Esther Sebastian-Gonzalez; José Antonio Sanchez-Zapata; Joan Navarro; Antonio Delgado; Francisco Botella
Different factors can affect the isotopic values of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, water quality may be very important for aquatic organisms because they directly depend on it. In this article, we aimed to investigate if variations in the chemical and biological water characteristics affect the stable isotope values of aquatic organisms. We also wished to discuss alternative sources of isotopic variability. We analysed the water chemical characteristics, the input of extra nitrates from bir...
Nga, B.T.; Tinh, H.Q.; Tam, D.T.; Scheffer, M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.
Mangrove swamps are key ecosystems along the Vietnam coast. Although mangrove litter is thought to represent an important input of organic matter and nutrients to the coastal aquatic systems, the factors determining the quality and size of this litter flux have not been studied so far. We monitored
Hepp, Johannes; Rabus, Max; Laforsch, Christian; Anhäuser, Tobias; Glaser, Bruno; Zech, Michael
Lake sediments are valuable, often continuous and potentially high resolution archives for studying past climate changes. Thereby, one of the crucial questions is often whether the origin of the organic matter in lake sediments is allochthonous (terrestrial) or autochthonous (aquatic). Here we present patterns of neutral sugars of various plants and algae species to answer the question whether the deoxyhexoses (fucose, rhamnose) to pentoses (arabinose, xylose) ratio can serve as a proxy for aquatic versus terrestrial sedimentary lake input, respectively. Our sugar pattern results show that the fucose + rhamnose content plotted against arabinose and xylose in a ternary diagram can be used to distinguish between algae and other (namely aquatic plants, emergent plant, and terrestrial plants) sugar sources. This finding is confirmed by a compilation with sugar data from the literature. Mosses plot within the range of algae. Although the (fucose + rhamnose)/(arabinose + xylose) ratio yields some overlapping between algae and soil/litter samples, we recommend this ratio, particularly when applied within a multiproxy approach, as promising proxy for distinguishing between aquatic vs. terrestrial organic matter in sedimentary archives. Regarding the sugar concentrations of the investigated samples, emergent plants show the highest values as well as the highest variability. Mosses, aquatic plants and algae yield lower sugar concentrations comparable to those of terrestrial plants.
Nga, B.T.; Tinh, H.Q.; Tam, D.T.; Scheffer, M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.
Mangrove swamps are key ecosystems along the Vietnam coast. Although mangrove litter is thought to represent an important input of organic matter and nutrients to the coastal aquatic systems, the factors determining the quality and size of this litter flux have not been studied so far. We monitored leaf, stipule, twig, and reproductive litter monthly in monocultures of Rhizophora apiculata mangrove forests of 7, 11, 17 and 24 years old in the Camau province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Litter trap...
Giger, Walter; Schaffner, Christian; Kohler, Hans-Peter E
The complexing agents benzotriazole (BT) and tolyltriazole (TT) are not only widely applied as anticorrosives, e.g., in aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF), but they are also used for so-called silver protection in dishwasher detergents. Due to their low biodegradability and limited sorption tendency, BT and TT are only partly removed in wastewater treatment. Residual concentrations of BT and TT were determined in ambient surface waters in Switzerland including 7 rivers which have distinct water flows and receive treated wastewater effluents at various dilution ratios. A maximum BT concentration of 6.3 microg/L was found in the Glatt River, and a maximum mass flow of 277 kg BT per week was observed in the Rhine River. In most cases, TT was about a factor 5-10 less abundant. During winter 2003/4, BT mass flows at 2 locations in the lower stretch of the Glatt River clearly indicated the input from nearby Zurich airport, where BT was applied as an anticorrosive ADAF component. BT concentrations measured in the three lakes Greifensee, Lake Zurich, and Lake Geneva were approximately 1.2, 0.1-0.4, and 0.2 microg/L, respectively. The observed environmental occurrences indicate that BT and TT are ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic environment and that they belong to the most abundant individual water pollutants. PMID:17180965
Nelson, S.M.; Andersen, D.C.
We used coarse-mesh and fine-mesh leafpacks to examine the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the breakdown of floodplain tree leaf litter that seasonally entered a sand-bedded reach of the sixth-order Yampa River in semiarid Colorado. Leafpacks were positioned off the easily mobilized channel bed, mimicking litter trapped in debris piles. Organic matter (OM) loss was fastest for leaves collected from the floodplain and placed in the river in spring (k = 0.029/day) and slowest for leaves collected and placed in the river in winter (0.006/day). Macroinvertebrates were most abundant in winter and spring leaves, but seemed important to processing only in spring, when exclusion by fine mesh reduced OM loss by 25% and nitrogen loss by 65% in spring leaves. Macroinvertebrates seemed to have little role in processing of autumn, winter, or summer leaves over the 50-day to 104-day monitoring periods. Desiccation during bouts of low discharge and sediment deposition on leaves limited invertebrate processing in summer and autumn, whereas processing of winter leaves, which supported relatively large numbers of shredders, might have been restricted by ice formation and low water temperatures. These results were consistent with the concept that microbial processing dominates in higher-order rivers, but suggested that macroinvertebrate processing can be locally important in higher-order desert rivers in seasons or years with favorable discharge and water quality conditions.
Cunliffe, Andrew; Puttock, Alan; Turnbull, Laura; Wainwright, John; Brazier, Richard
Dryland ecosystems are a globally significant of the global carbon cycle. They cover ca. 40% of the land surface, and dominate both the long-term trend and interannual variability in the terrestrial carbon sink. Therefore, developing process-based understanding of carbon dynamics in drylands is essential for understanding terrestrial carbon dynamics globally. This study focuses on the amounts of organic carbon (OC) eroded from semiarid hillslopes. Dryland ecosystems are characteristically susceptible to change. One example of this is the encroachment of woody shrubs into former grasslands, substantially altering the structure and function of these landscapes. We established four, 30 x 10 m runoff plots across an ecotone from grass- to shrub dominated landscapes, which we monitored during natural rainstorm events over four monsoon seasons. The OC fluxes associated with the eroded sediment were analysed, yielding detailed information on the lateral efflux of OC from these hillslopes. Previous monitoring by our group has demonstrated that production of dissolved OC from these dryland soils is very low. Erosion-induced effluxes of OC were found to systematically increase across the grass-shrub ecotone, resulting in six-fold increases in event-average OC fluxes. The increases were caused by to changes in both erosion rates (three and a half-fold increase) and OC enrichment (almost two-fold increase). Eroded sediments were enriched in OC by up to an order of magnitude, and OC enrichment was a persistent phenomenon. Systematic differences in OC enrichment between different plant functional types in unmanaged ecosystems have not been examined closely in previous work. Together, these findings suggest that (i) failing to consider OC enrichment risks substantially underestimating the input of OC to aquatic systems, and (ii) given the magnitude of systematic differences observed between different plant functional types, attempting to represent OC enrichment via a single
Seeberg-Elverfeldt, J.; Schlüter, Michael; Kölling, M.; Feseker, T.
To investigate coastal biogeochemical cycles, especially at the sediment/water interface,improved sampling methods are necessary. For this purpose, we developed apore water in situ sampler with miniature sampling devices, so called Rhizons. Rhizonsoil moisture samplers have been used as sampling devices in unsaturated soilsfor the last ten years. In aquatic science they have been rarely used to extract porewater from sediments. This study presents a new developed Rhizon In Situ Sampler(RISS) ...
Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus
Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill
Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.
Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....
Bhatnagar, Sameer; Lasry, Nathaniel; Desmarais, Michel; Dugdale, Michael; Whittaker, Chris; Charles, Elizabeth S.
This paper reports on an analyis of data from a novel "Peer Instruction" application, named DALITE. The Peer Instruction paradigm is well suited to take advantage of peer-input in web-based learning environments. DALITE implements an asynchronous instantiation of peer instruction: after submitting their answer to a multiple-choice…
... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Teens > Peer Pressure Print A A A Text Size What's in ... She'd just had a big dose of peer pressure. Who Are Your Peers? When you were a ...
Sanville, W. D.; And Others
Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)
In this thesis, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales. It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs retrieved from Remote Sensing i
Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole;
roots during submergence. • Underwater photosynthetic light and CO(2) response curves were determined for aquatic-adapted leaves, stems and aquatic roots of M. brownii. Oxygen microelectrode and (14)CO(2)-uptake experiments determined shoot inputs of O(2) and photosynthate into aquatic roots. • Aquatic...... m(-3) dissolved CO(2), aquatic roots fix carbon at 0.016 µmol CO(2) g(-1) DM s(-1). Illuminated aquatic roots do not rely on exogenous inputs of O(2). • The photosynthetic ability of aquatic roots presumably offers an advantage to submerged M. brownii as aquatic roots, unlike sediment roots, need...
Full Text Available How will peer to peer infrastructures, and the underlying intersubjective and ethical relational model that is implied by it, affect scientific practice? Are peer-to-peer forms of cooperation, based on open and free input of voluntary contributors, participatory processes of governance, and universal availability of the output, more productive than centralized alternatives? In this short introduction, Michel Bauwens reviews a number of open and free, participatory and commons oriented practices that are emerging in scientific research and practice, but which ultimately point to a more profound epistemological revolution linked to increased participatory consciousness between the scientist and his human, organic and inorganic research material.
