Sample records for approximation mathematics

  1. Mathematical analysis, approximation theory and their applications

    Gupta, Vijay


    Designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, optimization, and economics, this self-contained volume presents theory, methods, and applications in mathematical analysis and approximation theory. Specific topics include: approximation of functions by linear positive operators with applications to computer aided geometric design, numerical analysis, optimization theory, and solutions of differential equations. Recent and significant developments in approximation theory, special functions and q-calculus along with their applications to mathematics, engineering, and social sciences are discussed and analyzed. Each chapter enriches the understanding of current research problems and theories in pure and applied research.

  2. Photonic Crystals Mathematical Analysis and Numerical Approximation

    Dörfler, Willy; Plum, Michael; Schneider, Guido; Wieners, Christian


    This book concentrates on the mathematics of photonic crystals, which form an important class of physical structures investigated in nanotechnology. Photonic crystals are materials which are composed of two or more different dielectrics or metals, and which exhibit a spatially periodic structure, typically at the length scale of hundred nanometers. In the mathematical analysis and the numerical simulation of the partial differential equations describing nanostructures, several mathematical difficulties arise, e. g., the appropriate treatment of nonlinearities, simultaneous occurrence of contin

  3. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    Gordon, Sheldon P.


    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  4. Intelligent mathematics II applied mathematics and approximation theory

    Duman, Oktay


    This special volume is a collection of outstanding more applied articles presented in AMAT 2015 held in Ankara, May 28-31, 2015, at TOBB Economics and Technology University. The collection is suitable for Applied and Computational Mathematics and Engineering practitioners, also for related graduate students and researchers. Furthermore it will be a useful resource for all science and engineering libraries. This book includes 29 self-contained and well-edited chapters that can be among others useful for seminars in applied and computational mathematics, as well as in engineering.

  5. Approximating Mathematical Semantic Web Services Using Approximation Formulas and Numerical Methods

    Mogos, Andrei-Horia


    Mathematical semantic web services are very useful in practice, but only a small number of research results are reported in this area. In this paper we present a method of obtaining an approximation of a mathematical semantic web service, from its semantic description, using existing mathematical semantic web services, approximation formulas, and numerical methods techniques. We also give a method for automatic comparison of two complexity functions. In addition, we present a method for classifying the numerical methods mathematical semantic web services from a library.

  6. Methods of Approximation Theory in Complex Analysis and Mathematical Physics

    Saff, Edward


    The book incorporates research papers and surveys written by participants ofan International Scientific Programme on Approximation Theory jointly supervised by Institute for Constructive Mathematics of University of South Florida at Tampa, USA and the Euler International Mathematical Instituteat St. Petersburg, Russia. The aim of the Programme was to present new developments in Constructive Approximation Theory. The topics of the papers are: asymptotic behaviour of orthogonal polynomials, rational approximation of classical functions, quadrature formulas, theory of n-widths, nonlinear approximation in Hardy algebras,numerical results on best polynomial approximations, wavelet analysis. FROM THE CONTENTS: E.A. Rakhmanov: Strong asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials associated with exponential weights on R.- A.L. Levin, E.B. Saff: Exact Convergence Rates for Best Lp Rational Approximation to the Signum Function and for Optimal Quadrature in Hp.- H. Stahl: Uniform Rational Approximation of x .- M. Rahman, S.K. ...

  7. On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation

    Jecko, Thierry, E-mail: [AGM, UMR 8088 du CNRS, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Département de mathématiques, site de Saint Martin, 2 avenue Adolphe Chauvin, F-95000 Pontoise (France)


    Motivated by the paper by Sutcliffe and Woolley [“On the quantum theory of molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A544 (2012)], we present the main ideas used by mathematicians to show the accuracy of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for molecules. Based on mathematical works on this approximation for molecular bound states, in scattering theory, in resonance theory, and for short time evolution, we give an overview of some rigorous results obtained up to now. We also point out the main difficulties mathematicians are trying to overcome and speculate on further developments. The mathematical approach does not fit exactly to the common use of the approximation in Physics and Chemistry. We criticize the latter and comment on the differences, contributing in this way to the discussion on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation initiated by Sutcliffe and Woolley. The paper neither contains mathematical statements nor proofs. Instead, we try to make accessible mathematically rigourous results on the subject to researchers in Quantum Chemistry or Physics.

  8. The Nonlinear Relations of the Approximate Number System and Mathematical Language to Early Mathematics Development

    Purpura, David J.; Logan, Jessica A. R.


    Both mathematical language and the approximate number system (ANS) have been identified as strong predictors of early mathematics performance. Yet, these relations may be different depending on a child's developmental level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between these domains across different levels of ability.…

  9. Ten mathematical essays on approximation in analysis and topology

    López-Gómez, J; Ruiz del Portal, F R


    This book collects 10 mathematical essays on approximation in Analysis and Topology by some of the most influent mathematicians of the last third of the 20th Century. Besides the papers contain the very ultimate results in each of their respective fields, many of them also include a series of historical remarks about the state of mathematics at the time they found their most celebrated results, as well as some of their personal circumstances originating them, which makes particularly attractive the book for all scientist interested in these fields, from beginners to experts. These gem pieces

  10. A mathematical formulation of the random phase approximation for crystals

    Cances, Eric


    This works extends the recent study on the dielectric permittivity of crystals within the Hartree model [E. Cances and M. Lewin, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal., 197 (2010) 139--177] to the time-dependent setting. In particular, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the nonlinear Hartree dynamics, also called the random phase approximation in the physics literature, in a suitable functional space allowing to describe a local defect embedded in a perfect crystal. We also give a rigorous mathematical definition of the microscopic frequency-dependent polarization matrix, and derive the macroscopic Maxwell-Gauss equation for insulating and semiconducting crystals, from a first order approximation of the nonlinear Hartree model, by means of homogenization arguments.

  11. 3rd International Conference on Applied Mathematics and Approximation Theory

    Duman, Oktay


    This special volume is a collection of outstanding theoretical articles presented at the conference AMAT 2015, held in Ankara, Turkey from May 28-31, 2015, at TOBB University of Economics and Technology. The collection is suitable for a range of applications: from researchers and practitioners of applied and computational mathematics, to students in graduate-level seminars. Furthermore it will be a useful resource for all science libraries. This book includes 27 self-contained and expertly-refereed chapters that provide numerous insights into the latest developments at the intersection of applied and computational mathematics, engineering, and statistics.

  12. A New Mathematical Model for Coanda Effect Velocity Approximation

    Valeriu DRĂGAN


    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining a set of mathematical equations that can accurately describe the velocity flow field near a cylindrical surface influenced by the Coandă effect. The work is relevant since the current state of the art Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes models with curvature correction do not completely describe the properties of the flow in accordance with the experimental data. Semi-empirical equations are therefore deduced based on experimental and theoretical stat...

  13. A New Mathematical Model for Coanda Effect Velocity Approximation

    Valeriu DRĂGAN


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of obtaining a set of mathematical equations that can accurately describe the velocity flow field near a cylindrical surface influenced by the Coandă effect. The work is relevant since the current state of the art Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes models with curvature correction do not completely describe the properties of the flow in accordance with the experimental data. Semi-empirical equations are therefore deduced based on experimental and theoretical state of the art. The resulting model is validated over a wider range of geometric layouts than any other existing semi-empirical model of its kind. The applications of this model are numerous, from super circulation wing calculations to fluidic devices such as actuators or fluidic diodes.

  14. Impaired acuity of the approximate number system underlies mathematical learning disability (dyscalculia)

    Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin


    Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. We hypothesize that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. Here we show that ninth grade students with MLD have significantly poorer ANS precision than students in all other mathematics achievement groups (low-, typically-, and high-achieving), as mea...

  15. Impaired Acuity of the Approximate Number System Underlies Mathematical Learning Disability (Dyscalculia)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin


    Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. The current study hypothesizes that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. In this study of 71 ninth…

  16. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie


    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749


    Halim CEYLAN


    Full Text Available This study develops approximate mathematical expressions for delay components at signalized intersections. Delay components are solved with the coordinate transformation method. The performance indicators for the signalized intersection are determined as an oversaturated and under saturated cases. During the analysis, the steady-state and the deterministic queuing theory are investigated first, and then time-dependent transformation is made. Developed model, called YHM, is applied to an example signalized intersection. Results are compared with the current situation and the Webster method. YHM is improved the intersection performance by about 500 % for this example. Moreover, signal parameters are significantly differs from the current and Webster signal control.

  18. Modelling of automotive fuel droplet heating and evaporation: mathematical tools and approximations

    Sazhin, Sergei S.; Qubeissi, Mansour Al


    New mathematical tools and approximations developed for the analysis of automotive fuel droplet heating and evaporation are summarised. The approach to modelling biodiesel fuel droplets is based on the application of the Discrete Component Model (DCM), while the approach to modelling Diesel fuel droplets is based on the application of the recently developed multi-dimensional quasi-discrete model. In both cases, the models are applied in combination with the Effective Thermal Conductivity/Effective Diffusivity model and the implementation in the numerical code of the analytical solutions to heat transfer and species diffusion equations inside droplets. It is shown that the approximation of biodiesel fuel by a single component leads to under-prediction of droplet evaporation time by up to 13% which can be acceptable as a crude approximation in some applications. The composition of Diesel fuel was simplified and reduced to only 98 components. The approximation of 98 components of Diesel fuel with 15 quasi-components/components leads to under-prediction of droplet evaporation time by about 3% which is acceptable in most engineering applications. At the same time, the approximation of Diesel fuel by a single component and 20 alkane components leads to a decrease in the evaporation time by about 19%, compared with the case of approximation of Diesel fuel with 98 components. The approximation of Diesel fuel with a single alkane quasi-component (C14.763H31.526) leads to under-prediction of the evaporation time by about 35% which is not acceptable even for qualitative analysis of the process. In the case when n-dodecane is chosen as the single alkane component, the above-mentioned under-prediction increases to about 44%.

  19. On The Effectiveness Of The Negative Binomial Approximation In A Multi-Echelon Inventory Model: A Mathematical Analysis

    Solis, Adriano O.; Schmidt, Charles P.; Conerly, Michael D.


    Graves (1996) developed a multi-echelon inventory model and used a negative binomial distribution to approximate the distribution of a random variable in the model. Two earlier multi-echelon inventory studies (Graves, 1985; Lee and Moinzadeh, 1987) have similarly used negative binomial approximations. Only computational evidence has been offered in support of the approximations. We provide, for the latest model (Graves, 1996), a mathematical analysis of the effectiveness of such an approximation.

