The objective of this policy note is to examine the gender dimension of the Egyptian labor market, with a focus on identifying the scope for policies to improve female labor force participation. An update to the Egypt gender assessment report of 2003, it is envisioned as a contribution to programmatic work on gender and inclusion in Egypt, helping build evidence which can inform policy aim...
This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of the Arab Republic of Egypt (Egypt) is based on the Forty Recommendations 2003 and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing 2001 of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), andwas prepared using the AML/CFT assessment Methodology 2004, as updated in February 2008. The as...
The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt, attaching the text of a Press Statement dated 25 January 2005. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the Press Statement, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States
From the mid-2000s to 2011, the Egyptian economy grew at a rapid pace. Yet, this economic performance has not significantly improved the country's overall competitiveness, nor has this growth impacted the masses by providing more decent jobs. In 2004, the Government of Egypt embarked on a structural reform program of liberalization and privatization, which, combined with high oil prices, b...
Egypt's corporate governance system is framed by French civil law for corporations. Sharia law has no direct influence on corporate governance. Anglo-American influence is prevalent in the securities depository law and the new capital markets law shortly to be introduced to Parliament. There is one stock exchange with two trading floors: The Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchange (CASE) which...
The report is a first step in a process towards the use of environmental damage cost assessments, for priority setting, and as an instrument for integrating environment, into economic, and social development. The report provides estimates of damage, and remediation cost for several areas of the environment, and, as areas of priority are identified, further analysis would be required for mo...
This report investigates Egypt's regional economic growth, explores the causes for geographically unbalanced development, and proposes policy options to make unbalanced growth compatible with inclusive development. In Egypt, despite rapid progress in most welfare indicators in lagging regions, there are still substantial gaps in consumption and opportunities between growth poles and the re...
The Secretariat has received a letter dated 27 October 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, on behalf of the Vienna Chapter of the Non-Aligned Movement, addressing issues relating to the work of the IAEA raised by Resolution 1887 adopted by the Security Council on 24 September 2009. As requested, the letter is circulated herewith for the information of Member States
The objective of this paper is to present a succinct and up-to-date review of the urban sector in Egypt, with a focus on issues for which there is new insight or emerging government interest. The two main themes of the report are the challenges facing the urban sector and the policy implications at various levels of government. Some of the reports mains findings are: urbanization in Egypt ...
The objective of this paper is to present a succinct and up-to-date review of the urban sector in Egypt, with a focus on issues for which there is new insight or emerging government interest. The two main themes of the report are the challenges facing the urban sector and the policy implications at various levels of government. Some of the reports mains findings are: urbanization in Egypt ...
Egypt's children and youth, representing more than one-third of the country´s population and its future, face several significant challenges, as shown by higher child poverty rates and unequal access to basic services. The objective of this report is three-fold: (i) to analyze the extent of inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children; (ii) to inform government policy on how success ...
Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Frank, Helmut Paul;
/NCAR global reanalysis data set. Results are compared to long-term measurements of wind speed and direction at 13 meteorological stations along a 250-km stretch of the Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea. The simulations of the wind climate in the Gulf of Suez with the KAMM meso-scale model capture the main...... features of the complicated flow patterns and of the observed wind climates; however, the mean wind speeds and power densities are somewhat underestimated. The wind resource is found to be very high in the Gulf of Suez – with capacity factors of up to about 70% – at the same time the horizontal gradients...... of wind speed and power density are quite steep. The combination of meso- and micro-scale flow models – here the KAMM/WAsP methodology or the Numerical Wind Atlas – seem necessary in order to make reliable wind resource assessments in all parts of the Gulf of Suez....
The FMPP is a fuel plates manufacturing plant for test reactors. This facility was designed, constructed in El Cairo and turned-key handled by INVAP SE to the Arabian Republic of Egypt. In this project, CNEA participated in the transference of technology, elaboration of documents, training of Egyptian personnel and technical services during the setup of the facility in El Cairo. These tasks were undertaken by UPMP (Uranium Powder Manufacturing Plant) and ECRI (Research Reactors Fuel Elements Plant) personnel. Both plants in CNEA served as a FMPP design basis. During the setup of the facility a fuel element with natural uranium was firstly manufactured and then another one using uranium with 20% enrichment. In this paper the responses of the system regarding safety, after finishing the first two stages of manufacturing, are analyzed and evaluated. (author)
As the consumption of gold increases, location of new mines and re-evaluation of ancient mines are needed to satisfy the future demand for ore. This has called for the development and adoption of nuclear methods for determining the concentration of gold in ores for prospecting and mining purposes. Thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied to ore samples from some gold mines that had been exploited in the Pharaonic times. Attempts to determine gold in the Barramiya Deposit area indicate that the epithermal activation technique can be applied almost non-destructively. (author)
The report proposes key elements for an agricultural export-oriented strategy in Egypt, that would build on the achievements of the agricultural strategy during the 1990s. Substantial improvements in the country's macroeconomic environment, following policy reforms - though necessary - have not been sufficient to improve agricultural export performance. Overall, while Egyptian agricultural...
Arab Republic of Egypt; Staff Report for the 2006 Article IV Consultationâ€”Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Arab Republic of Egypt
International Monetary Fund
Economic conditions in Egypt are favorable, and the economic reform is moving forward. The discussions focused on the elements of a macroeconomic policy. IMF staff discussed the following with authorities: a multiyear fiscal consolidation plan, the monetary policy stance and strategy appropriate for maintaining inflation in low single digits, the exchange rate policy, and progress in financial sector reform. Executive Directors recommended the reforms that are needed to support central bank o...
Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the differ...
L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt
Abdin El Sherif S. A.
Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.
Daron Acemoglu; Tarek A. Hassan; Ahmed Tahoun
During Egypt's Arab Spring, unprecedented popular mobilization and protests brought down Hosni Mubarak's government and ushered in an era of competition between three groups: elites associated with Mubarak's National Democratic Party (NDP), the military, and the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood. Street protests continued to play an important role during this power struggle. We show that these protests are associated with differential stock market returns for firms connected to the three groups. Us...
In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m3 per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs
This report investigates Egypt's regional economic growth, explores the causes for geographically unbalanced development, and proposes policy options to make unbalanced growth compatible with inclusive development. In Egypt, despite rapid progress in most welfare indicators in lagging regions, there are still substantial gaps in consumption and opportunities between growth poles and the re...
Full Text Available During the Arab Spring, Egyptians revolted against decades of poor governance and failed institutions. A wide range of grievances contributed to the eventual fall of the Mubarak regime, and most of these grievances were influenced by the demographic composition of the Egyptian population. This paper argues that the youth bulge in Egypt played a major role in the political transition and as such serves as the prime example of the intersection of demographics, security, and the Arab Spring.
During the Arab Spring, Egyptians revolted against decades of poor governance and failed institutions. A wide range of grievances contributed to the eventual fall of the Mubarak regime, and most of these grievances were influenced by the demographic composition of the Egyptian population. This paper argues that the youth bulge in Egypt played a major role in the political transition and as such serves as the prime example of the intersection of demographics, security, and the Arab Spring.
This article provides a snapshot of the experiences of 18 students studying abroad in Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified version of the language contact profile (Freed, Segalowitz, & Dewey, 2004), I investigate their language use and find that students use English more than they use Arabic and that there is considerable individual variation in…
The contracting parties will support each other in the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, especially in the following fields: a) planning, construction and operation of nuclear power plants in Egypt as well as other nuclear installations and research institutions, b) safety of nuclear installations and radiation protection, c) exploration and mining of uranium deposits, d) scientific and technological research and development, e) training of scientific and technical personnel, f) utilization of nuclear energy for other purposes than power generation, especially its application in medicine, biology and agriculture. (orig./HP)
Johnson, J. K., Ed.
Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…
Ørum, Olav Gjertsen
This thesis presents an edition, translation and grammatical study of three Judaeo-Arabic manuscripts comprising the story Qiṣṣat al-Jumjuma The Story of the Skull , where typical features of the Jewish variety of Arabic, written and spoken in Egypt during the 19th century, are outlined. Special attention is paid to the dichotomy between the substandard varieties Middle Arabic, Non-Standard Cairene and spoken Egyptian Jewish Arabic on one side, and the varieties Standard Arabic and Standard ...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…
Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.
L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt
Abdin El Sherif S. A.; Clement G.
Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi...
... percent, and the unemployment rate is in the range of 22 to 30 percent. The economy is estimated to have... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB12 Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS. ACTION: Notice....
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…
Arab and Turkish people lived together for nearly four hundred years under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, during which time both sides inevitably adopted a certain kind of attitude and view toward the other. This study is an attempt to explore Arab people's views toward Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey. Through a case study…
The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Egypt. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit
El Saghir, Nagi S
Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt. In addition to breast cancer, WHOP included screening for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. WHOP investigators are to be congratulated for this extraordinary ambitious project and all the efforts put into it. They were well prepared in regards to having a multi-disciplinary working team and they included in their project programs for training of clerks, data managers, radiographers, nurses, radiologists and other physicians who deal with diagnosis and management of breast cancer. They also included engineers and arranged for mobile units to reach women who could not otherwise reach them. WHOP investigators are to be commended also for performing a field plan demonstration project and testing it and for measuring citizens' response before finalizing their plans and starting the project1. They set a great example for other people working in the field. Breast cancer is the most
The approach on this article provides evidence of how different is the reality in Tunes and Egypt compared to the one described by official and media discourses en France. This article addresses through a first approximation to the events, how the so called "revolutions" of 2011 en Tunes and Egypt has been understood,, in order to evaluate how deep is the current political change in both countries; which directions have been chosen and which obstacles may emerge . The concepts of revolution a...
Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This research project addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic p...
This paper analyses the economic challenges facing Egypt in the post-Mubarak period, demonstrating the ways in which economic policy choices over the 2000s have contributed to the economic and social outcomes witnessed in the run up to the 2011 uprisings. The article investigates three specific policy areas and demonstrates their role in reducing employment opportunities, eroding wages and facilitating the creation of an increasingly unequal economic and social structure in Egypt. The three p...
Ezezika Obidimma C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The case of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize in Egypt presents a unique perspective on the role of trust in agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech public-private partnerships (PPPs. This is especially relevant given the recent pro-democracy uprisings that spread throughout the Arab world that have significantly impacted the current political climate and status of both the public and private sector, and especially public-private collaborative initiatives. This case study aims to shed light on various trust-building practices adopted, and trust-related challenges faced, in the Bt maize project in Egypt. Methods We reviewed published materials on Bt maize in Egypt and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of the Bt maize project in Egypt. Data from the interviews were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We have distilled five key lessons from this case study. First, it is important to have transparent interactions and clearly defined project priorities, roles and responsibilities among core partners. Second, partners need to engage farmers by using proven-effective, hands-on approaches as a means for farmers to build trust in the technology. Third, positive interactions with the technology are important; increased yields and secure income attributable to the seed will facilitate trust. Fourth, there is a need for improved communication strategies and appropriate media response to obviate unwarranted public perceptions of the project. Finally, the political context cannot be ignored; there is a need to establish trust in both the public and private sector as a means to secure the future of agbiotech PPPs in Egypt. Conclusions Most important to the case of Egypt is the effect of the current political climate on project success. There is reason
Communication dated 29 May 2006 received from the Resident Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Agency concerning a letter from the Secretary General of the League of Arab States to the Director General
The Secretariat has received a letter dated 29 May 2006 from the Resident Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic attaching a letter dated 28 May 2006 from Mr. Amre Moussa, Secretary General of the League of Arab States, to the Director General. In the light of the request expressed by the Resident Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic in his letter of 29 May 2006, his letter and the letter of the Secretary General of the League of Arab States are attached for the information of all Member States
Alana Maurushat; Mohamed Chawki; Hadeel Al-Alosi; Yassin el Shazly
Revolts in Tunisia and Egypt have led many observers to speak of the â€œfirst digital revolutionâ€ in the Arab world. Social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are now recognised as the important tools that facilitated the â€œJasmine Revolutionâ€ . In fact, the willingness of the Mubarak government to block all internet connection in Egypt has demonstrated the concern over the power of new technologies in facilitating political change. The tenacity of the social movements that are sti...
Tarek Hassan; Ahmed Tahoun; Daron Acemoglu
A key question for Egypt's long-term economic and political prospects of is whether the "rent-seeking coalition" consisting of a network of National Democratic Party (NDP) members and military officers has been truly uprooted by the fall of Mubarak's regime. One possibility is that this network, having shed the Mubarak family, will re-create itself, centering this time on high-ranking members of the military or on the Muslim Brotherhood. We investigate this possibility by examining the behavi...
Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…
Full Text Available Revolts in Tunisia and Egypt have led many observers to speak of the “first digital revolution” in the Arab world. Social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are now recognised as the important tools that facilitated the “Jasmine Revolution”. In fact, the willingness of the Mubarak government to block all internet connection in Egypt has demonstrated the concern over the power of new technologies in facilitating political change. The tenacity of the social movements that are still on-going in the Arab world continues to demonstrate the important role that networked technologies—such as the internet, satellite channels and social networking sites—play in revolutions. The revolutions demonstrate an effective use of social media and other network technologies as an organisational tool, and as a means of asserting pressure on current rulers and future governments. Accordingly, this article seeks to expose freedom of expression as a fundamental democratic principle and the internet network as a vehicle driving the demonstrations in the Arab countries of Tunisia and Egypt.
An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.
Nizar; Saleh; Abdelfattah; Mohamed; Amgad; Ahmed; A; Salama; Marina; E; Israel; Ghada; A; Elhawary; Ahmed; E; Radwan; Mohamed; M; Elgayar; Tamer; M; EL; Nakhal; Islam; T; Elkhateb; Heba; A; Hashem; Doha; K; Embaby; Amira; A; Elabd; Reem; K; Elwy; Magdi; S; Yacoub; Hamdy; Salem; Mohamed; Abdel-Baqy; Ahmad; Kassem
AIM:To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25(NEI-VFQ-25).METHODS:NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA.RESULTS:We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was(54.5±15)y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract,31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version(ARB-VFQ-25) were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales(except general health), with Cronbach-α ranging from0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high(intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79).CONCLUSION:RB-VFQ-25 isareliableandvalidtool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination.
Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.
The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Government of the United Arab Republic in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in establishing a project for training and medical applications of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members
El Sayed, Karimat
Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.
Salah El-Din Kotb, Yusef, Ed.
This book presents selections from seminars whose purpose was to provide American teacher educators and faculty from related disciplines with a first-hand exposure to the modernization process in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The analysis of this topic focuses on three major areas affected in the modernization process: education, culture, and…
Salama, S.A.; Dardiri, A. H.; Awad, F. I.; A. M. Soliman; M.M Amin
African horsesickness virus was isolated from blood samples of street dogs in Aswan Province in Arab Republic of Egypt. Of six isolated "dog strain" African horsesickness viruses, three viruses designated D2, D6 and D10 have been identified as type 9 African horsesickness virus. Methods of isolation, tissue culture adaptation, serological indentification and typing are described. Horses experimentally infected with dog viruses showed febrile reaction and characteristic clinical and pathologic...
A research about using the information technology tools in digitizing the Arabic manuscripts; it begins with a brief history about the Arabic manuscripts; then it discusses using automation systems in manuscripts processing, then it shows the Arab experiments in digitizing manuscripts in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and finally talks about requirements of digitizing process.
Ismail Muhamad; Hazwan Abdul Rahman; Azman Che Mat
Malaysia Religion High Certificate (STAM) examination is a Malaysian student’s eligibility to study in the Middle East. STAM was introduced in 2000 as a result of a Memorandum of Understanding Cultural Agreement between the Governments of Malaysia and the Arab Republic of Egypt in November 1999. But many STAM graduates who took the language test at the university had failed to get the level of qualification and had to take Arabic classes at the language center before pursuing studies at the u...
Control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Near East region using the sterile insect technique. Subregional proposals to eradicate the Medfly and establish fruit fly free areas in Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, The Syrian Arab Republic and the territories under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian authority
The Mediterranean fruit fly or medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, is the single most important pest species affecting fresh fruits and vegetables within the Mediterranean region, but especially the Near East. For a wide range of commercial crops, including most citrus varieties, mangoes, grapes, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, plums, figs, dates, persimmons, papayas, peppers and tomatoes, it is the only economically important fruit fly in the region. This document, prepared at the request of Member States in the Near East region and developed by a group on international experts in fruit fly control, outlines plans to eradicate the medfly from three subregions of the Near East. The objective is the eradication of the medfly and establishment of fruit fly free areas within participating countries in order to reduce pesticide applications and to enable fresh fruit exports without post-harvest treatments. 12 refs, 6 figs, 19 tabs
AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada
Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.
circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary on the...
Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen
One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society; Western, European colonial perception of women's rights; and finally national gender-related policy reforms. This paper examines the past and present status of women and gender-educational inequality in the Arab world with particular reference to Egypt and Tunisia, prior to and post colonialism. Special attention is given to colonial legacy and its influence on gender and education; to current gender practices in the social sphere with a focus on women's modesty ( hijab); to international policies and national responses with regard to women's rights and finally to female participation in pre-university and higher education. These issues incorporate a discussion of cultural and religious constraints. The paper demonstrates similarities and differences between Egypt's and Tunisia's reform policies towards gender parity. It highlights the confrontation of conservative versus liberal ideologies that occurred in each country with the implementation of its gender-related reform policy.
Arabic language is a very rich language with complex morphology, so it has a very different and difficult structure than other languages. So it is important to build an Arabic Text Classifier (ATC) to deal with this complex language. The importance of text or document classification comes from its wide variety of application domains such as text indexing, document sorting, text filtering, and Web page categorization. Due to the immense amount of Arabic documents as well as the number of inter...
A new automatic interpretation of natural gamma rays in well logging, using numerical analysis has been applied successfully. This approach is aimed at the accurate determination of radioactive intensities levels of lithological units, and their thicknesses. The model of four main radioactive types, (k, H, A and Q), which was suggested and applied in earlier studies in the prospection region for phosphatic deposits and radioactive materials in the syrian palmyrides, has been used in the study of boreholes related to khneifis region. A very good correlation has been found between the results of this methodology and the lithology of studied boreholes
The purpose of this study was to examine the economic and financial feasibility of a food irradiation project proposed by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The prime purpose of the project was to irradiate two important agricultural products, namely, onion and potato. The irradiation process has the effect of reducing sprouting significantly. In Syria onions are usually stored in well ventilated warehouses at ambient temperature. Our investigation showed that sprouting started after 1.5 months of storage. It is estimated that the sprouting rate reaches 100% after five months of storage. This implies a waste factor of 50%. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs
The purpose of this study was to examine the economic and financial feasibility of a food irradiation project proposed by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The prime purpose of the project was to irradiate two important agricultural products, namely, onion and potato. The irradiation process has the effect of reducing sprouting significantly. In Syria onions are usually stored in well ventilated warehouses at ambient temperature. Our investigation showed that sprouting started after 1.5 months of storage. It is estimated that the sprouting rate reaches 100% after five months of storage. This implies a waste factor of 50%. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs
Hajar, M. M.; Zeid, A. S.; Saif, M. A.; Parvez, M. A.; Steinglass, R. C.; Crain, S.
There is a lack of reliable information on the extent of the poliomyelitis problem in developing countries, although the disease is thought to be more of a threat in urban than in rural areas. The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) began operations in Yemen in 1977, and it was considered appropriate to try to establish the prevalence of residual paralysis due to poliomyelitis in children aged 5-13 years, in order to estimate the annual incidence of clinical cases of the disease, and to ...
The primary objectives of this study were to determine the hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater and to study vertical transport processes for trace elements through the unsaturated zone, from the surface water into the groundwater system. A third objective was to identifying the importance of the unsaturated zone in protecting groundwater from contamination. Distribution of trace elements, including Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn and As in the soil with depth were measured. Mineralogy was investigated using X ray diffraction techniques and grain size distribution in three drilled soil profile (KA, KB and KS) in Damascus Oasis, which indicated that the soil consists mainly of calcite, a mineral that has the ability to bind some of the trace elements. Measurement of nitrate concentrations in groundwater permitted an investigation of the urban, industrial and agricultural pollution in the Oasis, in particular, in the eastern part of Damascus city and in the north of the Oasis where the irrigation by treated wastewater is applied. Depending on the chemical characteristics of the studied trace elements and soil conditions, these elements can have high concentrations in the upper part of the soil (20-30 cm depth), due to absorption by clay minerals and organic matter. The high concentrations represent pollution by leather industries (tannery) in the area. The trace element concentrations decrease towards the east in parallel with river flow direction. The lower part of profiles show low trace element concentrations below the international permitted limit. The low concentrations of trace elements in groundwater are also below the international limit, indicating significant concentrations of contaminants are not presently entering the water table. The isotopic composition of shallow groundwater indicates the underground recharge, originated from the Anti-Lebanon Mountain, is more significant than the direct recharge through unsaturated zone. It is concluded the
Nayef, Heba; El-Nashar, Mohamed
This paper attempts to shed light on sexism in Egyptian Internet jokes. It examines how language, as an institution largely controlled by men, is manipulated and used to disparage women in this discursive mode of humor. Through running a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 284 sexist internet jokes, the study addressed three points; namely, the most frequently targeted category of women in sexist jokes; the most salient physical and personal attributes and finally the way sexist jokes is...
The Yemen Arab Republic occupies a part of the southern Arabian Shield and has been subject to considerable faulting and movement. As far as is known no uranium exploration has ever been undertaken or is presently contemplated in the country. Uranium could occur in the Shield rocks and conditions are right for calcrete type uranium deposits. The Speculative Potential may be in category 2, i.e. between 1000 and 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)
The IAEA agreed to co-operate with the Arab Republic of Egypt in performing a case study on the feasibility of small and medium power reactors (SMPRs) as a technical assistance project. The major objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of SMPRs to supply a portion of the future electrical energy requirements in the long term power programme of Egypt. The IAEA is grateful to all who provided information and assisted in the drafting and review of the report, in particular to the Advisory Group which performed the study in a co-operative effort. It is hoped that the report will meet the interests of policy makers, managers, engineers and economists in Member States, particularly in developing countries, and that it will provide a useful basis for specific studies to prepare decisions on SMPR projects. Refs, figs and tabs
Full Text Available Malaysia Religion High Certificate (STAM examination is a Malaysian student’s eligibility to study in the Middle East. STAM was introduced in 2000 as a result of a Memorandum of Understanding Cultural Agreement between the Governments of Malaysia and the Arab Republic of Egypt in November 1999. But many STAM graduates who took the language test at the university had failed to get the level of qualification and had to take Arabic classes at the language center before pursuing studies at the undergraduate level. This study aims to identify the level of text reading in Arabic among STAM candidates and Arabic grammar skills. Therefore, the researchers aim of 52 students who is a STAM candidate to participate in this study. The approach used in this study is quantitative; wherein the information gathered is presented in the Figures. Data collection using a measurement tool based on the study of texts authored by Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi containing 448 words. Comprehension and grammar skills tests were done for collecting data and then presented into numbers. The findings showed that the respondents' reading and grammar level are moderate. Therefore, it is recommended that students who will take the STAM are given proper guidance so that they can improve their Arabic language proficiency before pursuing studies at tertiary institutions.
Agreement of 25 February 1992 between the government of the Syrian Arab Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons
The document contains two parts. The first one stipulates the agreement of the Syrian Arab Republic to accept Safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The second part specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I
Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…
No doubt that the revolutions of the Arab Spring in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria affect macroeconomic variables and stock markets in the national economy. The revolution in Egypt began by a series of popular movements on Tuesday, January 25, 2011. This paper investigates the impact of political instability, economic instability and external events associated with the Egyptian revolution that started on 25th January, 2011 on the stock market performance. The findings s...
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan
The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…
Project and supply agreement: Agreement of 28 February 1992 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron source reactor and enriched uranium
The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China for the transfer of a 30 KW miniature neutron source reactor for radioisotope production, research and tracing and of approximately 980.40 grams of uranium enriched to approximately 90.2 percent by weight in the isotope uranium-235 contained in fuel elements for the supplied reactor. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992, signed in Vienna on 28 February 1992, and entered into force on 18 May 1992. 1 tab
Swanberg, Chandler A.; Morgan, Paul; Boulos, F. K.
One hundred and sixty samples of groundwater from nearly all parts of Egypt have been collected and chemically analyzed in order to assess the country's geothermal potential. The samples considered to be thermal include 20 wells ( T > 35° C), 4 springs ( T > 30° C) and 1 spring not included in the present inventory. The remaining samples, together with data from the literature, establish background chemistry. The hottest springs are located along the east shore of the Gulf of Suez: Uyun Musa (48°C) and 'Ain Hammam Faraoun (70°C). Additional warm springs are located along both shores of the Gulf of Suez and this region is the most promising for geothermal development. The Eastern Desert of Egypt, particularly the coastal area adjacent to the Red Sea has above normal heat flow ( ~ 72.0 Egypt can be considered thermal including several reported "hot springs." Application of the silica, NaKCa. and NaKCaMg geothermometers does not indicate the presence of a high temperature geothermal resource at any area we visited.