Robert P. Ferguson; Griffin, Stephanie M.
Peer review seems to have had its origins in 18th century England to combat plagiarism. But today, the objectives of peer review are to provide evaluations of the quality of scientific or editorial material submitted. Peer review provides a check on the validity of manuscripts and sets standards for scientific merit. Peer review should help editors in making decisions about the manuscripts by offering second and third opinions. It lifts the quality of published articles to a higher standard. ...
Forchuk, Cheryl; Solomon, Michelle; Viran, Tazim
The Mental Health Commission of Canada defines peer support as "a supportive relationship between people who have a lived experience in common … in relation to a mental health challenge or illness … related to their own mental health or that of a loved one" (Sunderland et al. 2013: 11). In Ontario, a key resource for peer support is the Ontario Peer Development Initiative (OPDI), which is an umbrella organization of mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and peer support organizations across the province of Ontario. Member organizations are run by and for people with lived experience of a mental health or addiction issue and provide a wide range of services and activities within their communities. The central tenet of member organizations is the common understanding that people can and do recover with the proper supports in place and that peer support is integral to successful recovery. Nationally, Peer Support Accreditation and Certification Canada has recently been established. The relatively new national organization focuses on training and accrediting peer support workers. This paper focuses on a range of diverse peer support groups and CSIs that operate in London and surrounding areas. PMID:26854546
Full Text Available Multimedia live stream multicasting and on-line real-time applications are popular recently. Real-time multicast system can use peer-to-peer technology to keep stability and scalability without any additional support from the underneath network or a server. Our proposed scheme focuses on the mesh architecture of peer-to-peer live streaming system and experiments with the buffering mechanisms. We design the dynamic buffer to substitute the traditional fixed buffer.According to the existing measurements and our simulation results, using the traditional static buffer in a dynamic peer-to-peer environment has a limit of improving quality of service. In our proposed method, the buffering mechanism can adjust buffer to avoid the frozen or reboot of streaming based on the input data rate. A self-adjusted buffer control can be suitable for the violently dynamic peer-to-peer environment. Without any support of infrastructure and modification of peer-to-peer protocols, our proposed scheme can be workable in any chunk-based peer-to-peer streaming delivery. Hence, our proposed dynamic buffering mechanism varies the existing peer-to-peer live streaming system less to improve quality of experience more.
Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny; Pinkas, Benny
We propose an efficient framework for enabling secure multi-party numerical computations in a Peer-to-Peer network. This problem arises in a range of applications such as collaborative filtering, distributed computation of trust and reputation, monitoring and numerous other tasks, where the computing nodes would like to preserve the privacy of their inputs while performing a joint computation of a certain function. Although there is a rich literature in the field of distributed systems security concerning secure multi-party computation, in practice it is hard to deploy those methods in very large scale Peer-to-Peer networks. In this work, we examine several possible approaches and discuss their feasibility. Among the possible approaches, we identify a single approach which is both scalable and theoretically secure. An additional novel contribution is that we show how to compute the neighborhood based collaborative filtering, a state-of-the-art collaborative filtering algorithm, winner of the Netflix progress ...
Derrick O. NJOBUENWU; Millionaire F. N. ABOWEI
Continuous research in the development of suitable predictive model is vital as the input of oil spills into the aquatic environment particularly in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria is alarming due to frequent oil spills. This eventually affects aquatic organisms and shoreline activities. This work developed an semi-empirical expression that can predict the horizontal spreading of Niger Delta Oil Spills (NDOS) on a placid water body using simple physical coefficients of the oil and the aquatic...
Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....
Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan nbsp;Olweus According to Olweus bullying is an aggressive behavior that: a is intended to cause harm or distress b occurs repeatedly over nbsp;time and c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of nbsp;abuse namely child maltreatment and domestic violence Bullying behaviors may be ...
An updated Quantitative Water Air Sediment Interaction (QWASI) model for evaluating chemical fate and input parameter sensitivities in aquatic systems: application to D5 (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) and PCB-180 in two lakes.
Mackay, Donald; Hughes, Lauren; Powell, David E; Kim, Jaeshin
The QWASI fugacity mass balance model has been widely used since 1983 for both scientific and regulatory purposes to estimate the concentrations of organic chemicals in water and sediment, given an assumed rate of chemical emission, advective inflow in water or deposition from the atmosphere. It has become apparent that an updated version is required, especially to incorporate improved methods of obtaining input parameters such as partition coefficients. Accordingly, the model has been revised and it is now available in spreadsheet format. Changes to the model are described and the new version is applied to two chemicals, D5 (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) and PCB-180, in two lakes, Lake Pepin (MN, USA) and Lake Ontario, showing the model's capability of illustrating both the chemical to chemical differences and lake to lake differences. Since there are now increased regulatory demands for rigorous sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, these aspects are discussed and two approaches are illustrated. It is concluded that the new QWASI water quality model can be of value for both evaluative and simulation purposes, thus providing a tool for obtaining an improved understanding of chemical mass balances in lakes, as a contribution to the assessment of fate and exposure and as a step towards the assessment of risk. PMID:24997940
Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ15N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ15N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ15N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ15N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.
Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.
Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...
Allelopathy in aquatic environments may provide a competitive advantage to angiosperms, algae, or cyanobacteria in their interaction with other primary producers. Allelopathy can influence the competition between different photoautotrophs for resources and change the succession of species, for exarnple, in phytoplankton cornmunities. Field evidence and laboratory studies indicate that allelopathy occurs in all aquatic habitats (marine and freshwater), and that ail prirnary producing organisms...
Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel
cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... entail specific consequences for platform use as well as provide insights about their overall design imperative....
Wolfson, Ouri (Inventor); Xu, Bo (Inventor)
Information is stored in a plurality of mobile peers. The peers communicate in a peer to peer fashion, using a short-range wireless network. Occasionally, a peer initiates a search for information in the peer to peer network by issuing a query. Queries and pieces of information, called reports, are transmitted among peers that are within a transmission range. For each search additional peers are utilized, wherein these additional peers search and relay information on behalf of the originator of the search.
Amad, Mourad; Aïssani, Djamil
Peer-to-Peer systems are based on the concept of resources localization and mutualisation in dynamic context. In specific environment such as mobile networks, characterized by high variability and dynamicity of network conditions and performances, where nodes can join and leave the network dynamically, resources reliability and availability constitute a critical issue. The resource discovery problem arises in the context of peer to peer (P2P) networks, where at any point of time a peer may be placed at or removed from any location over a general purpose network. Locating a resource or service efficiently is one of the most important issues related to peer-to-peer networks. The objective of a search mechanism is to successfully locate resources while incurring low overhead and low delay. This paper presents a survey on P2P networks management: classification, applications, platforms, simulators and security.
Barnes, Bill; Goodman, Maurice
In reply to the news article on challenges for peer-review by Michael Banks “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial by Matin Durrani “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too fast (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...
Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.
Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias
The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...
Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...
Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin
We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...
HAN Li; LEI Zhen-ming
Distributed network architecture and dynamic change of nodes makes the operation of structured peer-to-peer networks unpredictable. This article aims to present a research on the running rule of structured peer-to-peer networks through a mathematical model. The proposed model provides a low-complexity means to estimate the performance of a structured peer-to-peer network from two aspects: the average existent time of a node and probability of returning to a temporarily steady state of network. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the proposed structured peer-to-peer network is suitable for those conditions where the frequency of node change is under limited value, and this value mainly depends on the initializing time of the node. Otherwise,structured peer-to-peer network can be abstracted as a network queuing system, which is composed of many node queuing systems in a meshy way and the relation between the throughput of the node system and network system is analyzed.
Songsermsawas, Tisorn; Baylis, Katherine R.; Chhatre, Ashwini
Using a unique dataset from a household survey containing explicit social relationships among individual farmers, this study estimate the effect of peers on the revenue from cash crop sales among small-scale farmers in Northern India. We explore the learning mechanism through which peer effect occurs through improved input use and higher degree of commercialization. The significant and positive peer effects support the evidence of social learning. We control for the reflection problem using t...
Robertson, D; Symons, J.
In this paper we estimate an educational production function. Educational attainment is a function of three types of inputs: peer group, parental and schooling. We find that conventional measures of school quality are not good predictors for academic attainment, once we control for peer group effects. Parental qualities also have strong effects on academic atainment. This academic attainment is then a key determinant of subsequent labour market success, as measured by earnings.
Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.
This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...... material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest....
Helfrich, Louis A.; Neves, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)
Discusses reasons for declining aquatic biodiversity and focuses mainly on the issues of habitat loss, introduced species (aquatic exotics), and water pollution; document also includes web links to more information on exotic, invasive species and endangered animals.
Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente
We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...
Vandenbussche, Hylke; Viegelahn, Christian
This paper documents the within firm reallocation of inputs and outputs as a result of a trade policy shock on the input side. A unique firm-input level dataset for India with information on different raw material inputs used in production, enables us to identify firms with imported inputs subject to trade policy. To guide the empirics, we first develop a back-bone model of heterogeneous firms that source inputs from abroad. We find that affected firms engage in input reallocation and lower t...
Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula
This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…
A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103
Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.; Iversen, T. M.; Ellermann, T.; Hovmand, M. F.; Bøgestrand, J.; Grant, R.; Hansen, J.; Jensen, J. P.; Stockmarr, J.; Laursen, K. D.
The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...
This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.