  20. A mathematical model of neuro-fuzzy approximation in image classification

    Gopalan, Sasi; Pinto, Linu; Sheela, C.; Arun Kumar M., N.


    Image digitization and explosion of World Wide Web has made traditional search for image, an inefficient method for retrieval of required grassland image data from large database. For a given input query image Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system retrieves the similar images from a large database. Advances in technology has increased the use of grassland image data in diverse areas such has agriculture, art galleries, education, industry etc. In all the above mentioned diverse areas it is necessary to retrieve grassland image data efficiently from a large database to perform an assigned task and to make a suitable decision. A CBIR system based on grassland image properties and it uses the aid of a feed-forward back propagation neural network for an effective image retrieval is proposed in this paper. Fuzzy Memberships plays an important role in the input space of the proposed system which leads to a combined neural fuzzy approximation in image classification. The CBIR system with mathematical model in the proposed work gives more clarity about fuzzy-neuro approximation and the convergence of the image features in a grassland image.

  1. A new mathematical approximation of sunlight attenuation in rocks for surface luminescence dating

    Laskaris, Nikolaos, E-mail: [University of the Aegean, Department of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Avenue, Rhodes 85100 (Greece); Liritzis, Ioannis, E-mail: [University of the Aegean, Department of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Avenue, Rhodes 85100 (Greece)


    The attenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces and the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals clock resetting derived from sunlight induced eviction of electrons from electron traps, is a prerequisite criterion for potential dating. The modeling of change of residual luminescence as a function of two variables, the solar radiation path length (or depth) and exposure time offers further insight into the dating concept. The double exponential function modeling based on the Lambert-Beer law, valid under certain assumptions, constructed by a quasi-manual equation fails to offer a general and statistically sound expression of the best fit for most rock types. A cumulative log-normal distribution fitting provides a most satisfactory mathematical approximation for marbles, marble schists and granites, where absorption coefficient and residual luminescence parameters are defined per each type of rock or marble quarry. The new model is applied on available data and age determination tests. - Highlights: > Study of aattenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces. > Study of the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals as a function of depth. > A Cumulative Log-Normal Distribution fitting provides the most satisfactory modeling for marbles, marble schists and granites. > The new model (Cummulative Log-Norm Fitting) is applied on available data and age determination tests.

  2. Constructing mathematical models for simulating the technological processes in thermal power equipment on the basis of statistical approximation methods

    Kolchev, K. K.; Mezin, S. V.


    A technique for constructing mathematical models simulating the technological processes in thermal power equipment developed on the basis of the statistical approximation method is described. The considered method was used in the developed software module (plug-in) intended for calculating nonlinear mathematical models of gas turbine units and for diagnosing them. The mathematical models constructed using this module are used for describing the current state of a system. Deviations of the system's actual state from the estimate obtained using the mathematical model point to malfunctions in operation of this system. The multidimensional interpolation and approximation method and the theory of random functions serve as a theoretical basis of the developed technique. By using the developed technique it is possible to construct complex static models of plants that are subject to control and diagnostics. The module developed using the proposed technique makes it possible to carry out periodic diagnostics of the operating equipment for revealing deviations from the normal mode of its operation. The specific features relating to construction of mathematical models are considered, and examples of applying them with the use of observations obtained on the equipment of gas turbine units are given.

  3. Multi-band effective mass approximations advanced mathematical models and numerical techniques

    Koprucki, Thomas


    This book addresses several mathematical models from the most relevant class of kp-Schrödinger systems. Both mathematical models and state-of-the-art numerical methods for adequately solving the arising systems of differential equations are presented. The operational principle of modern semiconductor nano structures, such as quantum wells, quantum wires or quantum dots, relies on quantum mechanical effects. The goal of numerical simulations using quantum mechanical models in the development of semiconductor nano structures is threefold: First they are needed for a deeper understanding of experimental data and of the operational principle. Secondly, they allow us to predict and optimize in advance the qualitative and quantitative properties of new devices in order to minimize the number of prototypes needed. Semiconductor nano structures are embedded as an active region in semiconductor devices. Thirdly and finally, the results of quantum mechanical simulations of semiconductor nano structures can be used wit...

  4. Approximate mathematical models of electromagnetic and thermal processes at induction heating of metal strips

    Mazurenko, Iryna; Vasetskyi, Yuriy


    Electromagnetic and thermal processes in a moving conducting strip have been considered on the base of a simplified mathematical model. The following features have been taken into account: non-uniformity of eddy current and Joule’s heat distributions, heat transfer in directions across the strip and along its surface. The temperature has proved to become homogeneous through-thickness for typical modes of induction heating. On the contrary, the heat transfer along the surface is insignificant ...

  5. Mathematical approximations for the amplitude of the fundamental mode field (LP01) of a dispersion shifted fiber at six wavelengths

    Lamarche, Louis


    Hydro-Quebec optical network includes more than 5,000 km of optical ground wires [1] (OPGW) using dispersion shifted fibers (SMF-DSTM) [2]-[3]. This paper provides a model of the index profile for a typical reference fiber and the mathematical approximations of the amplitude of the LP01 mode at six important wavelengths (1.31, 1.41, 1.45, 1.48, 1.55, 1.625 μm). The fiber model has a triangular core and a quadratic ring shape. The weakly guided mode is obtained using the variational principle [4] implemented using an algorithm based on a Laguerre-Gauss-Bessel approximation of the field [5]. We modeled the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction of germanium doped silica using an experimental formula [6]. A comprehensive algorithm was developed to compute the normalized damping factor W and the normalized propagation constant U in the variational algorithm. The mode field diameter, group velocity and chromatic dispersion were also computed at the above wavelengths.

  6. Mathematics

    Stein, Sherman K


    Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi

  7. Mathematics

    The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed

  8. Diophantine approximations

    Niven, Ivan


    This self-contained treatment originated as a series of lectures delivered to the Mathematical Association of America. It covers basic results on homogeneous approximation of real numbers; the analogue for complex numbers; basic results for nonhomogeneous approximation in the real case; the analogue for complex numbers; and fundamental properties of the multiples of an irrational number, for both the fractional and integral parts.The author refrains from the use of continuous fractions and includes basic results in the complex case, a feature often neglected in favor of the real number discuss

  9. Approximation and Computation

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M


    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  10. Approximate solution of two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph models arising in mathematical physics using optimal homotopy asymptotic method

    Sarwar, S.; Rashidi, M. M.


    This paper deals with the investigation of the analytical approximate solutions for two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph equations. The fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], (1,2), and [1,2], respectively. In this paper, we extended optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) for two-term fractional-order wave-diffusion equations. Highly approximate solution is obtained in series form using this extended method. Approximate solution obtained by OHAM is compared with the exact solution. It is observed that OHAM is a prevailing and convergent method for the solutions of nonlinear-fractional-order time-dependent partial differential problems. The numerical results rendering that the applied method is explicit, effective, and easy to use, for handling more general fractional-order wave diffusion, diffusion, and telegraph problems.

  11. Sparse approximation with bases


    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  12. Fragments of approximate counting

    Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil


    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014

  13. Legendre rational approximation on the whole line

    GUO; Benyu; WANG; Zhongqing


    The Legendre rational approximation is investigated. Some approximation results are established, which form the mathematical foundation of a new spectral method on the whole line. A model problem is considered. Numerical results show the efficiency of this new approach.

  14. Approximate Representations and Approximate Homomorphisms

    Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander


    Approximate algebraic structures play a defining role in arithmetic combinatorics and have found remarkable applications to basic questions in number theory and pseudorandomness. Here we study approximate representations of finite groups: functions f:G -> U_d such that Pr[f(xy) = f(x) f(y)] is large, or more generally Exp_{x,y} ||f(xy) - f(x)f(y)||^2$ is small, where x and y are uniformly random elements of the group G and U_d denotes the unitary group of degree d. We bound these quantities i...

  15. Approximate spatial reasoning

    Dutta, Soumitra


    Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.

  16. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN. Geneva


    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  17. Diophantine approximation

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M


    "In 1970, at the U. of Colorado, the author delivered a course of lectures on his famous generalization, then just established, relating to Roth's theorem on rational approxi- mations to algebraic numbers. The present volume is an ex- panded and up-dated version of the original mimeographed notes on the course. As an introduction to the author's own remarkable achievements relating to the Thue-Siegel-Roth theory, the text can hardly be bettered and the tract can already be regarded as a classic in its field."(Bull.LMS) "Schmidt's work on approximations by algebraic numbers belongs to the deepest and most satisfactory parts of number theory. These notes give the best accessible way to learn the subject. ... this book is highly recommended." (Mededelingen van het Wiskundig Genootschap)

  18. Mathematics in Engineering

    Chatterjee, Anindya


    I try to convey some of the variety and excitement involved in the application of mathematics to engineering problems; to provide a taste of some actual mathematical calculations that engineers do; and finally, to make clear the distinctions between the applied subject of engineering and its purer parents, which include mathematics and the physical sciences. Two main points of this article are that in engineering it is approximation, and not truth, that reigns; and that an engineer carries a ...

  19. Introduction to numerical mathematics

    Stiefel, Eduard L


    An Introduction to Numerical Mathematics provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of numerical mathematics. This book covers a variety of topics, including linear programming, linear and nonlinear algebra, polynomials, numerical differentiation, and approximations.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the solution of linear problems wherein numerical mathematics provides very effective algorithms consisting of finitely many computational steps. This text then examines the method for the direct solution of a definite problem. Other chapters conside

  20. Mathematical Competences

    Westphael, Henning; Mogensen, Arne


    In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students.......In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students....

  1. Fifth International Conference on "Approximation and Optimization in the Caribbean"

    Approximation, Optimization and Mathematical Economic


    The articles in this proceedings volume reflect the current trends in the theory of approximation, optimization and mathematical economics, and include numerous applications. The book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students involved in functional analysis, approximation theory, mathematical programming and optimization, game theory, mathematical finance and economics.

  2. Mathematics Underground

    Luther, Kenneth H.


    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  3. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    Pappas, Theoni


    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  4. Mathematics, Anyone?

    Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin


    In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…

  5. Approximate maximizers of intricacy functionals

    Buzzi, Jerome; Zambotti, Lorenzo


    G. Edelman, O. Sporns, and G. Tononi introduced in theoretical biology the neural complexity of a family of random variables. This functional is a special case of intricacy, i.e., an average of the mutual information of subsystems whose weights have good mathematical properties. Moreover, its maximum value grows at a definite speed with the size of the system. In this work, we compute exactly this speed of growth by building "approximate maximizers" subject to an entropy condition. These appr...