The Arab Geologists Association (AGA) is a non-governmental pan-Arab geological organization founded in 1975 by geological commissions, i.e., geologists unions, geological societies, representing nine Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, Jordan,Libya, Sudan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Iraq. Organizations of geologists in Syria and Yemen joined the Association shortly after.
Alohali, Y.; Cheriet, M.; Suen, C.Y.
This paper describes an effort toward building Arabic cheque databases for research in recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques. Databases of Arabic legal amounts, Arabic sub words, courtesy amounts, Indian digits, and Arabic cheques are provided. This paper highlights the characteristics of the Arabic language and presents the various steps that have been completed to achieve this goal including segmentation, binarization, tagging and validation.
Hussien, Abdelaziz M.
This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure…
Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah
This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangemen...
Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the second most populous country in Africa, with 65.5 million people living in a land area of 384,344 square miles as of mid-1998. There were 28 births and 6 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 63 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.2% annually. The average Egyptian woman has 3.6 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 69 years for women. Egypt has major issues to address with regard to the management and use of its water resources, balancing the protection and use of rural lands, and expanding industry while protecting the air, water, and land. Much of Egypt's water is polluted and its soil damaged and depleted due to irrigation-related salinization. With Cairo and Alexandria already densely populated, the proportion of Egypt's population expected to live in urban areas should exceed 60% by 2025. Almost all of Egypt's population lives along the banks of the Nile and its delta, almost all of the country's agricultural production occurs on 5% of that land, and less than 1% of the land is protected. Population momentum will cause Egypt's population to grow a projected 51% by 2025 even though 47% of married women use some form of contraception. 51% of Egyptian adults are literate and tense relations with Israel influence Egypt's public expenditures and foreign assistance. PMID:12348893
Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein
Full Text Available In this study, the central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in practical calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Cairo-Egypt. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of frequencies 11.980 MHz, 11.785 MHz which were transmitted with a power of 250 KW, 100 KW respectively from the Egypt Arabic Republic Broadcasting station in Cairo city, directed to the North Africa and South Europe regions. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.
Alshahrani, Ali A.
The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…
Alfaifi, AYG; Atwell, E.; Hedaya, I
Arabic learner corpora have not received enough attention, particularly for learning Arabic as a second language (in Arabic speaking countries). Based on the literature, there are a few projects are developing Arabic learner corpora, of which most are not freely available for users or researchers. In addition to that they are intended to assist in the language acquisition of Arabic as a foreign language (collected from learners studying Arabic in non-Arabic speaking countries). The present pa...
Rahman Zaky, A.
Full Text Available BEFORE Islam, the Arabs of the Peninsula had their own local system of warfare, that was not of big armies, but of small battles and skirmishes among the tribes. After the death of Muhammad (632, the caliphs established their rule in Arabia, and started their conquests towards Iraq and Persia in the East; and towards Syria, Egypt and North Africa in the West. After the conquest of Spain (711, the Arabs had already built a vast empire extending from the Atlantic shores to the Indus in about one hundred years. While the Arabs began to develop their warfare system, they did not disdain to learn many lessons from the nations they already defeated. Accordingly the Byzantine army served as a model for their land forces. Arab writers and translators began to contribute invaluable treatises on war, archery and chivalry. It is a pity that very few of these have survived, whether Arabic or Persian. Some of the treatises were the translations of books written in Latin, Greek, Persian or Sanskrit. One can say that by the tenth century, the Arabs had an art of war of their own.
Okalan, Müge Aknur and Erkan
Among all authoritarian Arab regimes in the Middle Eastern and North African region, Egypt can be considered as a crucial example which has attempted to take a number of steps toward political liberalization since the 1970s. As an external actor through its aid programs, bilateral agreements, direct grant programs, and partnership initiatives, the United States seemed to be working towards economic and political liberalization and democratization in Egypt. However, in spite of this seemingly ...
When at the height of the 'Arab Spring' Egyptians from all walks of life took to the streets to oust one of the Arab world's most long-standing dictators, it took both Egyptians and outside observers by surprise. This report explores the events commonly described as the January 25 Revolution in Egypt, as well as the immediate transitional period that followed the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak, marked by recurrent unrest and mobilization. Starting from a detailed empirical description of ...
Radiopharmaceuticals have shown promise in the field of therapy in the last decades. The use of generator produced radionuclides, such as 90Y, has increased because of their unique properties. The focus of the work in this chapter has been the development of a 90Y generator and related radiopharmaceuticals. A 90Sr/90Y generator was developed based on the isolation of 90Y from 90Sr using Sr-Spec resin packed in three columns. The resulting 90Y solution was used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. In the 90Sr/90Y generator developed, a maximum of 200 mCi of 90Sr was loaded onto the first column and 90Y was eluted with 3M nitric acid. The middle two columns were used as purification barriers. The resulting eluate was evaporated and further purified by passing it through a cation exchange column for removal of trace elements. The final solution was concentrated and 90Y obtained in the chloride form. The yield of 90Y was ~90% with ≤10-6% 90Sr. The quality of the 90Y solution was tested in terms of radiochemical, radionuclidic and biological purities, which were found to be high. This reflected in obtaining high labelling efficiency and high quality of final radiopharmaceuticals, which included 90Y EDTMP, 90Y ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (FHMAs), 90Y DOTA-h-R3 antibody and 90Y DOTA rituximab. (author)
Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683
Two crop rotation experiments with 9 treatments and 4 replicates were laid down in a split plot design two sides, in the Northern and Southern Provinces of Syria. The experimental treatments were three 2-course crop rotations: fallow-wheat, chickpea/lentil-wheat and wheat-wheat (continuous wheat), with three rates of N fertilizer applications. 15N-labelled fertilizer was used as tracer to measure fertilizer use efficiency (UFE) and residual N transferred to the second, subsequent crop in the rotation. Total dry matter production of wheat following legumes was higher than continuous wheat or fallow-wheat rotation. Depending on soil inorganic N, dry matter yields were either increased with N addition or there was almost no effect. Measurements of soil water content during the growing season showed that the soil water storage over depth of 120 cm at harvest was higher after fallow than after chickpea, lentil or wheat. However, the observed differences were diminished at the beginning of the subsequent growing season. Contributions of fertilizer N to total N yield were 5-20% for wheat, 1-4% for chickpea, and 4% for lentil. Chickpea fixed 46-127 kg N ha-1 which contributed 65-85% of the total N yield in the crop. Fixed nitrogen was somewhat low for lentil, amounting to only 22-32% of the total N yield. Mineral nitrogen enrichment of the soil resulting from fallow was about 8-13 kg N ha-1. Residual N transferred to the subsequent wheat crop from lentil was rather low. However, it was detectable (3 kg N ha-1). No residual N benefits could be measured from chickpea. Fertilizer use efficiency varied depending on the crop: 22-57, 17-21, and 8-12% for wheat, lentil and chickpea, respectively. Rotation revenues, based on equivalent starch values (STE) from one cycle of rotation showed that wheat-wheat and chickpea-wheat rotations had almost similar revenues. However, they were higher than lentil-wheat and fallow-wheat rotations. (author). 8 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs
Damascus oasis plays an important economical and environmental role in the city life because it presents the surrounding green places and the groundwater is the main sources for irrigation. In this study we will focus on the unsaturated zone in Damascus oasis. Environmental isotopes as 18O, 2H and 3H are considered one of the most important techniques that are used in unsaturated zone study in order to study the water movement mechanism, estimate the effective velocity, the rate and spatial variations of the direct infiltration through this zone.The Deuterium profile allow to estimate the direct evaporation rate, and it is observed that the evaporation in the eastern part of the studied area is 5-6.5 mm/y. The Tritium peak of profile that is belonging to the atmospheric nuclear tests at the beginning of the sixties indicates the effective infiltration velocity of 27.8 mm/y. The effective porosity was estimated about 6.5% and the permeability parameter is 0.6*10-10 m/s. The direct infiltration rate was estimated by the chemical Chloride balance in the studied profiles in addition to their spatial distribution where it was distinguished between the eastern area where the direct infiltration is less than 2 mm/y characterized by very fine clay soils and western area where the direct infiltration rate is more than 2 mm/y with sandy soils. It is thought that the lower part of the unsaturated zone indicated the direct infiltration rate about 3.5 mm/y, under more wet climatic conditions where the rainfall was about 423 mm/y, this wet period was extended from about 432 y to more than 760y ago.The Nitrate concentration variation with depth indicated that unsaturated zone play important role as purification zone, and the groundwater which has more than 5 m depth is prevented from pollution, whereas the groundwater that has less than 5 m depth is more prone to pollution by high concentration of Nitrates. (author)
Hamamy, Hanan A; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S
Haemoglobinopathies including the thalassemias and sickle cell disease are known to be prevalent inherited disorders in most Arab countries with varying prevalence rates and molecular characterisation. β-thalassemia is encountered in polymorphic frequencies in almost all Arab countries with carrier rates of 1-11 % and a varying number of mutations. The most widespread mutation in Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Tunisia and Algeria is the IVS-I-110 (G>A). In the Eastern Arabian Peninsula, the Asian Indian mutations (IVS-I-5 (G>C), codons 8/9 (+G) and IVS-I (-25 bp del)) are more common. The α-thalassemias are encountered in the majority of Arab countries in frequencies ranging from 1 to 58 % with the highest frequencies reported from Gulf countries. The (-α(3.7)) mutation is the most frequent followed by the non-deletional α2 polyadenylation signal mutation (AATAAA>AATAAG) and the α2 IVS1 5-bp deletion. The rates of sickle cell trait in Arab countries range from 0.3 to 30 %, with the Benin, the Arab-Indian and the Bantu haplotypes constituting the bulk of the haplotypes, leading to two major phenotypes; a mild one associated with the Arab-Indian and a severe one with the Benin and Bantu haplotypes. Public health approaches targeting prevention of haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries include newborn screening for sickle cell disease, and premarital screening for carriers of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. These services are still patchy and inadequate in many Arab countries recommending the upgrade of these services with strengthening of the education and training of health care providers and raising public awareness on the feasibility of prevention and care for haemoglobinopathies. PMID:23224852
Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen
One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society; Western,…
Abdulhafeth Ali Khrisat; Majiduddin Sayyed Mohamad
Borrowing is entering Arabic language. Researchers focus on the origin of the borrowed words and their meanings without analyzing the syntactic and semantic changes of these words. This paper focuses on Arabic language's borrowings from other languages. Moreover, it studies the meaning of 'arabization' and the role of arabized and borrowed words in enriching Arabic language, the difference between the arabized words and the borrowed ('dakheel') ones by examining and analyzing samples for ever...
This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Syrian Arab Republic carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation
Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah
committing it. Furthermore, in an unprecedented move against non-Arabic press, it had been reported that the government pressure led to the shutdown of ‘Egypt Independent’ a private newspaper published in English. Despite that laws related to freedom of expression and media had hardly changed from Mubarak to...
Molek, Frank J., Ed.
A group of 25 members of the higher education community of North America visited the Middle East for the purpose of improving admissions criteria and academic placement of Arab students. Group findings and the consensus of recommendations are reported. Countries studied were: Egypt, Kuwait, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Examined were each country's…
Khachan, Victor A.
In light of the "rarity" and "unavailability" of academic publications on literacy/illiteracy in the Arab world, this study attempts to determine the linguistic needs of illiterate adult women in Egypt in the context of informal adult basic education. The purpose of this study is to understand illiterate adult women's daily linguistic needs in…
Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo
Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the modified Arabic Care Dependency Scale for self-assessment of older persons in Egypt and to compare these self-assessments to proxy assessments by care givers and family members. Background. The Care Dependency Scale is a
World Bank, (WB)
This report is being delivered pursuant to the agreement (Agreement) between the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology of the Arab Republic of Egypt (MCIT) and the World Bank (Bank) for the provision by the Bank of technical assistance (RTA) to MCIT and certain of its affiliates. One of those affiliates is the Information Technology Industry Development Authority (ITIDA). ...
The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of...... ancient and modern Egyptian material and practices, from a wide range of prehistoric and historical periods, entwining interpretation of source material with explicitly theoretical approaches to provide new perspectives and interpretations of aspects of the Ancient Egyptian past. This volume is one of the...
In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…
Abdel-Sattar, Nesrine M. A. K.; Dutton, William
This study focuses on the factors shaping innovation in online newsrooms in three nations of the Arab World, with particular interest in the adoption of multimedia news innovations. Applying theoretical perspectives from the social shaping of technology and the diffusion of innovation literature, this study sought to identify the key factors shaping the innovation process. Field studies were based in three Arabic newsrooms: Aljazeera Net in Qatar, Almasry Alyoum in Egypt, and Almassae in Moro...
Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah
This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement had been tumultuous with repercussions that are likely to linger on for a protracted period of time. Therefore, despite apparent resemblance in socio-political actors in both countries, (political I...
TAFLIOĞLU, M. Serkan
Hamas, is the sole armed resistance group of Muslim Brotherhood, which is an important religious and political and social movement in the Arab and Islamic World. Considering that the Muslim Brotherhood is Egypt-borned movement, the importance of the relationship between Egypt and Hamas will be better understood. Although the Hamas is an armed resistance movement in Palestine, but also has its political discourse and program. Hamas did not recognize Oslo Peace Process between Israel and the PL...
Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed
The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure. This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health. The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region. This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions. This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health. PMID:23801552
The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration
Full Text Available Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the proposed System consists of five main stages Video and Images capture, Video an d images processing, Hand Signs Construction, Classification finally Text transform ation and interpretation, this system depends on building a two datasets image features for Arabi c sign language gestures alphabets from two resources: Arabic Sign Language dictionary and gest ures from different signer's human, also using gesture recognition techniques, which allows the user to interact with the outside world. This system offers a novel technique of hand detect ion is proposed which detect and extract hand gestures of Arabic Sign from Image or video, i n this paper we use a set of appropriate features in step hand sign construction and class ification of based on different classification algorithms such as KNN, MLP, C4.5, VFI and SMO and compare these results to get better classifier.
HAMDAN, Bader S.S.
Abstract. The study focused on the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study used panel data approach by E views program. The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic g...
The territory within the boundaries of Azerbaijan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The case in territories contain many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions with Arabic letters found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places, manuscripts, coins, knick-knacks and belong...
The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results ...
There are a great number of industrial, mining, or manufacturing facilities globally that use or process NORM, being a substance that naturally contains one or more radioactive isotopes. NORM is present at varying concentrations in the Earth’s crust. Some of the processes conducted at facilities that handle NORM concentrate one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclides, resulting in waste that contains a higher radioactive concentration than occurs naturally. This results in the requirement that the facilities be decommissioned and sites be remediated. The typical process operations for NORM generation involve the extraction, purification, filtration, smelting or pipeline transport of virtually any material of geologic origin. In general, NORM is categorized as being either ‘discrete’ or ‘diffuse’. Discrete NORM is usually a small amount of waste material that can contains a relatively high concentration of NORM. Examples of discrete NORM include: — Radium painted watch dials; — Aircraft instrument panels. Activities associated with enhanced levels of NORM can contaminate the environment and pose a risk to human health. Handling, storage, transport, and the use of NORM contaminated equipment or waste media without controls can lead to the spread of NORM contamination and result in contamination of areas of land, resulting in potential exposure of the public; thus the need for NORM facilities to be decommissioned properly. The areas affected by the facilities’ processes should also be remediated
Evapotranspiration studies of main crops are very important to the development of crop production in countries with limited water resources. Through these studies sound and efficient water-use policies can be planned so as to achieve the best use of water resources. In this work, which was carried out in the Experimental Farm Station of the Cairo University, three methods of measuring evapotranspiration of maize were used: (1) Direct measurement through the daily weighing of hydraulic lysimeters; (2) indirect, by measuring the moisture changes in the profiles with neutron-moisture meter; and (3) computing the potential evapotranspiration after Penman from climatological data. Two levels of irrigation were used: (a) To irrigate to field capacity once 0.4 of the available moisture in the root zone is depleted, and (b) to irrigate to field capacity when 0.7 of the available moisture is depleted. One hydraulic lysimeter and five plots were used for each treatment. The results show that for the whole growing season the evapotranspiration from Penman agrees well with that obtained from the lysimeters. But the Penman E.T. was higher at the beginning of the growing season, lower in the middle, and about die same at the end. The E.T. measured by the neutron-moisture meter also agreed well with the actual one. The neutron-meter measurements were 0. 93 of the actual E.T. in both lysimeters. The data obtained from plots indicate that a considerable amount of water was used by the plants from the fringe of the water table. The growth and yield of maize were affected by the two levels of irrigation; the greater depletion produced crops 13 to 18% less than that of the other treatment. Thus the Penman E.T. and moisture measurements by the neutron-moisture meter can be used after special corrections, at least under conditions similar to those of the experimental site. (author)
This study has included the water situation in Damascus area as well as the energy situation in Syria. In addition, analysis of water transport cost has been carried out. Water desalination technologies both RO and MED with (MVC) coupled to the PBMR reactor were preformed with the economic evaluation of the water desalination cost. Sensitivity analysis of the most effected parameters was studied showing the variations in the cost. (author)
This study examines the presence of one of the prominent anomalies which is the day of the week effect anomaly in five of Arab stock exchanges which are (Qatar, Amman, Palestine, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchanges) cover the period from May 2010 to April 2014. By using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis and Post Hoc Tests, the study indicates that there is no existence of the day of the week effect in each of (Qatar, Amman, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchange) while it is prese...
Hassine, Nadia Belhaj
The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...
Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age
Gaafar, R M; Eldin, N H Aly
Asbestos has been recognized in Egypt since a long time as ancient Egyptians were using it in mummification. Mesothelioma in Egypt is mainly attributed to environmental origin with a high incidence of women and young adults affected. The incidence of mesothelioma is rising in Egypt. Epidemiological data for 635 malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients over 4 years in the third Millennium were collected from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University and Abbassia Chest hospital. This number is more than four times the number diagnosed in the previous 11 years at NCI. A clinicopathological study was done for 100 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients and showed that asbestos exposure and SV40 positivity were evident in 67% and 60% of cases, respectively. The median survival was 14.3 months and the 1 and 2 year survival rates were 60% and 27%, respectively. Evaluation of p53 and pRb immunohistochemically showed that pRb alteration was related to poor survival. Other biological prognostic factors such as EGFR, HER-2, glutathione S transferase (GST) and MDR were evaluated in 50 cases. Overexpression of EGFR was correlated with lack of clinical benefit and poor survival. GST potentiated the effect of EGFR on survival. The use of EGFR inhibitors may have a role in the treatment of MM. Asbestos in Cairo is a silent killer and measures toward eliminating it entirely or at least strictly controlling human contact with this dangerous carcinogen have to be taken in order to combat the coming epidemic of mesothelioma in Egypt. PMID:15950794
Achour, Hadhemi; Abdessalem, Wahiba Ben
As a result of ICT development and the increasingly growing use of the Internet in particular, practices of language teaching and learning are about to evolve significantly. Our study focuses on the Arabic language, and aims to explore and evaluate Arabic language learning websites. To reach these goals, we propose in a first step, to define an evaluation model, based on a set of criteria for assessing the quality of websites dedicated to teaching and learning Arabic. We subsequently apply ou...
The paper summarizes the main historical and linguistic characteristics associated with PC languages and analyses their relevant concerning Arabic-based contact language of the South Sudanese basin. It sketches the main linguistic features of Juba Arabic
Kiraz, G A
This paper demonstrates how a (multi-tape) two-level formalism can be used to write two-level grammars for Arabic non-linear morphology using a high level, but computationally tractable, notation. Three illustrative grammars are provided based on CV-, moraic- and affixational analyses. These are complemented by a proposal for handling the hitherto computationally untreated problem of the broken plural. It will be shown that the best grammars for describing Arabic non-linear morphology are moraic in the case of templatic stems, and affixational in the case of a-templatic stems. The paper will demonstrate how the broken plural can be derived under two-level theory via the `implicit' derivation of the singular.
Al Easa, Noor Sultan
Qatari Arabic is a form of the Arabic language It is used by the native speakers of Qatar as a dialect of Arabic. The social structure of the Qatari society is very similar to those of the Arabian Peninsula in origin. traditions. and customs. A dialect can be seen as a group of linguistic criteria which belong to a certain culture or society: and therefore. is used by the members of this society. It exists in the spoken form only since Qataris still use Modem Standard Arabic for writing. As ...
A review for research work in the field of utilizing ionizing radiations and radioisotopes in plant breeding and crop improvement conducted in Arab countries has been summerized and discussed in the light of some economic features of the crop or the plant on national or regional (arab) level. Among the 241 articles in the above mentioned fields reviewed, around 230 articles were conducted in Egypt, 6 in Iraq, 2 in Algeria and 2 in Sudan. Some of the articles dealing with more than one crop and/or more than one type of radiation or radioisotope
Aldabbagh, Dina; Alsharif, Khlood; Househ, Mowafa S
Availability of online health information in the Arab world is growing rapidly, as well as the demand for it. Today, the Arab health consumer is searching for health information that is in Arabic and is culturally relevant. The purpose of this paper is to document the various initiatives around the development of online health information in the Arab world. The paper highlights the status of online health information in Arab counties with a specific focus on Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive search of both academic and gray literature was conducted in October 2012. Google Scholar, PubMed, the Google search engines were searched. Results show that there has been an increase in the number of health information websites being created in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. Examples of some these initiatives are discussed. Future challenges to the growth of health information content in the Arab world are also discussed. PMID:23823454
Melki, Jad P.
The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…
The Arabic language used in Egypt is traditionally divided into two major types: classical and colloquial. The idea is that classical or literary Arabic is to be found mostly in formal writing and speaking, whereas colloquial Arabic is used mainly in daily conversation. When it comes to actual usage, however, this distinction is not always clearly…
Mourad Gridach; Noureddine Chenfour
Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...
Neme, Alexis Amid
Since 1997, the MS Arabic spell checker was integrated by Coltec-Egypt in the MS-Office suite and till now many Arabic users find it worthless. In this study, we show why the MS-spell checker fails to attract Arabic users. After spell-checking a document (10 pages -3300 words in Arabic), the assessment procedure spots 78 false positive errors. They reveal the lexical resource flaws: an unsystematic lexical coverage of the feminine and the broken plural of nouns and adjectives, and an arbitrar...
This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table
The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…
Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.
This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…
Naser I Abumustafa
Naser I. Abumustafa presents a review of the functions, regulations, and definitions of Arab emerging stock markets, identifying the barriers and solutions to potential integration of Arab stock markets. Development (2006) 49, 81–85. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100249
There is little doubt that the EU has played a key role within the wider constellation of forces pushing several Arab Mediterranean countries on the path of economic reform since the late 1980s. This is particularly clear in the case of Egypt, where the EU has been able to differentiate itself from international financial institutions and main donors in two crucial respects. On the one hand, it has proposed integration through a gradualist approach to economic reforms. On the other hand, with...
AL-ANI, SALMAN H.; SHAMMAS, JACOB Y.
THIS WORKBOOK IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE THE SOUND SYSTEM AND WRITING SYSTEM OF LITERARY ARABIC. THE MATERIAL IS LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND ARABIC. ACCOMPANYING TAPES FOR EACH UNIT PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH PRACTICE IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION. READING, WRITING, AND HOMEWORK EXERCISES…
Rawan I. Zaghloul
Full Text Available Recognition of handwritten numerals has been one of the most challenging topics in image processing. This is due to its contributions in the automation process in several applications. The aim of this study was to build a classifier that can easily recognize offline handwritten Arabic numerals to support those applications that are deal with Hindi (Arabic numerals. A new algorithm for Hindi (Arabic Numeral Recognition is proposed. The proposed algorithm was developed using MATLAB and tested with a large sample of handwritten numeral datasets for different writers in different ages. Pattern recognition techniques are used to identify Hindi (Arabic handwritten numerals. After testing, high recognition rates were achieved, their ranges from 95% for some numerals and up to 99% for others. The proposed algorithm used a powerful set of features which proved to be effective in the recognition of Hindi (Arabic numerals.
Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady
Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…
Abdel-Fattah, M. A.
Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…
Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…
Explored the hypothesis that Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer Arabic text organization features into their English writing by examining essays written by 30 Arab ESL students and 30 non-Arab ESL students. The results indicated little evidence of transfer in either group. Implications for further research are discussed.…
In the Nuclear Research Center Inchas a uranium dioxide fuel laboratory is planned and built by the AEA Cairo (Atomic Energy Authority). The layout of this fuel lab and the programmatical contents are subject to the bilaterial cooperation between Egypt and the Federal Republic of Germany. In this report the safety analysis as basic items for the approval procedure are started in detail. (orig.)
Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela
Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research. PMID:26996912
Hamdy, Sherine F; Bayoumi, Soha
Amidst the recent political uprisings in the Arab region, physicians and other healthcare workers have found themselves in the crossfire. This paper focuses on Egypt's doctors, paying special attention to how many have both appealed to and practiced medical neutrality as its own potent and contested political stance, particularly since the period of military rule following Mubarak's removal from power. Our paper draws on interviews with physicians who served as volunteers in the field hospitals in the days of unrest and violence, and with others who played a major role in documenting protesters' injuries, police brutality, and other forms of state violence against unarmed citizens. Based on interviews with doctors who belong to organizations such as "Tahrir Doctors" and "Doctors Without Rights," our paper reveals how these doctors' commitment to professional ethics put them at odds with the orders of military personnel, rendering their appeal to "medical neutrality" a weighty political act in and of itself. PMID:26303314
Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA) is one of the organizations of the League of Arab States (LAS). AAEA is working within the framework of the LAS to coordinate the scientific efforts of the Arab Countries in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. So, AAEA works hard to enhance the socio-economical development in Arab countries by promoting the peaceful applications of atomic energy in many aspects of life. The Arab Authority contributes for the implementation of training programs for Arab staff in the field of parameters mentioned above through the implementation of training courses, workshops and expert meetings in addition to scientific visits exchanged between the researchers and Arabs scientists and translation of books from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the Arabic language and circulated to the Arab countries. At Arab Summits (Riyadh - 2007 - Damascus and Doha 2008 - 2009), AAEA elaborates 12 projects on the Arab strategy for the peaceful uses of atomic energy until 2020 and planed all applications of atomic energy. Integration of radioisotopes production in the Arab countries is among these projects. This project aims to unify efforts and coordinate cooperation between the Arab countries together to develop the human potential and benefit from the expertise available in some Arab countries in the production of radioisotopes to insure the integration between Arab countries. Nuclear and radioactive facilities in Arab countries are:- Research reactors (RRs) that can produce isotopes (Egypt -2, -2 Algeria, Libya -1) and (-1 Morocco, Syria -1).- Ions accelerators (cyclotron) for isotope production (Morocco, Algeria, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt).- Ions accelerators (VDG) for research and analysis (Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria and Jordan).- Electron accelerator (LINAC) for research and industry applications (Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, UAE and Kuwait).- Electron accelerators (LINAC) for nuclear medicine therapy
Abd El Salam Al Hajjar; Anis Ismail; Mohammad Hajjar; Mazen Elsayed
The Arabic language is a complex language; it is different from Western languages especially at the morphological and spelling variations. Indeed, the performance of information retrieval systems in theArabic language is still a problem. For this reason, we are interested in studying the performance of the most famous search engine, which is a Google Desktop, while searching in Arabic language documents. Then, we propose an update to the Google Desktop to take into consideration in search th...
Mohammad Yahya Bani Salameh
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA. Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as informants, they also benefited from three other Jordanians and four educated Yemenis. Considering the alphabets as the written symbols used for transcribing the phones of actual pronunciation, it was found that the pronunciation of many Arabic sounds has gradually diverged from the standard. The study also discussed several related issues including: The phonetic description of Arabic vowels, classification of Arabic vowels, types of Arabic vowels and distribution of Arabic vowels.
Al Mutawa, Najat [نجاة عبد العزيز المطوع; Eassa, M. Rifky [محمد رفقي عيسى; محمد رفقي عيسى
This study investigates two inter-related topics in foreign language learning. First, it assesses the impact of introducing English as a foreign language in the primary stage curriculum, on the scholastic achievement of pupils in their native language. Achievement in Arabic is taken as a yardstick for this comparison: pre- and post- EFLPS introduction. Second, it explores Arabic-language teachers' perception of positive and negative change in school "environment" as a result of such introduct...
Nikolas W. Mitiukov
Full Text Available With a helping of simple mathematical models there was analyzed the ballistic information of the Arab arrow on medieval Arabic treatise "Arab archery". It is shown that there were no any errors on the text and the translation was correct, then, apparently, Arabian heavy arrow had specific design and can no to be in one quiver with the light arrows. Regarding light arrows, then, apparently, they have the typical design with coefficient of drag function cx ≈ 2, and firing was carried out to a maximum range Arabic archer with an elevation angle about 10°.
A two course crop rotation experiment was conducted over a period of two years in order to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and its contribution to the subsequent cereal crop in terms of its N-conserving effect. Also the response of the treatment crop (Zea mays L.) to different levels of N-fertilization (100 and 150 kg N ha-1) were evaluated. Moreover, the effect of a previous crop, N rate and timing on the test crop (Triticum aestivum) was assessed. Results showed that groundnut fixed as much as 52.9 and 23.4 kg N ha-1 at pod filling stage and 66.7 and 34.4 at physiological maturity stage for the 1992 and 1993 growing season, respectively. The test crop did not benefit from the residual N due to the high precipitation in the region leaching down most of the inorganic nitrogen beyond the root zone. In the 1992 growing season, the lower N rate for maize (100 kg N ha-1) was superior over the higher rate (150 kg N ha-1). But due to water stress in the 1993 growing season, a different trend with regard to the response of maize to fertilizer N was obtained. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 10 tabs
Magdy Shayboub Ali Mahmoud
Full Text Available The alarming increase in the scarcity of water in various parts of the world. Scarcity of water in the Arab countries is not a new phenomenon—although population growth and economic development exacerbate the scarcity. Therefore, it is useful to examine how the problem has been dealt with during millennia of experience in the Arab world. Water is a main issue in many countries especially in those Arab countries; it has focused a global attention on the need for a stronger and more appropriate water resource management and availability solutions. With about 170 million people in 17 countries suffering from water scarcity and about 275 million in 9 countries having "water stresses" conditions, it becomes imperative for nations to come up with more focused and direct measures that would address and stem this resource scarcity. Water sustainability needs a balance between demand and availability. The main objective of this paper is the application of these concepts to Arabs countries. Water demand management is about achieving a reduction in the use of water resources, normally through increased efficiency of water application. The management of water resources was not explicitly included in the past from thirty-five years in all most of those countries normative system partly because water was believed to be a free good in mind, and was not accepted to have a price to pay to use it. This work contributed to a low efficiency of water use and waste of it, and water prices are often well below levels needed to cover the costs of the system. Moreover, this contributes to a worse quality of water, and, as quality of water decrease, the management of water resources becomes more challenging and the need to integrate water quality into an overall water resources management grows. The main goal of this paper is showing, how Geographical Information Systems (GIS can be used to support infrastructure planners and analyst on water demand of a local area in
Yayan Nurbayan, M.A
Full Text Available This study was based on scarcity of Arabic text books which is used in Islamic university. The aim of this study was to produce integrated Arabic textbooks including muthalaa, muhadatsah, kitabah and qiraah in one discourse. This study was using Research and Development method (R&D started by conception of Integrated Arabic Lesson textbook, followed by limited testing and revision, finished by producing the textbooks pass through revisions and discussions with UPI and UIN Arabic experts and lecturers. This study involved 14 students of STIT and 2 Arabic lecturers of UIN and UPI who were lecturing at that place. It was concluded that competence mean of freshman before using the textbooks were 31, whereas after using it, they got average value 55. The difference was 23.
Ria Hapsari Putri
Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab, Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimate...
Hussein, Mohamed Habashy
The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of Children's Self-report Social Skills Scale (CS[superscript 4]) using a generalized partial credit model (GPCM). Data from 722 primary school children (401 boys and 321 girls) responses, in Egypt, were analyzed using GPCM. The results indicated that the 21 items are…
DEZP Company has used to collect product water, scale and sludge in artificial pits. Run-off channel had been created to allow water to run-off into the desert. A radioactive contamination by NORM in DEZP oil fields (JAFRA) has occurred and quite significant area of land has been affected. As a part of the remediation project the volume of contaminated soil with NORM according to the Syrian criteria for clean up and disposal has been determined. Surface and core soil samples were collected from the contaminated areas and analyzed for 226Ra. The results have shown that contamination has reached a depth of more than one meter in the surface water pit. The estimated contaminated soil that needs disposal according to the Syrian criteria was calculated and found to be about 3161 m3. Most of the contaminated soil was found to be in the surface water pit. In addition, the contamination in the mud pit and the run-off channel was rather small and could be treated on site. However, the obtained results can be used for preparation of the remediation plan where size of the disposal pit and on site treatment is defined. The plan should be submitted to the Syrian Regulatory Office for review and approval to initiation of the remediation work (author)
Abugharsa, ?Azza B.
This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…
Elkhafaifi, Hussein M.
Examines Arabic language planning efforts, which so far have not been very successful, and suggests Arabic language planning agencies must closely examine the work of other planning organizations that have succeeded in achieving many of their goals. (Author/VWL)
Recently many Arab countries have expressed their interest in adopting nuclear power for electricity generation and seawater desalination in their energy strategies and hence sought assistance from IAEA and Arab Atomic Energy Agency. The Council of the League of Arab States at the summit level encouraged member states to develop peaceful use of atomic energy in different aspects of development, especially in energy generation and to establish a cooperative Arab program in this field. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if an Arab country forms a sharing partnership with other Arab countries. The sharing can be between two or more Arab states. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. This article outlines the major direct benefits of joint nuclear Arab programme to build a Nuclear Power Plants. (author)
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare transpiration rates of six durum wheat genotypes grown in two soil types, a clay (Tel Hadya) and a sandy clay loam (Breda). Six durum wheat genotypes varying in grain carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), an index to transpiration efficiency, were used. Pots were subjected to controlled and gradual dehydration, with a wet treatment as a control. The transpiration ratio (TR) was calculated as the ratio between daily water loss for each of the pots undergoing gradual dehydration, and the average daily water loss in the wet pots. Then the data were further normalized. The daily fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) for each pot was calculated by dividing the difference between daily pot weight and final weight by the overall transpirable soil water (difference between initial and final pot weight). The data were analyzed by plotting normalized transpiration ratio (NTR) against the FTSW using logistic, linear plateau and exponential models. Genotypes differed in transpiration rates during gradual dehydration and between the two soil types for pooled data. A significant relationship was found between dry matter production and threshold values (the point when the transpiration rate starts to be less in the gradual dehydration treatment than in the control treatment). The cultivar Brachoua (which had low grain Δ) recorded the highest dry matter production and the highest threshold value. Significant differences in threshold values were evident between the two soil types. The lowest threshold value was for the cultivar Waha (which had high grain Δ, and consequently had a potentially high transpiration efficiency), indicating a superior ability to extract water at high soil water potentials (when soil is dry). On the other hand, the genotype Brachoua was very sensitive to low soil moisture, and transpiration rates decreased at the beginning of the gradual dehydration. (author)
Field experiments were conducted over three seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) using six durum wheat genotypes, similar in phenology, to minimize the genotype x environment (G*E) interaction, but varying in grain carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ). The four field sites at Tel Hadya, Breda, Muslmieh and Yahmoul were fully characterized according to environment and soil classification. Plant growth and development were monitored throughout the growing season. Δ was measured for every plot using grain or the 4th fully-expanded leaf. Also, ash and protein contents of grain were analyzed. Radiation use efficiency was measured at Tel Hadya only. Stomatal conductance and resistant as well as canopy temperature was also measured for the different sites and years. Soil water content throughout the growing season was measured at some sites to calculate water use. Variability between sites was mostly related to rainfall, with variability within a site being related to season. Δ was lower at the drier sites and higher at the wettest site, ranging from 12.88 to 16.62 per mille for grain, and 19.97 to 22.57 per mille for the 4th fully-expanded leaf. Positive correlations were found between grain Δ and yields of grain and biomass. The stronger correlations were at the drier sites, whilst at the wettest site (Yahmoul) there was no significant relationship. Δ was also related to ash and protein content. The genotypic variation in Δ (grain and leaf) was substantially independent of season or site. (author)
Six durum wheat genotypes were grown at Tel Hadya during the three seasons 2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, and the data were used to calibrate and validate the simulation model SIMWASER. Simulated and measured soil water status and yield production showed very good conformity, and therefore SIMWASER was able to reproduce the water balance of the site in a realistic manner, as well as yield production throughout the season. The validated model was run for the period between 1980 and 2007 for the Tel Hadya site using daily weather data. Also, different genetic scenarios were used regarding different transpiration values. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) was used as a closely-related surrogate for transpiration at the plant level. The simulated yields showed weak relationships with measured rainfall. However, closer relationships (higher R2) were found between simulated yield and plant transpiration. Moreover, when years were grouped according to rainfall, dry years (rainfall 175 mm), stronger relationships were evident between simulated yield and measured rainfall. The dry years produced much higher yields per unit of rainfall (rainfall use efficiency) compared with the wetter years, ranging between 13 and 90 kg ha-1 mm-1 for the wet and dry years, respectively. The high Δ cultivars transpired more water, had higher yields and therefore had higher water use efficiencies compared with low Δ cultivars. (author)
Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah
Gum Arabic, a natural polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the utilization of gum Arabic for industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavor and stabilizer of cit...
Mohammad Yahya Bani Salameh; Abdel-Rahman Abu-Melhim
The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as informants, they also benefited from three other Jordanians and four educated Yemenis. Considering the alphabets as the written symbols used for tran...
Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman
This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…
Gardner, George R.; Parker, John B.
Egypt is one of the world's largest foad importers, annually consuming over $4 billion worth of imported agricultural commodities to feed a population of 48 million. The import bill is growing rapidly as population and consumption ~rowth rates exceed that of agricultural production. Egypt was the 10th largest market for U.S. agricultural exports in 1984. The U.S. market share is about 25 percent, with wheat, wheat flour, and corn making up the bulk of the shipments. This report consists of 90...
This chapter analyses the Muslim Brotherhood movement (Ikhwan al-muslimin) in its various guises. Born in the interwar period, this global, proselytising Islamic movement underwent a veritable resurgence, even a resurrection, in Muslim countries from the 1980s onwards. Founded in 1928 by the Egyptian Hassan al-Banna (1906–1949), the recent ‘Arab Spring’ phenomenon has given it fresh momentum. Significantly, the Muslim Brotherhood movement has taken the reins of Egypt, the most populous state ...
Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner
At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos
Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…
Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Ma'Abrah, Mohamdd Akash
The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems and difficulties that face the students of Arabic Language at Mu'tah University when translating oriental texts from English into Arabic in the academic year 2011-2012. The difficulties facing Arabic students when translating oriental texts has never been studied, rising an urgent need…
Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania
This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of "Arab"…
Khalid Siddig; Harald Grethe
1 Introduction In 2009, major offshore natural gas deposits were discovered in Israel after historically being an energy-poor state relying on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy needs, and an energy island that is disconnected from energy infrastructure in the region, with the exception of gas supplies from Egypt (Shaffer, 2011). Since 2008, Egypt is supplying Israel with 40% of its domestically consumed natural gas. The gas is delivered through a pipeline that connects the Arab (Egypt,...
Examines John F. Kennedy's negotiations with Egypt's Gamel Abdel Nasser as he attempted to improve U.S.-Arab relations and prevent the spread of Soviet influence in the Middle East region. States that Kennedy's failure to meet his Middle Eastern objectives resulted from his inability to reconcile the many factions dividing the Arab world. (GEA)
Bou-Habib, Chadi; Kebede, Ephraim
The high level of exports and their product and market concentration exposes the Democratic Republic of Congo to the economic fluctuations of the country's trade partners. This paper uses the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development trade data set to analyze the Democratic Republic of Congo's export patterns for the period 1960-2014. The data confirm that the country's exports re...
...) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 13382 (70 FR 38567, July 1, 2005) (the ``Order''), effective at 12:01 a... Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice... Arab Emirates . AZORES SHIPPING COMPANY LL FZE, P.O. Box 5232, Fujairah, United Arab Emirates;...
Caron, Bernard; Lux, Cécile; Manfredi, Stefano; Pereira, Christophe
International audience A follow-up of the CorpAfroAs project, this paper presents a typologically-oriented study of the intonation of Topic and Focus in four Afroasiatic languages (Zaar, Tamasheq, Juba Arabic and Tripoli Arabic), in relation to their phonological and information structures. The different prosodic systems represented in the study - i.e. the demarcative accent system of Berber, the lexical stress system of Tripoli Arabic; the pitch accent system of Juba Arabic; and the tone ...
The thesis focuses on the role of youth members in political opposition parties in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The parties, as well as the state, are authoritarian in structure. The thesis discusses possibilities for youth participation in the upper-levels of political parties, and their subjective opinions of being included or excluded in internal debates and decision-making processes. In particular, the thesis discusses the parties’ use of internet and whether the internet arena is a space ...
M. M. Bahlol
Full Text Available Purpose. Pharmaceutical market is one of the largest world markets with its own conditions. In Middle East, Egypt is a major pharmaceutical emerging market and has geographical, historical and political effective leading role among Arab countries. This research aims to investigate pharmaceutical companies’ activities in Egypt directed to physicians.Methodology. Urveying through simple random probability sampling is the approach appropriate for broad and representative overview of situation in research. Therefore, a survey of 1068 physicians was conducted through interviews and establishing structured data collection questionnaire.Originality. This is the first empirical paper to investigate pharmaceutical companies’ activities directed to physicians in pharmaceutical market of Egypt. These activities include identifying pharmaceutical companies through visits of medical representatives, analysis of those visits, frequency of medical representatives’ visits, characteristics of information introduced by medical representatives to physicians, physicians’ trust in provided information, spending of pharmaceutical companies on physicians, promotional techniques applied by medical representatives. These findings are useful for managers in pharmaceutical industry. They can be also useful in other industries such as medical equipment.Findings. Pharmaceutical companies are employing medical representatives widely, as the most effective and widely-applied promotion tool in Egypt.Practical Implications. Coordinate marketing management vision with pharmaceutical market real context will lead to synergism effect in utilizing medical representatives’ activities.
World Bank; European Union
The intensive development of tourism in the Gulf of Aqaba presents both an opportunity and a dilemma for Egypt. Intensive tourism, if left unmanaged, can inflict irreversible damage on coral reef and desert ecosystems and curtail the area's economic potential. Together with current projections for a rapid expansion of the tourism base in the Aqaba coast, degradation from mounting recreatio...
Full Text Available Pure arab breeding in the Republic of Croatia has very long tradition. Till the 18th century organized breeding was implemented only in bishop Stud Farm Đakovo. Afterwards pure arab breeding was implemented in many private Stud Farms mostly located in Slavonian and Srijem region. Pure arab, traditional arab and araber (arabrasse population of horses make together arabian breeding in the Republic of Croatia. Numerical strength of these three populations has increasing trend through out the years. First imports which were ground for foundation of pure arab breeding in Croatia realized in year 1991. Today, population of pure arab breeding count 37 head, from which 28 is imported and 9 born in Croatia. Pedigree depth in 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 generation show average coefficient of inbreeding of 1.899%, 3.15%, 4.413%, 5.434%, 6.243%, 6.974% and 7.552%. According to genealogy in all pedigree depths, coefficient of inbreeding was higher (P < 0.01 in imported arab horses than in those born in Croatia.
Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A
Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183
ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study examined potential demand-side barriers to women’s use of basic health services in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire were carried out on 205 currently-married women, inquiring about their use of health facilities: regular antenatal care (ANC) during the last pregnancy and medical treatment services when they suffered from common illness. Questions about their perceptions of barriers to the use of hea...
Ria Hapsari Putri
Full Text Available Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab, Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimated retained. Therefore, in this study will be assessed the extent of the implementation of the hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon. This study used the rationalistic paradigm and purposive sampling method of data collection which Arab house aged over 50 years. Analysis of the data using the parameters: (1 the physical hijab is permanent physical elements (walls, doors, windows and mashrabbiya and non permanent physical elements (furniture and plants and (2 non physical hijab is non physical elements (behavioral or user activity .The results showed that the concept of hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon is symbolized by: (1 the physical hijab is spatial zone that separates public and private space, and (2 non physical hijab is behavior or etiquette of visiting the implementing Islamic culture. Keywords: : islamic architecture, arab house, hijab Abstrak Penelitian ini dimotivasi oleh kehadiran perkampungan Arab di Pasar Kliwon yang merupakan permukiman yang heterogen, terdiri dari Arab, Jawa, dan Cina dengan komunitas Arab lebih besar daripada komunitas Cina. Kehidupan multikultural yang terjadi di permukiman Arab di Pasar Kliwon akan secara langsung mempengaruhi proses interaksi antar etnis. Islam merupakan jalan hidup budaya Arab. Rumah Arab merupakan produk arsitektur Islam yang mengaplikasikan hijab dan perhitungan pertahanan. Karena itulah dalam tulisan ini akan diperkirakan luasnya implementasi hijab pada rumah Arab di Pasar
Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li
We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…
The democratic transition of Egypt began with a very promising way compared to other countries affected by the Arab Spring. However, the Egyptian military forces overthrew Egypt’s first democratically elected President Mohammed Morsi, affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood, right before completing his first year in the office. This paper focuses on the causes of the democratic failure within a short time period between the ousted presidents, Hosni Mubarak and Morsi. In this regard, this study...
THE PRESENT STUDY IS A TRANSLATION OF THE WORK "STROI ARABSKOGO YAZYKA" BY THE EMINENT RUSSIAN LINGUIST AND SEMITICS SCHOLAR, N.Y. YUSHMANOV. IT DEALS CONCISELY WITH THE POSITION OF ARABIC AMONG THE SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND THE RELATION OF THE LITERARY (CLASSICAL) LANGUAGE TO THE VARIOUS MODERN SPOKEN DIALECTS, AND PRESENTS A CONDENSED BUT…
The pharmaceutical industry in Egypt is continually expanding its activity and each year marks new accomplishments and additions which enable the companies to apply the most modern scientific means in the production of pharmaceutical preparations and consequently to improve their market potentialities. The certainty of expansion and the possibility of increasing exports of sterilized medical products, particularly to Arab and African countries, indicate a need for a gamma-sterilization plant. This technology permits the introduction of the latest practices with regard to used disposables, thus greatly reducing the chances of cross-contamination which usually results in serious complications enhanced by local environmental conditions. This paper reviews the current state and future prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues in connection with other related industrial radiation processings. Moreover, the paper reviews the Egyptian scientific and technical experience with irradiation facilities and the parameters underlying the choice of Egypt's first industrial gamma and electron-beam irradiators designed for more than a single-purpose use, with hygienic measures taken to avoid biological contamination of sterilized medical packages throughout the sterilization process. In addition, the paper deals with the policy set up for establishing the Egyptian National Centre for Radiation Technology with a view to introducing irradiation techniques in the sterilization of medical products, and to improving the properties and increasing the competitiveness of Egyptian fabrics. Apart from medical sterilization, certain industrial processes have been mentioned to show how a multi-purpose irradiation facility may be utilized in a developing country to justify significantly the large investment required. (author)
Full Text Available A Hegelianized version of Althusser’s concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry. A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelianism and Ptolemaism is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. This article focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.
A Hegelian version of the concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry). A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelian philosophy and Ptolemaic science) is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. The paper focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.
This essay examines the ways revolutionary desire was articulated and interpreted through graffiti in Cairo, Egypt during the Arab Spring and its immediate aftermath. For writers in Cairo, graffiti was one of many in a constellation of resistances that undermined everyday life in Hosni Mubarak’s Egypt and the SCAF-controlled interim government. Ordinary surfaces of the city were illegally marked, displaying revolutionary potentiality by allowing the seemingly powerless rhetorical openings of ...
Hajjar, Abd El Salam Al; Hajjar, Mohammad; El-Sayed, Mazen
The Arabic language is a complex language; it is different from Western languages especially at the morphological and spelling variations. Indeed, the performance of information retrieval systems in the Arabic language is still a problem. For this reason, we are interested in studying the performance of the most famous search engine, which is a Google Desktop, while searching in Arabic language documents. Then, we propose an update to the Google Desktop to take into consideration in search the Arabic words that have the same root. After that, we evaluate the performance of the Google Desktop in this context. Also, we are interested in evaluation the performance of peer-to-peer application in two ways. The first one uses a simple indexation that indexes Arabic documents without taking in consideration the root of words. The second way takes in consideration the roots in the indexation of Arabic documents. This evaluation is done by using a corpus of ten thousand documents and one hundred different queries.
Suleiman, Mahmoud F.
Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media…
Zakrzewski, Sonia; Shortland, Andrew; Rowland, Joanne
Egyptology has been dominated by the large quantity of written and pictorial material available. This amazing archaeology has opened up a wonderful view of the ancient Egyptian world. The importance of hieroglyphics and texts, and their interpretation, has led to other areas of archaeology playing much less prominence in the study of Egypt. Perhaps most notable in this is relative lack of the application of analytical science to answer Egyptian questions. This problem has been compounded by d...
The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)
Statistics show that SMEs represent 90% of total companies in the vast majority of economies worldwide and provide 40-80% of total job opportunities in addition to contributing largely to GDPs of many countries. For example, SMEs constitute more than 99%1 of all non-agricultural private enterprises in Egypt and account for nearly three-quarters of new employment generation. for Kuwait, this sector constitutes approximately 90% of the private workforce, including labor and imported an estimate...
Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment
Full Text Available The Arab Spring which began on 17 December 2010 with the civil rebellions, revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in the Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and Syria. The Arab Spring not only created a domino effect between Arabic countries but also it reflected a significant influence on the financial markets all over the world. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the Arab Spring in Turkey Financial Market in consideration of long memory. Long memory can be defined as the persistence of the unexpected shocks on the underlying has long lasting effects. Modeling long memory in stock returns and volatility has also attracted great deal of attention from finance literature recently. Existence of long memory is determined both for the returns and volatility of the time series by using different methods. Existence of long memory can be tested by Rescaled Range Statistics (R/S, Geweke and Porter-Hudak (GPH Model and Gaussian Semi Parametric (GSP Method. In consequence of these tests, if the stock returns have long memory affect then respectively Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Moving Average Model (ARFIMA and the Fractionally Integrated Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (FIGARCH model are used to detect the long memory in respectively return and volatility. In this study, the impact of the Arab Spring is investigated by modeled the long memory in Istanbul Stock Exchange using ISE 30 index prices in between December 17, 2010 and April 02, 2012.