This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)
Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...
Stephen R Carpenter
Eutrophication (the overenrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients leading to algal blooms and anoxic events) is a persistent condition of surface waters and a widespread environmental problem. Some lakes have recovered after sources of nutrients were reduced. In others, recycling of phosphorus from sediments enriched by years of high nutrient inputs causes lakes to remain eutrophic even after external inputs of phosphorus are decreased. Slow flux of phosphorus from overfertilized soils ...
This paper presents results of a research conducted on a simple model of a peer-to-peer network (a network in which users exchange files directly, without any central server involved). The conditions necessary for the file exchange process to be efficient and stable are investigated through numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on the master equation. Ways of preventing free-riding (selfish behavior, when users download files without sharing them) are also discussed.(author)
Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems
Keeley, Jon E.
Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.
The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given
Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.
The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given. (WHK)
Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny; Pinkas, Benny
We propose an efficient framework for enabling secure multi-party numerical computations in a Peer-to-Peer network. This problem arises in a range of applications such as collaborative filtering, distributed computation of trust and reputation, monitoring and other tasks, where the computing nodes is expected to preserve the privacy of their inputs while performing a joint computation of a certain function. Although there is a rich literature in the field of distributed systems security concerning secure multi-party computation, in practice it is hard to deploy those methods in very large scale Peer-to-Peer networks. In this work, we try to bridge the gap between theoretical algorithms in the security domain, and a practical Peer-to-Peer deployment. We consider two security models. The first is the semi-honest model where peers correctly follow the protocol, but try to reveal private information. We provide three possible schemes for secure multi-party numerical computation for this model and identify a singl...
Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.
Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool ...
The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author)
Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank
Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the des
Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank
Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the
Fernandez, Charles E; Yu, Jenny
This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided. PMID:18483580
Fernandez, Charles E.; Yu, Jenny
This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided
Established in the 142,000-student Montgomery County, Maryland, district in 1999, peer assistance and review (PAR)--or "peer review," as it is occasionally called--is actually an old idea. In 1981, the then-president of the Toledo Federation of Teachers, Dal Lawrence, helped create the first PAR program. Almost 30 years later, only a handful of…
Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi
This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…
The codes system SSYST-2 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a short introduction into the SSYST structure, a complete input-list for all modules and several tested input-list for a LOCA-analysis. (orig.)
The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)
Andrade-Navarro Miguel A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviewer and editor selection for peer review is getting harder for authors and publishers due to the specialization onto narrower areas of research carried by the progressive growth of the body of knowledge. Examination of the literature facilitates finding appropriate reviewers but is time consuming and complicated by author name ambiguities. Results We have developed a method called peer2ref to support authors and editors in selecting suitable reviewers for scientific manuscripts. Peer2ref works from a text input, usually the abstract of the manuscript, from which important concepts are extracted as keywords using a fuzzy binary relations approach. The keywords are searched on indexed profiles of words constructed from the bibliography attributed to authors in MEDLINE. The names of these scientists have been previously disambiguated by coauthors identified across the whole MEDLINE. The methods have been implemented in a web server that automatically suggests experts for peer-review among scientists that have authored manuscripts published during the last decade in more than 3,800 journals indexed in MEDLINE. Conclusion peer2ref web server is publicly available at http://www.ogic.ca/projects/peer2ref/.
Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M
Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631
Steel, Chad M. S.
Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…
Cui, Bin; Chen, Lijiang; Xu, Linhao;
skyline computation problem on a structured peer-to-peer network. In order to achieve low communication cost and quick response time, we utilize the iMinMax(\\theta ) method to transform high-dimensional data to one-dimensional value and distribute the data in a structured peer-to-peer network called BATON...
Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water
it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists.......This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...
Gerard van der Velde; Rob S.E.W. Leuven; Guest Editors
We were delighted when Zhi-Yun Jia,Executive Editor of Current Zoology,approached us with a proposal to engage in a special column on invasive species science.Six papers have been written for this special column,all containing new information and approaches in the field of aquatic invasive species science.Each paper has gone through the rigorous peer review process used at Current Zoology,and Zhi-Yun Jia was very helpful by contacting reviewers and improving the manuscripts.
This document is a description of a computer program called Format( )MEDIC( )Input. The purpose of this program is to allow the user to quickly reformat wind velocity data in the Model Evaluation Database (MEDb) into a reasonable 'first cut' set of MEDIC input files (MEDIC.nml, StnLoc.Met, and Observ.Met). The user is cautioned that these resulting input files must be reviewed for correctness and completeness. This program will not format MEDb data into a Problem Station Library or Problem Metdata File. A description of how the program reformats the data is provided, along with a description of the required and optional user input and a description of the resulting output files. A description of the MEDb is not provided here but can be found in the RAS Division Model Evaluation Database Description document.
Ackemann, T.; Gold, R; Mascolo, C.; Emmerich, W.
Today, most peer-to-peer networks are based on the assumptionthat the participating nodes are cooperative. Thisworks if the nodes are indifferent or ignorant about the resourcesthey offer, but limits the usability of peer-to-peernetworks to very few scenarios. It specifically excludes theirusage in any non-cooperative peer-to-peer environment, beit Grid networks or mobile ad-hoc networks. By introducingsoft incentives to offer resources to other nodes, we seean overall performance gain in tra...
M. Basel Almourad
Peer-to-Peer database management systems have become an important topic in the last few years. They rise up p2p technology to exploit the power of available distributed database management system technologies. Identifying relationship between different peer schema objects is one of the main activities so semantically relevant peer database management systems can be acquainted and become close in the overlay. In this paper we present our approach that measures the similarity of peer schema obj...
A key aspect of industrialization is the adoption of increasing-returns-to-scale, industrial, technologies. Two other, well-documented aspects are that industrial technologies are adopted throughout intermediate-input chains and that they use intermediate inputs intensively relative to the technologies they replace. These features of industrial technologies combined imply that countries with access to similar technologies may have very different levels of industrial...
Marcela Eslava; Ana Cecília Fieler; Daniel Yi Xu
Relative to backward firms, technologically-advanced firms source inputs from other advanced firms. These sourcing patterns lead to a magnification effect of technology adoption. A firm that adopts higher-technology increases the relative supply and demand for higher-technology inputs. As a result, it positively influences the technology of other firms in its production chain. Using data from a Colombian manufacturing survey, we provide evidence that advanced firms disproportionately value ad...
Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.
Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…
The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.
Jin, Xing; Chan, S.-H. Gary
With the rapid growth of the Internet, peer-to-peer P2P networks have been widely studied and deployed. According to CacheLogic Research, P2P traffic has dominated the Internet traffic in 2006, by accounting for over 72% Internet traffic. In this chapter, we focus on unstructured P2P networks, one key type of P2P networks. We first present several unstructured P2P networks for the file sharing application, and then investigate some advanced issues in the network design. We also study two other important applications, i.e., media streaming and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Finally, we discuss unstructured P2P networks over wireless networks.
Full Text Available The emerging widespread use of Peer-to-Peer computing is making the P2P Data Mining a natural choice when data sets are distributed over such kind of systems. The huge amount of data stored within the nodes of P2P networks and the bigger and bigger number of applications dealing with them as p2p file-sharing, p2p chatting, p2p electronic commerce etc.., is moving the spotlight on this challenging field. In this paper we give an overview of two different approaches for implementing primitives for P2P Data Mining, trying then to show differences and similarities. The first one is based on the definition of Local algorithms; the second one relies on the Newscast model of computation.
This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social) of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characterist...
Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER
Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...
Luo, Yuzhou; Spurlock, Frank; Deng, Xin; Gill, Sheryl; Goh, Kean
Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM). The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...
Brown, Mabel C.
Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)
LeClair-Smith, Colleen; Branum, Brandi; Bryant, Lindsay; Cornell, Betty; Martinez, Heather; Nash, Erin; Phillips, Lacy
This article describes how an acute care organization in Texas, a peer review mandated state, created a nonpunitive peer feedback structure and process for nursing staff. Strategies were targeted to improve patient outcomes. A peer feedback committee designed, implemented, and evaluated the feedback model to coexist with the state-required formal peer review committee structure. Peer feedback provided opportunities to advance skill development, enhance quality improvement, improve patient outcomes, and support a culture of safety within the healthcare environment. PMID:27163874
Examines whether peer-led drug prevention programs are preferable to adult-led programs for students (N=2,447) in eighth through eleventh grades. Results show that all input measures and outcome measures were perceived as more positive in the peer-led model. Since the differences found were small this study does not prove with certainty that the…
Unit 07, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.
This unit examines the common methods of data input. It describes the hardware and methods used for digitizing and scanning spatial information from maps and photographs, and it discusses conversion of data between digital formats and associated issues of projection, scale and resolution.
Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.
Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are gaining increasing popularity in many distributed applications such as file-sharing, network storage, web caching, sear- ching and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining popularity in many applications such as file sharing, e-commerce, and social networking, many of which deal with rich,...
Carless, D; Liu, MF
This paper focuses on peer feedback in relation to assessment processes. It examines the rationale for peer feedback, emphasizing its potential for enhanced student learning. We draw on relevant literature to argue that the dominance of peer assessment processes using grades can undermine the potential of peer feedback for improving student learning. The paper throws further light on the issue by drawing on a large-scale questionnaire survey of tertiary students (1740) and academics (460) in ...