  6. Approximate maximizers of intricacy functionals

    Buzzi, Jerome


    G. Edelman, O. Sporns, and G. Tononi introduced in theoretical biology the neural complexity of a family of random variables. This functional is a special case of intricacy, i.e., an average of the mutual information of subsystems whose weights have good mathematical properties. Moreover, its maximum value grows at a definite speed with the size of the system. In this work, we compute exactly this speed of growth by building "approximate maximizers" subject to an entropy condition. These approximate maximizers work simultaneously for all intricacies. We also establish some properties of arbitrary approximate maximizers, in particular the existence of a threshold in the size of subsystems of approximate maximizers: most smaller subsystems are almost equidistributed, most larger subsystems determine the full system. The main ideas are a random construction of almost maximizers with a high statistical symmetry and the consideration of entropy profiles, i.e., the average entropies of sub-systems of a given size. ...

  7. Approximating fixed points in the Hilbert ball

    Kopecká, Eva


    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2014), s. 819-829. ISSN 1345-4773 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximating curve * approximating sequence * asymptotic center Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.655, year: 2014

  8. Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Miura, H.


    It is shown that efficient structural synthesis capabilities can be created by using approximation concepts to mesh finite element structural analysis methods with nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The history of the application of mathematical programming techniques to structural design optimization problems is reviewed. Several rather general approximation concepts are described along with the technical foundations of the ACCESS 1 computer program, which implements several approximation concepts. A substantial collection of structural design problems involving truss and idealized wing structures is presented. It is concluded that since the basic ideas employed in creating the ACCESS 1 program are rather general, its successful development supports the contention that the introduction of approximation concepts will lead to the emergence of a new generation of practical and efficient, large scale, structural synthesis capabilities in which finite element analysis methods and mathematical programming algorithms will play a central role.

  9. Mathematics disorder

    ... this page: // Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  10. Mathematics disorder

    Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...

  11. Mathematical Chemistry

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan


    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  12. Rainforest Mathematics

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy


    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  13. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.


    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  14. Mathematical proofs

    Panza, Marco


    The aim I am pursuing here is to describe some general aspects of mathematical proofs. In my view, a mathematical proof is a warrant to assert a non-tautological statement which claims that certain objects (possibly a certain object) enjoy a certain property. Because it is proved, such a statement is a mathematical theorem. In my view, in order to understand the nature of a mathematical proof it is necessary to understand the nature of mathematical objects. If we understand them as external e...

  15. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able to...... accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed in...

  16. Mathematical modelling

    Blomhøj, Morten


    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  17. Approximate Bayesian inference for complex ecosystems

    Michael P H Stumpf


    Mathematical models have been central to ecology for nearly a century. Simple models of population dynamics have allowed us to understand fundamental aspects underlying the dynamics and stability of ecological systems. What has remained a challenge, however, is to meaningfully interpret experimental or observational data in light of mathematical models. Here, we review recent developments, notably in the growing field of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), that allow us to calibrate mathe...

  18. The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity



    Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, bus...

  19. Theoretical Mathematics

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  20. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able to...... accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... natural numbers. Apply these concepts to new problems. Division and factorizing: Define a prime number and apply Euclid´s algorithm for factorizing an integer. Regular languages: Define a language from the elements of a set; define a regular language; form strings from a regular language; construct...

  1. Mathematical scandals

    Pappas, Theoni


    In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions

  2. Engineering mathematics

    Stroud, K A


    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  3. Financial mathematics

    Jothi, A Lenin


    Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m

  4. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim


    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  5. Mathematics Scrapbook

    Prochazka, Helen


    One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…

  6. Mathematical Education

    Thurston, William P.


    This essay, originally published in the Sept 1990 Notices of the AMS, discusses problems of our mathematical education system that often stem from widespread misconceptions by well-meaning people of the process of learning mathematics. The essay also discusses ideas for fixing some of the problems. Most of what I wrote in 1990 remains equally applicable today.

  7. Mathematical logic

    Kleene, Stephen Cole


    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  8. Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility

    Mostafazadeh, Ali


    arXiv:1401.4315v3 [quant-ph] 27 Feb 2014 Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility Ali Mostafazadeh∗ Department of Mathematics, Ko¸c University, 34450 Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract The transfer matrix of a possibly complex and energy-dependent scattering potential can be identified with the S-matrix of a two-level time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H( ). We show that the application of the adiabatic approximation ...

  9. A Ballistic Monte Carlo Approximation of {\\pi}

    Dumoulin, Vincent


    We compute a Monte Carlo approximation of {\\pi} using importance sampling with shots coming out of a Mossberg 500 pump-action shotgun as the proposal distribution. An approximated value of 3.136 is obtained, corresponding to a 0.17% error on the exact value of {\\pi}. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt at estimating {\\pi} using such method, thus opening up new perspectives towards computing mathematical constants using everyday tools.

  10. Approximate counting by hashing in bounded arithmetic

    Jeřábek, Emil


    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2009), s. 829-860. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * approximate counting * universal hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  11. Principles of mathematical modeling

    Dym, Clive


    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  12. Engineering mathematics

    Bird, John


    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  13. Mathematical physics

    Geroch, Robert


    Mathematical Physics is an introduction to such basic mathematical structures as groups, vector spaces, topological spaces, measure spaces, and Hilbert space. Geroch uses category theory to emphasize both the interrelationships among different structures and the unity of mathematics. Perhaps the most valuable feature of the book is the illuminating intuitive discussion of the ""whys"" of proofs and of axioms and definitions. This book, based on Geroch's University of Chicago course, will be especially helpful to those working in theoretical physics, including such areas as relativity, particle

  14. Applied mathematics

    Logan, J David


    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  15. Construction mathematics

    Virdi, Surinder


    Taking a starting point below that of GCSE level, by assuming no prior mathematical knowledge, Surinder Virdi and Roy Baker take the reader step by step through the mathematical requirements for Level 2 and 3 Building and Construction courses.Unlike the majority of basic level maths texts available, this book focuses exclusively on mathematics as it is applied in actual construction practice. As such, topics specific to the construction industry are presented, as well as essential areas for Level 2 craft NVQs - for example, costing calculations, labor costs, cost of materials and setting out o

  16. Speed mathematics

    Handley, Bill


    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  17. Fuzzy Approximating Spaces

    Bin Qin


    Relationships between fuzzy relations and fuzzy topologies are deeply researched. The concept of fuzzy approximating spaces is introduced and decision conditions that a fuzzy topological space is a fuzzy approximating space are obtained.

  18. Stochastic approximation: invited paper

    Lai, Tze Leung


    Stochastic approximation, introduced by Robbins and Monro in 1951, has become an important and vibrant subject in optimization, control and signal processing. This paper reviews Robbins' contributions to stochastic approximation and gives an overview of several related developments.

  19. Approximate flavor symmetries

    Rasin, A


    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  20. Approximate iterative algorithms

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis


    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  1. Mathematical physiology

    Sneyd, James


    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  2. Mathematics Reading


    Puzzles of purely logical nature are distinguished from most mathematical puzzles,in that thought rather than memory, that is,native mental ingenuity rather than a store of acquired information, is the key to their solution.

  3. Mathematics III

    Viader Canals, Pelegrí


    Apunts de l'assignatura Mathematics III del Grau en International Business Economics del curs 2012-2013. Conté : Diagonalization, Difference Equations, Differential Equations, Lagrange-Kuhn-Tucker, Second order Difference Equations.

  4. Mathematical modelling


    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  5. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  6. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  7. Mathematics revealed

    Berman, Elizabeth


    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  8. Approximation of distributed delays

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre


    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  9. Topics in multivariate approximation and interpolation

    Jetter, Kurt


    This book is a collection of eleven articles, written by leading experts and dealing with special topics in Multivariate Approximation and Interpolation. The material discussed here has far-reaching applications in many areas of Applied Mathematics, such as in Computer Aided Geometric Design, in Mathematical Modelling, in Signal and Image Processing and in Machine Learning, to mention a few. The book aims at giving a comprehensive information leading the reader from the fundamental notions and results of each field to the forefront of research. It is an ideal and up-to-date introduction for gr

  10. Approximations of permutation-symmetric vertex couplings in quantum graphs

    Exner, Pavel; Turek, Ondřej

    Providence : American Mathematical Society, 2006, s. 109-120. - (Contemporary Mathematics. 415). [Quantum Graphs and Their Applications. Snowbird (US), 18.06.2005-24.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : quantum graphs * vertex interaction * approximation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  11. Mathematical concepts

    Jost, Jürgen


    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...


    YueShihong; ZhangKecun


    In a dot product space with the reproducing kernel (r. k. S. ) ,a fuzzy system with the estimation approximation errors is proposed ,which overcomes the defect that the existing fuzzy control system is difficult to estimate the errors of approximation for a desired function,and keeps the characteristics of fuzzy system as an inference approach. The structure of the new fuzzy approximator benefits a course got by other means.

  13. Approximation of irrationals

    Malvina Baica


    The author uses a new modification of Jacobi-Perron Algorithm which holds for complex fields of any degree (abbr. ACF), and defines it as Generalized Euclidean Algorithm (abbr. GEA) to approximate irrationals.This paper deals with approximation of irrationals of degree n=2,3,5. Though approximations of these irrationals in a variety of patterns are known, the results are new and practical, since there is used an algorithmic method.

  14. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole


    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability distributions which are made consistent on a set of moments and encode different features of the original intractable distribution. In this way we are able to use Gaussian approximations for models with ...


    Weimin Han; Ce Wang


    Over the last couple of years molecular imaging has been rapidly developed to study physiological and pathological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular levels. Among molecular imaging modalities, optical imaging stands out for its unique advantages, especially performance and cost-effectiveness. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is an emerging optical imaging mode with promising biomedical advantages. In this survey paper, we explain the biomedical significance of BLT, summarize theoretical results on the analysis and numerical solution of a diffusion based BLT model, and comment on a few extensions for the study of BLT.

  16. Approximation techniques for engineers

    Komzsik, Louis


    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  17. Mathematical writing

    Vivaldi, Franco


    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  18. Physical mathematics

    Cahill, Kevin


    Unique in its clarity, examples and range, Physical Mathematics explains as simply as possible the mathematics that graduate students and professional physicists need in their courses and research. The author illustrates the mathematics with numerous physical examples drawn from contemporary research. In addition to basic subjects such as linear algebra, Fourier analysis, complex variables, differential equations and Bessel functions, this textbook covers topics such as the singular-value decomposition, Lie algebras, the tensors and forms of general relativity, the central limit theorem and Kolmogorov test of statistics, the Monte Carlo methods of experimental and theoretical physics, the renormalization group of condensed-matter physics and the functional derivatives and Feynman path integrals of quantum field theory.

