for pressure transducers
1968-01-01
Fifty-channel automatic pressure transducer calibration system increases quantity and accuracy for test evaluation calibration. The pressure transducers are installed in an environmental tests chamber and manifolded to connect them to a pressure balance which is uniform.