The rapid development of network communication infrastructure enables networked multimedia streaming applications ranging from on-demand video streaming to highly interactive video conferencing. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technologies have emerged as a powerful and popular paradigm for bringing such emerging multimedia services to a large number of users. The essential advantage of P2P systems is that the system capacity scales up when more peers join, as peer upload capacity is utilized. However, pr...
The condition for mutual, or peer-to-peer, locking of two magnetrons is derived. This condition reduces to Adler's classical phase-locking condition in the limit where one magnetron becomes the ''master'' and the other becomes the ''slave.'' The formulation is extended to the peer-to-peer locking of N magnetrons, under the assumption that the electromagnetic coupling among the N magnetrons is modeled by an N-port network.
Bouvin, Niels Olof
This paper revisits the general hypermedia architecture based on a perspective of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking and pervasive computing, and argues that P2P has much to offer open hypermedia.......This paper revisits the general hypermedia architecture based on a perspective of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking and pervasive computing, and argues that P2P has much to offer open hypermedia....
Gifford-Smith, Mary E.; Brownell, Celia A.
This review addresses several areas of contemporary research in children's peer relationships during the elementary and middle school years, with primary foci on children's peer acceptance, the ability to make and maintain friendships, and their participation in larger peer networks. It is argued that children's psychosocial development may be…
Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products
Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.
Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.
Most of the tritium released from nuclear facilities into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates, fish, and food chain studies, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near that of the external medium. Incorporation of tritium from triated water into the organic matter of cells is at a slower rate than incorporation into the tissue free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the 'carrier' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher tropic levels. Radiation doses to large populations of humans from tritium releases will most likely be from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products. (author)
5 worksheets Provider Notes:This model calculates the exact quantities of fecal matter, inedible biomass, food, and water needed to make Solid Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR)'s input feedstock. It also calculates HRT. The model is based off the desired solids content, scale, volume, diet, and other assumptions. Previous versions are also included in this page. Related Documents:WS152, WWAS17a, WWAS17b
Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012
Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus
Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...
Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Jun ZHANG; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen
Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respe...
Reinholz, Daniel L
This paper describes a new approach for learning from homework, called Peer-Assisted Reflection (PAR). PAR involves students using peer feedback to improve their work on open-ended homework problems. Collaborating with peers and revising one's work based on the feedback of others are important aspects of doing and learning physics. While notable exceptions exist, homework and exams are generally individual activities that do not support collaboration and refinement, which misses important opportunities to use assessment for learning. In contrast, PAR provides students with a structure to iteratively engage with challenging, open-ended problems and solicit the input of their peers to improve their work.
Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig
This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results fr...
Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup
Some scholars writing about improving students' reading and integrating reading and writing instruction suggest using think-aloud techniques to teach students reading comprehension skills. Using think-alouds to teach reading comprehension and then the read-aloud protocol technique (which is based on think-alouds) for peer review has two major…
Cottey, Alan; noamsoker
In reply to the news article “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12–13), the editorial “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too quickly (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17, http://ow.ly/Ya9gg).
Ungar, Michael T.
The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)
In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.
Liu, Jianguo; Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike; Taylor, William W.
Explains the importance of peer assessment in professional life and describes a course using peer review processes to teach modeling in natural resource management. Uses a typical scientific research protocol and assigns students to review peer proposals considering their expertise and area of interest. Presents guidelines for proposal review,…
Flynn, Elizabeth A.
In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…
van der Hulst, J.; van den Berg, I.
Bij peer review geven studenten elkaar feedback op elkaars werkstukken. Er bestaan verschillende systemen om dit online te organiseren. In deze workshop gaan we in op selectiecriteria voor peer review systemen. In het PROOF-project (Peer Review Online Opschalen en Faciliteren) is gewerkt met twee so
Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj
combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... that inefficient distribution of light can account for the low community production rates in aquatic habitats and the depth distribution of form-functional groups of macroalgae with different canopy structure.......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...
Abhishek Sharma; Hao Shi
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks provide a significant solution for file sharing among peers connected to Internet. It is fast and completely decentralised system with robustness. But due to absence of a server documents on a P2P network are not rated which makes it difficult for a peer to obtain precise information in result of a query. In past, some researchers tried to attach ratings to the peers itself but it was complex and less effective. In this paper, a novel P2P architecture is proposed w...
Salazar Campillo, Patricia
Segones Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 1996-1997) In Krashen’s terms, optimal input has to be comprehensible to the learner if we want acquisition to take place. An overview of the literature on input indicates two ways of making input comprehensible: the first one is to premodify input before it is offered to the learner, (premodified input), and the second one is to negotiate the input through interaction (interactionally modified input). The aim of the...
The author investigated whether hypermnesia would occur with auditory input. In addition, the author examined the effects of subjects' knowledge that they would later be asked to recall the stimuli. Two groups of 26 subjects each were given three successive recall trials after they listened to an audiotape of 59 high-imagery nouns. The subjects in the uninformed group were not told that they would later be asked to remember the words; those in the informed group were. Hypermnesia was evident, but only in the uninformed group. PMID:1447564
FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.)
Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan
Oxford : Blackwell Science Ltd, 2003 - (O´Sullivan, P.; Reynolds, C.), s. 309-340 ISBN 0-632-04797-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Aquatic macrophytes * green algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.
Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t
Lalande, Jean-Francois; Toinard, Christian
This paper proposes to address new requirements of confidentiality, integrity and availability properties fitting to peer-to-peer domains of resources. The enforcement of security properties in an open peer-topeer network remains an open problem as the literature have mainly proposed contribution on availability of resources and anonymity of users. That paper proposes a novel architecture that eases the administration of a peer-to-peer network. It considers a network of safe peer-to-peer clients in the sense that it is a commune client software that is shared by all the participants to cope with the sharing of various resources associated with different security requirements. However, our proposal deals with possible malicious peers that attempt to compromise the requested security properties. Despite the safety of an open peer-to-peer network cannot be formally guaranteed, since a end user has privileges on the target host, our solution provides several advanced security enforcement. First, it enables to for...
Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dhir, V.K. [Santa Monica, CA. (United States); Gieseke, J.A. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Haste, T.J. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Kenton, M.A. [Gabor, Kenton and Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Leonard, M.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Wolfheze (Netherlands); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Heat Transfer Lab.
MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.
MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation
Full Text Available The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE is a proposed approach to helpinglearners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations aboutpeople, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, andparticipant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU. We are particularlyinterested in ways of eliciting explicit, coded, user feedback, and in monitoring thetransitions from state to state within the PLE. We discuss the ways in which theseideas can inform the design of a platform for peer-supported study of universitylevelmathematics.
Mas, Alexandre; Moretti, Enrico
We investigate how and why the productivity of a worker varies as a function of the productivity of her co-workers in a group production process. In theory, the introduction of a high productivity worker could lower the effort of incumbent workers because of free riding; or it could increase the effort of incumbent workers because of peer effects induced by social norms, social pressure, or learning. Using scanner level data, we measure high frequency, worker-level productivity of checkers fo...
International audience This paper presents learning by projects as it is implemented at école Centrale de Lille. Starting from a series of interviews diagnosing the main issues with our evaluation system, we study a social skill peer self-evaluation system called the "pme matrix". We adapt it through our own framework for groupwork social skills evaluation, and design appropriate software and documentary tools. Finally, six years after the launching of our pme matrix system, we examine how...
Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig
This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results from...... a case study on social robots as persuasive social actors in education an extension of the persuasive principles is proposed and related design guidelines for Persuasive Technology as social actors in teaching are presented....
Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.
Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...
Bocek, T; Hunt, E; Hausheer, D; Stiller, B.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems show numerous advantages over centralized systems, such as load balancing, scalability, and fault tolerance, and they require certain functionality, such as search, repair, and message and data transfer. In particular, structured P2P networks perform an exact search in logarithmic time proportional to the number of peers. However, keyword similarity search in a structured P2P network remains a challenge. Similarity search for service discovery can significantly impr...
Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K
A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029
At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.
Sood, Ritesh; van der Schaar, Mihaela
Multimedia content distribution through a distributed system, a peer-to-peer (P2P) network for instance, is attractive since it harnesses the resources available with the numerous peers in the network. Another advantage of such a system is that the potentially available resources scale in proportion to the demand as more and more peers join the system. Recent studies have concentrated mainly on such aspects of these distributed networks as querying, indexing, etc. These studies however take for granted the voluntary contribution of resources by peers in the system. Empirical evidence however points to the contrary, i.e. in existing P2P systems, a substantial fraction of peers do not contribute resources to the system, while benefiting from the services it provides at the expense of the contributing peers. In this paper we analyze a P2P system in a game-theoretic setting in which games involving content exchange are played repeatedly. The model takes into account the manner in which a peer adapts his contribution to the system depending on the benefit he has derived from the system so far and expects to derive in the long run. The model enables us to formulate an optimization problem that yields optimal content sharing strategies that a peer should adopt in order to maximize his net benefit by participating in the system.
JIANG Jian-zhong; FU Li; ZHANG Xuan-peng; XU Chuan-yun
In this paper, we incorporated peer-to-peer (P2P) concept with agent technology and put forward a collaborative work model based on peer-to-peer network (P2PCWM) after investigating into business demands of modern enterprises and problems prevailing in mainstream collaborative work systems based on central server. Theoretically, the P2PCWM can effectively overcome the problems in a conventional system with a central server and meet the practical demands of modern businesses. It is distinguished from other systems by its features of equality, openness, promptness, fairness, expandability and convenience.