  19. Mathematical biophysics

    Rubin, Andrew


    This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...

  20. Approximate Equalities on Rough Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and an Analysis of Approximate Equalities

    Tripathy, B K


    In order to involve user knowledge in determining equality of sets, which may not be equal in the mathematical sense, three types of approximate (rough) equalities were introduced by Novotny and Pawlak ([8, 9, 10]). These notions were generalized by Tripathy, Mitra and Ojha ([13]), who introduced the concepts of approximate (rough) equivalences of sets. Rough equivalences capture equality of sets at a higher level than rough equalities. More properties of these concepts were established in [14]. Combining the conditions for the two types of approximate equalities, two more approximate equalities were introduced by Tripathy [12] and a comparative analysis of their relative efficiency was provided. In [15], the four types of approximate equalities were extended by considering rough fuzzy sets instead of only rough sets. In fact the concepts of leveled approximate equalities were introduced and properties were studied. In this paper we proceed further by introducing and studying the approximate equalities based ...

  1. Mathematical Lives

    Bartocci, Claudio; Guerraggio, Angelo; Lucchetti, Roberto; Williams, Kim


    Steps forward in mathematics often reverberate in other scientific disciplines, and give rise to innovative conceptual developments or find surprising technological applications. This volume brings to the forefront some of the proponents of the mathematics of the twentieth century, who have put at our disposal new and powerful instruments for investigating the reality around us. The portraits present people who have impressive charisma and wide-ranging cultural interests, who are passionate about defending the importance of their own research, are sensitive to beauty, and attentive to the soci

  2. Mathematical papers

    Green, George


    An almost entirely self-taught mathematical genius, George Green (1793 -1841) is best known for Green's theorem, which is used in almost all computer codes that solve partial differential equations. He also published influential essays, or papers, in the fields of hydrodynamics, electricity, and magnetism. This collection comprises his most significant works.The first paper, ""An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism,"" which is also the longest and perhaps the most Important, appeared In 1828. It introduced the term potential as desig

  3. Mathematical morphology

    Najman, Laurent


    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  4. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole


    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...

  5. Ordered cones and approximation

    Keimel, Klaus


    This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.

  6. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu


    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  7. Underground Mathematics

    Hadlock, Charles R


    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  8. Mathematical stereochemistry

    Fujita, Shinsaku


    Chirality and stereogenicity are closely related concepts and their differentiation and description is still a challenge in chemoinformatics. A new stereoisogram approach, developed by the author, is introduced in this book, providing a theoretical framework for mathematical aspects of modern stereochemistry. The discussion covers point-groups and permutation symmetry and exemplifies the concepts using organic molecules and inorganic complexes.

  9. More approximation on disks

    Paepe, de, P.J.I.M.; Wiegerinck, J.J.O.O.


    Abstract: In this article we study the function algebra generated by z2 and g2 on a small closed disk centred at the origin of the complex plane. We prove, using a biholomorphic change of coordinates and already developed techniques in this area, that for a large class of functions g this algebra consists of all continuous functions on the disk. Keywords: 2000 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 46J10; 32E20

  10. Approximations to toroidal harmonics

    Toroidal harmonics P/sub n-1/2/1(cosh μ) and Q/sub n-1/2/1(cosh μ) are useful in solutions to Maxwell's equations in toroidal coordinates. In order to speed their computation, a set of approximations has been developed that is valid over the range 0 -10. The simple method used to determine the approximations is described. Relative error curves are also presented, obtained by comparing approximations to the more accurate values computed by direct summation of the hypergeometric series

  11. Approximations in Inspection Planning

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.; Bloch, Allan


    . One of the more important of these approximations is the assumption that all inspections will reveal no defects. Using this approximation the optimal inspection plan may be determined on the basis of conditional probabilities, i.e. the probability of failure given no defects have been found by the......Planning of inspections of civil engineering structures may be performed within the framework of Bayesian decision analysis. The effort involved in a full Bayesian decision analysis is relatively large. Therefore, the actual inspection planning is usually performed using a number of approximations...... inspection. In this paper the quality of this approximation is investigated. The inspection planning is formulated both as a full Bayesian decision problem and on the basis of the assumption that the inspection will reveal no defects....

  12. The Karlqvist approximation revisited

    Tannous, C.


    The Karlqvist approximation signaling the historical beginning of magnetic recording head theory is reviewed and compared to various approaches progressing from Green, Fourier, Conformal mapping that obeys the Sommerfeld edge condition at angular points and leads to exact results.

  13. Neural Network Learning as Approximate Optimization

    Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    Wien : SpringerVerlag, 2003 - (Pearson, D.; Steele, N.; Albrecht, R.), s. 53-57 ISBN 3-211-00743-1. [ICANNGA'2003 /6./. Roanne (FR), 23.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0428 Grant ostatní: IT-CZ Area MC6(XX) Project 22 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : neural network s * learning from data * approximate optimization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Approximating viability kernels with support vector machines

    Deffuant, G.; Chapel, L.; Martin, S.


    We propose an algorithm which performs a progressive approximation of a viability kernel, iteratively using a classification method. We establish the mathematical conditions that the classification method should fulfill to guarantee the convergence to the actual viability kernel. We study more particularly the use of support vector machines (SVMs) as classification techniques. We show that they make possible to use gradient optimisation techniques to find a viable control at each time step, a...

  15. Approximate Inverse Preconditioners with Adaptive Dropping

    Kopal, J.; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav


    Roč. 84, June (2015), s. 13-20. ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853; GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : approximate inverse * Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization * incomplete decomposition * preconditioned conjugate gradient method * algebraic preconditioning * pivoting Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.402, year: 2014

  16. Approximation Behooves Calibration

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf


    Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009.......Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....

  17. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    Fomel, Sergey


    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  18. Mathematical epidemiology

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong


    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  19. Applied mathematics

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  20. CSET mathematics

    Ortiz, Enrique


    Your complete guide to a higher score on the CSET: Mathematics.Features information about certification requirements, an overview of the test - with a scoring scale, description of the test structure and format and proven test-taking strategies Approaches for answering the three types of questions: multiple-choiceenhanced multiple-choiceconstructed-response. Reviews and PracticeFocused reviews of all areas tested: algebra, number theory, geometry, probability, calculus, and history of mathematicsPractice problems for selected difficult areas and domains 2 Full-Length Practice Tests are structured like the actual exam and are complete with answers and explanationsThe Glossary of Terms has description of Key Formulas and PropertiesTest-Prep Essentials from the Experts at CliffsNotes


    Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor


    This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.

  2. The Association Between Higher Education and Approximate Number System Acuity

    Marcus eLindskog


    Full Text Available Humans are equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities, measured either early (1th year or late (3rd year in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity.

  3. Understanding in mathematics

    Sierpinska, Anna


    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  4. A periodic basis system of the smooth approximation space

    Segeth, Karel


    Roč. 267, 15 September (2015), s. 436-444. ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : smooth approximation * data approximation * data interpolation * Fourier transform Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014

  5. An Analysis of the Morris Loe Angle Trisection Approximation.

    Aslan, Farhad,; And Others


    Presents the Morris Loe Angle Trisection Approximation Method to introduce students to areas of mathematics where approximations are used when exact answers are difficult or impossible to obtain. Examines the accuracy of the method using the laws of sines and cosines and a BASIC computer program that is provided. (MDH)

  6. Diophantine approximations on fractals

    Einsiedler, Manfred; Shapira, Uri


    We exploit dynamical properties of diagonal actions to derive results in Diophantine approximations. In particular, we prove that the continued fraction expansion of almost any point on the middle third Cantor set (with respect to the natural measure) contains all finite patterns (hence is well approximable). Similarly, we show that for a variety of fractals in [0,1]^2, possessing some symmetry, almost any point is not Dirichlet improvable (hence is well approximable) and has property C (after Cassels). We then settle by similar methods a conjecture of M. Boshernitzan saying that there are no irrational numbers x in the unit interval such that the continued fraction expansions of {nx mod1 : n is a natural number} are uniformly eventually bounded.

  7. Covariant approximation averaging

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph


    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  8. Accuracy of Approximate Eigenstates

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Lucha, Wolfgang


    Besides perturbation theory, which requires, of course, the knowledge of the exact unperturbed solution, variational techniques represent the main tool for any investigation of the eigenvalue problem of some semibounded operator H in quantum theory. For a reasonable choice of the employed trial subspace of the domain of H, the lowest eigenvalues of H usually can be located with acceptable precision whereas the trial-subspace vectors corresponding to these eigenvalues approximate, in general, the exact eigenstates of H with much less accuracy. Accordingly, various measures for the accuracy of the approximate eigenstates derived by variational techniques are scrutinized. In particular, the matrix elements of the commutator of the operator H and (suitably chosen) different operators, with respect to degenerate approximate eigenstates of H obtained by some variational method, are proposed here as new criteria for the accuracy of variational eigenstates. These considerations are applied to that Hamiltonian the eig...

  9. Synthesis of approximation errors

    Bareiss, E.H.; Michel, P.


    A method is developed for the synthesis of the error in approximations in the large of regular and irregular functions. The synthesis uses a small class of dimensionless elementary error functions which are weighted by the coefficients of the expansion of the regular part of the function. The question is answered whether a computer can determine the analytical nature of a solution by numerical methods. It is shown that continuous least-squares approximations of irregular functions can be replaced by discrete least-squares approximation and how to select the discrete points. The elementary error functions are used to show how the classical convergence criterions can be markedly improved. There are eight numerical examples included, 30 figures and 74 tables.

  10. Approximate analytic solutions to the NPDD: Short exposure approximations

    Close, Ciara E.; Sheridan, John T.


    There have been many attempts to accurately describe the photochemical processes that take places in photopolymer materials. As the models have become more accurate, solving them has become more numerically intensive and more 'opaque'. Recent models incorporate the major photochemical reactions taking place as well as the diffusion effects resulting from the photo-polymerisation process, and have accurately described these processes in a number of different materials. It is our aim to develop accessible mathematical expressions which provide physical insights and simple quantitative predictions of practical value to material designers and users. In this paper, starting with the Non-Local Photo-Polymerisation Driven Diffusion (NPDD) model coupled integro-differential equations, we first simplify these equations and validate the accuracy of the resulting approximate model. This new set of governing equations are then used to produce accurate analytic solutions (polynomials) describing the evolution of the monomer and polymer concentrations, and the grating refractive index modulation, in the case of short low intensity sinusoidal exposures. The physical significance of the results and their consequences for holographic data storage (HDS) are then discussed.