Al-Bahri, Khaled Waleed
This thesis provides a synchronic morphosyntactic description of the Hadari dialect, a variety of Gulf Arabic spoken in Kuwait, and presents a current documentation of this rapidly changing, under documented spoken dialect of Arabic. The description covers the basic morphology and syntax of Hadari, focusing mainly on the syntax. The description refers to Modern Standard Arabic both as a point of comparison and a point of reference when describing the spoken dialect’s morphology and syntax. Th...
Anis Zouaghi; Mounir Zrigui; Georges Antoniadis; Laroussi Merhbene
We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, an...
Ensieh Talebi and; Hossein Seyyedi
Government and Binding Theory or Principles and Parameters Theory is a universal theory of Chomsky. Linguists of world believe that Chomsky made a revolution in linguistics by this theory. One of the sub-theories of Government and Binding Theory is Bounding Theory which explains the restrictions of grammatical movements. Chomsky claims that his theory is universal and you can perform it in all languages. This essay considers this sub-theory (Bounding Theory) in Arabic language whether is perf...
This paper investigates Arab EFL learners' acquisition of modal verbs. The study used a questionnaire, which comprises two versions, testing students' mastery of modals at the levels of both recognition and production. The questionnaire was distributed to 50 English major university students who had studied English for 12-14 years and who had scored 500 or more on the TOEFL. The findings of the study show that the overall performance of the subjects in the study was quite low. The study estab...
Awaida, Sameh; Mahmoud, Sabri
This paper addresses the identification of Arabic handwritten digits. In addition to digit identifiability, the paper presents digit recognition. The digit image is divided into grids based on the distribution of the black pixels in the image. Several types of features are extracted (viz. gradient, curvature, density, horizontal and vertical run lengths, stroke, and concavity features) from the grid segments. K-Nearest Neighbor and Nearest Mean classifiers are used. A database of 70000 of Ara...
Haifa Ayub Gigawy
Full Text Available This Research aims to present the electronic archives of Arab news agency websites and their methods of searching for and retrieving information. Also, its aim is to examine all their methods in order to find out which are the best and most practically useful ones. The research refers to the news agencies and the Internet, through the methods that users encounter in these inquires and links which present information. It concentrates on practical ways of searching for news items in both texts and pictures. The research contains tables showing the results. It presents a brief summery for each of Arab news agencies.The research comes to the conclusion that there are many things which need to be considered, and also some suggestions as to how the search for and retrieval of information might be improved
Labiba Souici Meslati; Mokhtar Sellami
Since humans are the best readers, one of the most promising trends in automatic handwriting recognition is to get inspiration from psychological reading models. The underlying idea is to derive benefits from studies of human reading, in order to build efficient automatic reading systems. In this context, we propose a human reading inspired system for the recognition of Arabic handwritten literalamounts. Our approach is based on the McClelland and Rumelhart's neural model called IAM, which is...
The Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of nuclear energy launched during the second Conference of Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of energy, which was held in Khartoum during the period of 26 to 28 January 2010, where a meeting was held between the Arab Atomic Energy Agency and the Chinese Nuclear National Committee in the framework of activating the memorandum of understanding between the League of Arab States and the Chinese National Energy Authority, which is responsible of the cooperation with the Arab countries wishing to enter the nuclear option within their strategies to diverse their sources of energy and promote their nuclear infrastructure, as well as help the Arab Atomic Energy Agency in the implementation of the Arab strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy until the year 2020 and find a mechanism for the Arab-Chinese cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. The Arab Atomic Energy Agency also proposed programs over the coming years in the fields of energy planning, nuclear safety, selection of sites, exploring of uranium, emergency preparedness and response and management of radioactive reactors.
This research work endeavours to examine the phenomenon of code switching by Arabic language teachers from Algerian Arabic to Modern Standard Arabic in daily life conversation. It attempts to diagnose the reasons that stand behind this linguistic behaviour. It takes Tlemcen school teachers as a case study. By means of a set of research tools, this sociolinguistic inquiry has hypothesized that the determinant factors are: attitudes towards MSA and AA, the teaching experience, and the topic dis...
Different possibilities to meet the current estimated demand of sup(99m)Tc for medical uses in the Arab Republic of Egypt have been investigated using irradiation and separation experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigation includes the evaluation of the real present irradiation capability of the Egyptian Research Reactor as well as pilot runs suitable technological schemes for target design and chemical processing of irradiated uranium targets. The suitability of the produced 99Mo for the preparation of 99Mo/sup(99m)Tc-generators has been confirmed. Separation yield (80%) as well as the radiochemical and radionuclidic purity of the sup(99m)Tc (TcO4 98%, sup(99m)Tc 99,9%) corresponds to comparable results for similar processes cited in recent literature. The necessary requirements, related to the irradiation capability of the reactor and the demands of the radiochemical facilities, have been derived. The present work is the fruit of three months cooperation between the Agency expert and the Egyptian Counterpart
This article takes up the culture of Arabs and the rol of this culture on the Arabic Language, There are effectual elements on perception and construction of The Arabic Language. The social and political customs, logical errors, believes, social statuses and enviromental conditions effect on The Arabic Language.
Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…
Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate
Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…
International Monetary Fund
This 2007 Article IV Consultation highlights that over the past three years, Syria has recovered from a half decade of weak growth, notwithstanding an unsettled regional environment and a sharp drop in oil production. The economic recovery has gained momentum, benefiting from inflows from Iraqi refugees and abundant liquidity in the Gulf region. Private investment has strengthened owing to an improved business climate, and exports have made strong gains, particularly in some Arab markets. The...
Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)
The crucial contribution of educational institutions in confronting terrorism is parallel to the role played by security apparatus in its combat. This confirms the central role of universities, institutions of academic and professional training, security research organizations and sanctuaries of worship in the overall confrontation against terrorism. Unique among these universities is Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS) which has made tremendous contributions to fight against crime and terrorism through its academic endeavors. NAUSS was established in 1978 as an Arab institution specialized in security sciences to fulfill the needs of the Arab law enforcement agencies for an academic institution that promotes research in security sciences, offers graduate education programs and conduct short-term training courses, which should contribute to the prevention and control of crimes in the Arab world. NAUSS is a regional organization providing education and training in all security disciplines to students from all the 22 Arab countries. This paper will discuss the efforts made by NAUSS to enhance the nuclear security in the Arab countries. NAUSS and the IAEA organized several workshops, forums and training courses which aimed to explore and improve the nuclear security culture and awareness. In addition, NAUSS incorporates an introductory course in nuclear security into the existing graduate studies security sciences program. In collaboration with the Office of Nuclear Security, NAUSS launched a post-graduate degree programme focused on nuclear security based on IAEA guidance documents (NSS no. 12) and being used to reach the region in support of nuclear security education. This degree is currently being enhanced through integration of instructional materials from the Master of Science in Nuclear Security degree framework developed for the IAEA and the global education community by the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN). (author)
Hamed A Mohammed
Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.
On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...
Al-Ani, Salman H.; Shammas, Jacob Y.
The material presented in this workbook, which is in preliminary form under revision, has been designed to introduce the basic aspects of the morphology and syntax of literary Arabic. It is intended to be used with and as a continuation of "The Phonology and Script of Literary Arabic," by the same authors. (See ED 012 912.) These two volumes,…
This thesis is the first critical critical study of animated cartoon production in the Arab world. From the 1930s until the recent spread of online animations, animated cartoon production in the Arab world was the privilege of individuals and institutions with strong links to academic, media and pol
Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.
Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…
Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia
This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…
Decree 82-784 of 10 September 1982 publishing the Agreement for co-operation in the nuclear field between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the United Arab Emirates, signed at Abou Dhabi on 6 March 1980
This Agreement between France and the United Arab Emirates came into force on the day of its signature. It provides that France will provide the necessary technical assistance to the United Arab Emirates for the preparation of a nuclear energy development programme, covering in particular, electricity generation and water desalination. The Agreement covers a period of three years and is automatically renewable unless otherwise decided. (NEA)
The author analyzes the arab countries opinion and policy concerning the nuclear energy use. He shows how socio-economical factors but also Israel position concerning the nuclear weapon possession, influence on the objective of the arab countries. (A.L.B.)
Full Text Available Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.
Garg, S; Hasan, R; Scahill, S; Babar, Z Ud-Din
There are few studies that explore inspection practices of pharmaceutical facilities from the viewpoint of inspectors and industry employees. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, inspectors and quality assurance staff from 4 Arab countries--the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan--were surveyed about their inspection practices and views. There was considerable variation in inspection practices across countries and between the inspectorate and quality assurance staff within countries. Divergence was found in views associated with payment mechanisms. There was mutual agreement by both groups that inspectors were in short supply and that they needed to be better trained. Inspectors appeared to have less authority than expected in order to control pharmaceutical manufacturing and marketing activities. Compounding this was a dearth of policy which would support a more uniform and systematic approach to the inspection process within and across countries. PMID:24673082
Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M
The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area. PMID:25905019
This article uses an examination of the 1791 plague in Egypt to explore the relationships among disease, famine, flood, drought, and death in late eighteenth-century Egypt. It analyzes how plague functioned as part of a regular biophysical pathology of the environment in which the disease came and went as one iteration in a cycle that included famine, wind, flood, drought, price inflation, and revolt. Using the works of Egyptian chroniclers, archival materials, secondary studies, and traveler accounts, this article integrates plague into the study of the Egyptian environment by showing how it was a regular and expected part of life in Egypt. PMID:18622069
Al-Sulaiti, L; Atwell, ES
Corpora are an important resource for both teaching and research. Since Arabic lacks enough resources in this field, a research project has been designed to compile a corpus, which represents the state of the Arabic language at the present time and the needs of end-users. This report presents the result of a survey of the needs of teachers of Arabic as a foreign language (TAFL) and language engineers. A quantitative analysis of the result shows that a number of text types should have priority...
Ozkan, Mehmet; Korkut, Hasan
Turkey's foreign policy has been drawing considerable attention particularly because of the momentous transformations in the Middle East. The visits of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davuoglu to Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia in September 2011 and their subsequent visits to the region underscored the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were go...
Telepathology, the practice of pathology at a long distance, has advanced continuously since 1986. Today, fourth-generation telepathology systems, so-called virtual slide telepathology systems, are being used for education applications. Both conventional and innovative surgical pathology diagnostic services are being designed and implemented as well. We have a successful experience in Egypt in applying the static & dynamic techniques in a pilot project between the Italian Hospital in Cairo (NPO) and the Civico Hospital in Palermo This project began in 2003 and continued till now. In 2004, centers in Venice, London and Pittsburgh participated actively in our project. During the past seven years we consulted on many problematic pathological cases with these different specialized pathological centers in Italy, UK & USA. In addition to the highly specialized scientific value of consulting on the cases and exchanging knowledge, we saved a lot of time and money and succeeded in providing our patients with a better medical service. In view of this success we have already established a new Digital Telepathology unit (DTU) in the pathology department, Cairo University, using the latest technique of telepathology which is Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) since one year. This unit is considered the first Digital pathology unit in all the universities of the whole Middle East. During the passed year we created a digital pathology library for the under graduate students using the WSI technique and changed the teaching method of the histopathology slides to be completely digital. We are building another digital pathology library (for post graduate candidates) which will be available to all pathology candidates in Egyptian universities & universities in the surrounding Arabic countries. We are also creating a digital pathology network between pathology centers in the Middle East for exchanging knowledge & telepathology. PMID:21489180
The paper describes and explains empirically the economic performance of four key creative industries (the book publishing, music sound recording, film production and software industries) in five Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon). Using the Porter (Diamond) model as its theoretical background, a survey was conducted in the years 2002-03 among 242 experts, covering firm representatives, industry and government experts. The results were incorporated into five nat...
... and Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value for the United Arab Emirates, 73 FR... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic... a request for a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate...
Kirchhoff, Katrin; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Wen
Statistical machine translation for dialectal Arabic is characterized by a lack of data since data acquisition involves the transcription and translation of spoken language. In this study we develop techniques for extracting parallel data for one particular dialect of Arabic (Iraqi Arabic) from out-of-domain corpora in different dialects of Arabic or in Modern Standard Arabic. We compare two different data selection strategies (cross-entropy based and submodular selection) and demonstrate tha...