Full Text Available Typical protocols for peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet divide files to be shared into pieces. New peers strive to obtain a complete collection of pieces from other peers and from a seed. In this paper we investigate a problem that can occur if the seeding rate is not large enough. The problem is that, even if the statistics of the system are symmetric in the pieces, there can be symmetry breaking, with one piece becoming very rare. If peers depart after obtaining a complete collection, they can tend to leave before helping other peers receive the rare piece. Assuming that peers arrive with no pieces, there is a single seed, random peer contacts are made, random useful pieces are downloaded, and peers depart upon receiving the complete file, the system is stable if the seeding rate (in pieces per time unit is greater than the arrival rate, and is unstable if the seeding rate is less than the arrival rate. The result persists for any piece selection policy that selects from among useful pieces, such as rarest first, and it persists with the use of network coding.
Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming
Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.
Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.
The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with…
The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Cornelissen, Thomas; Dustmann, Christian; Schönberg, Uta
Existing evidence on peer effects in a work environment stems from either laboratory experiments or from real-word studies referring to a specific firm or specific occupation. Yet, it is unclear to what extent these findings apply to the labor market in general. In this paper, therefore, we investigate peer effects in the workplace for a representative set of workers, firms, and occupations with a focus on peer effects in wages rather than productivity. Our estimation strategy which links t...
Hsieh, Chih-Sheng; van Kippersluis, Hans
Social interactions are generally thought to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we exploit detailed friendship nominations in the US Add Health data, and extend the Spatial Autoregressive Model (SAR) model to deal with (i) endogenous peer selection, and (ii) unobserved contextual effects, in order to identify the endogenous peer effect. We show that peer effects in the uptake of smoking are predominantly affecting individuals who are emotionally unst...
Rudolph, Karen D.
This research investigated the role of children’s implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval, depressive and aggressive symptoms, and exposure to peer victimization. Parents also provided reports on aggressive symptoms. Results confirmed that h...
Frias, Ana; Serra, Célia
Introduction: Water, a source of well-being, peace, fullness, freedom and harmony. For quite some time now, water is sought after for its renowned benefits in terms of relieving the physical and emotional changes which commonly occur during pregnancy. Objectives: 1) Describe the process of intervention, arising from the use of the aquatic environment in prenatal preparation 2) Relate the gains in health from prenatal preparation aquatica Method: Descriptive creating and applying a prep...
The chemical characterization of contaminants in bottom sediments from the Great Lakes in western New York (Lake Erie) was carried out by applying reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to fractions derived by routine organic extraction and separation methods. A comparison of the chromatograms from the sediments with those from analogous fractions isolated from tissue samples of aquatic biota showed correlations in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition. In the HPLC analysis of fractions isolated from sediment, Tubifex worms, aquatic snails, and fish tissue samples clearly indicated a characteristic PAH ''fingerprint' in all segments of the aquatic food chain. The patterns of horizontal distribution of the relative PAH levels indicated a point source of the pollution in the Buffalo River. Feral fish population samples showed several kinds of lesions that appear to be neoplasms. The histology of these lesions is described, and the significance of the data in terms of a possible human health hazard is discussed.
In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can...
The use of fluorescence to quantify and characterise aquatic organic matter in river, ocean, ground water and drinking and waste waters has come along way since its discovery as a phenomenon in the early 20th century. For example, there are over 100 papers published each year in international peer reviewed journals, an order of magnitude increase since a decade ago (see Figure taken from ISI database from 1989 to 2007 for publications in the fields of river water and waste water). Since then it has been extensively used as a research tool since the 1990's by scientists and is currently used for a wide variety of applications within a number of sectors. Universities, organisations and companies that research into aquatic organic matter have either recently readily use appropriate fluorescence based techniques and instrumentation. In industry and government, the technology is being taken up by environmental regulators and water and wastewater companies. This keynote presentation will give an overview of aquatic organic matter fluorescence from its conception as a phenomenon through to its current use in a variety of emerging applications within the sectors concerned with understanding, managing and monitoring the aquatic environment. About the Speaker Darren Reynolds pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for the analysis of wastewaters in the 1990's. He currently leads a research group within the Centre for Research in Biosciences and sits on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology at the University of the West of England, Bristol. He is a multidisciplinary scientist concerned with the development of technology platforms for applications in the fields of environment/agri-food and health. His current research interests include the development of optical technologies and techniques for environmental and biological sensing and bio-prospecting applications. He is currently involved in the development and use of synthetic biology
Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko
The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to examine the similarities and differences between instructor and peer assessments of EFL group presentations; (2) to understand the utility of peer assessment for discriminating each group member's contribution to group presentations in college EFL classrooms; and (3) to investigate the relationship…
Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F; Bakshy, Eytan
Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals' peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them. PMID:27382145
Cavallaro, Francesco; Tan, Kenneth
An online collaborative writing project was carried between two report writing classes from two separate institutions, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and Singapore Polytechnic (SP). The aim was to test how successfully a peer-to-peer mentoring system could be established using asynchronous and synchronous communication features. The…
Walther, Willliam A.; Abelson, Sara; Malmon, Alison
Utilizing student peers is one vital avenue for improving the prevention, detection, and treatment of mental health disorders on college campuses (The Campus Suicide Prevention Center of Virginia, 2011). This article will briefly review research findings indicating the importance of student peers and then focus on a promising model and growing…
Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center
The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.
The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment
Dindler, Camilla; Ahlmark, Nanna; Norrhäll, Oskar;
mænd i risiko for at udvikle type 2 diabetes. En del af evalueringsopdraget har været at tilvejebringe viden om relevant litteratur om peer-metoder. I denne forbindelse er dette notat udarbejdet til Københavns Kommunes Forebyggelsescenter Nørrebro af evaluerings-teamet, som består af forsker, Nanna......Statens Institut for Folkesundhed, Syddansk Universitet har fået til opdrag at lave en formativ procesevaluering af Københavns Kommunes projekt Mænd i København. Projektet omhandler udvikling og implementering af en peer til peer indsats med henblik på at forbedre sundhed og trivsel blandt udsatte...... Ahlmark, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Camilla Dindler, praktikant og specialestuderende Oskar Norrhäll og specialestuderende Pernille Hartvig Jensen. Notatet er en sammenfatning af udvalgt forskningslitteratur og rapporter om peer til peer-relaterede projekter målrettet udsatte grupper i forbindelse...
Jones, Carol C.; Meyer, Tracy A.
The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the beta version of the CLS webtool, which contains retail box lighting solutions. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed about which feedback should be addressed for the release of version 1.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in New York City in May 2009. Due to the volume of data (~500 comments) the methodology for addressing the peer review comments was central to the success of the ultimate goal of improving the tool. The comments were first imported into a master spreadsheet, and then grouped and organized in several layers. Solutions to each comment were then rated by importance and feasibility to determine the practicality of resolving the concerns of the commenter in the short-term or long-term. The rating system was used as an analytical tool, but the results were viewed thoughtfully to ensure that they were not the sole the factor in determining which comments were recommended for near-term resolution. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 1.0 as well as appendices containing the short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 1.0 are listed as
Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes of peer support are discussed in terms of positive peer support, negative peer influence, peer relationships, and sense of community. In general, r...
Waite, Anthony; /SLAC
Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each
Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)
Sediment data has been collected on and around the Ranger uranium mine for over 20 years. This included studies such as annual routine monitoring of metal concentrations, adsorption-desorption conditions, phase associations, transport mechanism, release potential, bioaccumulation and bioconcentration etc. Building on this, performance-based monitoring of the sediments from on-site water bodies was undertaken to ascertain the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants as a basis to determine ecological risks associated with the sediments which in turn underpins closure planning. Highlights of these studies are interpreted using an ecological risk assessment approach. Ideally interpretation of aquatic sediment contamination in Australia is guided by the national guidelines for water quality and a weighted multiple lines of evidence approach whereby the chemistry of sediments is compared with reference and guideline values and predictions of bio-availability, and biological effects data allows cause and effect relationships to be derived. However, where uranium in aquatic sediments is concerned there is a lack of national (Australian) and international guidelines that are applicable to tropical sediments and the biological effects data available are limited or confounded by other variables. In the absence of clear uranium guidelines for sediments an internationally reported “Predicted No Effect Concentration” (PNEC) for uranium in temperate sediments was used as a “pseudo-guideline” value to identify sites with concentrations that might present an environmental risk and that should be further investigated. The applicability of the PNEC to the tropical Ranger site was understandably questioned by stakeholders and peers. The issues raised highlighted the need for international guidelines for uranium in aquatic sediments for tropical and temperate climates and an internationally accepted approach for deriving same. (author)
Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.
The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.
Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie; Whittington, M. Susie; Wolf, Kattlyn J.
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the impact of peer teaching on both the students and the classroom environment. Students, enrolled in two Introduction to Teaching courses in agricultural and extension education, were asked to engage in peer teaching activities. The researchers utilized discourse analysis, textual…
Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…
Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara
Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…
Maunsell John HR
Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.
Strickland, N H
Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record
Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G
show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume......Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...