  11. The Zeldovich approximation

    White, Martin


    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Yakov Zel'dovich. Amongst his many legacies is the Zel'dovich approximation for the growth of large-scale structure, which remains one of the most successful and insightful analytic models of structure formation. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the two-point function of the matter and biased tracers, and compare to the results of N-body simulations and other Lagrangian perturbation theories. We show that Lagrangian perturbation theories converge well and that the Zel'dovich approximation provides a good fit to the N-body results except for the quadrupole moment of the halo correlation function. We extend the calculation of halo bias to 3rd order and also consider non-local biasing schemes, none of which remove the discrepancy. We argue that a part of the discrepancy owes to an incorrect prediction of inter-halo velocity correlations. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the ingredients of the Gaussian streaming model and show that ...

  12. Prestack wavefield approximations

    Alkhalifah, Tariq


    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. Approximating The DCM

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg


    The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM that...

  14. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant


    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  15. Advanced mathematics

    Gupta, CB; Kumar, V


    About the Book: This book `Advanced Mathematics` is primarily designed for B.Tech., IV Semester (EE and EC branch) students of Rajasthan Technical University. The subject matter is discussed in a lucid manner. The discussion is covered in five units: Unit I: deals with Numerical Analysis, Unit-II: gives different aspects of Numerical Analysis, Unit-III: Special Function, Unit-IV:Statistics and Probability, Calculus of Variation and Transforms are discussed in Unit V. All the theoretical concepts are explained through solved examples. Besides, a large number of unsolved problems on each top

  16. Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo.

    Zablotskiy, Sergey V; Ivanov, Victor A; Paul, Wolfgang


    Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g(E), of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g(E_{1},E_{2}). We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g(E_{1}+E_{2}) from g(E_{1},E_{2}). PMID:27415383

  17. Approximate number and approximate time discrimination each correlate with school math abilities in young children.

    Odic, Darko; Lisboa, Juan Valle; Eisinger, Robert; Olivera, Magdalena Gonzalez; Maiche, Alejandro; Halberda, Justin


    What is the relationship between our intuitive sense of number (e.g., when estimating how many marbles are in a jar), and our intuitive sense of other quantities, including time (e.g., when estimating how long it has been since we last ate breakfast)? Recent work in cognitive, developmental, comparative psychology, and computational neuroscience has suggested that our representations of approximate number, time, and spatial extent are fundamentally linked and constitute a "generalized magnitude system". But, the shared behavioral and neural signatures between number, time, and space may alternatively be due to similar encoding and decision-making processes, rather than due to shared domain-general representations. In this study, we investigate the relationship between approximate number and time in a large sample of 6-8 year-old children in Uruguay by examining how individual differences in the precision of number and time estimation correlate with school mathematics performance. Over four testing days, each child completed an approximate number discrimination task, an approximate time discrimination task, a digit span task, and a large battery of symbolic math tests. We replicate previous reports showing that symbolic math abilities correlate with approximate number precision and extend those findings by showing that math abilities also correlate with approximate time precision. But, contrary to approximate number and time sharing common representations, we find that each of these dimensions uniquely correlates with formal math: approximate number correlates more strongly with formal math compared to time and continues to correlate with math even when precision in time and individual differences in working memory are controlled for. These results suggest that there are important differences in the mental representations of approximate number and approximate time and further clarify the relationship between quantity representations and mathematics. PMID:26587963

  18. Numerical approximation of partial differential equations

    Bartels, Sören


    Finite element methods for approximating partial differential equations have reached a high degree of maturity, and are an indispensible tool in science and technology. This textbook aims at providing a thorough introduction to the construction, analysis, and implementation of finite element methods for model problems arising in continuum mechanics. The first part of the book discusses elementary properties of linear partial differential equations along with their basic numerical approximation, the functional-analytical framework for rigorously establishing existence of solutions, and the construction and analysis of basic finite element methods. The second part is devoted to the optimal adaptive approximation of singularities and the fast iterative solution of linear systems of equations arising from finite element discretizations. In the third part, the mathematical framework for analyzing and discretizing saddle-point problems is formulated, corresponding finte element methods are analyzed, and particular ...

  19. Prestack traveltime approximations

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Approximate level method

    Richtárik, Peter


    In this paper we propose and analyze a variant of the level method [4], which is an algorithm for minimizing nonsmooth convex functions. The main work per iteration is spent on 1) minimizing a piecewise-linear model of the objective function and on 2) projecting onto the intersection of the feasible region and a polyhedron arising as a level set of the model. We show that by replacing exact computations in both cases by approximate computations, in relative scale, the theoretical ...

  1. Approximate Bayesian recursive estimation

    Kárný, Miroslav


    Roč. 285, č. 1 (2014), s. 100-111. ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Approximate parameter estimation * Bayesian recursive estimation * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Forgetting Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014

  2. Local approximate inference algorithms

    Jung, Kyomin; Shah, Devavrat


    We present a new local approximation algorithm for computing Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) and log-partition function for arbitrary exponential family distribution represented by a finite-valued pair-wise Markov random field (MRF), say $G$. Our algorithm is based on decomposition of $G$ into {\\em appropriately} chosen small components; then computing estimates locally in each of these components and then producing a {\\em good} global solution. We show that if the underlying graph $G$ either excl...

  3. Improved S2 approximations

    Highlights: • Development of optimization rules for S2 quadrature sets. • Studying the dependency of optimized S2 quadratures on composition and geometry. • Demonstrating S2 procedures preserving the features of higher approximations. - Abstract: Discrete ordinates method relies on approximating the integral term of the transport equation with the aid of quadrature summation rules. These quadratures are usually based on certain assumptions which assure specific symmetry rules and transport/diffusion limits. Generally, these assumptions are not problem-dependent which results in inaccuracies in some instances. Here, various methods have been developed for more accurate estimation of the independent angle in S2 approximation, as it is tightly related to valid estimation of the diffusion coefficient/length. We proposed and examined a method to reduce a complicated problem that usually is consisting many energy groups and discrete directions (SN) to an equivalent one-group S2 problem while it mostly preserves general features of the original model. Some numerical results are demonstrated to show the accuracy of proposed method

  4. Meeting in mathematics

    Mogensen, Arne; Georgiev, Vladimir; Ulovec, Andreas;

    To encourage many more young people to appreciate the real nature and spirit of mathematics and possibly to be enrolled in mathematics study it is important to involve them in doing mathematics (not just learning about mathematics). This goal could be achieved if mathematics teachers are prepared...... to identify and work with mathematically gifted students (without loosing the rest). The book offers chapters on gifted students, mathematical competences and other issues....

  5. Approximate option pricing

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  6. On the WKBJ approximation

    A simple approach employing properties of solutions of differential equations is adopted to derive an appropriate extension of the WKBJ method. Some of the earlier techniques that are commonly in use are unified, whereby the general approximate solution to a second-order homogeneous linear differential equation is presented in a standard form that is valid for all orders. In comparison to other methods, the present one is shown to be leading in the order of iteration, and thus possibly has the ability of accelerating the convergence of the solution. The method is also extended for the solution of inhomogeneous equations. (author)

  7. Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces

    Randrup, Thomas


    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...... projection of the surface onto this plane, a reference curve is determined by use of methods for thinning of binary images. Finally, the cylinder surface is constructed as follows: the directrix of the cylinder surface is determined by a least squares method minimizing the distance to the points in the...

  8. Finite elements and approximation

    Zienkiewicz, O C


    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  9. Approximations to Euler's constant

    We study a problem of finding good approximations to Euler's constant γ=lim→∞ Sn, where Sn = Σk=Ln (1)/k-log(n+1), by linear forms in logarithms and harmonic numbers. In 1995, C. Elsner showed that slow convergence of the sequence Sn can be significantly improved if Sn is replaced by linear combinations of Sn with integer coefficients. In this paper, considering more general linear transformations of the sequence Sn we establish new accelerating convergence formulae for γ. Our estimates sharpen and generalize recent Elsner's, Rivoal's and author's results. (author)

  10. Approximating Majority Depth

    Chen, Dan


    We consider the problem of approximating the majority depth (Liu and Singh, 1993) of a point q with respect to an n-point set, S, by random sampling. At the heart of this problem is a data structures question: How can we preprocess a set of n lines so that we can quickly test whether a randomly selected vertex in the arrangement of these lines is above or below the median level. We describe a Monte-Carlo data structure for this problem that can be constructed in O(nlog n$ time, can answer queries O((log n)^{4/3}) expected time, and answers correctly with high probability.

  11. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.


    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  12. The Compact Approximation Property does not imply the Approximation Property

    Willis, George A.


    It is shown how to construct, given a Banach space which does not have the approximation property, another Banach space which does not have the approximation property but which does have the compact approximation property.

  13. A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems

    Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.


    Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.

  14. Figures of thought mathematics and mathematical texts

    Reed, David


    Examines the ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategiesand demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical debate regarding mathematics.

  15. Approximate Equalities on Rough Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and an Analysis of Approximate Equalities

    B. K. Tripathy


    Full Text Available In order to involve user knowledge in determining equality of sets, which may not be equal in the mathematical sense, three types of approximate (rough equalities were introduced by Novotny and Pawlak ([8, 9, 10]. These notions were generalized by Tripathy, Mitra and Ojha ([13], who introduced the concepts of approximate (rough equivalences of sets. Rough equivalences capture equality of sets at a higher level than rough equalities. More properties of these concepts were established in [14]. Combining the conditions for the two types of approximate equalities, two more approximate equalities were introduced by Tripathy [12] and a comparative analysis of their relative efficiency was provided. In [15], the four types of approximate equalities were extended by considering rough fuzzy sets instead of only rough sets. In fact the concepts of leveled approximate equalities were introduced and properties were studied. In this paper we proceed further by introducing and studying the approximate equalities based on rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of rough fuzzy sets. That is we introduce the concepts of approximate (rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and study their properties. We provide some real life examples to show the applications of rough equalities of fuzzy sets and rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

  16. Shape theory categorical methods of approximation

    Cordier, J M


    This in-depth treatment uses shape theory as a ""case study"" to illustrate situations common to many areas of mathematics, including the use of archetypal models as a basis for systems of approximations. It offers students a unified and consolidated presentation of extensive research from category theory, shape theory, and the study of topological algebras.A short introduction to geometric shape explains specifics of the construction of the shape category and relates it to an abstract definition of shape theory. Upon returning to the geometric base, the text considers simplical complexes and

  17. The Numerical Approximation of Functional Differential Equations

    Venturi, Daniele


    The fundamental importance of functional differential equations has been recognized in many areas of mathematical physics, such as fluid dynamics (Hopf characteristic functional equations), quantum field theory (Schwinger-Dyson equations) and statistical physics (equations for generating functionals and effective action methods). However, no effective numerical method has yet been developed to compute their solution. The purpose of this manuscript is to fill this gap, and provide a new perspective on the problem of numerical approximation of nonlinear functionals and functional differential equations. The proposed methods will be described and demonstrated in various examples.