Rashed H. Yaseen
Full Text Available Most of the current studies of Arabic Islamic architecture indicates different theoretical bases, whether in its definition or analyses, between different thinkers and researchers, dependable on the cultural, thoughtful and ideological bases of related references; thus, we can find Arabic Islamic architecture, both in urban planning and architectural point of view, in the light of deferent visions of: western thinkers, as an artistic forms and compositions, Arab national pioneers, analyzing its components on Arab society values, declined from its establishment of Arab desert and its impact on its rural culture; and radical Muslims thinkers restricting it on certain historical period, trying to reform it according to blocked theoretical rules, giving up its capability to development, sustainability and renewal.19The reason of all these problems is the ambiguity of the comprehensive emphasizes of one the most effective bases of Arabic Islamic architecture, which is the balance between the poles of spirit-material dualism; so that, some thinkers stood on one pole of this dualism, trying to study it through this defect point of view; meanwhile others stand on the other pole; without conscious or preconscious of the other pole, consequently the result of this hard shortage in identifying the bases of Arabic Islamic architecture in most of these studies.This research concludes an example of Arabic Islamic cities, Samarra City, which passed on different ages, lasting from Abbasid age to modern age, reflecting different spiritual and materialistic changes according to change in political, economic, social and cultural regimes; all these indicated by the vital ruins, obviously translating these changes, where it appoints the importance of the balance between both poles of this dualism, to illustrate vision of Arabic Islamic City, through these ages.
Egypt is facing many challenges, most of which stem from the high population growth rate. Efforts to improve the standard of living require substantive development of Egypt's economic, technical, community, electricity and energy infrastructures. Over the past three decades, the electric energy demand has increased more than 15 fold, requiring development of sound national electric energy policies based on rational use of indigenous resources which are, unfortunately, limited. Realization of such policies faces a number of economic and social constraints, all of which need great efforts to overcome. Environmental considerations within Egypt's electric energy policies are focusing more attention on the degradation in environmental conditions, which is in line with growing public concern about this issue, both locally and internationally. An alarming increase in pollution levels in the urban areas of Egypt has necessitated the creation of new laws to curb pollution of the air and the environment, in addition to adhering to strict standards for effluents from thermal power stations. (author)
This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to discuss the systems of innovation in the Arab region. We explain that the two common characteristics of poor Arab regional systems of innovation is apparent from both the poor subsystems of education, S&T and R&D and ICT institutions across the Arab countries and the heavy concentration of R&D activities within both public and universities sectors and v...
Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.
El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam
While much of the emphasis of the literature on energy poverty is on the prevalence of the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, little has been written about energy poverty in the Arab world. Traditionally having being seen as one of the world’s most energy rich regions, the Arab world has in recent years often been overlooked as a region which suffers severely from energy poverty itself. In 2002, about 65 million people in the Arab world had no access to electricity, and an addi...
This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...
Resit Iren; Aivaz Kamer Ainur
Before the war in Afghanistan in 2001, the Arab media was almost unknown for the countries outside the Middle East. Media is probably one of the most important weapons of the governments in order to manipulate and to mobilize people and due to this fact it can have a major influence on the global economy. The development of the Arab media can be divided into 3 historical stages: the colonial phase, when the Arabic media was created due to Napoleon, the post-colonial phase, which tried to use ...
Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M
Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...
The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible
Recent research indicates that fertility transition is underway in Egypt. However, after experiencing a rapid decline since the 1980s, the fertility decline in Egypt seems to be stalling since the second half of the 1990s. Of late, it has been realized that the total family rate as the conventional measure is a poor indicator of fertility for populations undergoing rapid fertility transition. In particular, if childbearing is postponed and, subsequently, the mean age at childbearing increases...
Geoffrey J. Tassie
Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest). It has been suggested that tattooing was a...
For a nation state, social, political, and economic reform is a common phenomenon as it helps promote development of a country and progress of a nation. In today’s world, where the international situation is undergoing profound changes and economic globalization is forging fast ahead, it has become a trend of the times and natural tendency of history for a nation
Full Text Available We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, and the corpus. We use the measures employed in the domain of information retrieval, Harman, Croft, and Okapi combined to the Lesk algorithm, to assign the correct sense of those proposed.
Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This paper addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic performance of th...
Full Text Available Identification of the profile of glomerular disease in a particular geographical region is of fundamental academic, clinical and epidemiological importance. It helps in the recognition of specific risk factors and subsequent planning for adequate prevention. In the present study, 1234 consecutive renal biopsies referred to the nephropathology team of Cairo University over two years were retrospectively analyzed. The main indications for biopsy included nephrotic syndrome, persistent sub-nephrotic proteinuria, recurrent hematuria, suspected secondary hypertension, lupus nephritis and acute and chronic renal failure of undetermined etiology. Proliferative forms of glomerulonephritis [GN] (32.1% and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis [FSGS] were the most prevalent lesions among patients with the nephrotic syndrome (22.6%. In subjects with sub-nephrotic proteinuria, FSGS was the principal lesion followed by proliferative lesions. Although all forms of GN were encountered in those presenting with recurrent hematuria, mesangioproliferative GN and FSGS were significantly more frequent. IgA glomerular deposits were detected in 9.8% of all GNs and 15% of those presenting with hematuria. One half of the biopsies obtained for the assessment of suspected secondary hypertension showed only changes compatible with the effect of hypertension per se, i.e. nephroangiosclerosis. On the other hand, a parenchymal renal lesion was found in 52.9% of biopsies. The common glomerular pathologies in patients with lupus nephritis were Classes III and IV. Among patients with chronic renal failure, the predominant lesion was chronic interstitial nephritis (32.6%. An acute interstitial inflammatory element was also detected in 8.4% of cases. About one third of the biopsies obtained for acute renal failure showed acute tubular (11% or cortical (13.2% necrosis. Another third showed vasculitis (17.6% or acute interstitial nephritis (14.3%, and the remaining showed chronic
The Republic of Korea started its nuclear activities when it joined the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957. In 1958 the Atomic Energy Law was enacted and the government established the Office of Atomic Energy in 1959. Its first research reactor was made critical in 1962, and commercial NPP operation began in 1978. From the middle of 1980s, The Republic of Korea launched its self-reliance programme for nuclear power, developing its own reactors, OPR-1000, which are in operation, and APR-1400 which is under construction. Han-Yang University and Seoul National University opened nuclear engineering courses in 1958 and 1959 respectively. Since then, the number of universities offering nuclear engineering courses increased gradually, amounting to seven. The universities have supplied key manpower for the Korean nuclear power programmes. In parallel, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) opened its Nuclear Training Centre in 1967, to support manpower development for the nuclear power programmes. Along with the progress of power programmes, a number of training centres have been created specializing in nuclear power operation, nuclear power maintenance, nuclear safety, etc. Nuclear human resource development in the Republic of Korea began with the establishment of a nuclear engineering department in two universities in the late 1950s. Then, the government awarded scholarships to more than 200 scientists for their study of nuclear energy abroad (1958-1962), as seeds for the future development of nuclear technology. In the 1960s, Korean nuclear education and training dealt with basic nuclear technology such as the utilization of radioisotopes and radiation protection. In the 1970s, education and training was oriented to basic nuclear power technology using the TRIGA Mark II research reactor at KAERI for personnel from the nuclear power project. This was expanded to include education and training in conventional fossil fuel power plants, and oversee on
Full Text Available As an expert in Arabic documents in the “Republic of Letters”, Abraham Ecchellensis devoted himself in his work to an attempt at synthesis that was characteristic of his time: he tried to reconcile contemporary scholars’ expectations of specialised knowledge both with his Catholic and controversialist commitments and with his status, in his role as a Maronite, as a spokesman for Arabic and even Muslim culture. Ecchellensis provided the public with translations of Arabic Muslim philosophical and scientific texts which he deemed to have drawn on universal “wisdom”. However, a disinterested curiosity concerning Islam could not be publicly advertised and had to be cloaked in the form of anti-Protestant controversy or Catholic apology. In the work of Ecchellensis this stance was accompanied by an expurgation of all Islamic terminology from the Arabic language and by a recourse to the Christian Arabic literature writen during the first centuries of the Hijra.
[fr] Expert en documents arabes dans la « République des Lettres », Abraham Ecchellensis se livre dans son oeuvre à un essai de synthèse caractéristique de son temps : il tente de concillier l’attente de connaissances des savants de son temps avec son engagement catholique et controversiste, et avec son identification, en tant que maronite, comme porte-parole de la culture arabe, y compris musulmane. Il fournit au public des traductions de textes philosophiques et scientifiques arabes musulmans qui lui paraissent participer d’une « sagesse » universelle. Mais une curiosité désintéressée pour l’islam ne peut s’afficher : elle doit prendre les formes de la controverse anti-protestante ou de l’apologie catholique. Chez Ecchellensis cette posture s’accompagne d’une expurgation de toute terminologie islamique dans la langue arabe, et d’un recours à la littérature arabe chrétienne élaboré aux premiers siècles de l’Hégire.
This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to examine the existence, characteristics and implications of the regional systems of innovation in the Arab region. We examine three hypotheses, that the regional systems of innovation exist but are characterized by serious weaknesses in the Arab region compared with other world regions, that the structure of the economy has a significant effect in the pe...
Souza, Ighor Botti de; Bravo, Rafaela Gomes [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais
The referred article main focus is to illustrate a parameter between the United Arab Emirates development - from its oil historic (including its peek, in the 1970's decade) - and the country preoccupation with the economic diversification, considering that the petroleum natural deposits are finite. Even though they are one of the biggest petroleum holders in the world, the country governors are already worried about the economy's future. The government proposal consists in investing their exorbitant royalties, from the oil industry, in mega constructions and 'futuristic' innovations, mainly in Dubai. According to forecasts made by the division of active and investments management from the Saudi bank National Commercial Bank (in the beginning of the year of 2008) the United Arab Emirates might become the country with the most independence in the oil and gas industry between the Gulf Cooperation Council members and that about 70% of the country's GDP, gross domestic production, will come from the non-hydrocarbon sectors. This means that the United Arab Emirates can be considered as a good example in which refers to the regional economy diversification. (author)
In the article it is analysed the condition of the external economic relations of Azerbaijan with Egypt. The place and role of Egypt in foreign economic relations of Azerbaijan are defined. The recommendations to improve foreign economic relations of Azerbaijan with Egypt are provided.
M. O. Muga
Full Text Available Quality, quantity, availability and economics are the key factors that affect the marketing of any product, irrespective of whether it is for domestic, national or international market. The consumer requires the product to be available in time, be of desired quality and quantity. The market of gum arabic is a good example of how the interplay of quality, quantity, availability and economics affect a product market. In Kenya, trade in gum arabic has remained informal due to inadequate marketing arrangements attributed to limited participation of gum arabic collectors in the development of the sector and a non-conducive business environment, which does not favor private sector expansion. This paper looked at the market chains of gum arabic, the stakeholders participating in the management and marketing of A. senegal products and the constraints to gum arabic production and collection within the Kenyan drylands. The results confirmed that the market chain of gum arabic was and is still poorly organized with only one company and a few individual traders being the major buyers. Wildlife related factors and price were the key constraints to gum arabic collection while production was limited by unreliable rainfall due prolonged droughts. Quality of the gum and road network determined the price with different grades attracting different rates per kilogram in different areas. SALTLICK and AWF were the chief stakeholders involved in A. senegal tree resources management. The study has shown that there is willingness of the locals to engage in full time gum collection if ready market can be availed to them. Nevertheless, numerous constraints need to be addressed to make gum arabic collection an attractive venture to the local communities’ key among them being the purchase price.
The self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi on December 17, 2011 in the small Tunisian city of Sidi Bouzid, set off a sequence of events culminating in the revolutions of the Arab Spring. It is widely believed that the Internet and social media played a critical role in the growth and success of protests that led to the downfall of the regimes in Egypt and Tunisia. However, the precise mechanisms by which these new media affected the course of events remain unclear. We introduce a simple compartmental model for the dynamics of a revolution in a dictatorial regime such as Tunisia or Egypt which takes into account the role of the Internet and social media. An elementary mathematical analysis of the model identifies four main parameter regions: stable police state, meta-stable police state, unstable police state, and failed state. We illustrate how these regions capture, at least qualitatively, a wide range of scenarios observed in the context of revolutionary movements by considering the revolutions in Tunisia and ...
Due to globalization, business opportunities can be established in new countries more than ever before. The Arab countries are gaining more attention as emerging markets in global business. Applying managerial accounting on a global basis requires an understanding of the cultural aspects of the countries. Arabic culture has a long history on the one hand and contradicts the Western cultures sharply on the other hand. Research on comparative management accounting (CMA) emerged in the early ...
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).