Wang, Jianrong; Chang, Xinglong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Yebin; Shi, Qingwei
Today, the main traffic in peer-to-peer (P2P) network is still multimedia files including large numbers of music files. The study of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) brings out many encouraging achievements in music search area. Nevertheless, the research of music search based on MIR in P2P network is still insufficient. Query by Humming (QBH) is one MIR technology studied for years. In this paper, we present a server based P2P music sharing system which is based on QBH and integrated with a Hierarchical Index Structure (HIS) to enhance the relation between surface data and potential information. HIS automatically evolving depends on the music related items carried by each peer such as midi files, lyrics and so forth. Instead of adding large amount of redundancy, the system generates a bit of index for multiple search input which improves the traditional keyword-based text search mode largely. When network bandwidth, speed, etc. are no longer a bottleneck of internet serve, the accessibility and accuracy of information provided by internet are being more concerned by end users.
This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.
Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.
Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...
Consider a problem frequently seen in wireless peer-to-peer networks: Every node has messages to broadcast to its peers, namely, all nodes within one hop. Conventional schemes allow only one transmission to succeed at a time in a two-hop neighborhood, because 1) simultaneous transmissions in the neighborhood collide, and 2) affordable radio is half-duplex and cannot simultaneously transmit and receive useful signals. In this paper, we propose a novel solution for the peer-to-peer mutual broadcast problem, which exploits the multiaccess nature of the wireless medium and addresses the half-duplex constraint at the fundamental level. The defining feature of the scheme is to let all nodes send their messages at the same time, where each node broadcasts a codeword (selected from its unique codebook) consisting of on-slots and off-slots, where it transmits only during its on-slots, and listens to its peers through its own off-slots. Each node decodes the messages of its peers based on the received superposed signal...
Sharma, Abhishek; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2206
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks provide a significant solution for file sharing among peers connected to Internet. It is fast and completely decentralised system with robustness. But due to absence of a server documents on a P2P network are not rated which makes it difficult for a peer to obtain precise information in result of a query. In past, some researchers tried to attach ratings to the peers itself but it was complex and less effective. In this paper, a novel P2P architecture is proposed which attaches ratings to the uploaded document directly. These ratings then become as element in its XML advertisement which has several child elements for information classification. The attached element is extracted from the advertisement in real time and the document is then sorted accordingly. Therefore, the information can be easily sorted based on a request by a peer according to the relevance of matter. The information regarding relevance is obtained by the peer issuing the query. This research leads to a smart P...
Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P networks provide a significant solution for file sharing among peers connected to Internet. It is fast and completely decentralised system with robustness. But due to absence of a serverdocuments on a P2P network are not rated which makes it difficult for a peer to obtain precise information in result of a query. In past, some researchers tried to attach ratings to the peers itself but itwas complex and less effective. In this paper, a novel P2P architecture is proposed which attaches ratings to the uploaded document directly. These ratings then become as element in its XML advertisement which has several child elements for information classification. The attached element is extracted from the advertisement in real time and the document is then sorted accordingly. Therefore, the information can be easily sorted based on a request by a peer according to the relevanceof matter. The information regarding relevance is obtained by the peer issuing the query. This research leads to a smart P2P model, the Rated-Resource P2P network (R2P2P.
Empirical data shows that in the absence of incentives, a peer participating in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network wishes to free-riding. Most solutions for providing incentives in P2P networks are based on direct reciprocity, which are not appropriate for most P2P multimedia sharing networks due to the unique features exhibited by such networks: large populations of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, asymmetric interests of peers, network errors, and multiple concurrent transactions. In this paper, we design and rigorously analyze a new family of incentive protocols that utilizes indirect reciprocity which is based on the design of efficient social norms. In the proposed P2P protocols, the social norms consist of a social strategy, which represents the rule prescribing to the peers when they should or should not provide content to other peers, and a reputation scheme, which rewards or punishes peers depending on whether they comply or not with the social strategy. We first define the concept of a sustainab...
Millard, David; Sinclair, Patrick; Newman, David
Peer Review (also known as Peer Assessment) is an important technique in learning, but can be difficult to support through e-learning due to the complexity and variety of peer review processes. In this paper we present PeerPigeon, a Web 2.0 style application that supports generalised Peer Review by using a canonical model of Peer Review based on a Peer Review Pattern consisting of Peer Review Cycles, each defined in terms of Peer Review Transforms. We also demonstrate how PeerPigeon makes use...
Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der;
This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected and...
Water weeds that grow profusely in warm tropical and subtropical regions have always been considered a nuisance; current research is focusing on methods to cull benefits from such aquatic proliferations. Weeds, especially the water hyacinth, are proving to be useful in the purification of wastewater lagoons. The plants extract inorganic and organic toxicants from the effluent. Hyacinths employed in experiments conducted in Puerto Rico are removed from the lagoons to prevent overcrowding. This harvest is sent through a digester to produce methane. (2 diagrams, 3 photos)
Vancea, Adrian; Chen, Mei-Ching; Chacko, George
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. Funding decisions are made largely based on the outcome of a peer review process that is intended to provide a fair, equitable, timely, and unbiased review of the quality, scientific merit, and potential impact of the research. There have been concerns about the criteria reviewers are using, and recent changes in review procedures at the NIH now make it possible to conduct an analysis of how reviewers evaluate applications for funding. This study examined the criteria and overall impact scores recorded by assigned reviewers for R01 grant applications. The results suggest that all the scored review criteria, including innovation, are related to the overall impact score. Further, good scores are necessary on all five scored review criteria, not just the score for research methodology, in order to achieve a good overall impact score. PMID:27239158
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...
Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs
ZHOU AoYing(周傲英); QIAN WeiNing(钱卫宁); ZHOU ShuiGeng(周水庚); LING Bo(凌波); XU LinHao(徐林昊); Ng Wee Siong(黄维雄); Ooi Beng Chin(黄铭钧); Tan Kian-Lee(陈建利)
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems have attracted much attention in academic community and industry circles due to their promising applications in various domains. This paper presents the authors' research efforts on introducing complex query capabilities in a P2P environment consisting of numerous peers with large volume of data. An underlying hybrid P2P computing platform, named BestPeer is described first. The connection among peers within BestPeer is selfconfigurable through maintaining the nearest neighbor of peers, and the agent techniques employed in the system ensure its capability of providing sophisticated services. The designs of three P2P data management systems which are all based on BestPeer are described in detail. They provide support for information retrieval, query processing and Web services respectively. Advantages and limitations are discussed, while ongoing work is presented. Current systems can provide basic functions for keyword-based search, SQL-like query processing, and Web services querying and discovery. Some further topics on providing fully-fledged data management functionalities for P2P distributed computing systems with security guarantee are also discussed.
Bivas Mitra; Sujoy Ghose; Niloy Ganguly; Fernando Peruani
Users of the peer-to-peer system join and leave the network randomly, which makes the overlay network dynamic and unstable in nature. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework to assess the robustness of p2p networks in the face of user churn. We model the peer churn through degree-independent as well as degree-dependent node failure. Lately, superpeer networks are becoming the most widely used topology among the p2p networks. Therefore, we perform the stability analysis of superpeer networks as a case study. We validate the analytically derived results with the help of simulation.
Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J.; Grubbs, L
Peer-to-peer support provided by ‘veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer train...
The growth of the Internet technology enables us to use network applications for streaming audio and video. Especially, real-time streaming services using peer-to-peer (P2P) technology are currently emerging. An important issue on P2P streaming is how to construct a logical network (overlay network) on a physical network (IP network). In this paper, we propose an initial peer configuration algorithm for a multi-streaming peer-to-peer network. The proposed algorithm is based on a mesh-pull approach where any node has multiple parent and child nodes as neighboring nodes, and content transmitted between these neighboring nodes depends on their parent-child relationships. Our simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm improves the number of joining node and traffic load.
Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf
Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861
Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen
Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis. PMID:27386349
Krnjajić Stevan B.
Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.
The behaviorist, the mentalist and the interactionist have different emphases on the role input in Second Language Acquisition. In order to protrude the importance of second language teaching, it is indispensible to discuss the characteristics of input and to explore its effects.
Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah
In decentralized control it is known that the system can be stabilized only if the so-called fixed modes are all stable. If we have input constraints then (semi-)global stability requires all poles to be in the closed left half plane. This paper establishes that these two requirements are necessary and sufficient for stabilizability of a decentralized system with input saturation.
If input plays a significant role in SLA, then the nextquestion is what kind of input is most helpful to the learner?Krashen (1982) defined that optimal input should (1) becomprehensible; (2) be interesting and/or relevant; (3) not begrammatically sequened; (4) be in sufficient quantity. Wemade some modifications to this list which may still not becomprehensive either. However, if the learner can be exposed toinput having these features, it is considered that acquisition ismore likely to occur. Such input should be comprehensible,authentic, attractive and interesting, interactive, up-to-date,culture-bearing, and in great quantity.
Rosas, Erika; Bonnaire, Xavier
International audience Peer to Peer systems have shown to be very powerful to build very large scale distributed information systems. They are self organized, and provide very high availability of the data. However, the management of malicious peers is a very open problem for the Peer to Peer research community, and building trust is a very difficult task. In this context, Reputation Systems have shown to be a very good solution to build trust in Peer to Peer systems. Nevertheless, using o...
Marilyn S. Manley
Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.
Marilyn S. Manley
Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.
Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.
Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.
Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS has become an extension of our lives and plays an important role in daily chores. SMS is a popular medium for delivering Value Added Services and are suitable for mobile banking, payment reminders, SOS calls, stock and news alerts, railway and flight enquiries etc. These types of messages are normally computer generated messages sent over Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP protocol. SMPP is an application layer protocol to send messages over TCP/IP connection. SMPP protocol has no security measures specified which allows fast delivery of SMS messages in bulk. Compromised messages or loss of messages can cause lot of revenue loss and fatal consequences. A secure SMPP protocol is proposed and implemented by introducing Transport Layer Security (TLS with SMPP protocol specifications. A client tool is developed to securely connect to the server. Secure Short Message Peer-to-Peer protocol will enhance the security of fast growing messaging and telecommunication world.
Joseph, Anthony D.; Steinmetz, Ralf; Stoica, Ion; Wehrle, Klaus
From 26.03.06 to 29.03.06, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06131 ``Peer-to-Peer-Systems and -Applications'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the se...
Masseglia, Florent; Poncelet, Pascal; Teisseire, Maguelonne
International audience With the huge number of information sources available on the Internet, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems offer a novel kind of system architecture providing the large-scale community with applications for file sharing, distributed file systems, distributed computing, messaging and real-time communication. P2P applications also provide a good infrastructure for data and compute intensive operations such as data mining. In this paper we propose a new approach for improving re...
Dinger, Jochen; Hartenstein, Hannes
Peer-to-Peer- (P2P-) Netze bilden logische bzw. virtuelle Netze auf Basis existierender Netze wie dem Internet. P2P-Netze zeichnen sich insbesondere durch ihre dezentrale Struktur und selbstorganisierende Mechanismen aus, welche im Gegensatz zu Client-Server Architekturen die Last auf alle teilnehmenden Knoten gleichmaeßig verteilen. Durch die dezentrale Struktur in Kombination mit selbstorganisierenden Mechanismen ist es daher moeglich, hoch skalierbare P2P-Netze zu konstruieren. Zudem erhoe...
Kermarrec, A.-M.; Le Merrer, E.; Liu, Y.; Simon, G.
It is now common for IPTV systems attracting millions of users to be based on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In such systems, each channel is typically associated with one P2P overlay network connecting the users. This significantly enhances the user experience by relieving the source from dealing with all connections. Yet, the joining process resulting in a peer to be integrated in channel overlay usually requires a significant amount of time. As a consequence, switching from one channel to another is far to be as fast as in IPTV solutions provided by telco operators. In this paper, we tackle the issue of efficient channel switching in P2P IPTV system. This is to the best of our knowledge the first study on this topic. First, we conducted and analyzed a set of measurements of one of the most popular P2P systems (PPlive). These measurements reveal that the set of contacts that a joining peer receives from the central server are of the utmost importance in the start-up process. On those neigbors, depends the speed to acquire the first video frames to play. We then formulate the switching problem, and propose a simple distributed algorithm, as an illustration of the concept, which aims at leveraging the presence of peers in the network to fasten the switch process. The principle is that each peer maintains as neighbors peers involved in other channels, providing peers with good contacts upon channel switching. Finally, simulations show that our approach leads to substantial improvements on the channel switching time. As our algorithmic solution does not have any prerequisite on the overlays, it appears to be an appealing add-on for existing P2P IPTV systems.
Saurabh Samanta; Radhesh Mohandas; Alwyn R. Pais
Short Message Service (SMS) has become an extension of our lives and plays an important role in daily chores. SMS is a popular medium for delivering Value Added Services and are suitable for mobile banking, payment reminders, SOS calls, stock and news alerts, railway and flight enquiries etc. These types of messages are normally computer generated messages sent over Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP) protocol. SMPP is an application layer protocol to send messages over TCP/IP connection. SMPP ...
Homan, Nancy; Chichester, Melanie
Ongoing education, an ever-present challenge in a hectic clinical environment, can be addressed by utilizing peer-to-peer education. Enhancing nurses' comfort level with specialty topics can reduce anxiety while enhancing core knowledge and skill proficiency for the provision of safe care. Increased self-confidence in a nurse's ability to detect a new or developing concern can lead to fewer delays in care. Critical problems identified and addressed promptly support better outcomes. PMID:27002199
Antonio BROGI; Razvan POPESCU
In this paper we introduce SMoL, a simplified BPEL-like language for specifying peer and service beha-viour in P2P systems. We then define a transformational semantics of SMoL in terms of Yet Another Workflow Language (YAWL) workflows, which enables the simu-lation (e.g., testing possible execution scenarios) and ana-lysis (e.g., verifying reachability or lock freedom) of the behaviour of P2P peers and services.
Hartmann, Thomas; Moawad, Assaad; Fouquet, François; Nain, Grégory; Klein, Jacques; Le Traon, Yves
The paradigm promotes the use of models during the execution of cyber-physical systems to represent their context and to reason about their runtime behaviour. However, current modeling techniques do not allow to cope at the same time with the large-scale, distributed, and constantly changing nature of these systems. In this paper, we introduce a distributed approach, combining ideas from reactive programming, peer-to-peer distribution, and large-scale models@ru...
Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Ragone, Azzurra
In this paper we focus on the analysis of peer reviews and reviewers behavior in a number of different review processes. More specifically, we report on the development, definition and rationale of a theoretical model for peer review processes to support the identification of appropriate metrics to assess the processes main properties. We then apply the proposed model and analysis framework to data sets from conference evaluation processes and we discuss the results implications and their eve...
Hesser, R. B.; And Others
This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…
Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.
This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…
Soh, Kay Cheng
Although its history is short, peer review has fast become a fixture of journal publications acquiring the status of a ritual in the academia. Many relevant and important issues have been raised leading to doubts about the value of peer review. The advent of electronic publishing further threatens the future of peer review. For peer review to…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must...
Tentative analysis of alternative peer review and journal models. Open Access and Impact factor issues are not covered. The bibliography, in alphabetical order, lists articles and web sites (with brief description).
Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S
Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093
Full Text Available In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can be classified as follows: psychological and emotional (a gossip or exclusion etc., verbal (get a nickname, impose constraints, intimidation etc. and physical (impellent, to kick a victim etc.The findings of this study can be summarized as follows: the frequency and extent of violence is very effective on espousal, insensitivity and unresponsiveness of the students. Thus, they use them as a problem solving instrument and also can move them to all parts of theri life. Bully has been determined that some precautions should be taken not to be effected from the short term and long term effects of violence.
Full Text Available In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can be classified as follows: psychological and emotional (a gossip or exclusion etc., verbal (get a nickname, impose constraints, intimidation etc. and physical (impellent, to kick a victim etc. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows: the frequency and extent of violence is very effective on espousal, insensitivity and unresponsiveness of the students. Thus, they use them as a problem solving instrument and also can move them to all parts of theri life. Bully has been determined that some precautions should be taken not to be effected from the short term and long term effects of violence.
Abstract: This review contains the Main Findings and Recommendations of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and the report of the Secretariat. It was prepared with examiners from Belgium and Switzerland for the Peer Review Meeting on 10 October 2007. This peer review of Canada’s development co-operation programme highlights Canada’s renewed commitment to Africa; a promising approach toward fragile states, such as Haiti and Afghanistan; initiatives to make Canadian aid more effective, f...
Krnjajić Stevan B.
After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-d...
Sun, Dennis L.; Harris, Naftali; Walther, Guenther; Baiocchi, Michael
Feedback has a powerful influence on learning, but it is also expensive to provide. In large classes, it may even be impossible for instructors to provide individualized feedback. Peer assessment has received attention lately as a way of providing personalized feedback that scales to large classes. Besides these obvious benefits, some researchers have also conjectured that students learn by peer assessing, although no studies have ever conclusively demonstrated this effect. By conducting a ra...
Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea
While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...
Gribble, Karleen D.
The perception and management of the risks of peer-to-peer milk sharing was explored via a written questionnaire administered to 97 peer milk donors and 41 peer milk recipients who were recruited via Facebook. All recipients' respondents were aware that there were risks associated with using peer-shared milk and took action to mitigate these…
Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne;
. Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...... Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mgl(-1) range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations...
The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value
Mueller, Chris; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; King, Eleanor; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William; Martin, Rodica; Mullavey, Adam; Poeld, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David; Tanner, David; Williams, Luke; Mueller, Guido
The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they h...
Sheshadri Shirisha; K. Chandra Sekharaiah
Every system in the network considered as peer, which are open to malicious activities in nature. Prevention of these malicious activities is achieved by developing trust between the peers. Trustworthiness of a peer can be calculated based on the prior interactions with other peers in the network. Peers create their own trust network in their proximity by using local information available and do not try to learn global trust information. Interactions and recommendations are ...
Fresco-Santalla, Ana; Hernández-Pérez, Tony
New models of scientific publishing and new ways of practicing peer review have injected a recent dynamism into the scholarly communication system. In this article, we delineate the context of the traditional peer review model, reflect upon some of the first experiences with open peer review and forecast some of the challenges that new models for peer review will have to meet. Our findings suggest that the peer review function has the potential to be divorced from the journal system, so that ...
Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng
Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.