  18. From Mathematics and Education, to Mathematics Education

    Furinghetti, Fulvia; Matos, José Manuel; Menghini, Marta


    This chapter takes a historical view of the development of mathematics education, from its initial status as a business mostly managed by mathematicians to the birth of mathematics education as a scientific field of research. Starting from the acknowledgement that research in mathematics education demands more than the traditional focus on discussing curricular options at distinct grade levels, we identified several specialized clusters, debating specific issues related to mathematics educati...

  19. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    Liang, Faming


    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  20. Mathematics for Life: Sustainable Mathematics Education

    Renert, Moshe


    Ecological sustainability has not been a major focus of mathematics education research, even though it has attracted considerable attention in other areas of educational research in the past decade. The connections between mathematics education and ecological sustainability are not readily apparent. This paper explores how mathematics educators…

  1. Introducing philosophy of mathematics

    Friend, Michele


    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc

  2. Prestack traveltime approximations

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Interacting boson approximation

    Lectures notes on the Interacting Boson Approximation are given. Topics include: angular momentum tensors; properties of T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices; T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices as Clebsch-Gordan coefficients; construction of higher rank tensors; normalization: trace of products of two s-rank tensors; completeness relation; algebra of U(N); eigenvalue of the quadratic Casimir operator for U(3); general result for U(N); angular momentum content of U(3) representation; p-Boson model; Hamiltonian; quadrupole transitions; S,P Boson model; expectation value of dipole operator; S-D model: U(6); quadratic Casimir operator; an O(5) subgroup; an O(6) subgroup; properties of O(5) representations; quadratic Casimir operator; quadratic Casimir operator for U(6); decomposition via SU(5) chain; a special O(3) decomposition of SU(3); useful identities; a useful property of D/sub αβγ/(α,β,γ = 4-8) as coupling coefficients; explicit construction of T/sub x//sup (2)/ and d/sub αβγ/; D-coefficients; eigenstates of T3; and summary of T = 2 states

  4. Rough Sets in Approximate Solution Space

    Hui Sun; Wei Tian; Qing Liu


    As a new mathematical theory, Rough sets have been applied to processing imprecise, uncertain and in complete data. It has been fruitful in finite and non-empty set. Rough sets, however, are only served as the theoretic tool to discretize the real function. As far as the real function research is concerned, the research to define rough sets in the real function is infrequent. In this paper, we exploit a new method to extend the rough set in normed linear space, in which we establish a rough set,put forward an upper and lower approximation definition, and make a preliminary research on the property of the rough set. A new tool is provided to study the approximation solutions of differential equation and functional variation in normed linear space. This research is significant in that it extends the application of rough sets to a new field.

  5. Nonlinear analysis approximation theory, optimization and applications


    Many of our daily-life problems can be written in the form of an optimization problem. Therefore, solution methods are needed to solve such problems. Due to the complexity of the problems, it is not always easy to find the exact solution. However, approximate solutions can be found. The theory of the best approximation is applicable in a variety of problems arising in nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. This book highlights interesting aspects of nonlinear analysis and optimization together with many applications in the areas of physical and social sciences including engineering. It is immensely helpful for young graduates and researchers who are pursuing research in this field, as it provides abundant research resources for researchers and post-doctoral fellows. This will be a valuable addition to the library of anyone who works in the field of applied mathematics, economics and engineering.

  6. Mathematical classification and clustering

    Mirkin, Boris


    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  7. The Use of Teachers' Baseline Normative Beliefs to Guide Professional Development in Teaching Mathematics

    Lloyd, Mary Elizabeth Riley; Veal, William; Howell, Malia


    This article describes the normative beliefs and the discursive claims related to mathematics and teaching mathematics made by approximately 50 middle-level and secondary mathematics teachers within four high-need local education associations participating in a Mathematics and Science Partnership with a southeastern college's Science and Math for…

  8. Mathematics through millenia

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....

  9. Mathematics through Millenia

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard


    A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....

  10. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    Askew, Mike


    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  11. It's all just mathematics

    Tegmark, Max


    The world can be described using mathematical equations and numbers, but why does maths do it so well? In his new book Our Mathematical Universe, a section of which is abridged and edited here, Max Tegmark makes the radical proposal that our reality isn't just described by mathematics - it is mathematics.

  12. An approach to cylindrical approximation of toroidal geometry

    Neutron transport processes in Tokamak fusion devices are described with same mathematical equipment as that used in fission reactor calculations. The aim of this paper is to show some of these methods in toroidal geometry problem. A new approach to cylindrical approximation is described. All calculations are performed by ANISN one-dimensional Sn code. To validate the present method, comparison have been done with Monte Carlo results, as well as with calculations done on previous geometry approximation (author)

  13. A Topological Approach to Soft Covering Approximation Space

    Tozlu, Naime; Yuksel, Saziye; Simsekler, Tugba Han


    Theories of rough sets and soft sets are powerful mathematical tools for modelling various types of vagueness. Hybrid model combining a rough set with a soft set which is called soft rough set proposed by Feng et al. [3] in 2010. In this paper, we study soft covering based rough sets from the topological view. We present under which conditions soft covering lower approximation operation become interior operator and the soft covering upper approximation become closure operator. Also some new m...

  14. Robust Optimization for Radiosurgery under the Static Dose Cloud Approximation

    Josefsson, Marcus


    This report investigates methods of optimization to make treatment plans in radiosurgery robust to spatial uncertainty, and attempts to determine whether they could be used with bene t in a Gamma Knife context. To make the problem mathematically feasible, regions of interest (ROIs) are approximated to move in a pre-computed static dose cloud, which in turn is estimated by methods of linear interpolation and linear approximation. The movements of ROIs are modeled by transforms, of which rigid,...

  15. Comparison of Rates of Linear and Neural Network Approximation

    Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2000, s. 277-282. ISBN 0-7695-0619-4. [IJCNN 2000. Como (IT), 24.07.2000-27.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/99/0092 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : linear and neural networks approximation * Kolmogorov width * dimension -independent rates of approximation * perceptron networks Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Operators of Approximations and Approximate Power Set Spaces

    ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen; SHU Lan


    Boundary inner and outer operators are introduced; and union, intersection, complement operators of approximations are redefined. The approximation operators have a good property of maintaining union, intersection, complement operators, so the rough set theory has been enriched from the operator-oriented and set-oriented views. Approximate power set spaces are defined, and it is proved that the approximation operators are epimorphisms from power set space to approximate power set spaces. Some basic properties of approximate power set space are got by epimorphisms in contrast to power set space.

  17. Topics in mathematical analysis and applications

    Tóth, László


    This volume presents significant advances in a number of theories and problems of Mathematical Analysis and its applications in disciplines such as Analytic Inequalities, Operator Theory, Functional Analysis, Approximation Theory, Functional Equations, Differential Equations, Wavelets, Discrete Mathematics and Mechanics. The contributions focus on recent developments and are written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community. Special emphasis is given to new results that have been obtained in the above mentioned disciplines in which Nonlinear Analysis plays a central role. Some review papers published in this volume will be particularly useful for a broader readership in Mathematical Analysis, as well as for graduate students. An attempt is given to present all subjects in this volume in a unified and self-contained manner, to be particularly useful to the mathematical community.

  18. Mastering mathematics geometry & measures



    Deliver outstanding lessons that build fluency, problem-solving and mathematical reasoning skills to enable sustained progress at Key Stage 3, in preparation for GCSE. Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics . Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or exte

  19. Lapses in Learning Mathematics

    Prem Shankar Srivastava


    The present conceptual study deals about lapses in learning mathematics of students in schools are a problem of serious academic significance. The present day situation of teaching-learning of mathematics is unsatisfactory as the results of mathematics in different classes show. In our country, there are many school-going-students cut a sorry figure in learning mathematics. The present paper identifies lapses in learning mathematics on the part of the students, teachers, institutions, parents...

  20. The stretched harmonic oscillator. A test of semiclassical approximations

    We test the validity of semiclassical approximations (WKB, Miller and Good) in phase space in the one-dimensional case of independent particles confined by a stretched harmonic oscillator potential. This potential provides an illustrative example for many properties of atomic nuclei related to the saturation property of nuclear forces, while keeping the same mathematical simplicity as the usual harmonic oscillator

  1. Nonlinear functional approximation with networks using adaptive neurons

    Tawel, Raoul


    A novel mathematical framework for the rapid learning of nonlinear mappings and topological transformations is presented. It is based on allowing the neuron's parameters to adapt as a function of learning. This fully recurrent adaptive neuron model (ANM) has been successfully applied to complex nonlinear function approximation problems such as the highly degenerate inverse kinematics problem in robotics.

  2. Incompressible Maxwell-Boussinesq approximation: Existence, uniqueness and shape sensitivity

    Consiglieri, L.; Nečasová, Šárka; Sokolowski, J.


    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2009), s. 1193-1215. ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0005; GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Maxwell-Boussinesq approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.378, year: 2009

  3. Smooth approximations of norms in separable Banach spaces

    Hájek, Petr Pavel; Talponen, J.


    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2014), s. 957-969. ISSN 0033-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/0345 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2014

  4. Optimum choice of free parameter in orthonormal approximations

    Tanguy, Noël; Vilbé, Pierre; Calvez, Léon-Claude


    This correspondence investigates the choice of a free parameter, usually related to time scale, that minimizes the error energy when approximating a given signal with some widely used orthonormal basis functions. The proposed solution is the hest that can be achieved with the limited required knowledge of the signal. It is appealing for experimental data for which no exact mathematical expression is available.

  5. Approximation algorithms and hardness of approximation for knapsack problems

    Buhrman, H.; Loff, B.; Torenvliet, L.


    We show various hardness of approximation algorithms for knapsack and related problems; in particular we will show that unless the Exponential-Time Hypothesis is false, then subset-sum cannot be approximated any better than with an FPTAS. We also give a simple new algorithm for approximating knapsac

  6. Approximate nonlinear self-adjointness and approximate conservation laws

    In this paper, approximate nonlinear self-adjointness for perturbed PDEs is introduced and its properties are studied. Consequently, approximate conservation laws which cannot be obtained by the approximate Noether theorem are constructed by means of the method. As an application, a class of perturbed nonlinear wave equations is considered to illustrate the effectiveness. (paper)

  7. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in pure mathematics

    Pardalos, Panos


    The contributions in this volume have been written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community and present significant advances in several theories, methods and problems of Mathematical Analysis, Discrete Mathematics, Geometry and their Applications. The chapters focus on both old and recent developments in Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis, Operator Theory, Combinatorics, Functional Equations, Differential Equations as well as a variety of Applications. The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers in Mathematical Sciences, and especially to graduate students looking for the  latest information.

  8. $\\sigma $ -Approximately Contractible Banach Algebras

    Momeni, M; Yazdanpanah, T.; Mardanbeigi, M. R.


    We investigate $\\sigma $ -approximate contractibility and $\\sigma $ -approximate amenability of Banach algebras, which are extensions of usual notions of contractibility and amenability, respectively, where $\\sigma $ is a dense range or an idempotent bounded endomorphism of the corresponding Banach algebra.

  9. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge


    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  10. Approximate sine-Gordon solitons

    Stratopoulos, G.N. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))


    We look at the recently proposed scheme of approximating a sine-Gordon soliton by an expression derived from two dimensional instantons. We point out that the scheme of Sutcliffe in which he uses two dimensional instantons can be generalised to higher dimensions and that these generalisations produce even better approximations than the original approximation. We also comment on generalisations to other models. (orig.)

  11. Topics in Physical Mathematics

    Marathe, Kishore


    This title adopts the view that physics is the primary driving force behind a number of developments in mathematics. Previously, science and mathematics were part of natural philosophy and many mathematical theories arose as a result of trying to understand natural phenomena. This situation changed at the beginning of last century as science and mathematics diverged. These two fields are collaborating once again; 'Topics in Mathematical Physics' takes the reader through this journey. The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points o

  12. Exact constants in approximation theory

    Korneichuk, N


    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  13. International Conference Approximation Theory XIV

    Schumaker, Larry


    This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV,  held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.

  14. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Park Choonkil


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  15. European Digital Mathematics Library

    Rakosnik, Jiri; Pavlov, Radoslav


    The aim of this paper is to survey the European Digital Mathematics Library project goals and achievements as well as an outlook for sustainable development. “Making mathematics literature published in Europe available online”

  16. Mathematics for the nonmathematician

    Kline, Morris


    Erudite and entertaining overview follows development of mathematics from ancient Greeks to present. Topics include logic and mathematics, the fundamental concept, differential calculus, probability theory, much more. Exercises and problems.

  17. Modern mathematics made simple

    Murphy, Patrick


    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  18. Mastering mathematics statistics & probability



    Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and eBooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions that develop fluen

  19. Mastering mathematics number



    Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions tha

  20. Approximating perfection a mathematician's journey into the world of mechanics

    Lebedev, Leonid P


    This is a book for those who enjoy thinking about how and why Nature can be described using mathematical tools. Approximating Perfection considers the background behind mechanics as well as the mathematical ideas that play key roles in mechanical applications. Concentrating on the models of applied mechanics, the book engages the reader in the types of nuts-and-bolts considerations that are normally avoided in formal engineering courses: how and why models remain imperfect, and the factors that motivated their development. The opening chapter reviews and reconsiders the basics of c

  1. European Digital Mathematics Library

    Rákosník, Jiří; Pavlov, R.

    Sofia: Institute of Mathematics and Informatics - BAS, 2013 - (Pavlov, R.; Stanchev, P.), s. 25-34. (Vol. 3). ISSN 1314-4006. [ Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage 2013. Veliko Tarnovo (BG), 19.09.2013-20.09.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Digital Mathematics Library * European * EuDML Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Creating Words in Mathematics

    Galligan, Linda


    A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…

  3. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    Kathotia, Vinay


    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  4. Teaching Mathematics as Agape

    Amidon, Joel C.


    What happens when the problem of inequitable access to mathematics is addressed by agape (pronounced agapa) or attending to the relationships students develop with mathematics? To respond to this question, this paper offers a description of the journey towards teaching mathematics as agape. First, I organized examples of equity pedagogy around the…

  5. A "Mathematics Background Check"

    Hubisz, John


    Early in my career someone else reported that the best indicator of success in calculus-based physics (CBP) at our school was whether students had taken mathematics in a certain region of New Brunswick. I sat down with a very longtime mathematics teacher and asked him what he thought students should know in mathematics after high school to succeed…

  6. Mathematics and mysticism.

    Abraham, Ralph


    Is there a world of mathematics above and beyond ordinary reality, as Plato proposed? Or is mathematics a cultural construct? In this short article we speculate on the place of mathematical reality from the perspective of the mystical cosmologies of the ancient traditions of meditation, psychedelics, and divination. PMID:26278644

  7. Masculinities in mathematics

    Mendick, Heather


    The study of mathematics, with other ''gendered'' subjects such as science and engineering, usually attracts more male than female pupils. This book explores this phenomenon, addressing the important question of why more boys than girls choose to study mathematics. It illuminates what studying mathematics means for both students and teachers.

  8. Mathematics Teaching Today

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.


    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  9. The GF Mathematics Library

    Saludes, Jordi; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.6


    This paper is devoted to present the Mathematics Grammar Library, a system for multilingual mathematical text processing. We explain the context in which it originated, its current design and functionality and the current development goals. We also present two prototype services and comment on possible future applications in the area of artificial mathematics assistants.

  10. Generating the Patterns of Variation with GeoGebra: The Case of Polynomial Approximations

    Attorps, Iiris; Björk, Kjell; Radic, Mirko


    In this paper, we report a teaching experiment regarding the theory of polynomial approximations at the university mathematics teaching in Sweden. The experiment was designed by applying Variation theory and by using the free dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra. The aim of this study was to investigate if the technology-assisted teaching of…

  11. Young measure approximation in micromagnetics

    Kružík, Martin; Prohl, A.


    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2001), s. 291-307. ISSN 0029-599X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075707 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : active set strategy * adaptive scheme * Young measures Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2001

  12. Approximate solutions for the skyrmion

    Ponciano, J A; Fanchiotti, H; Canal-Garcia, C A


    We reconsider the Euler-Lagrange equation for the Skyrme model in the hedgehog ansatz and study the analytical properties of the solitonic solution. In view of the lack of a closed form solution to the problem, we work on approximate analytical solutions. We show that Pade approximants are well suited to continue analytically the asymptotic representation obtained in terms of a power series expansion near the origin, obtaining explicit approximate solutions for the Skyrme equations. We improve the approximations by applying the 2-point Pade approximant procedure whereby the exact behaviour at spatial infinity is incorporated. An even better convergence to the exact solution is obtained by introducing a modified form for the approximants. The new representations share the same analytical properties with the exact solution at both small and large values of the radial variable r.

  13. The Smoothed Approximate Linear Program

    Desai, V V; Moallemi, C C


    We present a novel linear program for the approximation of the dynamic programming cost-to-go function in high-dimensional stochastic control problems. LP approaches to approximate DP have typically relied on a natural `projection' of a well studied linear program for exact dynamic programming. Such programs restrict attention to approximations that are lower bounds to the optimal cost-to-go function. Our program--the `smoothed approximate linear program'--is distinct from such approaches and relaxes the restriction to lower bounding approximations in an appropriate fashion while remaining computationally tractable. Doing so appears to have several advantages: First, we demonstrate substantially superior bounds on the quality of approximation to the optimal cost-to-go function afforded by our approach. Second, experiments with our approach on a challenging problem (the game of Tetris) show that the approach outperforms the existing LP approach (which has previously been shown to be competitive with several AD...

  14. Approximate Grammar for Information Extraction

    Sriram, V; Reddy, B. Ravi Sekar; Sangal, R.


    In this paper, we present the concept of Approximate grammar and how it can be used to extract information from a documemt. As the structure of informational strings cannot be defined well in a document, we cannot use the conventional grammar rules to represent the information. Hence, the need arises to design an approximate grammar that can be used effectively to accomplish the task of Information extraction. Approximate grammars are a novel step in this direction. The rules of an approximat...

  15. BDD Minimization for Approximate Computing

    Soeken, Mathias; Grosse, Daniel; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Drechsler, Rolf


    We present Approximate BDD Minimization (ABM) as a problem that has application in approximate computing. Given a BDD representation of a multi-output Boolean function, ABM asks whether there exists another function that has a smaller BDD representation but meets a threshold w.r.t. an error metric. We present operators to derive approximated functions and present algorithms to exactly compute the error metrics directly on the BDD representation. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the app...

  16. What is mathematical logic?

    Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC


    Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg

  17. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    Mortimer, Robert G


    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  18. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  19. Mathematics for the imagination

    Higgins, Peter


    Mathematics for the Imagination provides an accessible and entertaining investigation into mathematical problems in the world around us. From world navigation, family trees, and calendars to patterns, tessellations, and number tricks, this informative and fun new book helps you to understand the maths behind real-life questions and rediscover your arithmetical mind.This is a follow-up to the popular Mathematics for the Curious, Peter Higgins's first investigation into real-life mathematical problems.A highly involving book which encourages the reader to enter into the spirit of mathematical ex

  20. Philosophy of mathematics

    Gabbay, Dov M; Woods, John


    One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about the mathematical knowledge we have than about what mathematical knowledge is knowledge of. Are numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that have encouraged philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mat

  1. The nature of mathematics

    Jourdain, Philip E B


    Anyone with an interest in mathematics will welcome the republication of this little volume by a remarkable mathematician who was also a logician, a philosopher, and an occasional writer of fiction and poetry. Originally published in 1913, and later included in the acclaimed anthology The World of Mathematics, Jourdain's survey shows how and why the methods of mathematics were developed, traces the development of mathematical science from the earliest to modern times, and chronicles the application of mathematics to natural science.Starting with the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, the author p

  2. Introductory discrete mathematics

    Balakrishnan, V K


    This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv

  3. The development of mathematics

    Bell, E T


    ""This important book . . . presents a broad account of the part played by mathematics in the evolution of civilization, describing clearly the main principles, methods, and theories of mathematics that have survived from about 4000 BC to 1940.""― BooklistIn this time-honored study, one of the 20th century's foremost scholars and interpreters of the history and meaning of mathematics masterfully outlines the development of its leading ideas, and clearly explains the mathematics involved in each. According to the author, a professor of mathematics at the California Institute of Technology from

  4. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    Dantzig, Tobias


    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Running Crown Forest Fires

    Taranchuk, V. B.; Barovik, D. V.