Changing land use is one of the primary causes of increased sedimentation and nutrient levels in aquatic systems, resulting in contamination and reduction of biodiversity. Detecting and quantifying these inputs is the first step towards remediation, and enabling targeted reductions of transport processes into waterways from human impacted land surfaces. More recently, stable isotope analyses are being used as detection and quantification tools in aquatic environments. Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of sediments, as well as algae and invertebrates from aquatic systems can be used as proxies to record both short and long term environmental change. Excess nitrogen (or nitrogen-compounds) derived from urbanization, industry, forestry, farming and agriculture, increase the bioavailability of nitrogen to aquatic organisms, changing their natural δ15N isotopic signatures. Allochthonous (terrestrial) input from soil destabilization and human activity in surrounding catchments changes δ13C isotopic compositions and increases the C:N ratio of sediments. Heavy metal and other organic pollutants can also be used to indicate urbanization and industrial contamination. The combined use of carbon and nitrogen isotopes, C:N ratios and heavy metals are powerful environmental monitoring tools, which are useful indicators of source and transport pathways of terrestrial derived material and anthropogenic pollutants into streams, rivers and estuaries. (author)
Baraglia, Ranieri; Mordacchini, Matteo; Ricci, Laura; Alessi, Luca
The information flow inside a P2P network is highly dependent on the network structure. In order to ease the diffusion of relevant data toward interested peers, many P2P protocols gather similar nodes by putting them in direct contact. With this approach the similarity between nodes is computed in a point-to-point fashion: each peer individually identifies the nodes that share similar interests with it. This leads to the creation of a sort of "private" communities, limited to each peer neighbors list. This "private" knowledge do not allow to identify the features needed to discover and characterize the correlations that collect similar peers in broader groups. In order to let these correlations to emerge, the collective knowledge of peers must be exploited. One common problem to overcome in order to avoid the "private" vision of the network, is related to how distributively determine the representation of a community and how nodes may decide to belong to it. We propose to use a gossip-like approach in order t...
Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.
The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.
Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M
This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems
Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.
Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.
Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.
@@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.
Evaluation of the peer helping program conducted for unıversity adjustment. the purpose of this study was to examine the peer helpers’ (university students who present peer helping program) and peer helpees’ (university students who benefit from peer helping program) evaluations of the peer helping program conducted for university adjustment. For this purpose, 47 peer helpees and 14 peer helpers were administered two different Peer Helping Program Evaluation Form developed by the researcher. ...
In live streaming systems (IPTV, life-stream services, etc.), an attractive service consists in allowing users to access past portions of the stream. This is called a time-shifted streaming system. In our vision, a centralized time-shifted streaming system face scalability and ethical issues, therefore, we address the problem of designing a peer-to-peer system where peers store and deliver past chunks. We first attempt to identify the main characteristics of time-shifted streaming system from well-known measurements of VoD and IPTV systems. These overlays are the first structures specifically designed for time-shifted streaming system. Although no evaluation is presented, these preliminary description aim to foster discussions on a critical service.
Matthiessen, Peter; Arnold, David; Johnson, Andrew; Pepper, Tim; Pottinger, Tom G.; Pulman, Kim G. T.; Williams, Richard
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. The purpose of this project was to review possible inputs to UK headwater streams of steroid hormones originating from livestock, to investigate hormone contamination in some streams in which concentrations were expected to be maximal, and to draw conclusions about possible risks that these hormones may pose to aquatic organisms. 2. The review concluded that although livestock in the UK excretes more steroid sex hormones (oestradiol and testosterone) than the hu...
Since peer-to-peer file-sharing systems have become familiar recently, the information traffic in the networks is increasing. Therefore it causes various traffic problems in peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we model some features of the peer-to-peer networks, and investigate the traffic problems. Peer-to-peer networks have two notable characters. One is that each peer frequently searches for a file and download it from a peer who has the requested file. To decide whether a peer has the requested file or not in modelling of the search and download process, we introduce file-parameter Pj, which expresses the amount of files stored in peer j. It is assumed that if Pj is large, peer j has many files and can meet other peers' requests with high probability. The other character is that peers leave and join into the network repeatedly. Many researchers address traffic problems of data transfer in computer communication networks. To our knowledge, however, no reports focus on those in peer-to-peer networks whose topology changes with time. For routing paths of data transfer, generally, the shortest paths are used in usual computer networks. In this paper, we introduce a new optimal routing strategy which uses weights of peers to avoid traffic congestion. We find that the new routing strategy is superior to the shortest path strategy in terms of congestion frequency in data transfer
Morioka, Atsushi; Igarashi, Akito
Since peer-to-peer file-sharing systems have become familiar recently, the information traffic in the networks is increasing. Therefore it causes various traffic problems in peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we model some features of the peer-to-peer networks, and investigate the traffic problems. Peer-to-peer networks have two notable characters. One is that each peer frequently searches for a file and download it from a peer who has the requested file. To decide whether a peer has the requested file or not in modelling of the search and download process, we introduce file-parameter Pj, which expresses the amount of files stored in peer j. It is assumed that if Pj is large, peer j has many files and can meet other peers' requests with high probability. The other character is that peers leave and join into the network repeatedly. Many researchers address traffic problems of data transfer in computer communication networks. To our knowledge, however, no reports focus on those in peer-to-peer networks whose topology changes with time. For routing paths of data transfer, generally, the shortest paths are used in usual computer networks. In this paper, we introduce a new optimal routing strategy which uses weights of peers to avoid traffic congestion. We find that the new routing strategy is superior to the shortest path strategy in terms of congestion frequency in data transfer.
Fosco, Constanza; Marsili, Matteo; VEGA-REDONDO, Fernando
We study the long-run-emergency of behavioral patterns in dynamic complex networks. Individuals display two kinds of behavior: G("good") or B ("bad"). We assume that agents have an innate tendency towards G, but can also be led towards B though the influence of peer bad behavior. We model the implications of those peer effects as an epidemic process in the standard SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) framework. The key novelty of our model is that, unlike in received epidemic literature, t...
Liu, Lu; Mackin, Stephen; Antonopoulos, Nick
Small-world phenomenon has been observed in existing peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, such as Gnutella and Freenet. Due to the similarity of P2P networks to social networks, the previous small-world model proposed by Duncan Watts can be adopted in the design of P2P networks: each node is connected to some neighbouring nodes, and a group of nodes keep a small number of long links to randomly chosen distant nodes. Unfortunately, current unstructured search algorithms have difficulty distinguishing ...
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing is a recent hot topic in the areas of networking and distributed systems. Work on P2P computing was triggered by a number of ad-hoc systems that made the concept popular. Later, academic research efforts started to investigate P2P computing issues based on scientific principles. Some of that research produced a number of structured P2P systems that were collectively referred to by the term "Distributed Hash Tables" (DHTs). However, the research occurred in a diver...
Cagalj, Mario; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre
We present a set of simple techniques for key establishment over a radio link in peer-to-peer networks. Our approach is based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol, which is known to be vulnerable to the “man-in-the-middle” attack if the two users involved in the protocol do not share any...... first is based on visual comparison of short strings, the second on distance bounding, and the third on integrity codes; in each case, the users do not need to enter any password or other data, nor do they need physical or infrared connectivity between their devices. We base our analysis on a well...
Peer-to-Peer Database Management Systems (PDBMS) are still in the beginning of their evolution. They rise up p2p technology to exploit the power of available distributed database management technologies. The proposed PDBMS will be completely autonomous and any notions of centralization as central server or creating a cost-based global schema will be absent. In this paper a number of potential research issues in the overlap between database and p2p systems is identified, and a vision for build...
Peer-to-peer (P2P) video streaming has generated a significant amount of interest in both the research community and the industry, which find it a cost-effective solution to the user scalability problem. However, despite the success of Internet-based applications, the adoption has been limited for commercial services, such as Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). With the advent of the next-generation-networks (NGN) based on the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), advocating for an open and inter-o...
We investigate a system of interacting clusters evolving through mass exchange and supplemented by input of small clusters. Three possibilities depending on the rate of exchange generically occur when input is homogeneous: continuous growth, gelation, and instantaneous gelation. We mostly study the growth regime using scaling methods. An exchange process with reaction rates equal to the product of reactant masses admits an exact solution which allows us to justify the validity of scaling approaches in this special case. We also investigate exchange processes with a localized input. We show that if the diffusion coefficients are mass-independent, the cluster mass distribution becomes stationary and develops an algebraic tail far away from the source. (paper)
Turpin-Nagel, Katelyn; Vadas, Timothy M
Streams in urban ecosystems receive metal inputs primarily from stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The relative contribution of these metal sources to stream impairment is difficult to discern based on simple water characteristics and biological surveys. Stream impairment in these systems is often indicated by reduced abundance and diversity of aquatic insects, which tend to be more sensitive to chronic metal exposures. Metal species and controls on metal species in both the waterborne and dietborne exposure pathways to aquatic organisms are reviewed here. In addition, ecological changes that can control dietborne species are discussed. A main focus is on how organic matter from different anthropogenic sources may control both aqueous metal speciation as well as interaction with various inorganic or microbiological surfaces in streams. Most of the reviewed research focuses on Cu, Zn or Pb as those are the primary metals of concern in developed systems and Cu and Pb have unique and strong interactions with organic matter. Recommendations for further research are described in the context of exposure species, dynamics of exposure, stoichiometry, or advanced analytical tools, and regulatory implications are discussed. PMID:27170052
Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.
About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.
These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of the effects of AB.
Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas
A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...