    Adapted mathematical model of running crown forest fire propagation is considered. Simplifying assumptions, equations of the model, initial and boundary conditions, finite diference approximations are introduced. The results of computer modelling and the peculiarities of forest fire behavior in heterogeneous forests are discussed

  6. Mathematics Is Physics

    Leifer, M S


    In this essay, I argue that mathematics is a natural science---just like physics, chemistry, or biology---and that this can explain the alleged "unreasonable" effectiveness of mathematics in the physical sciences. The main challenge for this view is to explain how mathematical theories can become increasingly abstract and develop their own internal structure, whilst still maintaining an appropriate empirical tether that can explain their later use in physics. In order to address this, I offer a theory of mathematical theory-building based on the idea that human knowledge has the structure of a scale-free network and that abstract mathematical theories arise from a repeated process of replacing strong analogies with new hubs in this network. This allows mathematics to be seen as the study of regularities, within regularities, within ..., within regularities of the natural world. Since mathematical theories are derived from the natural world, albeit at a much higher level of abstraction than most other scientif...

  7. The mathematics of nuclear engineering

    The mathematics of nuclear engineering is considered with especial reference to the problems of; the representation of the transformation of matter at the nuclear level by radioactive decay and neutron transmutation, the problem of the distribution of neutrons and other particles as a transport theory problem including some of the approximation methods used in this problem, particularly diffusion theory with particular emphasis on steady-state problems, time-dependent reactor kinetic and control, and the longer term changes involved with the nuclear fuel cycle both within and without the reactor itself. (U.K.)

  8. Beyond the random phase approximation

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.


    We assess the performance of a recently proposed renormalized adiabatic local density approximation (rALDA) for ab initio calculations of electronic correlation energies in solids and molecules. The method is an extension of the random phase approximation (RPA) derived from time-dependent density...

  9. Matrix-Free Approximate Equilibration

    Bradley, Andrew M.; Murray, Walter


    The condition number of a diagonally scaled matrix, for appropriately chosen scaling matrices, is often less than that of the original. Equilibration scales a matrix so that the scaled matrix's row and column norms are equal. Scaling can be approximate. We develop approximate equilibration algorithms for nonsymmetric and symmetric matrices having signed elements that access a matrix only by matrix-vector products.

  10. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.


    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  11. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.


    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  12. N-variable rational approximants

    ''Desirable properties'' of a two-variable generalization of Pade approximants are laid down. The ''Chisholm approximants'' are defined and are shown to obey nearly all of these properties; the alternative ways of completing a unique definition are discussed, and the ''prong structure'' of the defining equations is elucidated. Several generalizations and variants of Chisholm approximants are described: N-variable diagonal, 2-variable simple off-diagonal, N-variable simple and general off-diagonal, and rotationally covariant 2-variable approximants. All of the 2-variable approximants are capable of representing singularities of functions of two variables, and of analytically continuing beyond the polycylinder of convergence of the double series. 8 figures

  13. Partial differential equations modeling, analysis and numerical approximation

    Le Dret, Hervé


    This book is devoted to the study of partial differential equation problems both from the theoretical and numerical points of view. After presenting modeling aspects, it develops the theoretical analysis of partial differential equation problems for the three main classes of partial differential equations: elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic. Several numerical approximation methods adapted to each of these examples are analyzed: finite difference, finite element and finite volumes methods, and they are illustrated using numerical simulation results. Although parts of the book are accessible to Bachelor students in mathematics or engineering, it is primarily aimed at Masters students in applied mathematics or computational engineering. The emphasis is on mathematical detail and rigor for the analysis of both continuous and discrete problems. .

  14. Regularity and approximability of electronic wave functions

    Yserentant, Harry


    The electronic Schrödinger equation describes the motion of N-electrons under Coulomb interaction forces in a field of clamped nuclei. The solutions of this equation, the electronic wave functions, depend on 3N variables, with three spatial dimensions for each electron. Approximating these solutions is thus inordinately challenging, and it is generally believed that a reduction to simplified models, such as those of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory, is the only tenable approach. This book seeks to show readers that this conventional wisdom need not be ironclad: the regularity of the solutions, which increases with the number of electrons, the decay behavior of their mixed derivatives, and the antisymmetry enforced by the Pauli principle contribute properties that allow these functions to be approximated with an order of complexity which comes arbitrarily close to that for a system of one or two electrons. The text is accessible to a mathematical audience at the beginning graduate level as...

  15. Chebyshev polynomial approximation to approximate partial differential equations

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Cerrato, Mario


    This pa per suggests a simple method based on Chebyshev approximation at Chebyshev nodes to approximate partial differential equations. The methodology simply consists in determining the value function by using a set of nodes and basis functions. We provide two examples. Pricing an European option and determining the best policy for chatting down a machinery. The suggested method is flexible, easy to program and efficient. It is also applicable in other fields, providing efficient solutions t...

  16. Neural Networks as Nonlinear Approximators

    Kůrková, Věra

    ICSC, 2000 - (Bothe, H.; Rojas, R.), s. 29-35 ISBN 3-906454-21-5. [NC'2000. ICSC Symposium on Neural Computation /2./. Berlin (DE), 23.05.2000-26.05.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/99/0092; GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. The efficiency of Flory approximation

    The Flory approximation for the self-avoiding chain problem is compared with a conventional perturbation theory expansion. While in perturbation theory each term is averaged over the unperturbed set of configurations, the Flory approximation is equivalent to the perturbation theory with the averaging over the stretched set of configurations. This imposes restrictions on the integration domain in higher order terms and they can be treated self-consistently. The accuracy δν/ν of Flory approximation for self-avoiding chain problems is estimated to be 2-5% for 1 < d < 4. (orig.)

  18. Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization

    Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole


    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures is...... investigated. The nested optimization problem is re-formulated to accommodate the use of an approximate displacement vector and the design sensitivities are derived accordingly. It is shown that relatively rough approximations are acceptable since the errors are taken into account in the sensitivity analysis...

  19. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    Totik, Vilmos


    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  20. Metrical Diophantine approximation for quaternions

    Dodson, Maurice


    The metrical theory of Diophantine approximation for quaternions is developed using recent results in the general theory. In particular, Quaternionic analogues of the classical theorems of Khintchine, Jarnik and Jarnik-Besicovitch are established.

  1. Metrical Diophantine approximation for quaternions

    Dodson, Maurice; Everitt, Brent


    Analogues of the classical theorems of Khintchine, Jarnik and Jarnik-Besicovitch in the metrical theory of Diophantine approximation are established for quaternions by applying results on the measure of general `lim sup' sets.

  2. Easy mathematics for biologists

    Foster, Peter C


    Because elementary mathematics is vital to be able to properly design biological experiments and interpret their results. As a student of the life sciences you will only make your life harder by ignoring mathematics entirely. Equally, you do not want to spend your time struggling with complex mathematics that you will never use. This book is the perfect answer to your problems. Inside, it explains the necessary mathematics in easy-to-follow steps, introducing the basics and showing you how to apply these to biological situations. Easy Mathematics for Biologists covers the basic mathematical ideas of fractions, decimals and percentages, through ratio and proportion, exponents and logarithms, to straight line graphs, graphs that are not straight lines, and their transformation. Direct application of each of these leads to a clear understanding of biological calculations such as those involving concentrations and dilutions, changing units, pH, and linear and non-linear rates of reaction. Each chapter contains wo...

  3. Mathematical Sciences Institute Workshop

    Scott, Philip


    A so-called "effective" algorithm may require arbitrarily large finite amounts of time and space resources, and hence may not be practical in the real world. A "feasible" algorithm is one which only requires a limited amount of space and/or time for execution; the general idea is that a feasible algorithm is one which may be practical on today's or at least tomorrow's computers. There is no definitive analogue of Church's thesis giving a mathematical definition of feasibility; however, the most widely studied mathematical model of feasible computability is polynomial-time computability. Feasible Mathematics includes both the study of feasible computation from a mathematical and logical point of view and the reworking of traditional mathematics from the point of view of feasible computation. The diversity of Feasible Mathematics is illustrated by the. contents of this volume which includes papers on weak fragments of arithmetic, on higher type functionals, on bounded linear logic, on sub recursive definitions ...

  4. Open problems in mathematics

    Nash, Jr, John Forbes


    The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...

  5. On polyhedral approximations of polytopes for learning Bayesian networks

    Studený, Milan; Haws, D.C.


    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-92. ISSN 1309-3452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian network structure * integer programming * standard imset * characteristic imset * LP relaxation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics polyhedral approximations of polytopes for learning bayesian networks.pdf

  6. Error Estimates for Approximate Optimization by the Extended Ritz Method

    Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.


    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2005), s. 461-487. ISSN 1052-6234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : functional optimization * rates of convergence of suboptimal solutions * (extended) Ritz method * curse of dimensionality * convex best approximation problems * learning from data by kernel methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2005

  7. Fast approximate delivery of fluence maps: the VMAT case

    Balvert, Marleen; Craft, David


    In this article we provide a method to generate the trade-off between delivery time and fluence map matching quality for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). At the heart of our method lies a mathematical programming model that, for a given duration of delivery, optimizes leaf trajectories and dose rates such that the desired fluence map is reproduced as well as possible. This model was presented for the single map case in a companion paper (Fast approximate delivery of fluence maps: the ...

  8. Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation

    Veness, Joel; Ng, Kee Siong; Hutter, Marcus; Silver, David


    This paper introduces a principled approach for the design of a scalable general reinforcement learning agent. This approach is based on a direct approximation of AIXI, a Bayesian optimality notion for general reinforcement learning agents. Previously, it has been unclear whether the theory of AIXI could motivate the design of practical algorithms. We answer this hitherto open question in the affirmative, by providing the first computationally feasible approximation to the AIXI agent. To deve...

  9. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    Kalikmanov, V.I.


    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption is taken into account within Gibbsian approximation. Binary clusters are treated by means of statistical-mechanical considerations: tracing out the molecular degrees of freedom of the more volatil...

  10. Approximate factorization with source terms

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Chyu, W. J.


    A comparative evaluation is made of three methodologies with a view to that which offers the best approximate factorization error. While two of these methods are found to lead to more efficient algorithms in cases where factors which do not contain source terms can be diagonalized, the third method used generates the lowest approximate factorization error. This method may be preferred when the norms of source terms are large, and transient solutions are of interest.